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Indigeneity and Legal Pluralism in India
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As calls for reparations to indigenous peoples grow on every continent, issues around resource extraction and dispossession raise complex legal questions. What do these disputes mean to those affected? How do the narratives of indigenous people, legal professionals, and the media intersect? In this richly layered and nuanced account, Pooja Parmar focuses on indigeneity in the widely publicized controversy over a Coca-Cola bottling facility in Kerala, India. Juxtaposing popular, legal, and Adivasi narratives, Parmar examines how meanings are gained and lost through translation of complex claims into the languages of social movements and formal legal systems. Included are perspectives of the diverse range of actors involved, based on interviews with members of Adivasi communities, social activists, bureaucrats, politicians, lawyers, and judges. Presented in clear, accessible prose, Parmar's account of translation enriches debates in the fields of legal pluralism, indigeneity, and development.

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  • Constitution of India, 1950.

  • The Kerala Land Reforms Act, 1963.

  • The Kerala Scheduled Tribes (Regulation of Transfer of Land and Restoration of Alienated Land) Act, Act 31 of 1975.

  • The Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.

  • The Kerala Restriction on Transfer by and Restoration of Lands to the Scheduled Tribes Act, 1999.

  • The Kerala Panchayat Raj (Conduct of Cases and Payment of Fees to Legal Advisors) Rules, 2003.

  • The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.

  • C. K. Janu v. Director, Central Bureau of Investigation, 4 December 2008, unreported decision of the High Court of Kerala in WP(C). No. 32732 of 2003(V).

  • Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd. v. Perumatty Grama Panchayat, 2005(2) KLT 554.

  • Kailas & Ors v State of Maharashtra, [2011] 1 SCR 94.

  • Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India, 2000 INSC 518; AIR 2000 SC 3751.

  • P. Viswambharam v. State of Kerala, 10 November 2010, unreported decision of the High Court of Kerala in Crl.MC.No. 2264 of 2008.

  • Perumatty Grama Panchayat v. State of Kerala, 2004 (1) KLT 731.

  • State of Kerala & ANR v. People’s Union for Civil Liberties, Kerala State Unit & ORS, (2009) 8 SCC 46.

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The Coca-Cola Company,
Backward Classes Bureau under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment,
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National Commission for Backward Classes,
National Backward Classes Finance and Development Corporation,
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh,
Solidarity Youth Movement,
Swadeshi Jagaran Manch,


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