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Internet Privacy Rights
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Book description

Internet Privacy Rights analyses the current threats to our online autonomy and privacy and proposes a new model for the gathering, retention and use of personal data. Key to the model is the development of specific privacy rights: a right to roam the internet with privacy, a right to monitor the monitors, a right to delete personal data and a right to create, assert and protect an online identity. These rights could help in the formulation of more effective and appropriate legislation, and shape more privacy-friendly business models. The conclusion examines how the internet might look with these rights in place and whether such an internet could be sustainable from both a governmental and a business perspective.


'… an excellent piece of work which I'm sure will influence future thinking about the internet, its uses and abuses.'

Raymond Wacks - Emeritus Professor of Law and Legal Theory, University of Hong Kong

'In the debate about public and private use of the internet, Internet Privacy Rights … is a refreshing and accessible solution. If we accept that the internet can be both liberating and generate inequality and oppression, then we expose the balance that needs to be struck and the need for global perspective. The book looks at many of the different ways that our privacy is infringed, from government surveillance to hacking. Such issues have the potential to create global tension, but for Bernal the solution is a not impossible privacy-friendly future.'

Felicity Gerry Source: The Times

'… this is a well-written and insightful account of the current state of privacy online as well as a manifesto for reform. As an overview of the issues in internet privacy law, it is both accessible to the general reader and consistently interesting to the specialist, and can be confidently recommended to both.'

T. J. McIntyre Source: Irish Jurist

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Article 29 Data Protection Working Party opinions

Working Party Opinion 5/2002 (WP 64) on the Statement of the European Data Protection Commissioners at the International Conference in Cardiff (9–11 September 2002) on mandatory systematic retention of telecommunication traffic data. Available at
Working Party Opinion 9/2004 (WP 99) on a draft Framework Decision on the storage of data processed and retained for the purpose of providing electronic public communications services or data available in public communications networks with a view to the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of criminal acts, including terrorism. [Proposal presented by France, Ireland, Sweden and Great Britain (Document of the Council 8958/04 of 28 April 2004)]. Available at
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Working Party Opinion 3/2006 (WP 119) on the Directive 2006/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and Amending Directive 2002/58/EC. Available at
Working Party Opinion 1/2008 (WP 148) on data protection issues related to search engines. Available at
Working Party Opinion 2/2010 (WP 171) on online behavioural advertising. Available at
Working Party Opinion 16/2011 (WP 181) on EASA/IAB Best Practice Recommendation on online behavioural advertising. Available at
Working Party Opinion 01/2012 (WP 191) on the data protection reform proposals. Available at

A note on web sources

Unless otherwise noted, all web links were last accessed on 30 July 2013. There are extensive additional links to websites included within the footnotes. These sources are not individually listed here as they relate principally to news stories or companies or services available over the web rather than to academic analysis.


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