Skip to main content Accessibility help
Language Death
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The rapid endangerment and death of many minority languages across the world is a matter of widespread concern, not only among linguists and anthropologists but among all concerned with issues of cultural identity in an increasingly globalized culture. By some counts, only 600 of the 6,000 or so languages in the world are 'safe' from the threat of extinction. A leading commentator and popular writer on language issues, David Crystal asks the fundamental question, 'why is language death so important?', reviews the reasons for the current crisis, and investigates what is being done to reduce its impact. This book contains not only intelligent argument, but moving descriptions of the decline and demise of particular languages, and practical advice for anyone interested in pursuing the subject further.

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Adams, Douglas. 1979. The hitch-hiker’s guide to the galaxy. London: Pan.
Adelaar, William F. H. 1998. The endangered situation of native languages in South America. In Matsumura (ed.), 1–15.
Ahlers, Jocelyn, and Hinton, Leanne. 1997. Authenticity in the context of California native languages. Foundation for Endangered Languages Newsletter 5. 18–19.
Aitchison, Joan. 1991. Language change: progress or decay? 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Andersen, Ole Stig. 1998. The burial of Ubykh. In Abstracts for the Open Forum, supplement to Ostler (ed.), 3.
Annamalai, E. 1998. Language survival in India: challenges and responses. In Matsumura (ed.), 17–31.
Arcand, Jean-Louis. 1996. Development economics and language: the earnest search for a mirage?International Journal of the Sociology of Language 121. 119–57.
Atwood, Margaret. 1995. Marsh languages. In Morning in the burned house. Boston: Houghton Mifflin; reprinted in Ogmios 8 (1998), 28.
Babe, R. E. 1997. Understanding the cultural ecology model. In Cliché (ed.), 1–23.
Baker, Colin, and Jones, Sylvia Prys. 1998. Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Ball, Martin J., ed. 1988. The use of Welsh. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Bamford, Samuel. 1854. The dialect of South Lancashire. London: John Russell Smith.
Bamgbose, Ayo. 1997. Contribution to the symposium on Endangered Languages in Africa, Leipzig. Ogmios 6. 21–2.
Barnes, J. 1984. Evidentials in the Tuyuca verb. International Journal of American Linguistics 50. 255–71.
Barthes, Roland. 1977. Déclaration. In Fragments d’un discours amoureux. Paris: Editions du Seuil.
Bauer, Laurie, and Trudgill, Peter, eds. 1998. Language myths. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Bauman, James A. 1980. A guide to issues in Indian language retention. Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Bauman, Richard, and Sherzer, Joel, eds. 1974. Explorations in the ethnography of speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bellin, Wynford. 1984. Welsh and English in Wales. In Trudgill, Peter (ed.), Language in the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 449–79.
Benton, Richard A. 1996. Language policy in New Zealand: defining the ineffable. In Herriman, Michael and Burnaby, Barbara (eds.), Language policies in English-dominant countries. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 62–98.
Bergsland, Knut. 1998. Two cases of language endangerment: Aleut and Sámi. In Matsumura (ed.), 33–48.
Bernard, H. Russell. 1992. Preserving language diversity. Human Organization 51. 82–9.
Bixler, M. T. 1992. Winds of freedom: the story of the Navajo code talkers of World War II. Darien, CT: Two Bytes.
Blench, Roger. 1998. Recent fieldwork in Nigeria: report on Horom and Tapshin. Ogmios 9. 10–11.
Bloch, Bernard, and Trager, George. 1942. Outline of linguistic analysis. Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America.
Bloomfield, Leonard. 1933. Language. London: Allen and Unwin.
Bodmer, Frederick. 1944. The loom of language. London: Allen and Unwin.
Borst, Arno. 1957–63. Der Turmbau von Babel, 6 vols. Stuttgart: Hiersemann.
Boswell, James. 1785. The journal of a tour to the Hebrides. London: Charles Dilly.
Boswell, James. 1791. The life of Samuel Johnson. London: Charles Dilly.
Bourhis, R., Giles, H., and Tajfel, H.. 1974. Language as a determinant of Welsh identity. European Journal of Social Psychology 3. 447–60.
Bradley, David. 1989. The disappearance of Ugong in Thailand. In Dorian (ed.), 33–40.
Bradley, David. 1998. Minority language policy and endangered languages in China and Southeast Asia. In Matsumura (ed.), 49–83.
Brenzinger, Matthias. 1995. Contribution to a seminar on Endangered Languages at Dartmouth College, Hanover (New Hampshire, USA). Iatiku 1. 5.
Brenzinger, Matthias. 1998. Various ways of dying and different kinds of deaths: scholarly approaches to language endangerment on the African continent. In Matsumura (ed.), 85–100.
Brenzinger, Matthias, Heine, Bernd, and Somner, Gabriele. 1991. Language death in Africa. In Robins and Uhlenbeck (eds.), 19–44.
Bright, William, ed. 1992. The international encyclopedia of linguistics. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Brumfit, Christopher, ed. 1995. Language education in the National Curriculum. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bullock, A., Stallybrass, O., and Trombley, S., eds. 1988. The Fontana dictionary of modern thought. 2nd edn. London: Fontana.
Cantoni, Gina, and Reyhner, Jon. 1998. What educators can do to aid community efforts at indigenous language revitalization. In Ostler (ed.), 33–7.
Carroll, J. B., ed. 1956. Language, thought and reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chafe, W., and Nichols, J., eds. 1986. Evidentiality: the linguistic coding of epistemology. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Chambers, J. K., and Trudgill, P.. 1980. Dialectology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Champion, S. G., ed. 1938. Racial proverbs. London: Routledge.
Chomsky, A. N. 1957. Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton.
Cliché, Danielle, ed. 1997. Cultural ecology: the changing dynamics of communications. London: International Institute of Communications.
Committee on Endangered Languages and their Preservation. 1994. The need for the documentation of linguistic diversity. Linguistic Society of America Bulletin 144 (June 1994). 5.
Connell, Bruce. 1997. Kasabe (Luo). Iatiku 4. 27.
Coulmas, Florian. 1992. Language and economy. Oxford: Blackwell.
Craig, Colette. 1992. A constitutional response to language endangerment: the case of Nicaragua. Language 68. 17–24.
Crow, Ron. 1997. Guest editorial in Iatiku 4. 3–4.
Crystal, David. 1981/9. Clinical linguistics. Vienna: Springer / London: Whurr.
Crystal, David. 1982. Terms, time and teeth. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 17. 3–19.
Crystal, David. 1985. Linguistics. 2nd edn. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Crystal, David. 1997a. Cambridge encyclopedia of language. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, David. 1997b. English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, David. ed. 1997c. The Cambridge encyclopedia. 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, David. 1998. Moving towards an English family of languages? In Alexandrova, O. and Konurbayev, M. (eds.), Folia Anglistica (Festschrift for Olga S. Akhmanova on ‘World Englishes’). Moscow: Moscow State University, 84–95.
Crystal, David. 1999. ‘From out in left field? That’s not cricket.’ Finding a focus for the language curriculum. In Wheeler, R. S. (ed.), The workings of language. New York: Praeger.
Dalby, David. 1997. Exploring the Logosphere: review of results. Paper presented at the Logosphere Workshop, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 11 September 1997.
Daniszewski, John. 1997. Teacher tries to rescue language spoken by Jesus. Los Angeles Times, 29 March 1997, A1.
Dante, . c. 1304. De vulgari eloquentia, translated by A. G. Ferrers Howell.
Dauenhauer, Nora Marks, and Dauenhauer, Richard. 1998. Technical, emotional, and ideological issues in reversing language shift: examples from Southeast Alaska. In Grenoble and Whaley (eds.), 57–98.
Dimmendaal, Gerrit J. 1989. On language death in eastern Africa. In Dorian (ed.), 13–31.
Dixon, R. M. W. 1972. The Dyirbal language of North Queensland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dixon, R. M. W. 1991. The endangered languages of Australia, Indonesia and Oceania. In Robins and Uhlenbeck (eds.), 229–55.
Dixon, R. M. W. 1997. The rise and fall of languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dorian, Nancy C. 1981. Language death: the life cycle of a Scottish Gaelic dialect. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Dorian, Nancy C. ed. 1989. Investigating obsolescence: studies in language contraction and death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dorian, Nancy C. 1993. A response to Ladefoged’s other view of endangered languages. Language 69. 575–9.
Dorian, Nancy C. 1998. Western language ideologies and small-language prospects. In Grenoble and Whaley (eds.), 3–21.
Duffy, J. 1953. Epidemics in Colonial America. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.
Duranti, Alessandro. 1997. Linguistic anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ebes, Hank, and Hollow, Michael, eds. 1992. Modern art – ancient icon. Melbourne: The Aboriginal Gallery of Dreamings.
Eco, Umberto. 1995. The search for the perfect language. Oxford: Blackwell.
Edmonds, Margot, and Clark, Ella E. 1989. Voices of the winds: native American legends. New York: Facts on File.
Edwards, John. 1985. Language, society and identity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Edwards, John. 1992. Sociopolitical aspects of language maintenance and loss: towards a typology of minority language situations. In Fase, Willem, Jaspaert, Koen, and Kroon, Sjaak (eds.), Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 37–54.
Edwards, V., and Sienkewicz, T. J.. 1990. Oral cultures past and present. Oxford: Blackwell.
Eliot, T. S. 1942/53. The Classics and the man of letters. (Presidential address to the Classical Association in Cambridge, 1942.) In Hayward, John (ed.), Selected prose. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 233–9.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 1833/1909. Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 1844. Essays: second series. Boston: Phillips, Sampson.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 1860. The conduct of life. Boston: Ticknor and Fields.
England, Nora C. 1998. Mayan efforts toward language preservation. In Grenoble and Whaley (eds.), 99–116.
European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages. 1994. Vade-mecum: guide to legal documents, support structures and action programmes pertaining to the lesser used languages of Europe. Dublin.
Evans, Nicholas. 1998. Aborigines speak a primitive language. In Bauer, Laurie and Trudgill, Peter (eds.), Language myths. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 159–68.
Evans, Nicholas. forthcoming. The last speaker is dead – long live the last speaker! In Paul Newman and Martha Ratcliff (eds), Linguistic fieldwork. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fill, Alwin. 1998. Ecolinguistics – state of the art 1998. AAA – Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 23(1), 3–16.
Fill, Alwin and Mülhäusler, Peter, eds. 2001. The ecolinguistics reader. London: Continuum.
Fishman, J. A. 1987. Language spread and language policy for endangered languages. In Proceedings of the Georgetown University Round Table on Language and Linguistics. Washington: Georgetown University Press, 1–15.
Fishman, J. A. 1991. Reversing language shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Furbee, N. Louanna, Stanley, Lori A., and Arkeketa, Tony. 1998. The roles of two kinds of expert in language renewal. In Ostler (ed.), 75–9.
Geary, James. 1997. Speaking in tongues. Time (7 July 1997), 52–8.
Gerdts, Donna B. 1998. Beyond expertise: the role of the linguist in language revitalization programs. In Ostler (ed.), 14.
Golla, Victor. 1998. Contribution to ‘What language is revitalized after all?’Ogmios 8. 20.
Graddol, David. 1997. The future of English. London: The British Council.
Grenand, Pierre, and Grenand, Françoise. 1993. Amérique Equatoriale: Grande Amazonie. In Bahuchet, Serge (ed.), Situation des populations indigènes des forêts denses et humides. Luxemburg: Office des publications officielles des communautés européennes, 89–176.
Grenoble, Lenore A., and Whaley, Lindsay I., eds. 1998a. Endangered languages: current issues and future prospects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grenoble, Lenore A., and Whaley, Lindsay I., 1998b. Toward a typology of language endangerment. In Grenoble and Whaley (1998a), 22–54.
Grimes, Barbara F., ed. 1996. Ethnologue: languages of the world. 13th edn. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Grin, F. 1996. The economics of language: survey, assessment, and prospects. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 121. 17–44.
Grinevald, Colette. 1998. Language endangerment in South America: a programmatic approach. In Grenoble and Whaley (eds.), 124–59.
Grosjean, François. 1982. Life with two languages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gumperz, John J., and Levinson, Stephen C., eds. 1996. Rethinking linguistic relativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hagège, Claude. 2001. Halte à la mort des langues. Paris: Edition Odile Jacob.
Haiman, J., and Benincà, P.. 1992. The Rhaeto-Romance languages. London: Routledge.
Hale, Ken. 1992a. On endangered languages and the safeguarding of diversity. Language 68. 1–3.
Hale, Ken. 1992b. Language endangerment and the human value of linguistic diversity. Language 68. 35–42.
Hale, Ken. 1995. Contribution to a seminar on Endangered Languages, Dartmouth College, Hanover (New Hampshire, USA). Iatiku 1. 5.
Hale, Ken. 1998. On endangered languages and the importance of linguistic diversity. In Grenoble and Whaley (eds.), 205 ff.
Harrison, B. 1997. Language integration: results of an intergenerational analysis. Statistical Journal of the United Nations ECE 14. 289–303.
Haugen, Einar. 1971. The ecology of language. Linguistic Reporter, Supplement 25 to vol. 13 (1). 25.
Haugen, Einar. 1972. The ecology oflanguage. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Heidegger, Martin. 1971. On the way to language, translated by Hertz, P. D.. New York: Harper and Row.
Henze, Hans Werner. 1982. Music and politics: collected writings 1953–81, translated by Labanyi, Peter. London: Faber.
Hockett, Charles F. 1958. A course in modern linguistics. New York: Macmillan.
Hoenigswald, Henry M. 1989. Language obsolescence and language history: matters of linearity, leveling, loss, and the like. In Dorian (ed.), 347–54.
Holloway, Charles E. 1997. Dialect death: the case of Brule Spanish. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell 1860. The professor at the breakfast table. Boston: Ticknor and Fields.
Holt, Dennis. 1998. may·por·é: a linguistic sculpture. Endangered Language Fund Newsletter 2 (1). 1–3.
Hook, Brian, ed. 1982. The Cambridge encyclopedia of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hornberger, Nancy, and King, Kendall. 1996. Contribution to a conference on Authenticity and Identity in Indigenous Language Revitalization (American Anthropological Association), held in November 1996. Newsletter of the Foundation for Endangered Languages 5. 19.
Hughes, Geoffrey. 1988. Words in time. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hymes, Dell. 1966. Introduction to Part 2 of Language in culture and society. New York: Harper and Row.
Iorwerth, Dylan. 1995. A week in Europe. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Ivanov, Vjaceslav. 1992. Reconstructing the past. Intercom 15 (1).
Jacobs, Kaia’titahkhe Annette. 1998. A chronology of Mohawk language instruction at Kahnawà:ke. In Grenoble and Whaley (eds.), 117–23.
Jahn, Jens-Eberhard. 1998. Minority languages in Istria: experiences from a sociolinguistic fieldwork. In Ostler (ed.), 45–52.
James, Carl. 1977. Welsh bilingualism – fact and fiction. Language Problems and Language Planning 1. 73–81.
James, Carl. 1999. Language awareness: implications for the language curriculum. Language, Culture, Curriculum 12. 94–115.
Jocks, Christopher. 1998. Living words and cartoon translations: long-house ‘texts’ and the limitations of English. In Grenoble and Whaley (eds.), 217–33.
Johnson, Jerald Jay. 1978. Yana. In Heizer, R. F. (ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, vol. viii. Washington: Smithsonian Institution361–9.
Johnson, Samuel. 1990 (1773). A journey to the Western Islands of Scotland. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Jones, Ann E. 1985. Erydiad geirfaol ym Mhenterfi Clunderwen, Efailwen a Llandysilio (Lexical erosion in the villages of Clunderwen, Efailwen and Llandysilio). Cardiff Working Papers in Welsh Linguistics 4. 81–100.
Jones, Steve, Martin, Robert, and Pilbeam, David, eds. 1992. The Cambridge encyclopedia of human evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kaufman, Terrence. 1994. The native languages of South America. In Moseley, Christopher and Asher, R. E. (eds.), Atlas of the world’s languages. London: Routledge, 46–76.
Kellett, Arnold. 1996. Ee by gum, Lord! The Gospels in broad Yorkshire. Otley: Smith Settle.
Kincade, M. Dale. 1991. The decline of native languages in Canada. In Robins and Uhlenbeck (eds.), 157–76.
Kipling, Rudyard. 1912/28. The uses of reading. (Speech at Wellington College, 1912.) In Kipling, Rudyard, A book of words. Doubleday: Doran, 73–90.
Koch, Eddie, and Maslamoney, Siven. 1997. Words that click and rustle softly like the wild. Mail & Guardian (Braamfontein), 12–18 September 1997, 28.
Krauss, Michael. 1992. The world’s languages in crisis. Language 68. 4–10.
Krauss, Michael. 1998. The scope of the language endangerment crisis and recent response to it. In Matsumura (ed.), 108–9.
Kroskrity, Paul V. 1993. Language, history and identity: ethnolinguistic studies of the Arizona Tewa. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Ladefoged, Peter. 1992. Another view of endangered languages. Language 68. 809–11.
Landaburu, Jon. 1979. La langue des Andoke (Amazonie colombienne), Paris: SELAF.
Landweer, M. Lynn. 1998. Indicators of ethnolinguistic vitality: case study of two languages – Labu and Vanimo. In Ostler (ed.), 64–72.
Langgaard, Per. 1992. Greenlandic is not an ideology, it is a language. In Graburn, N. H. H. and Iutzi-Mitchell, R. (eds.), Language and educational policy in the north. Berkeley: University of California, 167–78.
Lord, A. B. 1960. The singer of tales. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McArthur, Tom. 1998. The English languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McDaniel, Matthew. 1998. The Akha Heritage Foundation. Ogmios 7. 14–15.
MacDougall, R. C. 1998. Individuals, cultures and telecommunication technology. In Ostler (ed.), 91–8.
McKay, Graham. 1996. Comment. Iatiku 2. 18–19.
McNeill, W. H. 1976. Plagues and peoples. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.
Maddieson, Ian. 1984. Patterns of sounds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maguire, Gabrielle. 1991. Our own language: an Irish initiative. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Malouf, David. 1985. The only speaker of his tongue. In Antipodes: stories. Sydney: Random House.
Markey, Thomas L. 1988. Ladin and other relic language forms in the eastern Alpine region. In Fisiak, Jacek (ed.), Historical dialectology: regional and social. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 357–75.
Martin, Laura. 1986. ‘Eskimo words for snow’: a case study in the genesis and decay of an anthropological sample. American Anthropologist 88. 418–23.
Maslow, Abraham. 1954. Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Matisoff, James A. 1991. Endangered languages of Mainland Southeast Asia. In Robins and Uhlenbeck (eds.), 189–228.
Matsumura, Kazuto, ed. 1998. Studies in endangered languages (Papers from the International Symposium on Endangered Languages, Tokyo, 18–20 November 1995.) Tokyo: Hituzi Syobo.
Maurais, J., ed. 1996. Quebec’s aboriginal languages: history, planning and development. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Menn, Lise. 1989. Some people who don’t talk right: universal and particular in child language, aphasia, and language obsolescence. In Dorian (ed.), 335–45.
Mikhalchenko, V. Y. 1998. Endangered languages of Russia: an informational database. In Matsumura (ed.), 129–38.
Mithun, Marianne. 1998. The significance of diversity in language endangerment and preservation. In Grenoble and Whaley (eds.), 163–91.
Mosely, Christopher, and Asher, R. E., eds. 1994. Atlas of the world’s languages. London: Routledge.
Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1990. ‘Reducing’ Pacific languages to writing. In Joseph, J. E. and Taylor, T. J. (eds.), Ideologies of language. London: Routledge, 189–205.
Mühlhäusler, Peter. 1995. Linguistic ecology: language change and linguistic imperialism in the Pacific rim. London: Routledge.
Nettle, Daniel and Romaine, Suzanne. 2001. Vanishing voices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
wa Thiong’o, Ngugi. 1986. Decolonising the mind: the politics of language in African literature. London: Currey / Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Norris, Mary Jane. 1998. Canada’s aboriginal languages. Canadian Social Trends, Winter.
Odum, Eugene P. 1986. Ecosystems. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th edn. Macropaedia XVII, 979–83.
Ostler, Nicholas. 1996. Tongues ancient and postmodern. Iatiku 3. 1–2.
Ostler, Nicholas. 1997. Editorial. Ogmios 6. 3–5.
Ostler, Nicholas. ed. 1998. Endangered languages: what role for the specialist? (Proceedings of the Second FEL Conference, University of Edinburgh, 25–7 September 1998.) Bath: Foundation for Endangered Languages.
Pagel, Mark. 1995. Contribution to the Conservation of Endangered Languages seminar, University of Bristol, 21 April 1995. Iatiku 1. 6.
Palmer, F. R. 1986. Mood and modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Paul, D. A. 1973. The Navajo code talkers. Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance.
Peat, F. David. 1995. Blackfoot physics. London: Fourth Estate.
Pei, Mario. 1952. The story of language. London: Allen and Unwin.
Pei, Mario. 1954. All about language. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Pinter, Harold. 1988. Mountain language. London: Faber.
Pogson, Geoff. 1998. Digital technology will save your language. InfoNT 2 (Conférence des Services de Traduction des Etats Européens, The Hague), 1–5.
Posey, Darrell. 1997. Biological and cultural diversity – the inextricable linked by language and politics. Summary in Iatiku 4. 7–8.
Pound, Ezra. 1960. The ABC of reading. New York: Laughlin.
Price, Glanville, ed. 1998. Encyclopedia of the languages of Europe. Oxford: Blackwell.
Pullum, G. K. 1991. The great Eskimo vocabulary hoax. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Quesada, J. Diego. 1998. Competing interpretations of history: what if they are wrong? In Ostler (ed.), 53–7.
Reyhner, Jon, ed. 1997. Teaching indigenous languages. Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University.
Rhydwen, Mari. 1998. Strategies for doing the impossible. In Ostler (ed.), 101–6.
Robins, R. H., and Uhlenbeck, E. M., eds. 1991. Endangered languages. Oxford and New York: Berg.
Rodrigues, A. D. 1993. Linguas indígenas: 500 anos de descobertas e perdas. DELTA 9. 83–103.
Romaine, Suzanne. 1989. Pidgins, creoles, immigrant, and dying languages. In Dorian (ed.), 369–83.
Rosen, Barbara. 1994. Is English really a family of languages? International Herald Tribune, 15 October.
Rubin, Joan. 1985. Toward bilingual education in Paraguay. In Alatis, J. E. and Staczek, J. J. (eds.), Perspectives on bilingualism and bilingual education. Washington: Georgetown University Press, 423–35.
Ruhlen, Merritt. 1987. A guide to the world’s languages. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Sapir, Edward. 1921. Language. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World.
Sawai, Harumi. 1998. The present situation of the Ainu language. In Matsumura (ed.), 177–89.
Schiller, Herbert I. 1969. Mass communications and American empire. New York: Kelley.
Schiller, Herbert I. 1976. Communication and cultural domination. New York: Sharpe.
Sealey, Alison. 1996. Learning about language: issues for primary teachers. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Seifart, Frank. 1998. Situation of the indigenous languages of Colombia, especially Chimila. Ogmios 9. 8–10.
Silverstein, M., ed. 1971. Whitney on language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. 1996. Comment. Iatiku 3. 8.
Sloboda, John A. 1986. The musical mind: the cognitive psychology of music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stearn, E. W., and Stearn, A. E.. 1945. The effect of smallpox on the destiny of the Amerindian. Boston: Humphries.
Steiner, George. 1967. Language and silence. London: Faber and Faber.
Swann, B., ed. 1992. On the translation of Native American literatures. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Thomas, Lewis. 1980. On meddling. In The medusa and the snail: more notes of a biology watcher. London: Allen Lane.
Todd, Loreto. 1984. Modern Englishes: pidgins and creoles. Oxford: Blackwell.
Tosco, Mauro. 1997. Contribution to a symposium on Endangered Languages in Africa, Leipzig. Ogmios 6. 21.
Trosterud, Trond. 1997. On supporting threatened languages. Iatiku 4. 22–4.
Trosterud, Trond. 1999. How many written languages in the world?Ogmios 11. 16–18.
Trudgill, Peter. 1991. Language maintenance and language shift: preservation versus extinction. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 1. 61–9.
Trudgill, Peter. 2000. Sociolinguistics. 4th edn. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Valiquette, Hilaire Paul. 1998. Community, professionals, and language preservation: first things first. In Ostler (ed.), 107–12.
Van Deusen-Scholl, Nelleke. 1998. Heritage language instruction: issues and challenges. AILA News 1. 12–14.
Van Hoorde, Johan. 1998. Let Dutch die? Over the Taalunie’s dead body. InfoNT 2 (Conférence des Services de Traduction des Etats Européens, The Hague), 6–10.
Voegelin, C. F., and Voegelin, F. M.. 1977. Classification and index of the world’s languages. New York: Elsevier.
Vydrine, Valentin. 1998. Kagoro: a language transforming into a dialect?Ogmios 8. 3–5.
Walker, Ronald. 1993. Language shift in Europe and Irian Jaya, Indonesia: toward the heart of the matter. AILA Review 10. 77–87.
Wardhaugh, Ronald. 1987. Languages in competition. Oxford: Blackwell.
Watson, Seosamh. 1991. Scottish and Irish Gaelic: the giants’ bed-fellows. In Robins and Uhlenbeck (eds.), 41–59.
Weinreich, Max. 1980. History of the Yiddish language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Whatmough, Joshua. 1956. Language: a modern synthesis. London: Secker and Warburg.
Wheeler, Rebecca, ed. 1999. The workings of language. New York: Praeger.
Woodbury, Anthony C. 1998. Documenting rhetorical, aesthetic, and expressive loss in language shift. In Grenoble and Whaley (eds.), 234–58.
Wurm, Stephen A. 1991. Language death and disappearance: causes and circumstances. In Robins and Uhlenbeck (eds.), 1–18.
Wurm, Stephen A. 1998. Methods of language maintenance and revival, with selected cases of language endangerment in the world. In Matsumura (ed.), 191–211.
Wyman, Thornton. 1996. Contribution to a conference on Authenticity and Identity in Indigenous Language Revitalization (American Anthropological Association), held in November 1996. Newsletter of the Foundation for Endangered Languages 5. 20.
Yallop, Colin. 1982. Australian aboriginal languages. London: Deutsch.
Yamamoto, Akira Y. 1997. A survey of endangered languages and related resources. Newsletter of the Foundation for Endangered Languages 5. 8–14.
Yamamoto, Akira Y. 1998a. Linguists and endangered language communities: issues and approaches. In Matsumura (ed.), 213–52.
Yamamoto, Akira Y. 1998b. Retrospect and prospect on new emerging language communities. In Ostler (ed.), 114.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed