Abedi, Jamal (2004) The No Child Left Behind Act and English Language learners: Assessment and accountability issues. Educational Researcher 33(1): 4–14.
Abedi, Jamal and Lord, C. (2001) The language factor in mathematics tests. Applied Measurement in Education 14: 219–234.
Alim, H. Samy and Smitherman, Geneva (2012) Articulate While Black: Barack Obama, Language, and Race in the U.S. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Alvarez, Lizette (1998) It’s the talk of Nueva York: The hybrid called Spanglish. In Clark, Virginia P., Eschholz, Paul A., and Rosa, Alfred F. (Eds.) Language: Readings in Language and Culture. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 483–488.
Alvarez, Stephanie (2013) Subversive English in Raining Backwards: A different kind of Spanglish. Hispania 96(3): 444–459.
Alvarez, Steven (2014) Translanguaging Tareas: Emergent bilingual youth as language brokers for homework in immigrant families. Language Arts 91(5): 326–339.
Ancheta, Angelo N. (2006) Race, Rights and the Asian American Experience. New Brunswick, NJ, and London: Rutgers University Press.
Anderson, Benedict (1982) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London and New York: Verso.
Anderson, Gary Clayton (2014) Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian: The Crime That Should Haunt America. Norman, OK: Oklahoma University Press.
Andresen, Julie Tetel (2014) Linguistics and Evolution: A Developmental Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Andresen, Julie Tetel and Carter, Philip (2015) Languages in theWorld: How History, Culture, and Politics Shape Language. Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.
Andrews, Edna (2014) Neuroscience and Multilingualism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Antaki, Charles and Widdicombe, Sue (Eds.) (1998) Identities in Talk. London: SAGE Publications.
Antieau, Lamont (2003) Plains English in Colorado. American Speech 78(4): 385–403.
Anzaldúa, Gloria (2012 ) Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute.
Araujo-Dawson, Beverly (2015) Understanding the complexities of skin color, perceptions of race and discrimination among Cubans, Dominicans, and Puerto Ricans. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 37(2): 243–256.
Ardila, Alfredo (2005) Spanglish: An Anglicized Spanish dialect. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 27(1): 60–81.
Arnaut, Karel and Spotti, Massimiliano (2014) Superdiversity discourse. Working Papers in Urban Language and Literacies. Working Paper 122.
Asher, Nina (2008) Listening to hyphenated Americans: Hybrid identities of youth from immigrant families. Theory Into Practice 47: 12–19.
Auer, Peter (1998) Introduction: Bilingual conversation revisited. In Auer, Peter (Ed.) Code-Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction and Identity. New York: Routledge. 1–22.
Auer, Peter (2007) The monolingual bias in bilingualism research, or: Why bilingual talk is (still) a challenge for linguistics. In Heller, Monica (Ed.) Bilingualism: A Social Approach. Basingstoke, UK and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 319–339.
Ayala, Jennifer (2006) Confianza, consejos, and contradictions: Gender and sexuality lessons between Latina adolescent daughters and mothers. In Denner, Jill and Guzmán, Bianca L. (Eds.) Latina Girls: Voices of Adolescent Strength in the United States. New York and London: New York University Press. 29–43.
Babbitt, Eugene Howard (1896) The language of the lower classes in New York City and vicinity. Dialect Notes 1: 457–464.
Bailey, Benjamin (2000a) The language of multiple identities among Dominican Americans. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 10(2): 190–223.
Bailey, Benjamin (2000b) Social/interactional functions of code switching among Dominican Americans. Pragmatics 10(2): 165–193.
Bailey, Benjamin (2001) Dominican-American ethnic/racial identities and United States social categories. International Migration Review 35(3): 677–708.
Bailey, Benjamin (2007) Heteroglossia and boundaries. In Heller, Monica (Ed.) Bilingualism: A Social Approach. Basingstoke, UK and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 257–274.
Bailey, Richard W. (2003) The foundation of English in the Louisiana Purchase: New Orleans, 1800–1850. American Speech 78(4): 363–384.
Bakhtin, Mikhail (1981) The Dialogic Imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Banet-Weiser, Sarah (2007) Kids Rule!: Nickelodeon and Consumer Citizenship. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Baptiste, David A. (1987) Family therapy with Spanish-heritage immigrant families in cultural transition. Contemporary Family Therapy 9(4): 229–251.
Baptiste, David A. (1993) Immigrant families, adolescents, and acculturation: Insights for therapists. Marriage and Family Review 19(3/4): 341–363.
Baquedano-López, Patricia (2001) Creating social identities through Doctrina narratives. In Duranti, Alessandro (Ed.) Linguistic Anthropology: A Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 343–358.
Baran, Dominika (1999) Russian-Uzbek language contact in Tashkent: Code-switching and borrowing in urban colloquial language. Unpublished MA thesis: Harvard University.
Baran, Dominika (2001) English loan words in Polish and the question of gender assignment. Proceedings from Penn Linguistics Colloquium 25 (PLC 25) 8.1: 15–28.
Baran, Dominika (2013) Working with adolescents: Identity, power and responsibility in sociolinguistic ethnography. In Paoletti, Isabella, Isabel Tomás, Maria, and Menéndez, Fernanda (Eds.) Practices of Ethics: An Empirical Approach to Ethics in Social Sciences Research. 155–176.
Baran, Dominika (2014) Linguistic practice and identity work: Variation in Taiwan Mandarin at a Taipei county high school. Journal of Sociolinguistics 18(1): 32–59.
Barker, Chris (2000) Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice. London: Sage Publications.
Bartlett, Lesley and García, Ofelia (2011) Additive Schooling in Subtractive Times: Bilingual Education and Dominican Immigrant Youth in the Heights. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Bayley, Robert (2004) Linguistic diversity and English language acquisition. In Finegan, Edward and Rickford, John J. (Eds.) Language in the USA: Themes for the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 268–288.
Bayley, Robert, Hansen-Thomas, Holly, and Langman, Juliet (2005). Language brokering in a middle school science class. In Cohen, James, McAlister, Kara T., Rolstad, Kellie, and MacSwan, Jeff (Eds.) Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. 223–232.
Bean, William G. (1934) Puritan versus Celt: 1850–1860. The New England Quarterly 7(1): 70–89.
Becker, Alton L. (1991) Language and languaging. Language and Communication 11(1/2): 33–35.
Becker, Alton L. (1995) Beyond Translation: Essays towards a Modern Philology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Belgum, Kirsten (2015) Accidental encounter: Why John Quincy Adams translated German culture for Americans. Early American Studies (Winter 2015): 209–236.
Besemeres, Mary (2002) Translating One’s Self: Language and Selfhood in Cross-Cultural Autobiography. Oxford: Peter Lang.
Besemeres, Mary (2006) Language and emotional experience: The voice of translingual memoir. In Pavlenko, Aneta (Ed.) Bilingual Minds: Emotional Experience, Expression and Representation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 34–58.
Besemeres, Mary (2007) Between żal and emotional blackmail: Ways of being in Polish and English. In Besemeres, Mary and Wierzbicka, Anna (Eds.) Translating Lives: Living with Two Languages and Cultures. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press. 128–138.
Bhaba, Homi K. (1994) The Location of Culture. New York: Routledge.
Bigler, Ellen (1996) Telling stories: On ethnicity, exclusion, and education in Upstate New York. Anthropology and Education Quaterly 27(2): 186–203.
Birdsong, David (2006) Age and second language acquisition and processing: A selective overview. Language Learning 56: 9–49.
Blegen, Theodore C. (1931) Norwegian Migration to America 1825–1860. Northfield, MN: The Norwegian-American Historical Association.
Blommaert, Jan (2010) The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blommaert, Jan and Backus, Ad (2012) Superdiverse Repertoires and the Individual. Tilburg Papers in Culture Studies. Paper 24.
Blommaert, Jan and Rampton, Ben (2011) Language and superdiversity. Diversities 13(2): 1–21.
Boas, Hans C. (2009) The Life and Death of Texas German. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Bobo, Lawrence (1997). The color line, the dilemma, and the dream: American race relations at the close of the 20th century. In Higham, John (ed.), Civil Rights and Social Wrongs: Black–White Relations since World War II. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. 31–55.
Bolonyai, Agnes (2015) “Where are you from?”: Immigration stories of accent, belonging, and other experiences in the South. Paper presented at the Language Variety in the South conference (LAVIS IV). Raleigh, NC. April 9–12.
Brimelow, Peter (1995) Alien Nation: Common Sense about America’s Immigration Disaster. New York: Random House.
Brown, C. L. (2005) Equity of literacy-based math performance assessments for English language learners. Bilingual Research Journal 29(2): 337–364.
Brown, Kimberley (1988) American college student attitudes toward non-native instructors. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Brown, Penelope and Levinson, Stephen C. (1987) Politeness: Some Universals in Language Use. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brożek, Andrzej (1972) Ślązacy w Teksasie: Relacje o najstarszych osadach polskich w Ameryce. Warsaw and Wrocław: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (PWN).
Bryce-LaPorte, Roy S. (1993) Voluntary immigration and continuing encounters between blacks: The post-quincentenary challenge. Annals, AAPS 530: 28–41.
Buchanan, Patrick (2002) Death of the West: How Dying Populations and Immigrant Invasions Imperil Our Country and Civilization. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.
Buchanan, Patrick (2006) State of Emergency: The Third World Invasion and the Conquest of America. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press.
Bucholtz, Mary (1999a) You da man: Narrating the racial other in the production of white masculinity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(4): 443–460.
Bucholtz, Mary (1999b) “Why be normal?”: Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls. Language in Society 28: 203–223.
Bucholtz, Mary (2009) Styles and stereotypes: Laotian American girls’ linguistic negotiation of identity. In Reyes, Angela and Lo, Adrienne (Eds.) Beyond Yellow English: Towards a Linguistic Anthropology of Asian Pacific America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 21–42.
Bucholtz, Mary and Hall, Kira (2004) Language and identity. In Duranti, Alessandro (Ed.) A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. Malden: Blackwell. 369–394.
Bucholtz, Mary and Hall, Kira (2005) Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies 7: 585–614.
Burck, Charlotte (2004) Living in several languages: Implications for therapy. Journal of Family Therapy 26: 314–339.
Burck, Charlotte (2005) Multilingual Living: Explorations of Language and Subjectivity. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillian.
Buriel, Raymond, Perez, William, De Ment, Terri L., Chavez, David V., and Moran, Virginia R. (1998) The relationship of language brokering to academic performance, biculturalism, and self-efficacy among Latino adolescents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 20(3): 283–297.
Butler, Judith (1990) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York and London: Routledge.
Callahan-Price, Erin (2013a) Past tense marking and interlanguage variation in emerging N.C. Hispanic English. Paper presented at the 87th Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Boston, Massachusetts, 3–6 January 2013.
Callahan-Price, Erin (2013b) Emerging Hispanic English in the Southeast U.S.: Grammatical Variation in a Triethnic Community. Unpublished PhD dissertation: Duke University.
Cameron, Deborah (1990) Demythologizing sociolinguistics: Why language does not reflect society. In Joseph, J.E. and Taylor, T.J. (Eds). Ideologies of Language. London: Routledge. 79–93.
Cameron, Deborah (1997) Performing gender identity: Young men’s talk and the construction of heterosexual masculinity. In Johnson, Sally and Meinhof, Ulrike (Eds.) Language and Masculinity. Oxford: Blackwell. 270–284.
Campano, Gerald (2007) Immigrant Students and Literacy: Reading, Writing, and Remembering. New York and London: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Canagarajah, Suresh (2011a) Translanguaging in the classroom: Emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review 2: 1–28.
Canagarajah, Suresh (2011b) Codemeshing in academic writing: Identifying teachable strategies of translanguaging. The Modern Language Journal 95: 401–417.
Cargile, A.C. and Bradac, J.J. (2001) Attitudes toward language: A review of applicant-evaluation research and a general process model. In Gudykunst, W.B. (Ed.) Communication Yearbook 25. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 347–382.
Cargile, Assron Castelán, Maeda, Eriko, Rodriguez, Jose, and Rich, Marc (2010) “Oh, You speak English so well!”: U.S. American listeners’ perceptions of “foreignness” among nonnative speakers. Journal of Asian American Studies 13(1): 59–79.
Carlson, Lewis H. and Colburn, George A. (Eds.) (1972) In Their Place: White America Defines Her Minorities, 1850–1950. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carnevale, Nancy C. (2009) A New Language, A New World: Italian Immigrants in the United States, 1890–1945. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Carrillo, Hector (2004) Sexual migration, cross-cultural sexual encounters, and sexual health. Sexuality Research and Social Policy 1: 58–70.
Carter, Phillip (2007) Phonetic variation and speaker agency: Mexicana identity in a North Carolina middle school. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 13(2): 1–14.
Cashman, Holly (2005a) Identities at play: Language preference and group membership in bilingual talk in interaction. Journal of Pragmatics 37: 301–315.
Cashman, Holly (2005b) Aggravation and disagreement: A case study of a bilingual, cross-sex dispute in a Phoenix classroom. Southwest Journal of Linguistics 24(1 & 2): 31–51.
Chacko, Elizabeth (2003) Identity and assimilation among young Ethiopian immigrants in metropolitan Washington. Geographical Review 93(4): 491–506.
Chanbonpin, Kate (2004/2005) How the border crossed us: Filling the gap between Plume v. Seward and the dispossession of Mexican landowners in California after 1848. Cleveland State Law Review 52: 297–319.
Chavez, Leo R. (2008) The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the Nation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Cheryan, Sapna and Monin, Benoît (2005) Where are you really from?: Asian Americans and identity denial. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89(5): 717–730.
Chun, Elaine (2001) The construction of white, black, and Korean American identities through African American Vernacular English. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11(1): 52–64.
Chun, Elaine (2009) Ideologies of legitimate mockery: Margaret Cho’s revoicings of Mock Asian. In Reyes, Angela and Lo, Adrienne (Eds.) Beyond Yellow English: Towards a Linguistic Anthropology of Asian Pacific America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 261–287.
Chun, Elaine (2015) “She be acting like she’s black”: Ideologies of language and blackness among Korean American female youth in Texas. Paper presented at the Language Variety in the South conference (LAVIS IV). Raleigh, NC. April 9–12, 2015.
Chung, Haesook Han (2006) Code switching as a communicative strategy: A case study of Korean-English bilinguals. Bilingual Research Journal 30(2): 293–307.
Cisneros, Josue (2013) The Border Crossed Us: Rhetorics of Borders, Citizenship, and Latina/o Identity. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
Citrin, Jack, Reingold, Beth, and Walters, Evelyn (1990) The “Official English” movement and the symbolic politics of language in the United States. The Western Political Quarterly 43(3): 535–559.
Clark, Herbert H. and Wilkes-Gibbs, Deanna (1986) Referring as a collaborative process. Cognition 22: 1–39.
Combs, Mary Carol, Evans, Carol, Fletcher, Todd, Parra, Elena, and Jiménez, Alicia (2005) Bilingualism for the children: Implementing a dual-language program in an English-only state. Educational Policy 19(5): 701–728.
Crawford, James (1999) Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory and Practice. Fourth edition, revised and expanded. Los Angeles, CA: Bilingual Educational Services.
Crawford, James (2004) Educating English Learners: Language Diversity in the Classroom. Los Angeles: Bilingual Education Services, Inc.
Crawford, James (2007) No Child Left Behind: A Failure for English Language Learners. Tacoma Park, MD: Institute for Language and Education Policy.
Crowley, Tony (2003) Standard English and the Politics of Language. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Csábi, Szilvia (2001) The concept of America in the Puritan mind. Language and Literature 10(3): 195–209.
Cummins, James (1979) Linguistics interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research 49(2): 222–251.
Cummins, James (1991) Conversational and academic language proficiency in bilingual contexts. AILA Review 8: 75–89.
Cutler, Cecilia (1999) Yorkville Crossing: White teens, hip-hop and African American English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(4): 428–442.
D’Angelo, Pascal (1924) Son of Italy. New York: Macmillan.
Dale, T.C. and Cuevas, G.J. (1992) Integrating mathematics and language learning. In Richard-Amato, P.A. and Snow, M.A. (Eds.) The Multilingual Classroom: Readings for Content-Area Teachers. New York: Longman. 330–348.
Daniels, Roger (2002) Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life (2nd edition). New York: Harper Perennial.
Dannenberg, Clare (2002) Sociolinguistic Constructs of Ethnic Identity: The Syntactic Delineation of a Native American English. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
De Fina, Anna (2000) Orientation in immigrant narratives: The role of ethnicity in the identification of characters. Discourse Studies 2(2): 131–157.
De Fina, Anna (2007) Code-switching and the construction of ethnic identity in a community of practice. Language in Society 36: 371–392.
De Fina, Anna (2012) Family interaction and engagement with the heritage language: A case study. Multilingua 31: 349–379.
De Fina, Anna and King, Kendall K. (2011) Language problem or language conflict? Narratives of immigrant women’s experiences in the US. Discourse Studies 13(2): 163–188.
De Jongh, Elena (1990) Interpreting in Miami’s federal courts: Code-switching and Spanglish. Hispania 73(1): 274–278.
De Ment, Terri L., Buriel, Raymond, and Villanueva, Christina M. (2005) Children as language brokers: A narrative of the recollections of college students. In Salili, Farideh and Hoosain, Rumjahn (Eds.) Language in Multicultural Education. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. 255–272.
Debes, John L. III (1981) It’s time for a new paradigm: Languaging! Language Sciences 3(1): 186–192.
Decena, Carlos Ulises (2011) Tacit Subjects: Belonging and Same-Sex Desire among Dominican Immigrant Men. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Decena, Carlos Ulises, Shedlin, Michele G., and Martínez, Angela (2006) “Los hombres no mandan aquí”: Narrating immigrant genders and sexualities in New York. Social Text 24(3): 35–54.
DeGraff, Michel (2003) Against Creole exceptionalism. Language 79(2): 391–410.
DeGraff, Michel (2005) Linguists’ most dangerous myth: The fallacy of Creole exceptionalism. Language in Society 34: 533–591.
Del Torto, Lisa M. (2008) Once a broker, always a broker: Non-professional interpreting as identity accomplishment in multigenerational Italian-English bilingual family interaction. Multilingua 27: 77–97.
Delgado-Gaitán, Concha and Trueba, Enrique (1991) Crossing Cultural Borders: Education for Immigrant Families in America. London and New York: Falmer Press.
Deloria, Philip J. and Salisbury, Neal (Eds.) (2002) A Companion to American Indian History. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Dewaele, Jean-Marc (2004a) The emotional force of swearwords and taboo words in the speech of multilinguals. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 25(2/3): 204–222.
Dewaele, Jean-Marc (2004b) Blistering barnacles! What language do multilinguals swear in?! Estudios de Sociolingüística 5(1): 83–105.
Dewaele, Jean-Marc (2004c) Perceived language dominance and language preference for emotional speech: The implications for attrition research. In Schmid, M., Köpke, B., Kejser, M., and Weilemar, L. (Eds.) First Language Attrition: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Methodological Issues. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 81–104.
Dewaele, Jean-Marc (2006) Expressing anger in multiple languages. In Pavlenko, Aneta (Ed.) Bilingual Minds: Emotional Experience, Expression, and Representation. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Dewaele, Jean-Marc (2007) “Christ fucking shit merge!”: Language preferences for swearing among maximally proficient multilinguals. Sociolinguistic Studies 4(3): 595–614.
Díaz-Lázaro, Carlos M. (2002) The effects of language brokering on perceptions of family authority structure, problem solving abilities, and parental locus of control in Latino adolescents and their parents. Unpublished PhD Dissertation: State University of New York at Buffalo.
Dick, Hilary (2010) No option but to go: Poetic rationalization and the discursive production of Mexican migrant identity. Language and Communication 30: 90–108.
Dick, Hilary Parsons (2011a) Language and migration to the United States. Annual Review of Anthropology 40: 227–240.
Dick, Hilary Parsons (2011b) Making immigrants illegal in small-town USA. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 21(S1): 35–55.
Dietrich, Lisa C. (1998) Chicana Adolescents: Bitches, ’Ho’s, and Schoolgirls. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Dillard, J.L. (1972) Afro-American, Spanglish, and something else: St. Cruzan naming patterns. Names 20: 225–230.
Doroszewski, Witold (1938) Język polski w Stanach Zjedonoczonych A.P. Warsaw: Towarszystwo Naukowe Warszawskie.
Dubisz, Stanisław (1981) Formy i typy funkcjonalnej adaptacji leksemów amerykańskoangielskich w dialekcie polonijnym Nowej Anglii. In Szlifersztejn, Salomea (Ed.) Z badań nad językiem polskim środowisk emigracyjnych. Wrocław: Ossolineum. 51–68.
Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne (2014) An Indigenous People’s History of the United States. Boston: Beacon Press.
Dziembowska, Janina (Ed.) (1977a) Memoirs of Polish Emigrants: USA V.1. Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza.
Dziembowska, Janina (Ed.) (1977b) Memoirs of Polish Emigrants: USA V.2. Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza.
Easthope, Antony (1998) Bhabha, hybridity and identity. Textual Practice 12(2): 341–348.
Eckert, Penelope (1989) Jocks and Burnouts: Social Categories and Identity in the High School. New York and London: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Eckert, Penelope (2000) Linguistic Variation as Social Practice: The Linguistic Construction of Identity at Belten High. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Eckert, Penelope and McConnell-Ginet, Sally (1992) Think practically and look locally: Gender as a community-based practice. Annual Review of Anthropology 21: 461–490.
Eikel, Fred Jr. (1966a) New Braunfels German: Part I. American Speech 41: 5–16.
Eikel, Fred Jr. (1966b) New Braunfels German: Part II. American Speech 41: 254–260.
Eikel, Fred Jr. (1967) New Braunfels German: Part III. American Speech 42: 83–104.
Elías-Olivares, L. (Ed.) (1983) Spanish in the U.S. Setting: Beyond the Southwest. Rosslyn, VA: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
Erikson, Erik H.(1968) Identity, Youth and Crisis. New York: W.W. Norton.
Espín, Olivia M. (1999) Women Crossing Boundaries: A Psychology of Immigration and Transformations of Sexuality. New York and London: Routledge.
Espinosa, A. (1911) The Spanish Language in New Mexico and Southern Colorado. Santa Fe: New Mexican Publishing Company.
Espiritu, Yen Le (Ed.) (1995) Filipino American Lives. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Fairclough, Norman (2001) Language and Power. London and New York: Routledge.
Farr, Marcia (2006) Rancheros in Chicagoacán: Language and Identity in a Transnational Community. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Fellin, Luciana (2015) The New Italians of the South. Paper presented at the Language Variety in the South conference (LAVIS IV). Raleigh, NC. April 9–12.
Feng, Peter (1996) Being Chinese American, becoming Asian American: Chan Is Missing. Cinema Journal 35(4): 88–118.
Fishman, Joshua (1966) Language Loyalty in the United States. The Hague: Mouton.
Fishman, Joshua (1985) The Rise and Fall of the Ethnic Revival: Perspectives on Language and Ethnicity. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Fishman, Joshua (1991) Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Fishman, Joshua A. (2004) Multilingualism and non-English mother tongues. In Finegan, Edward and Rickford, John J. (Eds.) Language in the USA: Themes for the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 115–132.
Fixico, Donald L. (2009) American Indian history and writing from home: Constructing an Indian perspective. The American Indian Quarterly 33(4): 553–560.
Fought, Carmen (2003) Chicano English in Context. Basinstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Fought, Carmen (2006) Language and Ethnicity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Franklin, Vincent P. (1991) Black social scientists and the mental testing movement, 1920–1940. In Jones, Reginald L. (Ed.) Black Psychology. Berkeley, CA: Cobb & Henry. 207–224.
Freyere, Gilberto (1946 ) The Masters and the Slaves. Translated by Putnam, Samuel. New York: Knopf.
Freyere, Gilberto (1963 ) New World in the Tropics. New York: Vintage
Freyere, Gilberto (1986 ) The Mansions and the Shanties. Translated by de Onis, Harriet. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gal, Susan (1988) The political economy of code choice. In Heller, Monica (Ed.) Code-Switching: Anthropological and Sociolinguistic Perspectives. New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 45–264.
Gándara, Patricia and Hopkins, Megan (Eds.) (2010) Forbidden Language: English Learners and Restrictive Language Policies. New York and London: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Gándara, Patricia, Losen, Daniel, August, Diane, Uriarte, Miren, Gómez, M. Cecilia, and Hopkins, Megan (2010) Forbidden language: A brief history of U.S. language policy. In Gándara, Patricia and Hopkins, Megan (Eds.) Forbidden Language: English Learners and Restrictive Language Policies. New York and London: Teachers College, Columbia University. 20–33.
Gans, Herbert J. (1979) Symbolic ethnicity: The future of ethnic groups and cultures in America. Ethnic and Racial Studies 2(1): 1–20.
García, Ofelia (2009) Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
García, Ofelia and Kleifgen, Jo Anne (2010) Educating Emergent Bilinguals: Policies, Programs, and Practices for English Language Learners. New York and London: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.
García, Ofelia and Li, Wei (2014) Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism, and Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
García, Ofelia, Kleifgen, Jo Anne, and Falchi, Lorraine (2008) Equity Matters: Research Review No. 1. From English Language Learners to Emergent Bilinguals. New York: Teacher College, Columbia University (A Research Initiative of the Campaign for Educational Equity). Available at http://www.equitycampaign.org/i/a/document/6468_Ofelia_ELL__Final.pdf.
Gardner-Chloros, Penelope (1987) Code-switching in relation to language contact and convergence. In Ludi, Georges (Ed.) Devenir bilingue – parler bilingue. Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag. 99–111.
Gardner-Chloros, Penelope (2009) Code-Switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gee, James Paul (1999) An Introduction to Discourse Analysis: Theory and Method. London and New York: Routledge.
Geyer, Georgie Anne (1996) Americans No More: The Death of Citizenship. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Gilbert, Glenn G. (1963) The German dialect spoken in Kendall and Gillespie Counties, Texas. PhD Dissertation: Harvard University.
Gilbert, Glenn G. (1970) The phonology, morphology, and lexicon of a German text from Fredericksburg, Texas. In Gilbert, Glenn G. (Ed.) Texas Studies in Bilingualism. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co. 63–104.
Gilbert, Glenn G. (1972) Linguistic Atlas of Texas German. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Glenn, Charles L. (2011) American Indian/First Nations Schooling: From the Colonial Period to the Present. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gluszek, Agata and Dovidio, John F. (2010) Speaking with a nonnative accent: Perceptions of bias, communication difficulties, and belonging in the United States. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 29(2): 224–234.
Goddard, Henry H. (1917) Mental tests and the immigrant. Journal of Delinquency 2: 243–277.
Goffman, Erving (1961) Asylums. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.
Goffman, Erving (1979) Footing. Semiotica 25: 1–29.
Goldberg, David Theo (1993) Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Golla, Victor (2011) California Indian Langauges. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Gonzalez-Reigosa, F. (1976) The anxiety-arousing effect of taboo words in bilinguals. In Spielberger, C. and Diaz-Guerrero, R. (Eds.) Cross-Cultural Anxiety. Washington, DC: Hemisphere. 89–105.
Goodenough, Florence (1926) Racial differences in the intelligence of school children. Journal of Experimental Psychology 9: 388–397.
Granillo, Christina Marie (2011) Language brokering, interactional styles and parental behaviors among Latino families. Unpublished PhD Dissertation: Claremont Graduate University.
Grosjean, François (1989) Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person. Brain and Language 36(1): 3–15.
Gruchmanowa, Monika (1979) Badania nad językiem polonii amerykańskiej w świetle metod socjolingwistycznych. Socjolingwistyka 2: 95–102.
Gruchmanowa, Monika (1984) O odmianach polszczyzny w Stanach Zjednoczonych A.P. Polonica 10: 185–205.
Guillén, Nicolás (1972) Songoro Cosongo. (Obra poetica, vol. 1.) La Habana: Instituto Cubano del Libro.
Gumperz, John J. (1982) Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gutiérrez González, H. (1993) El español en El Barrio de Nueva York: estudio léxico. New York: Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española.
Gutiérrez, Kris D., Baquedano-López, Patricia, and Tejeda, Carlos (1999) Rethinking diversity: Hybridity and hybrid language practices in the third space. Mind, Culture, and Activity 6(4): 286–303.
Gutiérrez, M. (1994) Simplification, transference and convergence in Chicano Spanish. Bilingual Review 19: 111–121.
Haguen, Einar (1950) The analysis of linguistic borrowing. Language 26(2): 210–231.
Hakuta, Kenji (1986) Mirror of Language: The Debate on Bilingualism. New York: Basic Books.
Hall, Stuart (1992) The questions of cultural identity. In Hall, Stuart, Held, David, and McGrew, Tony (Eds.) Modernity and Its Futures. Cambridge: Polity Press. 273–326.
Halter, Marilyn (2000) Shopping for Identity: The Marketing of Ethnicity. New York: Schocken Books.
Hanson, Victor Davis (2003) Mexifornia: A State of Becoming. San Francisco: Encounter Books.
Harkins, Jean and Wierzbicka, Anna (1997) Language: A key issue in emotion research. Innovation 10(4): 319–331.
Harris, C., Aiçiçegi, A., and Gleason, J. (2003) Taboo words and reprimands elicit greater autonomic reactivity in a first language than in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics 24(4): 561–579.
Harvey, Sean P. (2015) Native Tongues: Colonialism and Race from Encounter to the Reservation. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press.
Haugen, Einar (1967) The Norwegians in America: A Student’s Guide to Localized History. New York: Teachers College Press.
Heath, Shirley Brice (1983) Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Helms, Janet E. (1994) The conceptualization of racial identity and other “racial” constructs. In Trickett, Edison J., Watts, Roderick J., and Birman, Dina (Eds.) Human Diversity: Perspectives on People in Context. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 285–311.
Higgins, C. (2009) English as a Local Practice: Post-Colonial Identities and Multilingual Practices. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Hill, Jane H. (1993a) Is it really “no problemo”? Junk Spanish and Anglo racism. Texas Linguistic Forum 33(1): 1–12.
Hill, Jane H. (1999) Styling locally, styling globally: What does it mean? Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(4): 542–556.
Hill, Jane H. (2001) Language, Race, and White Public Space. In Duranti, Alessandro (Ed.) Linguistic Anthropology: A Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 450–464.
Hill, Jane H. (2008) The Everyday Language of White Racism. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Hobson, John M. (2012) The Eurocentric Conception of World Politics: Western International Theory 1760–2010. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hoffman, Eva (1989) Lost in Translation: A Life in a New Language. New York: Penguin Books.
Holliday, Adrian, Hyde, Martin, and Kullman, John (2004) Intercultural Communication: An Advanced Resource Book. London and New York: Routledge.
Holloway, Joseph and Vass, Winifred K. (1993) The African Heritage of American English. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Holmes, Janet and Meyerhoff, Miriam (1999) The community of practice: Theories and methodologies in language and gender research. Language in Society 28: 173–183.
Holmquist, Quinn (2016) Strange Chains: A Microanthropological Study of Non-English Speakers’ Courtroom Experience. Unpublished BA thesis: Duke University.
Hopper, Paul (1998) Emergent grammar. In Tomasello, Michael (ed.) The New Psychology of Language: Cognitive and Functional Approaches to Language Structure. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 155–175.
Hornberger, Nancy (1989) Continua of biliteracy. Review of Educational Research 59: 271–296.
Hornberger, Nancy (Ed.) (2003) Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Framework for Educational Policy, Research and Practice in Multilingual Settings. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Hornberger, Nancy and Link, Holly (2012) Translanguaging and transnational literacies in multilingual classrooms: A biliteracy lens. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 15(3): 261–278.
Hornberger, Nancy and Skilton-Sylvester, E. (2000) Revisiting the continua of biliteracy: International and critical perspectives. Language and Education: An International Journal 14: 96–122.
Hosoda, Megumi and Stone-Romero, Eugene (2010) The effects of foreign accents on employment-related decisions. Journal of Managerial Psychology 25(2): 113–132.
Hosoda, Megumi, Nguyen, Lam T., and Stone-Romero, Eugene F. (2012) The effect of Hispanic accents on employment decisions. Journal of Managerial Psychology 27(4): 347–364.
Howe, Cymene (2014) Sexual adjudications and queer transpositions. Journal of Language and Sexuality 3(1): 136–155.
Huang, Eddie (2013) Fresh Off The Boat: A Memoir. New York: Spiegel & Grau Trade Paperbacks.
Huntington, Samuel (2004) Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Irvine, Judith and Gal, Susan (2000) Language ideology and linguistic differentiation. In Kroskrity, Paul (Ed.) Regimes of Language. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press. 35–83.
Jacquemet, Marco (2005) Transidiomatic practices: Language and power in the age of globalization. Language and Communication 25: 257–277.
James, William (1890) The Principles of Psychology. New York: H. Holt and Company.
Javier, Rafael and Marcos, Luis (1989) The role of stress on the language-independence and code-switching phenomena. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 18(5): 449–472.
Jespersen, Otto (1922) Language. London: George Allen and Unwin.
Jones, Curtis J. and Trickett, Edison J. (2005) “Immigrant adolescents behaving as culture brokers” a study of families from the former Soviet Union. The Journal of Social Psychology 145(4): 405–427.
Jones, Katharine W. (2001) Accent on Privilege: English Identities and Anglophilia in the U.S. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Jorae, Wendy Rose (2009) The Children of Chinatown: Growing Up Chinese American in San Francisco 1850–1920. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
Jørgensen, J. Normann (2008) Polylingual languaging around and among children and adolescents. International Journal of Multilingualism 5(3): 161–176.
Jørgensen, J. Normann (2012) Ideologies, norms, and practices in youth poly-languaging. International Journal of Bilingualism 17(4): 525–539.
Jørgensen, J. Normann, Karrebæk, M.S., Madsen, L.M., and Møller, J.S.. (2011) Polylanguaging in superdiversity. Diversities 13(2): 23–37.
Jozefski, Jeffrey M. (2008) The role of Polish and American identities in the future of the Polish National Catholic Church. Polish American Studies 65(2): 27–52.
Kalmar, Tomás Mario (2001) Illegal Alphabets and Adult Biliteracy: Latino Migrants Crossing the Linguistic Border. Mahwah, NJ, and London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Kayyal, Mary H. and Russell, James A. (2013) Language and emotion: Certain English-Arabic translations are not equivalent. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 32(3): 261–271.
Kennedy, John F. (1964) A Nation of Immigrants. New York: Harper Perennial.
Kersten, Holger (2006) America’s multilingualism and the problem of the literary representation of “pidgin English.” Amerikastudien / American Studies 51(1): 75–91.
Kim, Ronald I. (2008) California Chinese pidgin English and its historical connections: Preliminary remarks. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 23(2): 329–344.
Kingston, Maxine Hong (1989 ) The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Vintage International.
Klein, Wendy L. (2009) Turban narratives: Discourses of identification and difference among Punjabi Sikh families in Los Angeles. In Reyes, Angela and Lo, Adrienne (Eds.) Beyond Yellow English: Toward a Linguistic Anthropology of Asian Pacific America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 111–130.
Kloss, Heinz (1998) The American Bilingual Tradition. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Knapp, Kiyoko Kamio (1997) Language minorities: Forgotten victims of discrimination? Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 11: 747–787.
Kohn, Mary (2008) Latino English in North Carolina: A Comparison of Emerging Communities. Unpublished MA thesis. Raleigh: North Carolina State University.
Kohn, Mary and Franz, Hannah (2009) Localized patterns for global variants: The case of quotative systems of African American and Latino speakers. American Speech 84: 259–297.
Kosinski, Jerzy (1976) The Painted Bird. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Kraus, Joe (1999) How The Melting Pot stirred America: The reception of Zangwill’s play and theater’s role in the American assimilation experience. Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States (MELUS) 24(3): 3–19.
Krauss, M. (1998) The condition of Native North American languages: The need for realistic assessment and action. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 132: 9–21.
Kruszka, Wacław X. (1905) Historya Polska w Ameryce. Milwaukee, WI: Kuryer. 13 vols.
Kubota, Ryuoko and Lin, Angel (2006) Race and TESOL: Introduction to concepts and theories. TESOL Quarterly 40(3): 471–493.
Kurtz, William B. (2014) “Let us hear no more ‘Nativism’”: The Catholic press in the Mexican and Civil Wars. Civil War History 60(1): 6–31.
Kyratzis, Amy (2010) Latina girls’ peer play interactions in a bilingual Spanish-English U.S. preschool: Heteroglossia, frame-shifting, and language ideology. Pragmatics 20(4): 557–586.
Labov, William (1966) The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Labov, William (2010) Principles of Linguistic Change: Cognitive and Cultural Factors (Vol. 3). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Lakoff, George (2004) Don’t Think of an Elephant!: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate – The Essential Guide for Progressives. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Lamanna, Scott G. (2012) Colombian Spanish in North Carolina: The Role of Language and Dialect Contact in the Formation of a New Variety of U.S. Spanish. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation: Indiana University.
Lanehart, Sonja (2007) If our children are our future, why are we stuck in the past? Beyond the Anglicisms and the Creolists, and toward social change. In Alim, H. Samy and Baugh, John (Eds.) Talkin Black Talk: Language, Education, and Social Change. New York and London: Teachers College, Columbia University. 132–141.
Lave, Jean and Wenger, Etienne (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leap, William L. (1981) American Indian languages. In Ferguson, Charles and Brice Heath, Shirley (Eds.) Language in the USA. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 116–144.
Lee, Margaret (1998) Out of the Hood and into the News: Borrowed Black Verbal Expressions in a Mainstream Newspaper. Paper presented at the New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAV) 27 conference, Athens, Georgia.
Lee, Robert G. (1999) Orientals: Asian Americans in Popular Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Lee, Stacey J. (1994) Behind the model-minority stereotype: Voices of high- and low-achieving Asian American students. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 25(4): 413–429.
Lee, Tiffany S. (2009) Language, identity, and power: Navajo and Pueblo young adults’ perspectives and experiences with competing language ideologies. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education 8: 307–320.
Leeman, Jennifer (2004) Racializing language: A history of linguistic ideologies in the US Census. Journal of Language and Politics 3(3): 507–534.
Leland, Charles G. (1892) Pidgin-English Sing-Song or Songs and Stories in the China-English Dialect. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co. Ltd.
Lewis, Ronald L. (2008) Welsh Americans: A History of Assimilation in the Coalfields. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
Li, Wei (2011) Moment analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics 43: 1222–1235.
Li, Juan (2004) Pidgin and code-switching: Linguistic identity and multicultural consciousness in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey. Language and Literature 13(3): 269–287.
Lindemann, Stephanie (2002) Listening with an attitude: A model of native-speaker comprehension of non-native speakers in the United States. Language in Society 31: 419–441.
Lindemann, Stephanie (2003) Koreans, Chinese or Indians? Attitudes and ideologies about non-native English speakers in the United States. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3): 348–364.
Lindemann, Stephanie (2005) Who speaks “broken English”? US undergraduates’ perceptions of non-native English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 15(2): 187–212.
Linton, April (2009) Language politics and policy in the United States: Implications for the immigration debate. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 199: 9–37.
Lippi-Green, Rosina (2004) Language ideology and language prejudice. In Finegan, Edward and Rickford, John J. (Eds.) Language in the USA: Themes for the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 289–304.
Lippi-Green, Rosina (2012) English with an Accent: Language, Ideology and Discrimination in the United States (2nd edition). London and New York: Routledge.
Lipski, John (2014) Is “Spanglish” the third language of the South? Truth and fantasy about US Spanish. In Picone, Michael and Davies, Catherine Evans (Eds.) New Perspectives on Language Variety in the South: Historical and Contemporary Approaches. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. 657–677.
Lipski, John M. (2008) Varieties of Spanish in the United States. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Liu, Eric (1999) The Accidental Asian: Notes of a Native Speaker. New York: Random House.
Lo, Adrienne (1997) Heteroglossia and the Construction of Asian American Identities. Issues in Applied Linguistics 8(1): 47–62.
Lo, Adrienne (1999) Codeswitching, speech community membership, and the construction of ethnic identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(4): 461–479.
Love, Julia Anne (2007) Theory of mind ability in the preadolescent language broker: Connections between language brokering, social cognition, and academic achievement. Unpublished PhD Dissertation: Claremont Graduate University.
Love, Julia A. and Buriel, Raymond (2007) Language brokering, autonomy, parent-child bonding, biculturalism, and depression: A study of Mexican American adolescents from immigrant families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 29(4): 472–491.
Luna-Firebaugh, Eileen M. (2002) The border crossed us: Border crossing issues of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Wicazo Sa Review 17(1): 159–181.
Maira, S. (2004) Imperial feelings: Youth culture, citizenship, and globalization. In Suarez-Orozco, Marcel and Quin-Hilliard, D. (Eds.) Globalization: Culture and Education in the New Millennium. Berkeley: University of California Press. 203–234.
Major, Clarence (1994) Juba to Jive: A Dictionary of African-American Slang. New York: Penguin Books.
Makoni, Sinfree (2012) A critique of language, languaging and supervernacular. Muitas Vozes, Ponta Grossa, 1(2): 189–199.
Makoni, Sinfree and Pennycook, Alastair (2005) Disinventing and (re)constituting languages. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies: An International Journal 2(3): 137–156.
Mangione, Jerre (1998 ) Mount Allegro: A Memoir of Italian American Life. New York: Syracuse University Press.
Martínez-Echazábal, Lourdes (1998) Mestizaje and the discourse of national/cultural identity in Latin America, 1845–1959. Latin American Perspectives 25(3): 21–42.
Mathews, Gordon (2000) Global Culture/Individual Identity: Searching for Home in the Cultural Supermarket. London: Routledge.
Matsuda, M. (1991) Voices of America: Accent, antidiscrimination law, and a jurisprudence for the last reconstruction. Yale Law Journal 100(5): 1329–1407.
Maulucci, Maria S. Rivera (2008) Intersections between immigration, language, identity and emotions: a science teacher candidate’s journey. Cultural Studies of Science Education 3: 17–42.
McCarty, Teresa L. (2002) A Place to Be Navajo: Rough Rock and the Struggle for Self-Determination in Indigenous Schooling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
McCarty, Teresa L. (2010) Native American languages in the USA. In Potowski, Kim (Ed.) Language Diversity in the USA. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 47–65.
McQuillan, Jeff and Tse, Lucy (1995) Child language brokering in linguistic minority communities: Effects on cultural interaction, cognition and literacy. Language and Education 9(3): 195–215.
McRobbie, Angela (2005) The Uses of Cultural Studies. London: Sage Publications.
Medvedeva, Maria (2012) Negotiating languages in immigrant families. International Migration Review 46(2): 517–545.
Mendoza-Denton, Norma (1997) Chicana/Mexicana Identity and Linguistic Variation: An Ethnographic and Sociolinguistic Study of Gang Affiliation in an Urban High School. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University.
Mendoza-Denton, Norma (2008) Homegirls: Language and Cultural Practice among Latina Youth Gangs. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Meyerhoff, Miriam (1999) Sorry in the Pacific: Defining communities, defining practices. Language in Society 28: 225–238.
Miller, Stuart Creighton (1969) The Unwelcome Immigrant: The American Image of the Chinese, 1785–1882. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Milroy, James (1999) The consequences of standardization in descriptive linguistics. In Bex, Tony and Watts, Richard J. (Eds.) Standard English: The Widening Debate. London and New York: Routledge. 16–39.
Milroy, Lesley and Li, Wei (1995) A social network approach to code-switching: The example of a bilingual community in Britain. In Milroy, Lesley and Muysken, Peter (Eds.) One Speaker, Two Languages: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Code-Switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 136–157.
Miodunka, Władysław (1990) Wstęp. In Miodunka, Władysław (Ed.) Język polski w świecie. Warsaw-Kraków: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (PWN). 9–20.
Mizutani, Satoshi (2013) Hybridity and history: A critical reflection on Homi K. Bhabha’s post-historical thoughts. Ab Imperio 4: 27–47.
Montes-Alcalá, Cecilia (2009) Hispanics in the United States: More than Spanglish. Camino Real 1(1): 97–105.
Mora, G.Cristina (2014) Making Hispanics: How Activists, Bureaucrats, and Media Constructed a New American. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Morales, Ed (2002) Living in Spanglish: The Search for Latino Identity in America. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Morgan, Marcyliena (1998) More than a mood or an attitude: Discourse and verbal genres in African-American culture. In Mufwene, Salikoko, Rickford, John R., Bailey, Guy, and Baugh, John (Eds.) African-American English: Structure, History and Use. London and New York: Routledge. 251–281.
Morgan, Marcyliena (2002) Language, Discourse and Power in African American Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mori, Kyoto (1997) Polite Lies: On Being a Woman Caught Between Two Cultures. New York: Ballantine Publishing Group.
Mufwene, Salikoko (2000) Creolization is a social, not a structural, process. In Neumann-Holzschuh, Ingrid and Schneider, Edgar (Eds.) Degrees of Restructuring in Creole Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 65–84.
Mufwene, Salikoko (2001) The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mufwene, Salikoko (2008) Language Evolution: Contact, Competition and Change. London and New York: Continuum.
Myers‐Scotton, Carol (1992) Comparing codeswitching and borrowing. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development 13(1–2), 19–39.
Myers-Scotton, Carol (1993) Duelling Languages: Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Myhill, William N. (2004) The state of public education and the needs of English language learners in the era of “No Child Left Behind.” Journal of Gender, Race and Justice 8(2): 393–419.
Nash, Rose (1970) Spanglish: Language contact in Puerto Rico. American Speech 45: 223–233.
Nelson, Cynthia D. (2006) Queer inquiry in language education. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education 5(1): 1–9.
Nelson, Cynthia D. (2010) A gay immigrant student’s perspective: Unspeakable acts in the language class. TESOL Quarterly 44(3): 441–464.
Newlin-Łukowicz, Luiza (2012) TH-stopping in New York City: Substrate effect turned ethnic marker? Poster presented at the New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAV) 41 conference, Bloomington, Indiana, October 25–28.
Newlin-Łukowicz, Luiza (2014) From interference to transfer in language contact: Variation in voice onset time. Language Variation and Change 26: 359–385.
Newman, Michael (2010) Focusing, implicational scaling, and the dialect status of New York Latino English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 14: 207–239.
Newton, Lina (2008) Illegal, Alien, or Immigrant: The Politics of Immigration Reform. New York and London: New York University Press.
Nicholas, Sheilah E. (2009) “I live Hopi, I just don’t speak it” – The critical intersection of language, culture, and identity in the lives of contemporary Hopi youth. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education 8: 321–334.
Niehaus, Kate and Kumpiene, Gerda (2014) Language brokering and self-concept: An exploratory study of Latino students’ experiences in middle and high school. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 36(2): 124–143.
Niklewicz, Franciszek (1938) Historia pierwszej polskiej parafii w Ameryce. Green Bay.
Oh, Janet S. and Fuligni, Andrew J. (2010) The role of heritage language development in the ethnic identity and family relationships of adolescents from immigrant backgrounds. Social Development 19(1): 202–220.
Olesch, Reinhold (1970) The West Slavic languages in Texas with special regard to Sorbian in Serbin, Lee County. In Gilbert, Glenn G. (Ed.) Texas Studies in Bilingualism. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co. 151–162.
Opotow, Susan (1990) Moral exclusion and injustice: An overview. Journal of Social Issues 46(1): 1–20.
Opotow, Susan (1995) Drawing the line: Social categorization, moral exclusion, and the scope of justice. In Bunker, B.B. and Rubin, J.Z. (Eds.) Conflict, Cooperation, and Justice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 347–369.
Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich (2009) Translating Childhoods: Immigrant Youth, Language and Culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Ornstein-Galicia, Jacob (1984) Form and function in Chicano English. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
Ortiz, Fernando (1947) On the social phenomenon of “transculturation” and its importance in Cuba. In Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar. Translated by Harriet de Onfs. New York: Knopf. 97–102.
Orzell, Laurence (1979) A minority with a minority: The Polish National Catholic Church, 1896–1907. Polish American Studies 36(1): 5–32.
Osofsky, Gilbert (1975) Abolitionists, Irish immigrants, and the dilemmas of romantic nationalism. American Historical Review 80(4): 889–912.
Otheguy, Ricardo and Zentella, Ana Celia (2012) Spanish in New York: Language Contact, Dialectal Leveling, and Structural Continuity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Otheguy, Ricardo, Zentella, Ana Celia, and Livert, David (2007) Language and dialect contact in Spanish in New York: Toward the formation of a speech community. Language 83: 770–802.
Otsuji, E. and Pennycook, Alastair (2010) Metrolingualism: Fixity, fluidity and language in flux. International Journal of Multilingualism 7: 240–253.
Page, Jake (2004) In the Hands of the Great Spirit: The 20,000-year History of American Indians. New York, London, Toronto, Sydney: Free Press.
Palmer, Deborah K. (2009) Code-switching and symbolic power in a second-grade two-way classroom: A teacher’s motivation system gone awry. Bilingual Research Journal 32: 42–59.
Palmer, Deborah K., Martínez, Ramón Antonio, Mateus, Suzanne G., and Henderson, Kathryn (2014) Reframing the debate on language separation: Toward a vision for translanguaging pedagogies in the dual language classroom. The Modern Language Journal 98(3): 757–772.
Pan, Barbara Alexander (1995) Code negotiation in bilingual families: “My body starts speaking English.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 16(4): 315–327.
Panayiotou, Alexia (2004) Switching codes, switching code: Bilinguals’ emotional responses in English and Greek. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 25(2 & 3): 124–139.
Panek, P. (1898) Emigracyja Polska w Stanach Zjednoczonych Ameryki Północnej. Lwów: Nakładem redakcji Przeglądu Wielkopolskiego.
Pantos, Andrew J. and Perkins, Andrew W. (2012) Measuring implicit and explicit attitudes toward foreign accented speech. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 32(1): 3–20.
Panunzio, Constantine (1928) The Soul of an Immigrant. New York: Arno Press.
Pavlenko, Aneta (2001) “How am I to become a woman in an American vein?” Transformations of gender performance in second language learning. In Pavlenko, Aneta, Blackledge, Adrian, Piller, Ingrid, and Teutsch-Dwyer, Marya (Eds.) Multilingualism, Second Language Learning, and Gender. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter. 133–174.
Pavlenko, Aneta (2002) “We have room for but one language here”: Language and national identity in the US at the turn of the 20th century. Multilingua 21: 163–196.
Pavlenko, Aneta (2005) Emotions and Multilingualism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pavlenko, Aneta and Lantolf, James P. (2000) Second language learning as participation and the (re)construction of selves. In Lantolf, James P. (Ed.) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 155–177.
Pearce, Roy Harvey (1965) The Savages of America: A Study of the Indian and the Idea of Civilization. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.
Peñalosa, Fernando (1980) Chicano Sociolinguistics: A Brief Introduction. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Pennycook, Alastair (1998) English and the Discourses of Colonialism. New York: Routledge.
Pennycook, Alastair (2010) Language as a Local Practice. London and New York: Routledge.
Peterson, Anna (2011) Making women’s suffrage support an ethnic duty: Norwegian American identity constructions and the women’s suffrage movement, 1880–1925. Journal of American Ethnic History 30(4): 5–23.
Phillips, R. (1967) Los Angeles Spanish: A description analysis. Unpublished PhD dissertation: University of Wisconsin.
Phillipson, Robert (1992) Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Platt, Warren C. (1977) The Polish National Catholic Church: An inquiry into its origins. Church History 46(4) 474–489.
Polkinghorne, Donald E. (1988) Narrative Knowing and the Human Sciences. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Pomerantz, Anita (1984) Agreeing and disagreeing with assessments: some features of preferred/dispreferred turn shapes. In Atkinson, M., Heritage, J. (Eds.), Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 57–101.
Poplack, Shana (1978) Dialect acquisition among Spanish-English bilinguals. Language in Society 7: 89–103.
Poplack, Shana (1980) “Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termini en español”: Toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18(7): 581–618.
Poplack, Shana and Sankoff, David (1987) The Philadelphia story in the Spanish Caribbean. American Speech 62: 291–314.
Poplack, Shana and Tagliamonte, Sali (1989) There’s no tense like the present: Verbal -s inflection in Early Black English. Language Variation and Change 1: 47–84.
Poplack, Shana, Sankoff, David, and Miller, Christopher (1988) The social correlates and linguistic processes of lexical borrowing and assimilation. Linguistics 26(1): 47–104.
Poplack, Shana, Wheeler, Susan, and Westwood, Anneli (1990) Distinguishing language contact phenomena: Evidence from Finnish-English bilingualism. In Jacobson, Rodolfo (Ed.) Codeswitching as a Worldwide Phenomenon. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. 185–218.
Porges, A. (1949) The influence of English on the Spanish of New York. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Florida.
Portes, Alejandro and Hao, Lingxin (2002) The price of uniformity: language, family and personality adjustment in the immigrant second generation. Ethnic and Racial Studies 25(6): 889–912.
Portes, Alejandro and Rumbaut, Rubén G. (2001) Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. Berkeley and New York: University of California Press and Russell Sage Foundation.
Portes, Alejandro and Rumbaut, Rubén G. (2006) Immigrant America: A Portrait. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Potowski, Kim (2011) Linguistic and cultural authenticity of “Spanglish” greeting cards. International Journal of Multilingualism 8(4): 324–344.
Potowski, Kim (Ed.) (2010) Language Diversity in the USA. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Preston, Dennis R. (2011) The power of language regard – discrimination, classification, comprehension, and production. Dialectologia 2: 9–33.
Prifti, Elton (2014) Italoamericano: Italiano e Inglese in Contatto negli USA. Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter.
Pulte, William Jr. (1970) An Analysis of Selected German Dialects of Northern Texas and Oklahoma. In Gilbert, Glenn G. (Ed.) Texas Studies in Bilingualism. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co. 105–141.
Purchas, Richard Haklyut (1614) Haklyutus Posthumus, or Purchas His Pilgrimes. William Stansby: London. Available at https://archive.org/details/purchashispilgri00purc. Quoted in Pearce, Roy Harvey (1965) The Savages of America: A Study of the Indian and the Idea of Civilization. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, p. 8.
Rampton, Ben (1995) Crossing: Language and Ethnicity Among Adolescents. London and New York: Longman.
Rampton, Ben (2013) Drilling down to the grain in superdiversity. Working Papers in Urban Language and Literacies, paper 98. www.kcl.ac.uk/ldc.
Rampton, Ben, Blommaert, Jan, Arnaut, Karel, and Spotti, Massimiliano (2015) Superdiversity and sociolinguistics. Working Papers in Urban Language and Literacies, paper 152. 1–13.
Ravitch, Diane (2010) The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice are Undermining Education. New York: Basic Books.
Rell, Amy (2004) An exploration of Mexican-American Spanglish as a source of identity. Mester 33(1): 143–157.
Reyes, Angela (2005) Appropriation of African American slang by Asian American youth. Journal of Sociolinguistics 9(4): 509–532.
Reyes, Angela (2009) Asian American stereotypes as circulating resource. In Reyes, Angela and Lo, Adrienne (Eds.) Beyond Yellow English: Towards a Linguistic Anthropology of Asian Pacific America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 43–62.
Reyes, Angela and Lo, Adrienne (Eds.) (2009) Beyond Yellow English: Towards a Linguistic Anthropology of Asian Pacific America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reyes, Sharon Adelman and Vallone, Trina Lynn (2007) Toward an expanded understanding of two-way bilingual immersion education: Constructing identity through a critical, additive bilingual/bicultural pedagogy. Multicultural Perspectives 9(3): 3–11.
Reyhner, Jon and Eder, Jeanne (2004) American Indian Education: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Reynolds, Jennifer F. and Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich (2015) Translanguaging within enactment of Quotidian interpreter-mediated interactions. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 24(3): 315–338.
Rickford, John and Rickford, Russell (2000) Spoken Soul: The Story of Black English. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Rickford, John R. (1998) The creole origins of African-American Vernacular English: Evidence from copula absence. In Mufwene, Salikoko, Rickford, John R., Bailey, Guy, and Baugh, John (Eds.) African-American English: Structure, History and Use. London and New York: Routledge. 154–200.
Riley, Philip (2007) Language, Culture and Identity: An Ethnolinguistic Perspective. London and New York: Continuum.
Roca, A. and Lipski, John M. (Eds.) (1993) Spanish in the United States: Linguistic Contact and Diversity. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Rodriguez, Richard (1982) Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez. Boston: D.R. Godine.
Roizblatt, Arturo and Pilowsky, Daniel (1996) Forced migration and resettlement: Its impact on families and individuals. Contemporary Family Therapy 18(4): 513–521.
Romaine, Suzanne (1995) Bilingualism (2nd Edition). Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell.
Roosevelt, Theodore (1919) Newer Roosevelt Messages: Speeches, Letters and Magazine Articles Dealing with the War, Before and After, and Other Vital Topics, Volume 3. Edited by Griffith, William. New York: The Current Literature Publishing Company.
Rouse, Roger (1988) Migración al suroeste de Michoacán durante el Porfiriato: El caso de Aguililla. In Calvo, Thomas and López, Gustavo (Eds.) Movimientos de población en el occidente de México. Zamora and Mexico City: El Colegio de Michoacán and Centre d’Etudes Mexicaines et Centraméricaines. 231–250.
Rubin, Donald L. (1992) Nonlanguage factors affecting undergraduates’ judgments of nonnative English-speaking teaching assistants. Research in Higher Education 33(4): 511–531.
Rubin, Donald L. and Smith, K. A. (1990) Effects of accent, ethnicity, and lecture topic of undergraduates’ perceptions of non-native English speaking teaching assistants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 14: 337–353.
Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane (2002) Problematizing the “Dual” in a Dual-Immersion Program: A Portrait. Linguistics and Education 13(1): 65–87.
Rubinstein-Ávila, Eliane (2007) From the Dominican Republic to Drew High: What counts as literacy for Yanira Lara? Reading Research Quarterly 42(4): 568–589.
Sacks, Karen Brodkin (1994) How Did Jews Become White Folks? In Gregory, Steven and Sanjek, Roger (Eds.) Race. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 78–102.
Safire, William (1978) Safire’s Political Dictionary. New York: Random House.
Salmons, Joseph C. and Lucht, Felecia A. (2006) Standard German in Texas. In Gilbert, Glenn G., Fuller, Janet M., and Thornburg, Linda L. (Eds.) Studies in Contact Linguistics: Essays in Honor of Glenn G. Gilbert. New York: Peter Lang. 148–186.
Sanjek, Roger (1994) The enduring inequalities of race. In Gregory, Steven and Sanjek, Roger (Eds.) Race. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 1–17.
Sankoff, David and Poplack, Shana (1981) A formal grammar for code-switching. Papers in Linguistics 14: 3–46.
Sankoff, David, Poplack, Shana, and Vanniarajan, Swathi (1990) The case of the nonce loan in Tamil. Language Variation and Change 2(1): 71–101.
Sankoff, Gilian (1979) The genesis of a language. In Hill, Kenneth C. (Ed.) The Genesis of Language. Ann Arbor: Karoma. 23–47.
Santa Ana, Otto (1993) Chicano English and the nature of the Chicano language setting. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 15(1): 3–35.
Sayer, Peter (2008) Demystifying language mixing: Spanglish in school. Journal of Latinos and Education 7(2): 94–112.
Schecter, Sandra R. and Bayley, Robert (1997) Language socialization practices and cultural identity: Case studies of Mexican-descent families in California and Texas. TESOL Quarterly 31(3): 513–541.
Schieffelin, Bambi B. (2003) Language and place in children’s worlds. Texas Linguistics Forum (SALSA) 45: 152–166.
Schlegloff, Emanuel (1982) Discourse as an interactional achievement: Some uses of “uh huh” and other things that come between sentences. In Tannen, Deborah (Ed.) Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. 71–93.
Schmid, Carol L. (2001) The Politics of Language: Conflict, Identity, and Cultural Pluralism in Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schmidt, Ronald Sr. (2000) Language Policy and Identity Politics in the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Schmidt, Ronald Sr. (2002) Radicalization and language policy: The case of the United States. Multilingual 21: 141–161.
Seals, Corinne A. (2013) Te Espero: Varying child bilingual abilities and the effects on dynamics in Mexican immigrant families. Issues in Applied Linguistics 19: 119–142.
Searle, John (1995) The Construction of Social Reality. London: Penguin.
Sears, David O. and Henry, P.J. (2003) The origins of symbolic racism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85(2): 259–275.
Seif, Hinda (2014) “Layers of humanity”: Interview with undocuqueer artivist Julio Salgado. Latino Studies 12: 300–309.
Sessions, Gene (1987) “Years of struggle”: The Irish in the village of Northfield, 1845–1900. Vermont History 1987: 69–95.
Shannon, Sheila M. (1990) English in the barrio: The quality of contact among immigrant children. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 12(3): 256–276.
Shreve, Bradley G. (2011) Red Power Rising: The National Indian Youth Council and the Origins of Native Activism. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Shuck, Gail (2006) Racializing the Nonnative English Speaker. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education 5(4): 259–276.
Silverstein, Michael (1979) Language structure and linguistic ideology. In Cline, R., Hanks, William, and Hofbauer, C. (Eds.) The Elements: A Parasession of Linguistic Units and Levels. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 193–247.
Silverstein, Michael (2013) How language communities intersect: Is “superdiversity” an incremental or transformative condition? Paper presented at the conference Language and Super-diversity: Explorations and Interrogations. Jyväskylä: June 5–7, 2013.
Simić, Andrei (2007) Understanding hyphenated ethnicity: The Serbian-American case. Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies 21(1): 37–54.
Simon, Rita J. (1985) Public Opinion and the Immigrant: Print Media Coverage, 1880–1980. Lexington, MA, and Toronto: Lexington Books.
Sirin, Selcuk R. and Fine, Michelle (2008) Muslim American Youth: Understanding Hyphenated Identities through Multiple Methods. New York and London: New York University Press.
Skilton-Sylvester, E (2003) Legal discourse and decisions, teacher policymaking and the multilingual classroom: Constraining and supporting Khmer/English biliteracy in the United States. In Creese, A. and Martin, P. (Eds.) Multilingual Classroom Ecologies: Inter-Relationships, Interactions, and Ideologies. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. 8–24.
Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove (1981) Guest worker or immigrant? Different ways of reproducing the underclass. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 2(2): 89–115.
Smedley, Audrey and Smedley, Brian (2011) Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Smith, Patrick (2002) “Ni a Pocha Va a Llegar”: Minority Language Loss and Dual Language Schooling in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. Southwest Journal of Linguistics 21(1): 165–183.
Smitherman, Geneva (1986) Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
Smitherman, Geneva (1998) Word from the hood: the lexicon of African-American vernacular English. In Mufwene, Salikoko, Rickford, John R., Bailey, Guy, and Baugh, John (Eds.) African-American English: Structure, History and Use. London and New York: Routledge. 203–225.
Smitherman, Geneva (2000) Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Solomos, John and Back, Les (1995) Race, Politics and Social Change. London and New York: Routledge.
Song, John Huey-Long, Dombrink, John, and Geis, Gil (1992) Lost in the melting pot: Asian youth gangs in the United States. Gang Journal 1: 1–12.
Spears, Arthur K. (1998) African-American language use: Ideology and so-called obscenity. In Mufwene, Salikoko, Rickford, John R., Bailey, Guy, and Baugh, John (Eds.) African-American English: Structure, History and Use. London and New York: Routledge. 226–250.
Stasiewicz-Bieńkowska, Agnieszka (2011) Kształtowanie tożsamości etnicznej dzieci imigrantów szwedzkich w USA według Augustana Book Concern (1889–1962). Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
Stavans, Ilan (2003) Spanglish: The Making of a New American Language. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Stave, Bruce M. (2010) Coming to Connecticut: Immigrants in the land of unsteady habits. Connecticut History 2010: 201–210.
Stepick, A., Stepick, C., Eugene, E., Teed, D., and Labissiere, Y. (2001) Shifting identities and intergenerational conflict: Growing up Haitian in Miami. In Rumbaut, R. and Portes, A. (Eds.) Ethnicities: Children of immigrants in America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 229–266.
Suárez-Orozco, Carola and Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M. (2001) Children of Immigration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Sue, Derald Wing (2010) Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Sue, Derald Wing, Capodilupo, Christina M., Torino, Gina C., Bucceri, Jennifer M., Holder, Aisha M.B., Nadal, Kevin L., and Esquilin, Marta (2007) Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist 62(4): 271–286.
Takagi, Dana Y. (1994) Post-Civil Rights Politics and Asian-American Identity: Admissions and Higher Education. In Gregory, Steven and Sanjek, Roger (Eds.) Race. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 229–242.
Tannen, Deborah (1989) Talking Voices: Repetition, Dialogue, and Imagery in Conversational Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tannenbaum, Michal (2012) Family language policy as a form of coping or defence mechanism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 33(1): 57–66.
Terrio, Susan J. (2015) Dispelling the Myths: Unaccompanied, Undocumented Child Migrants in U.S. Immigration Custody. Presentation at the Unaccompanied Child Migration Symposium, The Keenan Institute for Ethics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. February 23.
Teuton, Sean Kicummah (2008) Red Land, Red Power: Grounding Knowledge in the American Indian Novel. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Teuton, Sean Kicummah (2013) Cities of Refuge: Indigenous Cosmopolitan Writers and the International Imaginary. American Literary History 25(1): 33–53.
Teutsch-Dwyer, Marya (2001) (Re)constructing masculinity in a new linguistic reality. In Pavlenko, Aneta (Ed.) Multilingualism, Second Language Learning, and Gender. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Thao, Nguyen Thi Thu (2007) Difficulties for Vietnamese when pronouncing English final consonants. Unpublished manuscript, Dalarna University College, Sweden.
Thorne, S. and Lantolf, James (2007) A linguistics of communicative activity. In Makoni, Sinfree and Pennycook, Alastair (Eds.) Disinventing and Reconstituting Languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 170–195.
Tollefson, James (1991) Planning Language, Planning Inequality: Language Policy in the Community. London and New York: Longman.
Tracy, James (1988) The Rise and Fall of the Know-Nothings in Quincy. Historical Journal of Massachusetts 16(1): 1–19.
Trickett, Edison J. and Jones, Curtis J. (2007) Adolescent culture brokering and family functioning: A study of families from Vietnam. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 13(2): 143–150.
Trudgill, Peter (1986) Dialects in Contact. Oxford and New York: Blackwell.
Tse, Lucy (1995) Language brokering among Latino adolescents: Prevalence, attitudes, and school performance. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 17(2): 180–193.
Tse, Lucy (1996a) Who decides?: The effects of language brokering on home-school communication. The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students 16: 225–234.
Tse, Lucy (1996b) Language brokering in linguistic minority communities: The case of Chinese- and Vietnamese-American students. Bilingual Research Journal 20 (3/4): 485–498.
Tseng, Vivian and Fuligni, Andrew J. (2000) Parent-adolescent language use and relationships among immigrant families with East Asian, Filipino, and Latin American backgrounds. Journal of Marriage and the Family 62: 465–476.
Tuan, Luu Trong (2011) Vietnamese EFL learners’ difficulties with English consonants. Studies in Language and Literature 3(2): 56–67.
Tuan, Mia (1999) Forever Foreigners or Honorary Whites? The Asian Ethnic Experience Today. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Turner, Jonathan H. (2002) Face to Face: Toward a Sociological Theory of Interpersonal Behavior. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Urciuoli, Bonnie (1995) Language and borders. Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 525–546.
Urciuoli, Bonnie (1996) Exposing Prejudice: Puerto Rican Experiences of Language, Race, and Class. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Uriarte, Miren, Tung, Rosann, Lavan, Nicole, and Diez, Virginia (2010). Impact of restrictive language policies on engagement and academic achievement of English learners in Boston Public Schools. In Gándara, Patricia and Hopkins, Megan (Eds.) Forbidden Language: English Learners and Restrictive Language Policies. New York and London: Teachers College, Columbia University. 65–85.
Valdés, Guadalupe (2001) Learning and Not Learning English: Latino Students in American Schools. New York and London: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.
Valdés, Guadalupe (2003) Expanding Definitions of Giftedness: The Case of Young Interpreters From Immigrant Communities. Mahwah, NJ, and London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Valenzuela, Angela (1999) Subtractive Schooling: U.S.-Mexican Youth and the Politics of Caring. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Vasconcelos, José (1979 ) The Cosmic Race/La raza cósmica. Edited by Jaén, Didien T.. Los Angeles: Pace.
Vertovec, Steven (2007) Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies 30(6): 1024–1054.
Vigil, James D. (2012) From Indians to Chicanos: The Dynamics of Mexican-American Culture. Long Grove, IL: Waveband Press.
Vile, John R. (2013) The Men Who Made the Constitution: Lives of the Delegates to the Constitutional Convention. Lanham: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
Viteri, María Amelia (2014) Citizenship(s), belonging and xenophobia: Ecuador and NYC. Journal of Language and Sexuality 3(1): 121–135.
Voake, Steve (2011) Daisy Dawson at the Beach. Somerville, MA: Candlewick Publishers.
Vološinov, V.N. (1973) Marxism and the Philosophy of Language. New York: Seminar Press.
Vought, Hans (1994) Division and reunion: Woodrow Wilson, immigration, and the myth of American unity. Journal of American Ethnic History 13(3): 24–50.
Vought, Hans P. (2004) The Bully Pulpit and the Melting Pot: American Presidents and the Immigrant 1897–1933. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.
Wade, Peter (2005) Rethinking Mestizaje: Ideology and lived experience. Journal of Latin American Studies 37(2): 239–257.
Warriner, Doris S. (2007) Language learning and the politics of belonging: Sudanese women refugees becoming and being “American.” Anthropology and Education Quarterly 38(4): 343–359.
Weber, David (2003) Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Weinreich, Uriel (1953) Languages in Contact: Findings and Problems. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.
Weisgerber, Leo (1966) Vorurteile und Gefahren der Zweisprachigkeit. Wirkendes Wort 16: 73–89.
Weisskirch, Robert S. (2006) Emotional aspects of language brokering among Mexican American adults. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 27(4): 332–343.
Weldeyesus, Weldu Michael (2007) Narrative and identity construction among Ethiopian immigrants. Colorado Research in Linguistics 20: 1–10.
Wierzbicka, Anna (1998) Angst. Culture and Psychology 4(2): 161–188.
Wierzbicka, Anna (1999) Emotional universals. Language Design: Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Linguistics. 2: 23–69.
Wierzbicka, Anna (2004) Preface: Bilingual lives, bilingual experience. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 25(2&3): 94–104.
Wierzbicka, Anna (2007) Two languages, two cultures, one (?) self: Between Polish and English. In Besemeres, Mary and Wierzbicka, Anna (Eds.) Translating Lives: Living with Two Languages and Cultures. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press. 96–113.
Wierzbicka, Anna (2008) A conceptual basis for research into emotions and bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 11(2): 193–195.
Wiese, Ann-Marie and Garcia, Eugene (2001) The Bilingual Education Act: Language minority students and US federal educational policy. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4(4): 229–248.
Wiesskirch, Robert S. and Alva, Sylvia Alatorre (2002) Language brokering and the acculturation of Latino children. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sicences 24(3): 369–378.
Wiley, Terrence G. (2004) Language policy and English-only. In Finegan, Edward and Rickford, John J. (Eds.) Language in the USA: Themes for the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 319–338.
Wiley, Terrence G. (2005) Literacy and Language Diversity in the United States. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Wiley, Terrence G. (2014) Diversity, super-diversity, and monolingual language ideology in the United States: Tolerance or intolerance? Review of Research in Education 38: 1–32.
Wilkerson, Isabel (2011) The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration. New York: Random House.
Willey, Day Allen (1909) Americans in the making: New England’s method of assimilating the alien. Putnam’s Monthly and the Reader 5: 456–463.
Williams, Ashley M. (2005) Fighting words and challenging expectations: Language alternation and social roles in a family dispute. Journal of Pragmatics 37: 317–328.
Williams, Ashely M. (2008) Brought-along identities and the dynamics of ideology: Accomplishing bivalent stances in a multilingual interaction. Multilingua 27: 37–56.
Willis, Paul (1977) Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. New York: Columbia University Press.
Witcomb, Andrea (2007) Growing up between two languages/worlds: Learning to live without belonging to a terra. In Besemeres, Mary and Wierzbicka, Anna (Eds.) Translating Lives: Living with Two Languages and Cultures. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press. 83–95.
Wolfram, Walt (1974) A Sociolinguistic Study of Assimilation: Puerto Rican English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Wolfram, Walt (2003) Reexamining the development of African American English: Evidence from isolated communities. Language 79: 282–316.
Wolfram, Walt and Dannenberg, Clare (1999) Dialect identity in a tri-ethnic context: The case of Lumbee American Indian English. English World-Wide 20(2): 179–216.
Wolfram, Walt and Schilling, Natalie (2016) American English (3rd edition). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Wolfram, Walt, Carter, Phillip, and Moriello, Beckie (2004) Emerging Hispanic English: New dialect formation in the American South. Journal of Sociolinguistics 8(3): 339–358.
Wolfram, Walt, Kohn, Mary E., and Callahan-Price, Erin (2011) Southern-bred Hispanic English: An emerging socioethnic variety. In Michnowicz, Jim and Dodsworth, Robin (Eds.) Selected Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. 1–13.
Wong, Jock (2007) East meets West, or does it really? In Besemeres, Mary and Wierzbicka, Anna (Eds.) Translating Lives: Living with Two Languages and Cultures. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press. 70–82.
Wood, Peter H. (2003) Strange New Land: Africans in Colonial America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wright, Russell O. (2008) Chronology of Immigration in the United States. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
Wright, Wayne E. and Li, Xiaoshi (2006) Catching up in math? The case of newly-arrived Cambodian students in a Texas intermediate school. TABE Journal 9(1): 1–22.
Wright, Wayne E. and Li, Xiaoshi (2008) High-stakes math tests: How No Child Left Behind leaves newcomer English language learners behind. Language Policty 7: 237–266.
Wu, Frank H. (2002) Where are you really from? Asian Americans and the perpetual foreigner syndrome. Civil Rights Journal Winter 2002: 14–22.
Wytrwal, Joseph Anthony (1982) Polish-black encounters: a history of Polish and black relations in America since 1619. Detroit, MI: Endurance Press.
Ye, Zhengdao (2007) Returning to my mother tongue: Veronica’s journey continues. In Besemeres, Mary and Wierzbicka, Anna (Eds.) Translating Lives: Living with Two Languages and Cultures. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press. 56–69.
Young, Linda Wai Ling (1982) Inscrutability revisited. In Gumperz, John J. (Ed.) Language and Social Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 72–84.
Zapf, Harald (2006) Ethnicity and performance: Bilingualism in Spanglish verse culture. American Studies 51(1): 13–27.
Zentella, Ana Celia (1997) Growing Up Bilingual: Puerto Rican Children in New York. Malden, MA: Blackwel.
Zentella, Ana Celia (1998) Multiple codes, multiple identities: Puerto Rican Children in New York City. In Hoyle, S.M. and Adger, C.T. (Eds.) Kids Talk: Strategic Language Use in Later Childhood. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 95–111.
Zentella, Ana Celia (2003) “José, can you see?”: Latin@ responses to racist discourse. In Sommer, Doris (Ed.) Bilingual Games: Some Literary Investigations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 51–66.
Zentella, Ana Celia (2004) Spanish in the Northeast. In Finegan, Edward and Rickford, John J. (Eds.) Language in the USA: Themes for the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 182–204.
Zentella, Ana Celia (2008) Preface. In Niño-Murcia, Mercedes and Rothman, Jason (Eds.) Spanish at the Crossroads with Other Languages. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 3–10.