Skip to main content
Knowledge and Competitive Advantage
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 209
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ernkvist, Mirko and Ström, Patrik 2018. Differentiation in digital creative industry cluster dynamics: the growth and decline of the Japanese video game software industry. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, Vol. 100, Issue. 3, p. 263.

    Moyle, Brent D. Moyle, Char-lee J. and Bec, Alexandra 2018. The coexistence of tourism and mining: a strategic framework for cross-sectoral interaction. Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 21, Issue. 17, p. 1966.

    Cooke, Philip 2018. Handbook of Regional Science. p. 1.

    MOANIBA, Igam M. SU, Hsin-Ning and LEE, Pei-Chun 2018. DOES REVERSE CAUSALITY EXPLAINS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND TECHNOLOGICAL DIVERSITY?. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. 859.

    Killip, Gavin Owen, Alice Morgan, Elizabeth and Topouzi, Marina 2018. A co-evolutionary approach to understanding construction industry innovation in renovation practices for low-carbon outcomes. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 19, Issue. 1, p. 9.

    Qiu, Ranfeng and Cantwell, John 2018. The international geography of general purpose technologies (GPTs) and internationalisation of corporate technological innovation. Industry and Innovation, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Hong, Jin Deng, Ping Yang, Yang and Guo, Xiumei 2018. Diversity of Managerial Ideology. p. 41.

    Bodrožić, Zlatko and Adler, Paul S. 2018. The Evolution of Management Models: A Neo-Schumpeterian Theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 63, Issue. 1, p. 85.

    Henning, Martin and McKelvey, Maureen 2018. Knowledge, entrepreneurship and regional transformation: contributing to the Schumpeterian and evolutionary perspective on the relationships between them. Small Business Economics,

    Frigotto, Maria Laura 2018. Understanding Novelty in Organizations. p. 15.

    Tang, Victor Otto, Kevin and Seering, Warren 2018. Executive Decision Synthesis. p. 107.

    Bikard, Michaël 2018. Made in Academia: The Effect of Institutional Origin on Inventors’ Attention to Science. Organization Science, Vol. 29, Issue. 5, p. 818.

    Lamberg, Juha-Antti Ojala, Jari and Peltoniemi, Mirva 2018. Thinking about industry decline: A qualitative meta-analysis and future research directions. Business History, Vol. 60, Issue. 2, p. 127.

    Homburg, Ernst 2018. Chemistry and Industry: A Tale of Two Moving Targets. Isis, Vol. 109, Issue. 3, p. 565.

    Santner, Dominik 2018. Cluster-internal and external drivers of cluster renewal: evidence from two German agricultural engineering case studies. European Planning Studies, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, p. 174.

    Hassink, Robert and Lee, Yong-Sook 2018. Exploring international film festivals from a co-evolutionary perspective: the cases of Berlin and Busan compared. European Planning Studies, Vol. 26, Issue. 5, p. 933.

    Witt, Ulrich and Chai, Andreas 2018. Understanding Economic Change. p. 3.

    Rizzo, Ugo Barbieri, Nicolò Ramaciotti, Laura and Iannantuono, Demian 2018. The division of labour between academia and industry for the generation of radical inventions. The Journal of Technology Transfer,

    Gong, Huiwen and Hassink, Robert 2018. Co-evolution in contemporary economic geography: towards a theoretical framework. Regional Studies, p. 1.

    Panza, Laura Ville, Simon and Merrett, David 2018. The drivers of firm longevity: Age, size, profitability and survivorship of Australian corporations, 1901–1930. Business History, Vol. 60, Issue. 2, p. 157.


Book description

A comparison of the development of the synthetic dye industry in Great Britain, Germany, and the US. The rise of this industry constitutes an important chapter in business, economic, and technological history because synthetic dyes - invented in 1857 - represent the first time that a scientific discovery quickly gave rise to a new industry. British firms led the industry for the next eight years, but German firms came to dominate the industry for decades before WWI, while American firms played only a minor role during the entire period. This study identifies differences in educational institutions and patent laws as the key reasons for German leadership in this industry. Successful firms had strong ties to the centers of organic chemistry knowledge. The book also argues that a complex coevolutionary process linking firms, technology and national institutions resulted in very different degrees of industrial success for dye firms in the three countries.


‘… the book is a short valuable technological history of dyes, as well as a collection of databases on firms and plants. There’s also a comprehensive bibliography and a good index. Murmann’s book will interest and stimulate the thinking of anyone involved in management in a technology-based operation. I also recommend it to policy makers in governmental organizations that seek to influence international policy. As Murmann hopes, it should also encourage additional research.’

Source: Chemical and Engineering News

'Murmann's sophisticated co-evolutionary theory of industrial leadership considerably increases our understanding of the dynamics of international competition.'

Jochen Streb - University of Hohenheim

'Murmann's book all in all is a masterpiece of historical sociology. It achieves both completeness and particularity. … For business historians, Murmann's work demonstrates the exciting potential of an organized and systematic effort, creatively presented, to make industrial history meaningful to managers, and other historians, without sacrificing richness of detail.

Source: Enterprise and Society

'It is always a welcome sign when some aspect of the history of chemistry is placed within a new context and made relevant to new audiences. This is what Johann Peter Murmann has achieved with considerable success …'

Source: Ambix

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Abbe, Ernst (1896). Statut der Carl Zeiss – Stiftung zu Jena. Reprinted (1989) in Gesammelte Abhandlungen. Bd. Ⅲ: Vorträge, Reden und Schriften sozialpolitischen und verwandten Inhalts. Hildesheim: Olms, pp. 262–329
Abbott, Andrew (1998). Causal devolution. Sociological Methods & Research 27(2): 148–81
Aitken, Hugh G. J. (1976). Syntony and Spark: The Origins of Radio. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Aldrich, Howard (1999). Organizations Evolving. London: SAGE Publications
Allen, R. C. (1983). Collective invention. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 4: 1–24
Alter, Peter (1987). The Reluctant Patron: Science and the State in Great Britain, 1850–1920. New York: Berg (distributed in the United States by St. Martin's Press)
Amstrong, Henry E. (1893). The appreciation of science by German manufacturers. Nature 48: 29–34
Anderson, Philip, and Michael, L. Tushman (1990). Technological discontinuities and dominant design: A cyclical model of technological change. Administrative Science Quarterly 35(December): 604–33
Anonymous (1895). Vorgeschichte der Farbenfabriken vormals Friedrich Bayer & Co., 1860 bis 1881. Leverkusen: Bayer Archive 7/B. Ⅰ
Aoki, Masahiko (2001). Toward a Comparative Institutional Analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Aoki, Masahiko, and Ronald Dore, eds. (1994). The Japanese Main Firm: Sources of Competitive Strength. New York: Oxford University Press
Arora, Ashish, Ralph Landau, and Nathan Rosenberg, eds. (1998). Chemicals and Long-Term Economic Growth: Insights from the Chemical Industry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Arthur, W. Brian (1994). Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press
Aunger, Robert (2000). Darwinizing Culture: The Status of Memetics as a Science. New York: Oxford University Press
Aunger, Robert (2002). The Electric Meme: A New Theory of How We Think. New York: Free Press
Barnett, W. P., and Carroll, G. R. (1987). Competition and mutualism among early telephone companies. Administrative Science Quarterly 30: 400–21
Barnett, William P., and Glenn, R. Carroll (1995). Modeling internal organizational change. Annual Review of Sociology 21: 217–36
Barnett, William P., and Morten, T. Hansen (1996). The Red Queen in organizational evolution. Strategic Management Journal 17(Special Issue): 139–57
Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management 17(1): 99–120
Basalla, George (1988). The Evolution of Technology. New York: Cambridge University Press
Baum, Joel A. C., and Bill McKelvey, eds. (1999). Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications
Baum, Joel A. C., and Jitendra V. Singh, eds. (1994). The Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press
Bäumler, Ernst (1988). Die Rotfabriker: Familiengeschichte eines Weltunternehmens. Munich: R. Piper GmbH & Co
Baumol, William J. (1993). Entrepreneurship, Management, and the Structure of Payoffs. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Bayer AG, ed. (1963). Beiträge zur hundertjährigen Firmengeschichte 1863–1865. Leverkusen: Bayer AG
Beer, J. H. (1959). The Emergence of the German Dye Industry. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press
Ben-David, Joseph (1971). The Scientist's Role in Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984 edition
Ben-David, Joseph (1977). Centers of Learning: Britain, France, Germany, United States. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co
Berghoff, H., and Möller, R. (1994). Tired pioneers and dynamic newcomers? A comparative essay on English and German entrepreneurial history, 1870–1914. Economic History Review 47(2): 262–87
Best, Michael (1990). The New Competition: Institutions of Industrial Restructuring. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Biernacki, Richard (1995). The Fabrication of Labor: Germany and Britain, 1640–1914. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Bijker, Wiebe E., Thomas P. Hughes, and Trevor Pinch, eds. (1987). The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Bijker, Wiebe E., and John Law, eds. (1992). Shaping Technology/Building Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Blackmore, Susan J. (1999). The Meme Machine. New York: Oxford University Press
Bloede, Victor G. (1924). Some early attempts to establish the aniline industry in the United States. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 16(4): 409–11
Blute, Marion (1997). History versus science: The evolutionary solution. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie 22(3): 345–64
Boig, Fletcher S., and Paul, W. Howerton (1952). History and development of organic chemistry: 1877–1949. Science 115: 25–31
Borges, Jorge Luis (2000). Selected Non-Fictions. New York: Penguin
Borscheid, Peter (1976). Naturwissenschaft, Staat und Industrie in Baden (1848–1914). Stuttgart: Klett
Bourgeois, L. J., and Kathleen, M. Eisenhardt (1988). Strategic decision processes in high velocity environments: Four cases in the microcomputer industry. Management Science 34(7): 816–35
Boyd, Robert, and Peter J. Richerson (1985). Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Broadberry, S. N. (1997). The Productivity Race: British Manufacturing in International Perspective 1850–1990. New York: Cambridge University Press
Brocke, Bernhard vom (1980). Hochschul- und Wissenschaftspolitik in Preußen und im Deutschen Kaiserreich 1882–1907: Das “System Althoff.” In Bildungspolitik in Preußen zur Zeit des Kaiserreichs. Peter Baumgart, ed. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, pp. 9–118
Brockway, Lucile H. (1979). Science and Colonial Expansion: The Role of the British Royal Botanic Gardens. New York: Academic Press
Brubacher, John S., and Willis Rudy (1958). Higher Education in Transition: A History of American Colleges and Universities. Republished in 1997; New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers
Buchholz, Klaus (1979). Verfahrenstechnik (chemical engineering) – Its development, present state and structure. Social Studies of Science 9: 33–62
Bud, Robert, and Gerrylynn K. Roberts (1984). Science versus Practise: Chemistry in Victorian Britain. Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press
Burchardt, Lothar (1992). Wissenschaft, Industrie und Kultur zur Zeit August Wilhelm Hofmanns. In Die Allianz von Wissenschaft und Industrie: August Wilhelm Hofmann (1818–1892). Christoph Meinel and Hartmut Scholz, eds. Weinheim & New York: VCH Publishers, pp. 7–26
Burgelman, Robert A. (1991). Intraorganizational ecology of strategy making and organizational adaptation: Theory and field research. Organization Science 2(3): 239–62
Burt, Ronald S. (1992). Structural Holes: The Social Social Structure of Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Campbell, Donald T. (1960). Blind variation and selective retention in creative thought as in other thought processes. Psychological Review 67: 380–400
Campbell, Donald T. (1969). Variation and selective retention in socio-cultural evolution. General Systems 14: 69–85
Campbell, Donald T. (1974). Evolutionary epistemology. In The Philosophy of Karl Popper. P. A. Schilpp, ed. La Salle, IL: Open Court, pp. 413–63
Cardwell, D. S. L. (1957). The Organisation of Science in England: A Retrospect. London: Heinemann
Carl, R. W. (1926). Carl Jäger, G.M.B.H, Anilinfarbenfabrik, 1823–1926. Düsseldorf: Kunstdruckerei Linder & Longuich
Caro, Heinrich (1892). Über die Entwicklung der Theerfarben-Industrie. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 25(3): 955–1105
Caro, Heinrich (1904). Über die Entwicklung der chemischen Industrie von Mannheim-Ludwigshafen am Rhein. Vortrag, Gehalten auf der Hauptversammlung deutscher Chemiker in Mannheim, 25.–28. Mai 1904. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Chemie 7(37): 1343–62
Carroll, G. R., and Swaminathan, A. (1991). Density dependent organizational evolution in the American brewing industry from 1633 to 1988. Acta Sociologica 34: 155–75
Carroll, Glenn R., Bigelow, Lyda S., Seidel, Marc-David L., and Tsai, Lucia B. (1996). The fates of de novo and de alio producers in the American automobile industry 1885–1981Strategic Management Journal 17: 117–37
Carroll, Glenn R., and Delacroix, Jacques (1982). Organizational mortality in the newspaper industries of Argentina and Ireland: An ecological approachAdministrative Science Quarterly 27: 169–98
Carroll, Glenn R., and Michael T. Hannan (1995a). Automobile manufacturers. In Organizations in Industry: Strategy, Structure, and Selection. Glenn R. Carroll and Michael T. Hannan, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 195–214
Carroll, Glenn R., and Michael T. Hannan, eds. (1995b). Organizations in Industry: Strategy, Structure, and Selection. New York: Oxford University Press
Carroll, Glenn R., and Michael T. Hannan (2000). The Demography of Corporations and Industries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Chandler, Alfred D. (1962). Strategy and Structure: Concepts in the History of American Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Chandler, Alfred D. (1977). The Visible Hand. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
Chandler, Alfred D. (1990). Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Chandler, Alfred Dupont, Franco Amatori, and Takashi Hikino, eds. (1997). Big Business and the Wealth of Nations. New York: Cambridge University Press
Child, John (1972). Organization structure, environment, and performance – The role of strategic choiceSociology 6(1): 1–22
Christensen, Clayton M., and Rosenbloom, Richard S. (1995). Explaining the attacker's advantage: Technological paradigms, organizational dynamics, and the value networkResearch Policy 24: 233–57
Clark, Kim B., Bruce Chew, W., and Fujimoto, Takahiro (1987). Product development in the world auto industryBrookings Papers on Economic Activity 3: 729–71
Cobban, Alan B. (1975). The Medieval Universities: Their Development and Organization. London: Methuen
Cocks, Geoffrey, and Konrad Hugo Jarausch (1990). German Professions, 1800–1950. New York: Oxford University Press
Cohen, Michael D., Burkhart, Roger, Dosi, Giovanni, Edigi, Massimo, Marengo, Luigi, Warglien, Massimo, and Winter, Sidney (1996). Routines and other recurring action patterns of organizations: Contemporary research issuesIndustrial and Corporate Change 5(3): 653–98
Conner, K. R. (1991). A historical comparison of resource-based theory and five schools of thought within industrial organization economics: Do we have a new theory of the firm?Journal of Management 17: 121–54
Conner, Kathleen R., and Prahalad, C. K. (1996). A resource-based theory of the firm: Knowledge versus opportunismOrganization Science 7(5): 477–501
Coriat, Benjamin, and Giovanni Dosi (1998). Learning how to govern and learning how to solve problems: On the co-evolution of competences, conflicts and organizational routines. In The Dynamic Firm: The Role of Technology, Strategy, Organization and Regions. Alfred Dupont Chandler, Peter Hagström, and Örjan Sölvell, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 103–33
Croft, William (2000). Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow, Essex: Longman
Cyert, Richard M., and James G. March (1963). A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1992 edition
Daniel, Edward Morton (1884). A Complete Treatise upon the New Law of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks Act 1883. London: Steven and Haynes
Da Rin, Marco (1998). Finance and the chemical industry. In Chemicals and Long-Term Economic Growth: Insights from the Chemical Industry. Ashish Arora, Ralph Landau, and Nathan Rosenberg, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 307–40
Darwin, Charles (1964). On the Origin of Species. A Facsimile of the First [1859] Edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Davis, Gerald F., and Thompson, Tracy A. (1994). A social movement perspective on corporate controlAdministrative Science Quarterly 39(March): 141–73
Dawkins, Richard (1976). The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press
Dennett, Daniel C. (1995). Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. New York: Simon & Schuster
Derrick, C. G. (1927). Twenty-five years of the American dye industryChemical and Metallurgical Engineering 34: 248–50
Dierickx, Ingemar, and Cool, Karel (1989). Asset stock accumuation and sustainability of competitive advantageManagement Science 35(12): 1504–11
DiMaggio, Paul J. (1994). The challenge of community evolution. In The Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. Jitendra Singh and Joel Baum, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 444–50
Dobbin, Frank (1994). Forging Industrial Policy: The United States, Britain, and France in the Railway Age. New York: Cambridge University Press
Dobbin, Frank, and Dowd, Timothy J. (2000). The market that antitrust built: Public policy, private coercion, and railroad acquisitions, 1825 to 1922American Sociological Review 65(6): 631–57
Donnelly, James Francis (1987). Chemical education and the chemical industry in England from the mid-nineteenth to the early twentieth century. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Leeds School of Education. Leeds, U.K.: University of Leeds, 446p
Dosi, Giovanni (1984). Technical Change and Industrial Transformation. New York: St. Martin's Press
Dosi, Giovanni (2000). Innovation, Organization and Economic Dynamics: Selected Essays. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing
Dosi, Giovanni, Richard R. Nelson, and Sidney G. Winter (2000). The Nature and Dynamics of Organizational Capabilities. New York: Oxford University Press
Duisberg, Carl (1923). Abhandlungen, Vorträge und Reden aus den Jahren 1882–1921. Berlin: Verlag Chemie
Duisberg, Carl (1933). Meine Lebenserinnerungen (My Life). Leipzig: P. Reclam
Durham, William H. (1991). Coevolution: Genes, Culture, and Human Diversity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Eichengreen, Barry (1998). Monetary, fiscal, and trade policies in the development of the chemical industry. In Chemicals and Long-Term Economic Growth: Insights from the Chemical Industry. Ashish Arora, Ralph Landau, and Nathan Rosenberg, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 265–306
Eisenhardt, K. M., and Bourgeois, L. J. (1988). Politics of strategic decision making in high-velocity environments: Toward a midrange theoryAcademy of Management Journal 31 (4): 737–70
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. (1989a). Building theories from case study researchAcademy of Management Review 14(4): 532–50
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. (1989b). Making fast strategic decisions in high velocity environmentsAcademy of Management Journal 32(3): 543–76
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M., and Charles Galunic, D. (2000). Coevolving: At last, a way to make synergies workHarvard Business Review 78(1): 91–101
Elbaum, Bernard, and William Lazonick, eds. (1987). The Decline of the British Economy. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Eldredge, Niles (1985). Unfinished Synthesis: Biological Hierarchies and Modern Evolutionary Thought. New York: Oxford University Press
Elliot, E. Donald (1985). The evolutionary tradition in jurisprudenceColumbia Law Review 85(January): 38–94
Eulenberg, Franz (1904). Die Frequenz der Deutschen UniversitätenAbhandlungen der Königlichen Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften: Philologisch-historische Klasse 24(2): 1–323
Farbenfabriken-Bayer (1918). Geschichte und Entwicklung der Farbenfabriken vormals Friedrich Bayer in Elberfeld in den ersten Fünfzig Jahren (also known as Böttingerschrift). Leverkusen: Bayer
Federico, Giovanni (1997). An Economic History of the Silk Industry, 1830–1930. New York: Cambridge University Press
Fell, Ulrike (1998). The chemistry profession in France: The Société Chimique de Paris/de France 1870–1914. In The Making of the Chemist: The Social History of Chemistry in Europe, 1789–1914. David Knight and Helge Kragh, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 15–38
Ferguson, Adam (1767). An Essay on the History of the Civil Society. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1980 edition
Ferleger, Louis, and Lazonick, William (1994). Higher education for an innovative economy: Land-grant colleges and the managerial revolution in AmericaBusiness and Economic History 23(Fall): 116–28
Fischer, Wolfram, and Peter Lundgreen (1975). The recruitment of administrative and technical personnel. In The Formation of National States in Europe. Charles Tilly, ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, vol. 8, pp. 456–561
Flechtner, H. J. (1963). Die Elberfelder Farbenfabriken. In Beiträge zur hundertjährigen Firmengeschichte 1863–1865. Bayer Management Board, eds. Leverkusen: Bayer AG, pp. 5–20
Flechtner, Hans-Joachim (1959). Carl Duisberg: Vom Chemiker zum Wirschaftsführer (From a Chemist to an Industrial Leader). Düsseldorf: ECON Verlag GmbH
Fleischer, Arndt (1984). Patentgesetzgebung und Chemisch-Pharmazeutische Industrie im Deutschen Kaiserreich (1871–1918). Stuttgart: Deutscher Apotheker Verlag
Flexner, Abraham (1930). Universities: American, English, German. New York: Oxford University Press
Fligstein, Neil (1990). The Transformation of Corporate Control. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Foss, Nicolai J. (1997). Resources, Firms, and Strategies: A Reader in the Resource-Based Perspective. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press
Fox, Maurice R. (1987). Dye-Makers of Great Britain, 1856–1976. Manchester, U.K.: Imperial Chemical Industries PLC
Freeman, Christopher (1982). The Economics of Industrial Innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Freeman, Christopher, and Francisco Louçã (2001). As Time Goes By: From the Industrial Revolution to the Informaton Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Frenken, Koen (2000). A complexity approach to innovation networks. The case of the aircraft industry (1909–1997)Research Policy 29(2): 257–72
Frenken, Koen, and Leydesdorff, Loet (2000). Scaling trajectories in civil aircraft (1913–1997)Research Policy 29(3): 331–48
Frenken, Koen, Saviotti, Paolo P., and Trommetter, Michel (1999). Variety and niche creation in aircraft, helicopters, motorcycles and microcomputersResearch Policy 28(5): 469–88
Friedman, Benjamin M. (2002). Globalization: Stiglitz's case. A review of Globalization and Its Discontents by Joseph E. Stiglitz. New York Review of Books 49(August 15): 13
Fruin, W. M. (1992). The Japanese Enterprise System: Competitive Strategies and Cooperative Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Fruton, Joseph S. (1988). The Liebig research group – A reappraisalProceedings of the American Philosophical Society 132(1): 1–66
Furter, William F., ed. (1980). History of Chemical Engineering. Advances in Chemistry Series. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society
Furter, William F., ed. (1982). A Century of Chemical Engineering. New York: Plenum Press
Futuyma, Douglas J., and Montgomery Slatkin, eds. (1983). Coevolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates
Gaddis, John Lewis (2002). The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past. New York: Oxford University Press
Galambos, Louis (1966). Competition & Cooperation: The Emergence of a National Trade Association. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Galambos, Louis, and Jane Eliot Sewell (1995). Networks of Innovation: Vaccine Development at Merck, Sharp & Dohme, and Mulford, 1895–1995. New York: Cambridge University Press
Gardner, Walter M., ed. (1915). The British Coal-Tar Industry: Its Origins, Development and Decline. London: Williams and Norgate
Garfield, Simon (2001). Mauve: How One Man Invented a Color That Changed the World. New York: W. W. Norton & Co
Geertz, Clifford (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books
Gerlach, Michael (1992). Alliance Capitalism: The Social Organization of Japanese Business. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Gerschenkron, A. (1962). Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Gispen, Kees (1989). New Profession, Old Order: Engineers and German Society, 1815–1914. New York: Cambridge University Press
Glaser, Barney G., and Anselm L. Strauss (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co
Gort, Michael, and Klepper, Steven (1982). Time paths in the diffusion of product innovationsEconomic Journal 92(367): 630–61
Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddednessSocial Structure and Network Analysis 91: 481–510
Guillén, Mauro (1991). States, Professions, and Organizational Paradigms: German Scientific Management, Human Relations, and Structural Analysis in Comparative Perspective. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias Sociales Instituto Juan March de Estudios e Investigaciones
Guillén, Mauro F. (1994). Models of Management: Work, Authority, and Organization in a Comparative Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Guillén, Mauro F. (2001). The Limits of Convergence: Globalization and Organizational Change in Argentina, South Korea, and Spain. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Gulati, Ranjay (1998). Alliances and networksStrategic Management Journal 19(4; Special Issue Supplement): 293–317
Haber, L. F. (1958). The Chemical Industry during the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Haber, L. F. (1971). The Chemical Industry, 1900–1930. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Hagen, Antje (1999). Export versus direct investment in the German optical industry: Carl Zeiss, Jena, and Glaswerk Schott & Gen. in the UK, from the beginning to 1933Business History 38(4): 1–20
Hall, Bronwyn H., and Ham Ziedonis, Rosemarie (2001). The patent paradox revisited: An empirical study of patenting in the U.S. semiconductor industry, 1979–1995Rand Journal of Economics 32(1): 101–28
Hall, Peter A., and David W. Soskice eds. (2001). Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. New York: Oxford University Press
Haller, Albin (1903). Les Industries Chimique et Pharmaceutiques. Exposition de Paris 1900. Classe 87: Arts Chimique et Pharmaceutique. Rapport du Jury International. Paris: Gauthier-Villars
Hambrick, D. C., and Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managersAcademy of Management Review 9: 193–200
Hannan, Michael T., and Freeman, John H. (1977). The population ecology of organizationsAmerican Journal of Sociology 82: 929–64
Hannan, Michael T., and Freeman, John H. (1984). Structural inertia and organizational changeAmerican Sociological Review 49: 149–64
Hannan, Michael T., and John H. Freeman (1989). Organizational Ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Hardie, D. W. F., and J. Pratt (1966). A History of the Modern British Chemical Industry. Oxford: Pergamon Press
Harrison, Tony (1992). Square Rounds. London: Faber and Faber
Haveman, Heather A. (1993). Organizational size and change: Diversification in the savings and loan industry after deregulationAdministrative Science Quarterly 38(1): 20–50
Haveman, Heather A., and Rao, Hayagreeva (1997). Structuring a theory of moral sentiments: Institutional and organizational coevolution in the early thrift industryAmerican Journal of Sociology 102: 1606–51
Hayek, Friedrich A. (1973). Law, Legislation and Liberty, Volume Ⅰ: Rules and Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Hayek, Friedrich A. (1989). The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Haynes, Williams (1945–1954). American Chemical Industry, vols. 1–6. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc
Haynes, Williams (1954). American Chemical Industry: Background and Beginnings. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc
Heggen, Alfred (1975). Erfindungsschutz und Industrialisierung in Preussen: 1793–1877. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht
Helfat, Constance E., ed. (2000). The evolution of firm capabilities Strategic Management Journal. 21: 10–11
Henderson, Rebecca M., and Clark, Kim B. (1990). Architectural innovation: The reconfiguration of existing product technologies and the failure of established firmsAdministrative Science Quarterly 35: 9–30
Hendrick, Ellwood (1924). Record of the coal-tar color industry at AlbanyIndustrial and Engineering Chemistry 16(4): 411–13
Henneking, Ralf (1994). Chemische Industrie und Umwelt: Konflikte um Umweltbelastungen durch die chemische Industrie am Beispiel der Schwerchemischen, Farben, und Düngemittelindustrie der Rheinprovinz (ca. 1800–1914). Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag
Herrigel, Gary (1996). Industrial Constructions: The Sources of German Industrial Power. New York: Cambridge University Press
Hesse, Bernard C. (1914). The industry of the coal tar-dyes: An outline sketchJournal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 6(December): 1013–27
Hesse, Bernard C. (1915). Lest we forget! Who killed Cock Robin? The U.S. tariff-history of coal-tar dyesJournal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 7(August): 694–709
Hirsch, Paul M. (1975). Organizational effectiveness and the institutional environmentAdministrative Science Quarterly 20(September): 327–44
Hirschman, Albert O. (1977). The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism before Its Triumph. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997 edition
Hodgson, Geoffrey M. (2001). How Economics Forgot History: The Problem of Historical Specificity in the Social Sciences. New York: Routledge
Hodgson, Geoffrey Martin (1998). The Foundations of Evolutionary Economics, 1890–1973. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc
Hofmann, A. W. (1863). Colouring Derivatives of Organic Matter, Recent and Fossilized. International Exhibition 1862. Report by the juries on the subjects in the thirty-six classes into which the exhibition was divided, Class Ⅱ – Section A (Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products and Processes). London
Hofmann, A. W. (1877). Noch ein Wort über das ChrysoïdinBerichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 10: 388–91
Hollingsworth, J. Rogers, and Robert Boyer (1997). Contemporary Capitalism: The Embeddedness of Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holm, Peter (1995). The dynamics of institutionalization: Transformation in processes in Norwegian fisheriesAdministrative Science Quarterly 40(3): 398–423
Holmes, Lawrence (1989). The complementarity of research and teaching at Liebig's laboratoryOsiris 5(2nd series): 121–64
Homburg, Ernst (1983). The influence of demand on the emergence of the dye industry. The roles of chemists and colouristsJournal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists 99(November): 325–33
Homburg, Ernst (1992). The emergence of research laboratories in the dyestuffs industry, 1870–1900British Journal for the History of Science 25: 91–111
Homburg, Ernst (1993). “Chemiker” by Occupation: The Rise of the Industrial Chemist and Polytechnic Education in Germany, 1790–1850. Delft, The Netherlands: Delftse Universitaire Pers (in Dutch)
Homburg, Ernst (1998). Two factions, one profession: The chemical profession in German society 1780–1870. The Making of the Chemist: The Social History of Chemistry in Europe, 1789–1914. David Knight and Helge Kragh, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 39–76
Hornix, Willem J. (1992). From process to plant: Innovation in the early artificial dye industryBritish Journal for the History of Science 25: 65–90
Hounshell, David A. (1984). From the American System to Mass Production. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Hückstädt, Harald (1967). Carl Rumpf und Carl DuisbergUnser Werk: Werkzeitschrift der farbenfabriken Bayer Aktiengesellschaft 18(12): 385–95
Hughes, Thomas Parke (1989). American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm, 1870–1970. New York: Viking
Hull, David (1995). La filiation en biologie de l’évolution et dans l'histoire des langues. In Le Paradigme de la Filiation. Jean Gayon and Jean-Jacques Wunenburger, eds. Paris: Éditions L'Harmattan, pp. 99–119
Hull, David L. (1988). Science as a Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Hull, David L. (1989a). The Metaphysics of Evolution. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press
Hull, David L. (1989b). The ontological status of species as evolutionary units. In The Metaphysics of Evolution. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, pp. 79–88
Hull, David L. (1989c). Individuality and selection. In The Metaphysics of Evolution. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, pp. 89–109
Hull, David L., Langman, Rodney E., and Glenn, Sigrid S. (2001). A general account of selection: Biology, immunology and behaviorBehavioral and Brain Sciences 24: 511–73
Hume, David (1741). Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary. Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1987 edition
Ingram, Paul, and Baum, Joel A. C. (1997). Chain affiliation and the failure of Manhattan hotels, 1898–1980Administrative Science Quarterly 42(1): 68–102
Ingram, Paul, and Inman, Crist (1996). Institutions, intergroup competition, and the evolution of hotel populations around Niagara FallsAdministrative Science Quarterly 41(4): 629–58
Jarausch, Konrad Hugo (1990). The Unfree Professions: German Lawyers, Teachers, and Engineers, 1900–1950. New York: Oxford University Press
John, Richard R. (1997). Elaborations, revisions, dissents: Alfred D. Chandler, Jr.'s “The Visible Hand” after twenty yearsBusiness History Review, 71(Summer): 151–206
Johnson, J. A. (1990). The Kaiser's Chemists. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press
Johnson, Jeffrey A. (1985). Academic chemistry in imperial GermanyIsis 76: 500–24
Johnson, Jeffrey A. (1992). Hofmann's role in reshaping the academic–industrial alliance in German chemistry. Die Allianz von Wissenschaft und Industrie: August Wilhelm Hofmann (1818–1892). Christoph Meinel and Hartmut Scholz, eds. Weinheim & New York: VCH Publishers
Johnson, Jeffrey A. (1998). German women in chemistry, 1895–1925 (Part Ⅰ)International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology, and Medicine 6: 1–21
Jones, Geoffrey (1996). The Evolution of International Business: An Introduction. New York: Routledge
Jones, Geoffrey (1997). Great Britain: Big business, management and competitiveness in twentieth-century Britain. In Big Business and the Wealth of Nations. Alfred Dupont Chandler, Franco Amatori, and Takashi Hikino, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 102–38
Jones, Geoffrey (2000). Merchants to Multinationals: British Trading Companies in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. New York: Oxford University Press
Kauffman, Stuart (1995). At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity. New York: Oxford University Press
Kauffman, Stuart A. (1993). The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press
Kennedy, Paul M. (1980). The Rise of the Anglo–German Antagonism, 1860–1914. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Ashfield Press
Keynes, John Maynard (1933). The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes (Ⅹ): Essays in Biography. London and New York: Macmillan and St. Martin's Press for Royal Economic Society, 1971 edition
Kieser, Alfred (1989). Organizational, institutional, and societal evolution: Medieval craft guilds and the genesis of formal organizationsAdministrative Science Quarterly 34(4): 540–64
Kieser, Alfred (1994). Why organization theory needs historical analyses – and how this should be performedOrganization Science 5(4): 609–23
Klepper, Steven (1996). Entry, exit, growth, and innovation over the product cycleAmerican Economic Review 86(3): 562–83
Klepper, Steven (1997). Industry life cyclesIndustrial and Corporate Change 6(1): 145–82
Klepper, Steven (2001). Employee startups in high-tech industriesIndustrial and Corporate Change 10(3): 639–74
Klepper, Steven (2002). Firm survival and the evolution of oligopolyRand Journal of Economics 33(1): 37–61
Klepper, Steven, and Graddy, Elizabeth (1990). The evolution of new industries and the determinants of market structureRand Journal of Economics 21(1): 27–42
Klepper, Steven, and Simons, Kenneth L. (1996). Innovation and industry shakeoutsBusiness & Economic History 25(1): 81–9
Klepper, Steven, and Simons, Kenneth L. (1997). Technological extinctions of industrial firms: An inquiry into their nature and causesIndustrial and Corporate Change 1997(2): 379–460
Klepper, Steven, and Simons, Kenneth L. (2000a). Dominance by birthright: Entry of prior radio producers and competitive ramifications in the U.S. television receiver industryStrategic Management Journal 21(10/11): 997–1016
Klepper, Steven, and Simons, Kenneth L. (2000b). The making of an oligopoly: Firm survival and technological change in the evolution of the U.S. tire industryJournal of Political Economy 108(4): 728–60
Klevorick, Alvin K., Levin, Richard C., Nelson, Richard R., and Winter, Sidney G. (1995). On the sources and significance of interindustry differences in technological opportunitiesResearch Policy 24(2): 185–205
Knaggs, Nelson S. (1956). Dyestuffs of the ancients. Republished in 1992 inAmerican Dyestuff Reporter 75(11; Aniversary Jubiliee Issue): 109–11
Kogut, Bruce, ed. (1993). Country Competitiveness: Technology and the Organization of Work. New York: Oxford University Press
Kogut, Bruce, and Spicer, Andrew (2002). Capital market development and mass privatization are logical contradictions: Lessons from Russia and the Czech RepublicIndustrial and Corporate Change 11(1): 1–37
Kogut, Bruce, and Zander, Udo (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technologyOrganization Science 3: 383–97
Kogut, Bruce, and Zander, Udo (1996). What firms do? Coordination, identity and learningOrganization Science 7(5): 502–18
Kogut, Bruce, and Zander, Udo (2000). Did socialism fail to innovate? A natural experiment of the two Zeiss companiesAmerican Sociological Review 65(2): 169–90
Koza, Mitchell P., and Lewin, Arie Y. (1998). The co-evolution of strategic alliancesOrganization Science 9(3): 255–64
Kraatz, Matt, and Zajac, Edward (2001). How organizational resources affect strategic change and performance in turbulent environments: Theory and evidenceOrganization Science 12: 632–57
Krugman, Paul (1991). Geography and Trade. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Krugman, Paul, and Maurice Obstfeld (1997). International Economics: Theory and Policy. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers
Lamoreaux, Naomi R., Daniel M. G. Raff, and Peter Temin, eds. (1995). Coordination and Information: Historical Perspectives on the Organization of Enterprise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Lamoreaux, Naomi R., Daniel M. G. Raff, and Peter Temin, eds. (1999). Learning by Doing in Markets, Firms, and Countries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Lamoreaux, Naomi R., and Sokoloff, Kenneth L. (2000). The geography of invention in the American glass industry, 1870–1925Journal of Economic History 60(3): 700–29
Lamoreaux, Naomi R., and Sokoloff, Kenneth L. (2001). Market trade in patents and the rise of a class of specialized inventors in the 19th-century United StatesAmerican Economic Review 91(2): 39–44
Landau, Ralph (1997). Education: Moving from chemistry to chemical engineering and beyondChemical Engineering Progress 93(January): 52–65
Landes, David S. (1969). The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. New York: Cambridge University Press
Landes, David S. (1998). The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some Are So Poor. New York: W. W. Norton
Langlois, Richard N. (1992). External economies and economic progress: The case of the microcomputer industryBusiness History Review 66: 1–50
Langlois, Richard N., and Paul L. Robertson (1995). Firms, Markets, and Economic Change: A Dynamic Theory of Business Institutions. New York: Routledge
Langton, John (1984). The ecological theory of bureaucracy: The case of Josiah Wedgwood and the British pottery industryAdministrative Science Quarterly 29(3): 330–54
Lazonick, William (1990). Competitive Advantage on the Shop Floor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Lazonick, William (1991). Business Organization and the Myth of the Market Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press
Lazonick, William (1992). Organization and Technology in Capitalist Development. Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar
Lazonick, William (2002). Innovative enterprise and historical transformationEnterprise and Society 3(1): 3–47
Lazonick, William, and O'Sullivan, Mary (1997a). Finance and industrial development. Part Ⅰ: The United States and the United KingdomFinancial History Review 4(1): 7–29
Lazonick, William, and O'Sullivan, Mary (1997b). Finance and industrial development: Evolution to market control. Part Ⅱ: Japan and GermanyFinancial History Review 4(2): 117–38
Lepsius, B. (1918). Festschrift zur Feier des 50 Jährigen Bestehens der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft und 100. Geburtstags ihres Begründers August Wilhelm von HofmannBerichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 51 (Sonderheft): 88–99
Levin, Richard C., Klevorick, Alvin K., Nelson, Richard R., and Winter, Sidney G. (1987). Appropriating the returns from industrial research and developmentBrookings Papers on Economic Activity 3(Special Issue on Microeconomics): 783–820
Levinstein, Ivan (1886). Observations and suggestions on the present position of the British chemical industry, with special reference to coal-tar derivativesJournal of the Society of Chemical Industry 5: 351–9
Levinthal, Dan, and Myatt, J. (1995). Co-evolution of capabilities and industry: The evolution of mutual fund processingStrategic Management Journal 15: 45–62
Levinthal, Daniel A., and March, James G. (1993). The myopia of learningStrategic Management Journal 14(Special Issue): 95–112
Lewin, Arie Y., Long, Chris P., and Carroll, Timothy N. (1999). The coevolution of new organizational formsOrganization Science 10(5): 535–50
Lewin, Arie Y., and Volberda, Henk W. (1999). Prolegomena on coevolution: A framework for research on strategy and new organizational formsOrganization Science 10(5): 519–34
Lewontin, Richard C. (1974). The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change. New York: Columbia University Press
Liebenau, Jonathan (1988). Patents and the chemical industry: Tools of business strategy. In The Challenge of New Technology: Innovation in British Business since 1850. Jonathan Liebenau, ed. Brookfield, VT: Gower, pp. 135–50
Liebowitz, Stanley J., and Stephen E. Margolis (1999). Winners, Losers & Microsoft: Competition and Antitrust in High Technology. Oakland, CA: Independent Institute
Lipartito, Kenneth (1995). Culture and the practice of business historyBusiness and Economic History 24(2): 1–41
Little, Arthur D. (1915). The dyestuffs situation and its lessonsThe Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 7(3): 237–9
Loasby, Brian J. (1998). The organisation of capabilitiesJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization 35(2): 139–60
Loasby, Brian J. (2001). Time, knowledge and evolutionary dynamics: Why connections matterJournal of Evolutionary Economics 11(4): 393–412
Locke, Robert R. (1984). The End of Practical Man: Higher Education and the Institutionalization of Entrepreneurial Performance in Germany, France and Great Britain, 1880–1940. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press
Lumsden, Charles J., and Edward Osborne Wilson (1981). Genes, Mind, and Culture: The Coevolutionary Process. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Lundgreen, Peter (1990). Engineering education in Europe and the U.S.A., 1750–1930: The rise to dominance of school culture and the engineering professionsAnnals of Science 47: 33–75
Machlup, Fritz (1958). Economic Review of the Patent System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office
Maddison, Angnus (1991). Dynamic Forces in Capitalist Development. New York: Oxford University Press
Magee, Gary Bryan (1997). Productivity and Performance in the Paper Industry: Labour, Capital, and Technology in Britain and America, 1860–1914. New York: Cambridge University Press
Maine, Henry Sumner (1861). Ancient Law: Its Connection with the Early History of Society, and Its Relation to Modern Ideas. London: J. Murray
Malerba, Franco, Nelson, Richard, Orsenigo, Luigi, and Winter, Sidney (1999). “History-friendly” models of industry evolution: The computer industryIndustrial and Corporate Change 8(1): 3–40
Mandeville, Bernard (1715). The Fable of the Bees, or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits. Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1988 edition
March, James G. (1994). The evolution of evolution. In The Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. Jitendra Singh and Joel Baum, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 39–49
March, James G. (1999). The Pursuit of Organizational Intelligence. Walden, MA: Blackwell Business
March, James G., Martin Schulz, and Hsüeh-kuang Chou (2000). The Dynamics of Rules: Change in Written Organizational Codes. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
March, James G., and Herbert A. Simon (1958). Organizations. New York: Wiley
Marsch, Ulrich (1994). Strategies for success: Research organization in German chemical companies and IG Farben until 1936History and Technology 12: 23–77
Marshall, Alfred (1890). Principles of Economics. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997 edition
Marshall, Alfred (1923). Industry and Trade: A Study of Industrial Technique and Business Organization and of Their Influences on the Conditions of Various Classes and Nations. London: Macmillan
Marshall, Gloria J. (1995). The survival of colleges in America: A census of four-year colleges 1636–1973. Doctoral Dissertation in the School of Education, Stanford University, UMI Publication Number: 9535631
Martius, Carl Alexander (1918). August Wilhelm Hofmann: Chemische Erinnerungen an die Berliner Vergangenheit. Berlin: Deutsche chemische Gesellschaft. 17p
McAdam, Doug, John D. McCarthy, and Mayer N. Zald, eds. (1996). Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. New York: Cambridge University Press
McCraw, Thomas K. (1997a). American capitalism. In Creating Modern Capitalism: How Entrepreneurs, Companies, and Countries Triumphed in Three Industrial Revolutions. Thomas K. McCraw, ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 301–48
McCraw, Thomas K., ed. (1997b). Creating Modern Capitalism: How Entrepreneurs, Companies, and Countries Triumphed in Three Industrial Revolutions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
McGrath, Rita Gunther, MacMillan, Ian C., and Venkataraman, S. (1995). Defining and developing competence: A strategic process paradigmStrategic Management Journal 16: 251–75
McKelvey, Bill (1997). Quasi-natural organization scienceOrganization Science 8(4): 352–80
McKelvey, Bill (1999). Avoiding complexity catastrophe in coevolutionary pockets: Strategies for rugged landscapesOrganization Science 10(3): 294–321
Meinel, Christoph (1988). Artibus Academicis Inserenda: Chemistry's place in eighteenth and early nineteenth century universitiesHistory of Universities 8: 89–115
Meinel, Christoph (1992). August Wilhelm Hofmann – “Regierender Oberchemiker.” In Die Allianz von Wissenschaft und Industrie: August Wilhelm Hofmann (1818–1892). Christoph Meinel and Hartmut Scholz, eds. Weinheim & New York: VCH Publishers, pp. 27–64
Meinel, Christoph, and Hartmut Scholz, eds. (1992). Die Allianz von Wissenschaft und Industrie: August Wilhelm Hofmann (1818–1892) [the Alliance of Science and Industry: August Wilhelm Hofmann (1818–1892)]. Weinheim & New York: VCH Publishers
Meldola, Raphael (1910). Tinctorial chemistry, ancient and modern. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists: 103p. Republished in Gardner (1915, 259–68)
Menger, Carl (1871). Principles of Economics. New York: New York University Press, 1981 edition
Merz, August (1944). Early American coal tar dye industryChemical and Engineering News 22(15): 1275–80
Metcalfe, J. Stanley (1998). Evolutionary Economics and Creative Destruction. London & New York: Routledge
Metcalfe, Stanley, and Gibbons, Michael (1989). Technology, variety, and organization: A systematic perspective on the competitive processResearch on Technological Innovations, Management and Policy 59: 153–93
Meyer, John W., and Rowan, Brian (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremonyAmerican Journal of Sociology 83(September): 340–63
Meyer-Thurow, Georg (1982). The industrialization of invention: A case study from the German chemical industryIsis 73: 363–81
Miall, Stephen (1931). A History of the British Chemical Industry. New York: Chemical Publishing Company
Mitchell, Will, and Singh, Kulwant (1996). Survival of businesses using collaborative relationships to commercialize complex goodsStrategic Management Journal 17(3): 169–95
Mokyr, Joel (1990). The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress. New York: Oxford University Press
Mokyr, Joel (1999). Science, technology, and knowledge: What historians can learn from an evolutionary approach. Working paper. Department of Economics. Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
Mokyr, Joel (2002). The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Moore, Tom Sidney, and James Charles Philip (1947). The Chemical Society, 1841–1941: A Historical Review. London: Chemical Society
Morrell, J. B. (1972). The chemist breeders: The research schools of Liebig and Thomas ThomsonAmbix 19: 1–46
Morrell, Jack (1993). W. H. Perkin, Jr., at Manchester and OxfordOsiris 8(Second Series): 104–26
Morris, Peter J. T., and Travis, Anthony S. (1992). A history of the international dyestuff industryAmerican Dyestuff Reporter 81(11[75 Anniversary Jubilee Issue]): 59–100, 192–95
Mowery, David C. (1984). Firm structure, government policy, and the organization of industrial research: Great Britain and the United States, 1900–1950Business History Review 58(4): 504–31
Mowery, David C. (1996). The Interntional Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure. New York: Oxford University Press
Mowery, David C., and Richard R. Nelson, eds. (1999). Sources of Industrial Leadership: Studies of Seven Industries. New York: Cambridge University Press
Mühlfriedel, Wolfgang, Edith Hellmuth, and Walter Rolf (1996). Carl Zeiss: Die Geschichte eines Unternehmens. Weimer: Böhlau
Müller, Max (1870). Review of August Schleicher's “Darwinism tested by the science of language”; translated from German by Alex. V. W. Bikkers. Nature Jan. 6: 256–9
Munroe, Charles E., and Doyle, Aida M. (1924). Washington's relation to the dye industry prior to 1914Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 16(4): 417–9
Murmann, Johann Peter, Aldrich, Howard, Levinthal, Daniel, and Winter, Sidney (2003). Evolutionary thought in management and organization theory at the beginning of the new millennium: A symposium on the state of the art and opportunities for future researchJournal of Management Inquiry 12(1): 22–40
Murmann, Johann Peter, and Homburg, Ernst (2001). Comparing evolutionary dynamics across different national settings: The case of the synthetic dye industry, 1857–1914Journal of Evolutionary Economics 11: 177–205
Murmann, Johann Peter, and Ralph Landau (1998). On the making of competitive advantage: The development of the chemical industries in Britain and Germany since 1850. In Chemicals and Long-Term Economic Growth: Insights from the Chemical Industry. Ashish Arora, Ralph Landau, and Nathan Rosenberg, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 27–70
Murmann, Johann Peter, and Michael L. Tushman (2001). From the technology cycle to the entrepreneurship dynamic: The social context of entrepreneurial innovation. In The Entrepreneurial Dynamic: Origins of Entrepreneurship and Its Role in Industry Evolution. Elaine Romanelli and Claudia Schoonhoven, eds. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 178–206
Murtha, Thomas P., Spencer, Jennifer W., and Ann Lenway, Stephanie (1996 ). Moving targets: National industrial strategies and embedded innovation in the global flat panel display industryAdvances in Strategic Management 13: 247–81
Nadler, David, and Michael Tushman (1988). Strategic Organization Design. New York: Harper Collins
Nadler, David, Michael Tushman, and Mark B. Nadler (1997). Competing by Design: The Power of Organizational Architecture. New York: Oxford University Press
Nakagawa, Keiichir (1975). Strategy and Structure of Big Business: Proceedings of the First Fuji Conference. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press
Naumann, Bernd, Frans Plank, and Gottfried Hofbauer (1992). Language and Earth: Effective Affinities between the Emerging Sciences of Linguistics and Geology. Philadelphia: J. Benjamins
Nelson, Richard R., ed. (1962). The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors. NBER Special Conference Series. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Nelson, Richard R. (1990). Capitalism as an engine of progressResearch Policy 19(3): 193–214
Nelson, , , Richard R. (1991). Why do firms differ, and how does it matter?Strategic Management Journal 12: 61–74
Nelson, Richard R. (1995a). Co-evolution of industry structure, technology and supporting institutions, and the making of comparative advantageInternational Journal of the Economics of Business 2(2): 171–84
Nelson, Richard R. (1995b). Recent evolutionary theorizing about economic changeJournal of Economic Literature 33(March): 48–90
Nelson, Richard R. (1995c). Why should managers be thinking about technology policy?Strategic Management Journal 16: 581–8
Nelson, Richard R. (1996a). The evolution of competitive or comparative advantage: A preliminary report on a studyIndustrial and Corporate Change 5(2): 597–618
Nelson, Richard R. (1996b). The Sources of Economic Growth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Nelson, Richard R., and Sampat, Bhaven N. (2001). Making sense of institutions as a factor shaping economic performanceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization 44(1): 31–54
Nelson, Richard R., and Sidney G. Winter (1982). An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
Nelson, Richard R., and Gavin Wright (1994). The erosion of U.S. technological leadership as a factor in the postwar economic convergence. In Convergence of Productivity: Cross-National Studies and Historical Evidence. William J. Baumol, Richard R. Nelson, and Edward N. Wolff, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 129–63
Nitecki, Matthew H., ed. (1983). Coevolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Noble, David F. (1977). America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf
North, Douglass (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press
Nye, Mary Jo (1993). National styles? French and English chemistry in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuryOsiris 8(Second Series): 30–52
Ocasio, William (1999). Institutionalized action and corporate governance: The reliance on rules of CEO successionAdministrative Science Quarterly 44(2): 384–416
O'Sullivan, Mary (2000). Contests for Corporate Control: Corporate Governance and Economic Performance in the United States and Germany. New York: Oxford University Press
Park, James, and Shore, John (1999). Dye and fibre discoveries of the twentieth century. Part 1: From the magic of the electric light to the nightmare of world warJournal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists 115(May–June): 157–67
Parsons, Talcot (1966). Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Paulsen, Friedrich (1906). The German Universities and University Study. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
Penrose, Edith T. (1951). The Economics of the International Patent System. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Penrose, Edith T. (1959). The Theory of Growth of the Firm. New York: John Wiley
Perkin, W. H. (1868). The aniline or coal-tar colours (Cantor Lectures). Journal of the Society of Arts. Republished in Gardner (1915, 1–45)
Perkin, W. H. (1885). The colouring matters produced from coal-tar. Journal of the Society for Chemical Industry. Republished in Gardner (1915, pp. 75–105)
Perkin, W. H. (1896). The origins of the coal-tar color industry, and the contributions of Hofmann and his pupils (Hofmann Memorial Lecture). Journal of the Chemical Society. Republished in Gardner (1915, pp. 141–87)
Petroski, H. (1992). The Evolution of Useful Things. New York: Alfred Knopf
Pfeffer, Jeffrey (1983). Organizational demographyResearch in Organizational Behavior 5: 299–357
Pfeffer, Jeffrey, and Gerald R. Salancik (1978). The External Control of Organizations. New York: Harper & Row
Pfitzner, Johannes (1916). Beiträge zur Lage der Chemischen, Insbesondere der Farbstoffindustrie in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Jena: Gustav Fischer
Playfair, Lyon (1868). Minutes of evidence. In Select Committee on the Provisions for Giving Instruction in Theoretical and Applied Science to the Industrial Classes vol. 1 Shannon: Irish University Press, pp. 101–12, 334–40
Plumpe, Gottfried (1990). Die I. G. Farbenindustrie AG: Wirtschaft, Technik und Politik 1904–1945 (I. G. Farbenindustrie AG: Economics, Technology, and Politics 1904–1945). Berlin: Duncker & Humblot
Porter, Michael E. (1980). Competitive Strategy. New York: Free Press
Porter, Michael E. (1990). Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press
Porter, Michael E. (1991). Towards a dynamic theory of strategyStrategic Management Journal 12: 95–117
Potts, Jason D. (2000). The New Evolutionary Microeconomics: Complexity, Competence, and Adaptive Behaviour. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar
Powell, Walter W., and Paul J. DiMaggio, eds. (1991). The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Prochazka, George A. (1924). American dyestuffs: Reminiscently, autobiographically, and otherwiseIndustrial Engineering and Engineering Chemistry 16(4): 413–17
Ragin, Charles C. (1987). The Comparative Method: Moving beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Ranger-Moore, James, Banaszak-Holl, Jane, and Hannan, Michael T. (1991). Density dependence in regulated industries: Founding rates of banks and life insurance companiesAdministrative Science Quarterly 36: 36–65
Rao, Hayagreeva, and Neilsen, Eric H. (1992). An ecology of agency arrangements: Mortality of savings and loan associations, 1960–1987Administrative Science Quarterly 37(3): 448–70
Rao, Hayagreeva, and Jitendra V. Singh (1999). Types of variation in organizational populations: The speciation of new organizational forms. In Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell. Joel A. C. Baum and Bill McKelvey, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, pp. 63–78
Rashdall, Hastings, Alfred Brotherston Emden, and Frederick Maurice Powicke (1936). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Oxford: The Clarendon Press of Oxford University Press
Reader, W. J. (1970). Imperial Chemical Industries: A History. Vol. Ⅰ. London: Oxford University Press
Redlich, Fritz (1914). Die volkwirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Deutschen Teerfarbenindustrie. München–Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot
Reichspatentamt (1927). Das Reichspatentamt 1877–1927: Rückblick auf sein Werden und Wirken. Berlin: Carl Sehmanns Verlag
Reimer, Thomas M. (1996). Bayer & Company in the United States: German Dyes, Drugs, and Cartels in the Progressive Era. Doctoral Dissertation. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University
Reinhardt, Carsten (1997). Forschung in der chemischen Industrie: Die Entwicklung synthetischer Farbstoffe bei BASF und Hoechst, 1863 bis 1914. Freiberg: Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg
Ricardo, David (1817). The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. Republished in 1911; London: Everyman's Library
Richardson, H. W. (1962). The development of the British dyestuffs industry before 1939Scottish Journal of Political Economy 9(2): 110–29
Roberts, Gerrylynn Kuszen (1992). Bridging the gap between science and practice: The English years of August Wilhelm Hofmann, 1845–1865. In Die Allianz von Wissenschaft und Industrie: August Wilhelm Hofmann (1818–1892). Christoph Meinel and Hartmut Scholz, eds. Weinheim & New York: VCH Publishers, pp. 89–99
Rocke, Alan J. (1985). Hypothesis and experiment in the early development of Kekule's benzene theoryAnnals of Science 42: 355–81
Roggersdorf, Wilhelm (1965). Im Reiche der Chemie: 100 Jahre BASF. Düsseldorf: ECON-Verlag GmbH
Rose, Mary B. (2000). Firms, Networks, and Business Values: The British and American Cotton Industries since 1750. New York: Cambridge University Press
Rosenberg, Nathan (1982). Inside the Black Box. New York: Cambridge University Press
Rosenberg, Nathan (1992). Economic experimentsIndustrial and Corporate Change 1(1): 181–203
Rosenberg, Nathan (1998). Technological change in chemicals: The role of the university–industry interface. In Chemicals and Long-Term Economic Growth: Insights from the Chemical Industry. Ashish Arora, Ralph Landau, and Nathan Rosenberg, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, pp. 193–230
Rosenberg, Nathan, and Nelson, Richard R. (1994). American universities and technical advance in industryResearch Policy 23(3): 323–48
Rosenbloom, Richard S., and Christensen, Clayton M. (1994). Technological discontinuities, organizational capabilities, and strategic commitmentsIndustrial and Corporate Change 3(3): 655–85
Rossiter, Margaret W. (1975). The Emergence of Agricultural Science: Justus Von Liebig and the Americans, 1840–1880. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Roy, William G. (1997). Socializing Capital: The Rise of the Large Industrial Corporation in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Ruhlen, Merritt (1994). The Origin of Language: Tracing the Evolution of the Mother Tongue. New York: Wiley
Russell, Colin A. (1992). August Wilhelm Hofmann – Cosmopolitan chemist. In Die Allianz von Wissenschaft und Industrie: August Wilhelm Hofmann (1818–1892). Christoph Meinel and Hartmut Scholz, eds. Weinheim & New York: VCH Publishers, pp. 65–75
Samuels, M. L. (1972). Linguistic Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Sanderson, Michael (1972). The Universities and British Industry 1850–1970. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
Saviotti, Paolo, and J. Stanley Metcalfe (1991). Evolutionary Theories of Economic and Technical Change. Reading, MA: Academic Publishers
Scheinert, Wolfgang (1988). Joseph Wilhelm Weiler, Julius Weiler und das Anilin: Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der deutschen Teerfarbenindustrie und der chemischen Technik vor dem ersten WeltkriegZeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte 33: 217–31
Schelling, Thomas C. (1978). Micromotives and Macrobehavior. New York: Norton
Scherer, Federic M. (1996). Industry Structure, Strategy, and Public Policy. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers
Schleicher, August (1850). Die Sprachen Europas in systematischer Übersicht: Linguistische Untersuchungen. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co., 1983 edition
Schmeiser, Martin (1994). Akademischer Harsard: Das Berufsschicksal des Professors und das Schicksal der deutschen Universität 1870–1920. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta
Schmookler, J. (1965). Catastrophe and utilitarianism in the development of science. In Economics of Research and Development. Richard A. Tybout, ed. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, pp. 19–33
Schnabel, Franz (1934). Deutsche Geschichte im Neunzehnten Jahrhundert: Erfahrungswissenschaften und Technik. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder
Schnabel, Franz (1937). Deutsche Geschichte im Neunzehnten Jahrhundert: Die Grundlagen. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder
Scholz, Hartmut (1992). Reform der Chemikerausbildung. In Die Allianz von Wissenschaft und Industrie: August Wilhelm Hofmann (1818–1892). Christoph Meinel and Hartmut Scholz, eds. Weinheim & New York: VCH Publishers, pp. 221–33
Schröter, Hans (1991). Friedrich Engelhorn. Landau/Pfalz: Pfälzische Verlagsanstalt
Schumpeter, Joseph (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1942). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper & Row, 1950 edition
Schumpeter, Joseph Alois, and Elizabeth Boody Schumpeter (1954). History of Economic Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986 edition
Scott, W. Richard (1995). Institutions and Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications
Seefelder, Matthias (1994). Indigo in Culture, Science and Technology. Landsberg, Germany: Ecomed
Servos, John W. (1980). The industrial relations of science: Chemical engineering at MIT, 1900–1939Isis 71: 531–49
Simon, Herbert A. (1981). The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Simpson, Renate (1983). How the PhD Came to Britain: A Century of Struggle for Postgraduate Education. Guildford, Surrey: Society for Research into Higher Education
Skocpol, Theda (1984). Vision and Method in Historical Sociology. New York: Cambridge University Press
Skolnik, Herman, and Kenneth M. Reese, eds. (1976). A Century of Chemistry: The Role of Chemists and the American Chemical Society. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society
Smith, Adam (1761). The Theory of Moral Sentiments. London: Printed for A. Millar, A. Kincaid, and J. Bell in Edinburgh
Smith, Adam (1776). The Wealth of Nations. New York: Random House, 1937 edition
Sober, Elliott (1984). The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Sober, Elliott, and David Sloan Wilson (1998). Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Society of Dyers and Colorists and American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. Color Index (1971–1996). Bradford, U.K.
Steen, Kathryn (1995). Wartime Catalyst and Postwar Reaction: The Making of the U.S. Synthetic Organic Chemicals Industry, 1910–1930. Doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware
Stern, Fritz (1977). Gold and Iron: Bismarck, Bleichröder and the Building of the German Empire. New York: Alfred A. Knopf
Stern, Fritz (1987). Americans and the German past: A century of American scholarship. In Dreams and Delusions: National Socialism in the Drama of the German Past. New York: Vintage Books, pp. 243–73
Stigler, George (1963). The Organization of Industry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2002). Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: W. W. Norton
Stinchcombe, Arthur (2000). Review of Organizations Evolving by Howard Aldrich. Evolutionary Theories in the Social (January 14):
Stinchcombe, Arthur L. (1965). Social structure and organizations. In Handbook of Organizations. James G. March, ed. Chicago: Rand McNally, pp. 142–93
Stinchcombe, Arthur L. (1968). Constructing Social Theories. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Storper, Michael (1996). Innovations as collective action: Conventions, products, and technologiesIndustrial and Corporate Change 5(2): 761–90
Taylor, Frederick W. (1903). Shop management. In Scientific Management. Frederick W. Taylor. London: Harper and Row, 1964 edition
Teece, David J. (1986). Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policyResearch Policy 15: 285–305
Teece, David J., and Pisano, Gary (1994). The dynamic capabilities of firms: An introductionIndustrial and Corporate Change 3(3): 537–56
Teece, David J., Pisano, Gary, and Shuen, Amy (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic managementStrategic Management Journal 18(7): 509–33
Teece, David J., Rumelt, Richard, Dosi, Giovanni, and Winter, Sidney (1994). Understanding corporate coherence: Theory and evidenceJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization 23: 1–30
Temin, Peter, ed. (1991). Inside the Business Enterprise: Historical Perspectives on the Use of Information. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Teubner, Gunther (2002). Idiosyncratic production regimes: Co-evolution of economic and legal institutions in the varieties of capitalism. In The Evolution of Cultural Entities. Michael Wheeler, John Ziman, and Margaret A. Boden, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 161–81
Thackray, Arnold, Jeffrey L. Sturchio, P. Thomas Carroll, and Robert F. Bud (1985). Chemistry in Amerika, 1876–1976. Dordrecht: Reidel
Thelen, Kathleen (1999 ). Historical institutionalism in comprative politicsAnnual Review of Political Science 2: 369–404
Thissen, F. (1922). Die Stellung der deutschen Teerfarbenindustrie in der Weltwirtschaft (Vor, in, und nach dem Kriege), Doctoral Dissertation, University of Giessen
Thomas, L. G. (2001). The Japanese Pharmaceutical Industry: The New Drug Lag and the Failure of Industrial Policy. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar
Thompson, E. P. (1963). The Making of the English Working Class. New York: Vintage Books
Thompson, James D. (1967). Organizations in Action. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co
Thompson, John N. (1994). The Coevolutionary Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Thomson, Ross, and Richard R. Nelson (1997). The internationalization of technology, 1874–1929: Evidence from the U.S., British and German patent experience. Working Paper. Department of Economics, University of Vermont
Tilly, Charles (1978). From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Tilly, Charles (1995). Popular Contention in Great Britain, 1758–1834. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Tilly, Charles (1997). Roads from Past to Future (with a Review Essay by Arthur Stinchcombe). Lanham, Maryland, Rowman & Littlefield
Tilly, Charles (1998). Durable Inequality. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Titze, H. (1987). Das Hochschulstudium in Preussen und Deutschland 1820–1944 (Higher Education in Prussia and Germany 1820–1944). Goettingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht
Tocqueville, Alexis de (1898). Democracy in America. New York, Century Company
Travis, A. S. (1992). Colour makers and consumers: Heinrich Caro's British networkJournal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists 108(July/August): 311–16
Travis, Anthony S. (1993). The Rainbow Makers: The Origins of the Synthetic Dyestuffs Industry in Western Europe. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press
Turner, R. Steven (1989). Commentary: Science in Germany. In “Science in Germany: The Intersection of Institutional and Intellectual Issues,” Kathryn M. Olesko, edOsiris (Second Series) 5: 296–304
Tushman, Michael, and Philip Anderson (1997). Managing Strategic Innovation and Change: A Collection of Readings. New York: Oxford University Press
Tushman, Michael, and Charles A. O'Reilly (1997). Winning through Innovation: A Practical Guide to Leading Organizational Change and Renewal. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press
Tushman, Michael L., and Anderson, Philip (1986). Technological discontinuities and organizational environmentsAdministrative Science Quarterly 31: 439–65
Tushman, Michael L., and Peter Murmann, Johann (1998). Dominant designs, technology cycles and organizational outcomesResearch in Organizational Behavior 20: 231–66
Tushman, Michael L., and Romanelli, Elaine (1985). Organizational evolution: A metamorphosis model of convergence and reorientationResearch in Organizational Behavior 7: 171–222
Tushman, Michael L., and Lori Rosenkopf (1992). On the organizational determinants of technological change: Towards a sociology of technological evolution. Research in Organizational Behavior. B. Staw and L. Cummings, eds. Greenwich, CT, JAI Press, pp. 311–347
Ungewitter, C. (1927). Ausgewählte Kapitel aus der chemisch–industriellen Wirtschaftspolitik, 1877–1917. Berlin: Verein zur Wahrung der Interessen der Chemischen Industrie Deutschlands e. Ⅴ
Usher, Abbott P. (1954). History of Mechanical Invention. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Utterback, James M. (1994). Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation: How Companies Can Seize Opportunities in the Face of Technological Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press
Uzzi, Brian (1997). Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddednessAdministrative Science Quarterly 42(1): 35–67
van den Belt, H., B. Gremmen, E. Homburg, and W. Hornix (1984). De Ontwikkeling van de Kleurstofindustrie (The Development of the Synthetic Dye Industry). Nijmegen, The Netherlands: Faculteit der Wiskunde en Naturwetenschappen, University of Nijmegen (final report of research project)
van den Belt, Henk, and Arie Rip (1987). The Nelson–Winter–Dosi model and synthetic dye chemistry. In The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology. Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas P. Hughes, and Trevor Pinch, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 135–58
Van De Ven, Andrew, and David N. Grazman (1999). Evolution in a nested hierarchy: A genealogy of Twin Cities health care organizations, 1853–1995. In Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell. Joel A. C. Baum and Bill McKelvey, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 185–209
Vaupel, Elisabeth Christine (1992). Chemie auf den Weltausstellungen. In Die Allianz von Wissenschaft und Industrie: August Wilhelm Hofmann (1818–1892). Christoph Meinel and Hartmut Scholz, eds. Weinheim & New York: VCH Publishers, pp. 183–209
Veblen, Thorstein (1899). The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study in the Evolution of Institutions. New York: MacMillan
Veblen, Thorstein (1915). Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1990 edition
Verg, Erik, Gottfried Plumpe, and Heinz Schultheis (1988). Meilensteine: 125 Jahre Bayer, 1863–1988. Leverkusen: Bayer AG
Vincenti, Walter (1990). What Engineers Know and How They Know It. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Vincenti, Walter G. (1991). The scope for social impact in engineering outcomes: A diagrammatic aid to analysisSocial Studies of Science 21: 761–7
von Savigny, Friedrich Karl (1831). Of the Vocation of Our Age for Legislation and Jurisprudence, Translated from the German of Frederick Charles von Savigny by Abraham Hayward. London: Littlewood & Co
Vrba, Elisabeth, and Eldredge, Niles (1984). Individuals, hierarchies, and processes: Towards a more complete evolutionary theoryPaleobiology 10: 146–71
Vromen, Jack J. (1995). Economic Evolution: An Enquiry into the Foundations of New Institutional Economics. London and New York: Routledge
Wade, James (1995). Dynamics of organizational communities and technological bandwagons: An empirical investigation of community evolution in the microprocessor marketStrategic Management Journal 16: 113–33
Webb, R. K. (1980). Modern England: From the Eighteenth Century to the Present. New York: Harper Collins Publishers
Weick, Karl E. (1979). The Social Psychology of Organizing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co
Wernerfeld, Birger (1984). A resource-based view of the firmStrategic Management Journal 5: 171–80
Wertheimer, Herbert F. (1912). The German patent systemJournal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 4(June): 464–5
Wetzel, Walter (1991). Naturwissenschaften und chemische Industrie in Deutschland: Voraussetzungen and Mechanism ihres Aufstiegs im 19. Jahrhundert (Science and Chemical Industry in Germany: Conditions and Mechanisms of Its Rise in the 19th Century). Stuttgart: F. Steiner
Whittaker, C. M. (1956). Some early stages in the renaissance of the British dyemaking industry 1899–1920Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists 73: 560–1
Wilcox, David N. (1966). Kekulé and the dye industry. In Kekulé Centennial. O. Theodor Benfey, ed. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, pp. 24–71
Wilkins, Mira (1970). The Emergence of Multinational Enterprise: American Business Abroad from the Colonial Era to 1914. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Wilkins, Mira (1974). The Maturing of Multinational Enterprise: American Business Abroad from 1914 to 1970. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Wilkins, Mira (1989). The History of Foreign Investment in the United States to 1914. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Wilkins, Mira, and Harm G. Schröter (1998). The Free-Standing Company in the World Economy, 1830–1996. New York: Oxford University Press
Williamson, Oliver E. (2000). The new institutional economics: Taking stock, looking aheadJournal of Economic Literature 38(3): 595–613
Winter, Sidney (1995). Four Rs of profitability: Rents, resources, routines and replication. In Resource-Based and Evolutionary Theories of the Firm: Towards a Synthesis. Cynthia A. Montgomery, ed. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 147–78
Winter, Sidney, and Szulanski, Gabriel (2001). Replication as strategyOrganization Science 12(6): 730–43
Winter, Sidney G. (1990). Survival, selection, and inheritance in evolutionary theories of organization. In Organizational Evolution: New Directions. Jintendra V. Singh, ed. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, pp. 269–97
Witt, Otto N. (1876). Zur Kenntniss des Baues und der Bildung färbender KohlenstoffverbindungenBerichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 9: 324ff
Witt, Otto N. (1894). Die Chemische Industrie auf der Columbischen Weltaustellung zu Chicago und in den Vereinigten Staaten von Nord-Amerika im Jahre 1893. Berlin: R. Gaertner's Verlagsbuchhandlung, Hermann Heyfelder
Witt, Ulrich (1992). Evolutionary Economics. London: Edgar Elgar
Witt, Ulrich (1998). Imagination and leadership: The neglected dimension of an evolutionary theory of the firmJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization 35(2): 161–77
Witt, Ulrich (2000). Changing cognitive frames – Changing organizational forms: An entrepreneurial theory of organizational developmentIndustrial and Corporate Change 9(4): 733–55
Woodruff, David (1992). Where employees are management: Commitment equals empowerment at Saturn. Business Week (August 17): 66
Wright, Sewall (1931). Evolution in Mendelian populationsGenetics 16: 97–159
Wright, Sewall (1932). The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolutionProceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Genetics 16: 356–66
Wrigley, Julia (1987). Technical education and industry in the nineteenth century. In The Decline of the British Economy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 162–88
Yates, JoAnne (1993). Co-evolution of information processing technology and use: Interaction between the life insurance and tabulating industriesBusiness History Review 67(1): 1–51
Young, A. (1928). Increasing returns and economic progressEconomic Journal 38(152): 527–42
Zander, Udo, and Kogut, Bruce (1995). Knowledge and the speed of the transfer and imitation of organizational capabilities: An empirical testOrganization Science 6(1): 1–17
Ziman, John M. (1999). The marriage of design and selection in the evolution of cultural artefactsInterdisciplinary Science Review 24(2): 139–54
Ziman, John M., ed. (2000). Technological Innovation as an Evolutionary Process. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Zimmermann, Paul A. (1965). Patentwesen in der Chemie: Ursprünge, Anfänge, Entwicklung (Patents in Chemistry: Origins, Beginnings, Development). Ludwigshafen: BASF AG
Zukin, Sharon, and Paul DiMaggio (1990). Structures of Capital: The Social Organization of the Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed