Skip to main content Accessibility help
Legislative Hardball
  • Cited by 25
  • 22.00 (USD)
    Digital access
    (PDF download and/or read online)
    Add to cart
    Added to cart
    Digital access
    (PDF download and/or read online)
    View cart
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian

Book description

Assertive bargaining occurs from time to time in the US Congress. It became an important feature of legislative negotiations within the House Republican Party when, following the 2014 elections, a group of organized conservatives called the House Freedom Caucus regularly issued threats against its own party's leadership. Such behavior by an ideologically extreme bloc of lawmakers is not accounted for by existing theories of legislative politics. This Element posits explanations for why such threat-making might occur and what might increase its likelihood of success, then tests those explanations using the Freedom Caucus as a case study.


Abortion Debate Heats Up Again as Foes Target Planned Parenthood.” In CQ Almanac 2015, 71st ed. Washington D.C.: CQ-Roll Call.
Alberta, Tim (2016a). “Inside Trump’s Conquest of America’s Most Conservative Districts.” National Review, August 15.
Alberta, Tim (2016b). “Conservatism in the Era of Trump.” National Review, December 21.
Alberta, Tim (2017a). “Inside the GOP’s Health Care Debacle.” Politico, March 24.
Alberta, Tim (2017b). “John Boehner Unchained.” Politico Magazine, November/December.
Alberta, Tim (2018). “‘This Is a Place That Just Sucks Your Soul.’” Politico, June 15.
Bacon, Perry Jr. (2017). “Should the Freedom Caucus Be Afraid of Donald Trump?”, March 31., accessed April 23, 2018.
Bade, Rachael (2016a). “Freedom Caucus Strong-Armed Ryan on IRS Impeachment.” Politico, May 18.
Bade, Rachael (2016b). “House GOP Delays Gun Vote after Own Members Object.” Politico, July 5.
Bade, Rachael (2016c). “The Other Speaker of the House.” Politico, September 28.
Bade, Rachael (2016d). “Freedom Caucus Weighs Request to Delay Leadership Election.” Politico, September 28.
Bade, Rachael (2016e). “Freedom Caucus Divided over Ryan Ouster.” Politico, October 27.
Bade, Rachael (2017a). “Freedom Caucus Looks to Delay Budget – and Obamacare Repeal.” Politico, January 9.
Bade, Rachael (2017b). “Conservatives Escalate Threats to Tank Obamacare Repeal.” Politico, March 12.
Bade, Rachael and Bresnahan, John (2016). “Freedom Caucus Will Oppose Ryan’s ‘Anti-Terror’ Legislation.” Politico, July 6.
Bade, Rachael and Caygle, Heather (2016). “Freedom Caucus Stiffs GOP on Campaign Cash.” Politico, September 20.
Bade, Rachel, Dawsey, Josh, and Haberkorn, Jennifer (2017). “How a Secret Freedom Caucus Pact Brought Down Obamacare Repeal.” Politico, March 26.
Bade, Rachael, Demko, Paul, and Haberkorn, Jennifer (2017). “GOP Unveils Obamacare Replacement amid Sharp Party Divide.” Politico, March 6.
Bade, Rachael and Ferris, Sarah (2017). “Centrist Republicans Mobilize against Draft GOP Budget.” Politico, June 29.
Bade, Rachael and Weyl, Ben (2016). “House GOP Clashes over Plan to Avoid Government Shutdown.” Politico, September 9.
Baer, Emily Caitlin (2017). “Organizing for Reform: The Democratic Study Group and the Role of Party Factions in Driving Institutional Change in the House of Representatives.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Ballard, Mark (2016). “Conservative Group Backs John Fleming in Senate Race.” The Acadiana Advocate, October 21., accessed February 19, 2018.
Baron, David P. and Ferejohn, John A. (1989). “Bargaining in Legislatures.” American Political Science Review 83(4), 11811206.
Berman, Russell (2014). “Hensarling Calls for an End to the Export-Import Bank.” The Hill, May 21.
Berry, Deborah Barfield (2015). “Rep. Fleming Officially Enters Louisiana Senate Race.” The Daily Advertiser, December 7., accessed February 19, 2018.
Bialik, Carl and Bycoffe, Aaron (2015). “The Hard-Line Republicans Who Pushed John Boehner Out.”, September 25., accessed March 13, 2018.
Binder, Sarah A. (2015). “This Is Why Some Republicans Keep Threatening to Take the Government Hostage.” The Monkey Cage, Washington Post, September 16., accessed November 9, 2017.
Binder, Sarah A. and Lee, Frances E. (2016). “Making Deals in Congress.” Mansbridge, From Jane and Martin, Cathie Jo, eds., Political Negotiation: A Handbook. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
Black, Duncan. (1958). The Theory of Committees and Elections. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boatright, Robert G. (2014). “The 2014 Congressional Primaries in Context.” Presented at What the 2014 Primaries Foretell About the Future of American Politics, Washington, D.C.–30-14.pdf, accessed March 13, 2018.
Boland, Barbara (2015). “Meadows: Congress Must Stop Lurching from ‘Crisis to Crisis.’” The Washington Examiner, October 7.
Bolton, Alexander (2015). “Boehner Seeks Final Budget Deal.” The Hill, September 30.
Bolton, Alexander and Ferris, Sarah (2015). “White House, GOP Strike Budget Deal.” The Hill, October 27.
Bowman, Bridget (2015). “House Committee Approves Resolution Blocking D.C. Law.” Roll Call, April 21.
Buck, Ken (2017). “Freedom Caucus Member Reveals GOP’s ‘Vindictive Retaliation’.” New York Post, April 8., accessed October 28, 2017.
Cahlink, George (2017). “Usually Fractious Freedom Caucus Works Quietly on Energy.” E&E News, May 17., accessed March 13, 2018.
Cahn, Emily (2015). “Blum Says Others Will Support Him If Republicans Don’t.” Roll Call, June 12.
Carson, Jamie L., Crespin, Michael H., and Madonna, Anthony J. (2014). “Procedural Signaling, Party Loyalty, and Traceability in the U.S. House of Representatives.” Political Research Quarterly 67(4), 729742.
Cheney, Kyle and Bade, Rachael (2017). “Freedom Caucus Endorses Obamacare Repeal Compromise.” Politico, April 26.
Cirilli, Kevin (2015). “Republican Study Committee Comes out Against Ex-Im.” The Hill, May 21.
Clarke, Andrew J. (n.d.). “The House Freedom Caucus: Extreme Faction Influence in the U.S. Congress.” Working Paper., accessed November 6, 2017.
Clarke, Andrew J. (2017). “Trump Is Tweeting Threats at the Freedom Caucus. Good Luck with That.” Washington Post Monkey Cage, April 5., accessed May 1, 2018.
Clarke, Andrew J., Jenkins, Jeffery A., and Monroe, Nathan W. (2016). “From Rolls to Disappointments: Examining the Other Sources of Majority Party Failure in Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 70(1), 8297.
Cogan, Marin (2015). “The Trade Vote Reignited the War Within the House GOP.” New York Magazine Daily Intelligencer, June 26., accessed April 23, 2018.
Collins, Eliza (2017). “Two Marks, Meadows and Walker, Leave Mark on Obamacare Repeal Bill.” USA Today, March 22.
Collins, ElizaCongress Grants President Fast-Track Authority for Trade Deals.” In CQ Almanac 2015, 71st ed. Washington D.C.: CQ-Roll Call.
Corombos, Greg (2015). “‘Freedom Caucus’ Vows to Keep GOP Promises.’”, January 28., accessed April 23, 2018.
Cottle, Michelle (2016a). “The House Freedom Caucus Is Trying to Be Reasonable.” The Atlantic, May 12.
Cottle, Michelle (2016b). “The Conservative Crusade Against the IRS Commissioner.” The Atlantic, October 7.
Cox, Gary W. and McCubbins, Mathew D. (1993). Legislative Leviathan. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cox, Gary W. and McCubbins, Mathew D. (1994). “Bonding, Structure, and the Stability of Political Parties: Party Government in the House.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 19(2), 215231.
Cox, Gary W. and McCubbins, Mathew D. (2005). Setting the Agenda: Responsible Party Government in the U.S. House of Representatives. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Curry, James M. and Lee, Frances E. (2017). “Non-Party Government: Bipartisan Lawmaking and Theories of Party Power in Congress.” Paper presented at the 2017 Congress and History Conference, Washington, D.C.
Davis, Aaron C. (2015). “House Votes to Strike Down D.C. Law Banning Reproductive Discrimination.” Washington Post, April 30.
DeBonis, Mike (2015a). “How Conservatives Are Keeping the Gay Marriage Issue Alive on Capitol Hill.” Washington Post, July 17.
DeBonis, Mike (2015b). “House Conservatives Spurn McCarthy, Flex Muscle Ahead of Speaker Vote.” Washington Post, October 7.
DeBonis, Mike (2015c). “Rep. Jim Jordan Will Remain House Freedom Caucus Chairman.” Washington Post, November 16.
DeBonis, Mike (2017a). “What the Freedom Caucus Wants in the GOP Health-Care Bill, and Why It’s Not Getting It,” Washington Post, March 22.
DeBonis, Mike (2017b). “Health-Care Fallout Prompts Tom MacArthur to Resign as Co-chair of Centrist House GOP Caucus.” Washington Post, May 23.
DeBonis, Mike (2017c). “House Hard-liners to Back Senate’s Deficit-Raising Budget.” Washington Post, October 25.
DeBonis, Mike and Kane, Paul (2015). “Boehner in Pinch on DHS Funding.” Washington Post, March 2.
DeBonis, Mike and Zezima, Katie (2015). “GOP’s Populist Revolt Arrives at Capitol, Complicating Iran Debate.” Washington Post, September 9.
Den Hartog, Chris and Nokken, Timothy P. (2017). “Is the Tea Party Different?” Presented at the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Dennis, Steven T. (2015). “Obama Won’t Sign TPA Without TAA ‘Path’.” Roll Call, June 17.
DeSilver, Drew (2015a). “What Is the House Freedom Caucus, and Who’s in It?” Pew Research Center, October 20., accessed September 17, 2017.
DeSilver, Drew (2015b). “Freedom Caucus Districts Look Much Like Other GOP-Held Districts.” Pew Research Center, October 22., accessed October 22, 2015.
Disler, Matthew (2015). “House Young Guns Buck Boehner on Trade.” Real Clear Politics, June 20., accessed March 22, 2018.
Dixit, Avinash K. and Nalebuff, Barry J. (1991). Thinking Strategically: The Competitive Edge in Business, Politics, and Everyday Life. New York: W. W. Norton.
Douglas, William (2017). “Conservatives’ ‘power of no’ stifles Republican agenda.” Charlotte Observer, August 2.
Draper, Robert (2012). Do Not Ask What Good We Do: Inside the U.S. House of Representatives. New York: Free Press.
Dumain, Emma (2015a). “House GOP Fails to Advance 3-Week DHS Funding Bill.” Roll Call, February 27.
Dumain, Emma (2015b). “Second Republican Resigns From House Freedom Caucus.” Roll Call, October 8.
Dumain, Emma (2015c). “House Republicans OK Changes to Steering Panel.” Roll Call, November 19.
Dumain, Emma (2016). “Among House Republicans, Jockeying to Lose on Iran.” CQ Weekly, September 8.
Dumain, Emma (2017). “In Role Reversal, Mick Mulvaney Trying to Get Conservatives to Back GOP Establishment Health Bill.” The Post and Courier, March 8.
Dumain, Emma and Fuller, Matt (2015a). “Trade Rule Passes Despite Conservative Mutiny.” Roll Call, June 11.
Dumain, Emma and Fuller, Matt (2015b). “Conservatives Fume Over Leadership’s Crackdown on Rebels.” Roll Call, June 22.
Dumain, Emma and Fuller, Matt (2015c). “GOP Rewrite of ‘No Child’ Passes on Second Try.” Roll Call, July 8.
Eigen, Lewis D. and Siegel, Jonathan P. (1993). The Macmillan Dictionary of Political Quotations. New York: Macmillan Publishing.
Elis, Niv (2017a). “Freedom Caucus Opposes Clean Debt Ceiling Increase.” The Hill, May 24.
Elis, Niv (2017b). “House Budget Plan Delayed Again over Welfare Cuts.” The Hill, June 27.
Eno, Robert (2017). “Who’s in the Freedom Caucus and Why Is It Important?” Conservative Review, April 4., accessed April 6, 2017.
Farrell, John A. (2001). Tip O’Neill and the Democratic Century Boston: Little, Brown.
Fenno, Richard F. Jr. (1973). Congressmen in Committees. Boston: Little, Brown.
Ferrechio, Susan (2015). “Conservatives Likely to Lose Education Reform Battle in Congress.” Washington Examiner, July 8.
Ferrechio, Susan (2017). “Rep. Mark Meadows Will Preside over a More Cooperative Wing of Conservative Rebels.” Washington Examiner, January 3.
Ferris, Sarah (2016a). “House Conservative Leaders Want to Break Spending Deal.” The Hill, February 25.
Ferris, Sarah (2016b). “House GOP Comes to Terms with Prospect of No Budget.” The Hill, April 13.
Flores, Bill (2015). “Republican Study Committee Unveils FY 2016 Government Funding Proposal.” Press release, September 15., accessed April 28, 2018.
Foley, Elise (2015). “Conservatives Take Credit for Delay On Border Bill.” Huffington Post, January 27., accessed October 9, 2017.
Fram, Alan and Swanson, Emily (2015). “AP-GfK Poll: GOP Voters Prefer Combative Tactics over Budget.” Seattle Times, October 27.
Fram, Alan and Taylor, Andrew (2015). “The Complex Fight GOP Leaders Face to Avoid Another Federal Shutdown.” Associated Press, September 13.
French, Lauren (2015a). “Conservatives Demand Vote to Reject D.C. Abortion Law.” Politico, April 29.
French, Lauren (2015b). “Conservatives Issue Demands for their Votes on Trade Deal.” Politico, June 3.
French, Lauren (2015c). “Emboldened House Conservatives Angle for Power.” Politico, July 13.
French, Lauren (2015d). “Boehner Coup Leader an Army of One.” Politico, July 29.
French, Lauren (2015e). “Freedom Caucus Giving Ryan Benefit of the Doubt.” Politico, November 3.
French, Lauren (2016). “House Freedom Caucus to Break with Leadership on Budget.” Politico, March 14.
French, Lauren and Kim, Seung Min (2015). “Why the ‘Hell No’ Caucus Is Saying ‘Yes’ to the Budget.” Politico, March 25.
French, Lauren and Palmer, Anna (2015a). “DeSantis, Duncan Quit House Whip Team.” Politico, February 5.
French, Lauren and Palmer, Anna (2015b). “House Freedom Caucus Endorses Daniel Webster for Speaker.” Politico, October 7.
French, Lauren and Sherman, Jake (2015). “House GOP Leaders Take on Subcommittee Rebels.” Politico, February 12.
Friedman, Dan (2016). “For These House Republicans, the NRA’s Seal of Approval Isn’t Enough.” The Trace, July 13., accessed February 7, 2018.
Froman, Lewis A. Jr. and Ripley, Randall B. (1965). “Conditions for Party Leadership: The Case of the House Democrats.” American Political Science Review 59(1), 5263.
Frustrated with ‘No Child Left Behind,’ Congress Takes a New Path on Schools.” In CQ Almanac 2015, 71st ed. Washington D.C.: CQ Roll Call.
Fuller, Matt (2014). “RSC Chairmanship Race Tests Conservatives.” Roll Call, November 18.
Fuller, Matt (2015a). “House Freedom Caucus Looks to Be a Force – in Leadership and Lawmaking.” Roll Call, February 4.
Fuller, Matt (2015b). “House Freedom Caucus Lines Up Opposition to Export-Import Bank.” Roll Call, May 19.
Fuller, Matt (2015c). “Rule Vote Retribution Continues; Chaffetz Takes Away Subcommittee Gavel.” Roll Call, June 20.
Fuller, Matt (2015d). “House Conservatives Emboldened, Despite Crackdown Attempt.” Roll Call, July 6.
Fuller, Matt (2015e). “Quieter RSC Still Conservative, Still Effective, Chairman Says.” Roll Call, July 14.
Fuller, Matt (2015f). “Freedom Caucus Forms ‘Fight Club’ in House.” Roll Call, July 22.
Fuller, Matt (2015g). “Freedom Caucus to Leadership: Delay Iran Vote.” Roll Call, September 8.
Fuller, Matt (2015h). “Conservatives Force Boehner to Rethink Iran.” Roll Call, September 9.
Fuller, Matt (2015i). “Freedom Caucus to Oppose Any Spending Bill With Planned Parenthood Money.” Roll Call, September 10.
Fuller, Matt (2015j). “House Freedom Caucus Loses Members Over Planned Parenthood.” Roll Call, September 16.
Fuller, Matt (2015k). “HFC Looks for Leverage in Speaker’s Race.” Roll Call, October 7.
Fuller, Matt (2015l). “How the House Freedom Caucus Got Behind Paul Ryan.” Roll Call, October 23.
Fuller, Matt (2015m). “Jim Jordan and the (Not So) Subtle Influence of the House Freedom Caucus.” Huffington Post, November 19., accessed April 19, 2018.
Fuller, Matt (2016a). “Paul Ryan Hosts Budget Meeting With House Freedom Caucus. It Didn’t Go Well.” Huffington Post, February 3.
Fuller, Matt (2016b). “Paul Ryan Has a House Freedom Caucus Problem.” Huffington Post, July 6., accessed July 7, 2016.
Fuller, Matt (2017a). “Obamacare Repeal Could Be More Difficult Than House Republicans Think.” The Huffington Post, January 12., accessed May 1, 2018.
Fuller, Matt (2017b). “House Passes Children’s Health Insurance Bill, But Kids Are No Closer to Health Insurance.” Huffington Post, November 3., accessed May 1, 2018.
Gehrke, Joel (2015a). “Meet the Freedom Caucus.” National Review, January 26., accessed December 12, 2016.
Gehrke, Joel (2015b). “Jim Jordan Puts GOP Leadership on Notice.” The Corner (Blog), National Review, June 17., accessed October 7, 2017.
Gerring, John (2006). Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Glaser, James M. and Berry, Jeffrey M. (2018). “Compromising Positions: Why Republican Partisans Are More Rigid than Democrats.” Political Science Quarterly 133(1), 99125.
Golshan, Tara (2017). “Freedom Caucus Leader says Paul Ryan Still Doesn’t Have the Votes for Health Bill, Even with the Amendments.” Vox, March 20., accessed April 30, 2018.
Gramlich, John (2017). “Many Americans Haven’t Heard of the House Freedom Caucus.” Pew Research Center, April 18., accessed April 22, 2018.
Green, Matthew N. (2002). “Institutional Change, Party Discipline, and the House Democratic Caucus, 1911–1919.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 27, 601633.
Green, Matthew N. (2016). “The Multiple Roots of Party Loyalty: Explaining Republican Dissent in the U.S. House of Representatives.” Congress and the Presidency 43(1), 103123.
Green, Matthew N. and Bee, Briana (2016). “Keeping the Team Together: Explaining Party Discipline and Dissent in the U.S. Congress.” In Party and Procedure in the United States Congress, ed. Straus, Jacob and Glassman, Matt, 4162. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Green, Matthew N. and Harris, Douglas B. (2019). Choosing the Leader: Leadership Elections in the U.S. House of Representatives. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Grossman, Matt and Hopkins, David A. (2016). Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. New York: Oxford University Press.
Haberkorn, Jennifer (2015). “18 GOP Members Draw Line in Planned Parenthood Fight.” Politico, July 29.
Hallerman, Tamar (2017). “Barry Loudermilk Quietly Leaves the House Freedom Caucus.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution Political Insider (blog), March 2., accessed April 23, 2018.
Hammond, Susan Webb (1998). Congressional Caucuses in National Policy Making. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Hammond, Thomas H. and Miller, Gary J. (1987). “Distant Friends and Nearby Enemies: The Politics of Legislative Coalition Formation.” Public Choice 53(3), 277284.
Hawkings, David (2015). “After the Revolution, a Single New Spot of Influence for the Freedom Caucus.” Roll Call, December 14.
Hellman, Jesse (2017). “Freedom Caucus members say GOP doesn’t have votes to pass healthcare plan.” The Hill, March 7.
Herszenhorn, David M. (2015). “Hard-Line Republicans Want to Change More Than House Speaker.” New York Times, October 7.
Hilburn, Greg (2017). “Abraham, Higgins: Blame GOP Freedom Caucus for Saving Obamacare.” USA Today, March 25.
Ho, Catherine and Snell, Kelsey (2015). “Export-Import Bank Supporters Move to Force House Vote.” Washington Post, October 12.
Homeland Bill Takes a Two-Step.” In CQ Almanac 2015, 71st ed. Washington D.C.: CQ Roll Call.
House, Billy (2016). “Ryan Tames Conservative House Republicans Who Tormented Boehner.” Bloomberg Politics, September 16.
House Border Bill Pleases Neither Party.” In CQ Almanac 2015, 71st ed. Washington D.C.: CQ Roll Call.
House Freedom Caucus Helps Define Tense Power Dynamic in Congress.” In CQ Almanac 2016, 72nd ed. Washington D.C.: CQ Roll Call.
Howell, Tom Jr. (2015). “Peter King: Freedom Caucus Wants to ‘Hijack the Party and Blackmail the House.’” Washington Times, October 8.
Huetteman, Emmarie (2016). “Stopgap Bill Is Approved, Avoiding a Shutdown.” New York Times, September 29.
Hunt, Albert R. (2018). “Freedom Caucus in Spotlight as Shutdown Looms.” Bloomberg, January 14.–01-14/freedom-caucus-in-spotlight-as-shutdown-looms, accessed April 24, 2018.
Jagoda, Naomi (2016). “House Rejects GOP Rep’s Push for Vote on Impeaching IRS Head.” The Hill, December 6.
Jenkins, Jeffery A. and Monroe, Nathan W. (2015). “On Measuring Legislative Agenda-Setting Power.” American Journal of Political Science 60(1): 158174.
Jenkins, Jeffery A. and Stewart, Charles III (2013). Fighting for the Speakership: The House and the Rise of Party Government. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Jones, Jeffrey M. (2015). “Boehner Image Slightly Better After Resignation Announcement.” Gallup, October 15.
Jordan, Jim (2015). “Mission Statement.” Facebook post, January 26., accessed April 18, 2018.
Jordan, Jim and Meadows, Mark (2017). “No More Excuses, Republicans.” The Hill, January 11.
Kamisar, Ben (2015). “Tea Party Candidates to Skip Senate Incumbent Challenges.” The Hill, November 10.
Kane, Paul (2015). “House Votes to Renew Ex-Im Bank.” Washington Post, October 28.
Kane, Paul and Fahrenthold, David A. (2013). “Boehner’s Laid-Back Approach Seen as Boon, Bane for House Republicans.” Washington Post, June 29.
Kane, Paul and Snell, Kelsey (2015). “GOP Tries to Avert Shutdown as Right Spoils for Planned Parenthood Fight.” Washington Post, September 9.
Kaplan, Thomas and Pear, Robert (2017). “House Passes Measure to Repeal and Replace the Affordable Care Act.” New York Times, May 4.
Kaplan, Thomas and Shear, Michael D. (2017). “House Passes Hurricane Aid and Raises Debt Ceiling.” New York Times, September 8.
Karol, David (2009). Party Position Change in American Politics: Coalition Management. New York: Cambridge University Press.
King, Robert (2017). “Freedom Caucus Leader Mark Meadows: I Promised Full Obamacare Repeal.” Washington Examiner, March 24.
Kofmehl, Kenneth (1964). “Institutionalization of a Voting Bloc.” Western Political Quarterly 17(2), 256272.
Krehbiel, Keith (1998). Pivotal Politics: A Theory of U.S. Lawmaking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kull, Steven and Gallagher, Nancy (2015). “Assessing the Iran Deal: A Survey of the National Citizens Cabinet.” Program for Public Consultation, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland.
“Labor Bloc Maps Wage Bill Revolt” (1937). New York Times, November 19.
Laslo, Matt (2016). ‘Tea Party Cuts Off GOP Terror Bill to Spite Democrats.” The Daily Beast, July 7., accessed March 2, 2018.
Lizza, Ryan (2015). “A House Divided.” New Yorker, December 14.
Lochhead, Carolyn (2015). “Nancy Pelosi’s Leadership Style Helps Her Avoid Crises Like GOP’s.” San Francisco Chronicle, October 16.
McCrimmon, Ryan (2017). “House Freedom Caucus to Air Debt Ceiling Demands.” Roll Call, July 20.
McGee, Zachary A. (2017). “Keeping Your Friends Close: A Study of Punishment and Intraparty Insurgency.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
McPherson, Lindsey (2015). “These Eight Republicans Could Save the Conference from Breaking.” Roll Call, November 18.
McPherson, Lindsey (2016). “House Conservatives Refuse Compromise with Ryan on Budget.” Roll Call, March 3.
Maley, Mark (2016). “Todd Young beats Marlin Stutzman in GOP primary for US Senate seat.” The Elkhart Truth, May 4.
Mann, Thomas E. and Ornstein, Norman J. (2012). It’s Even Worse Than It Looks: How the American Constitutional System Collided with the New Politics of Extremism. New York: Basic Books.
Marcos, Cristina (2017). “Jordan Won’t Run for Oversight Gavel.” The Hill, May 23.
Mauriello, Tracie (2017). “Freedom Caucus May Play Role in Alternate Obamacare Repeal Timeline.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 6.
Mayhew, David R. (1974). Congress: The Electoral Connection. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Mayhew, David R. (2005). Divided We Govern: Party Control, Lawmaking, and Investigations, 1946–2002. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Meadows, Jon (2017). “FreedomWorks Urges House to Adopt MacArthur-Meadows Amendment to AHCA.” Press release, FreedomWorks, April 26., accessed July 26, 2018.
Meadows, Mark (2015). “Conservatives Form House Freedom Caucus.” Press release, January 26., accessed April 18, 2018.
Meyer, Dick (2015). “Maybe the ‘Crazies’ in the House GOP Really Are Crazy.” York Dispatch, October 5.
Nelson, Louis (2017). “Rep. Poe Explains Why He Split from the House Freedom Caucus.” Politico, March 27.
Newell, Jim (2015). “The Freedom Caucus Is Nothing but Cowards.” Slate, October 26., accessed February 19, 2018.
Newhauser, Daniel (2014). “As Flores Wins RSC Race, Tension Simmers Between Leaders and Conservatives.” The Atlantic, November 18.
Newhauser, Daniel (2017). “Freedom Caucus Won’t Block Obamacare Repeal Plan.” National Journal, January 11.
Newton-Small, Jay (2015). “House Conservatives Brace for GOP Blowback in Leadership Fight.” Time, October 19., accessed February 27, 2018.
North, Douglass C. and Weingast, Barry R. (1989). “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England.” The Journal of Economic History 49(4), 803832.
Oliphant, James (2018). “‘Mini-Trump’ Candidates Battle It out in Republican Primaries.” Reuters, May 6.
Ota, Alan K. (2016). “Freedom Caucus Moves to Force Vote on Impeaching IRS Chief.” Roll Call, September 13.
Palmer, Doug and Behsudi, Adam (2015). “Froman, Liberal Democrats Clash on Trade Authority.” Politico, January 21.
Pathé, Simone (2017). “Freshmen Backed by Freedom Caucus Aren’t Committing to Joining.” Roll Call, January 11.
Paulsen, George Edward (1959). “The Legislative History of the Fair Labor Standards Act.” Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University.
Pearson, Kathryn (2015). Party Discipline in the U.S. House of Representatives. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Pew Research Center (2014). “Political Polarization in the American Public.” June 12., accessed April 3, 2018.
Raju, Manu (2015). “How the White House Kept Democrats from Killing the Iran Deal.” CNN, September 11.
Reeve, Elspeth (2013). “The Secret iPad List to Bring Down Boehner.” The Wire, January 4., accessed October 21, 2015.
Rein, Lisa (2015). “House GOP Moves to Impeach IRS Chief.” Washington Post, October 28.
“Rep. Boehner: House Has ‘Done Its Job’ On Homeland Security Funding” (2015). Plus Media Solutions, February 26.
Reynolds, Molly E. and Hall, Richard L. (2019). “Financing the 2016 Congressional Elections.” In Financing the 2016 Elections, Magleby, David B., ed. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
Richman, Jesse (2011). “Parties, Pivots, and Policy: The Status Quo Test.” American Political Science Review 105(1), 151165.
Rubin, Ruth Bloch (2017). Building the Bloc: Intraparty Organization in the U.S. Congress. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Savransky, Rebecca (2017). “Poe: Some Freedom Caucus Members Would Vote Against Ten Commandments.” The Hill, March 27.
Schelling, Thomas C. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schelling, Thomas C (2006). Strategies of Commitment and Other Essays. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schickler, Eric and Wawro, Greg (2006). Filibuster: Obstruction and Lawmaking in the U.S. Senate. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
“September Starts Out as a Disastrous Month” (2017). Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, September 11.
Severns, Maggie (2015). “House Republicans Put off No Child Left Behind Vote.” Politico, February 27.
Shabad, Rebecca (2015). “28 Republicans Pledge to Oppose Any Bill Funding Planned Parenthood.” The Hill, September 8.
Shepsle, Kenneth A. (1991). “Discretion, Institutions, and the Problem of Government Commitment.” From Bourdieu, Pierre and Coleman, James S., eds., Social Theory for a Changing Society. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Sherman, Jake (2015). “Rep. Jones Calls for Candidates with ‘Misdeeds’ to Withdraw from Leadership Race.” Politico, October 7.
Sherman, Jake and Bresnahan, John (2015a). “Boehner Takes Revenge.” Politico, January 6.
Sherman, Jake and Bresnahan, John (2015b). “GOP Probably Stuck with Weakened Boehner.” Politico, March 3.
Sherman, Jake and French, Lauren (2015). “How Ryan Conquered the Freedom Caucus.” Politico, October 22.
Sherman, Jake, French, Lauren, and Palmer, Anna (2015). “How Old-Fashioned Logrolling Produced Congress’ Massive Budget Deal.” Politico, December 18.
Sherman, Jake and Palmer, Anna (2015a). “Behind John Boehner’s Crackdown on Conservatives.” Politico, June 24.
Sherman, Jake and Palmer, Anna (2015b). “GOP Group That Hit Conservatives Changes Its Tune.” Politico, December 8.
Siddiqui, Sabrina, Jacobs, Ben, and McCarthy, Tom (2015). “House Speaker John Boehner to Resign After Battle with Conservatives.” The Guardian, September 25.
Siegel, Josh (2015). “Home in North Carolina, Mark Meadows Reflects on Move to Oust John Boehner With ‘No Regrets’.” The Daily Signal, August 24.
Smith, Steven S. (2007). Party Influence in Congress. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Snell, Kelsey (2015). “Conservative Holdouts Won’t Budge on Trade Vote.” Washington Post, June 10.
Snell, Kelsey (2016). “Inside Ryan’s Charm Campaign with the House Freedom Caucus.” Washington Post, November 6.
Snell, Kelsey and Weigel, David (2017). “Hard-Line Republicans Signal Reversal.” Washington Post, January 6.
Strong, Jonathan (2013). “Speak Softly or Carry a Big Stick.” Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, January 14.
Sullivan, Peter (2015a). “No Planned Parenthood Cuts in GOP Funding Bill.” The Hill, December 2.
Sullivan, Peter (2015b). “Planned Parenthood Unscathed in Spending Bill.” The Hill, December 16.
Sullivan, Sean (2015a). “House Passes Bill Fully Funding the Department of Homeland Security.” Washington Post, March 3.
Sullivan, Sean (2015b). “Insurgent Bloc of House Conservatives Proving to Be a Thorn in Boehner’s Side.” Washington Post, March 4.
Taylor, Jessica and Davis, Susan (2017). “Congress Paves Way for Tax Legislation by Passing Budget Resolution.” National Public Radio, October 26., accessed April 24, 2018.
Theriault, Sean (2013). The Gingrich Senators: The Roots of Partisan Warfare in Congress. New York: Oxford University Press.
Travis, Shannon (2011). “Who Is the Tea Party Caucus in the House?” CNN, July 29., accessed March 2, 2018.
Unable to Block Nuclear Deal with Iran, Congress Gives Itself Review Authority.” In CQ Almanac 2015, 71st ed. Washington D.C.: CQ Roll Call.
“U.S. Rep. Mark Meadows Sends Letter to Boehner, Cantor Encouraging House Leadership to Defund Obamacare.” (2013)., August 22., accessed April 19, 2018.
Volden, Craig and Wiseman, Alan E. (2014). Legislative Effectiveness in the United States Congress. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Voteview (2015). “House: Vote on Clean DHS Funding Bill.” Voteview blog, March 6., accessed May 3, 2018.
Wallner, James (2015). “The Problem of Credible Commitment in Congressional Budgeting.” The Journal of Policy History 27(2), 382403.
Warmbrodt, Zachary, Sherman, Jake, and Guida, Victoria (2015). “Boehner and Hensarling Square off over Ex-Im Bank.” Politico, April 30.
Weaver, Al (2017). “Freedom Caucus Chairman Mark Meadows Takes a Seat at the Top Table.” Washington Examiner, July 24.
Wegmann, Philip (2016a). “Meet Warren Davidson, the Man Who Took John Boehner’s Seat.” The Daily Signal, June 14., accessed June 16, 2016.
Wegmann, Philip (2016b). “Why Freedom Caucus Cut Deal With GOP Leadership Cancelling Vote to Impeach IRS Chief.” The Daily Signal, September 15., accessed April 20, 2018.
Wehrman, Jessica (2015). “Boehner: Some in GOP Caucus ‘Unrealistic.’” Dayton Daily News, September 28.
Weigel, David (2017). “Freedom Caucus Backs ACA ‘Repeal and Replace’ That Counts on Private Health Care.” Washington Post PowerPost, February 15., accessed April 30, 2018.
Will, George (2017). “The Heartening Mission of the Freedom Caucus.” Washington Post, April 13.
Wong, Scott (2015a). “Will Boehner Risk the Tea Party’s Wrath?” The Hill, February 25.
Wong, Scott (2015b). “New House Conservative Caucus Divided in Budget Vote.” The Hill, March 26.
Wong, Scott (2015c). “Ire from House Conservatives Puts Education Bill in Jeopardy.” The Hill, April 23.
Wong, Scott (2015d). “Punished GOP Lawmaker Stirs New Talk of Boehner Rebellion.” The Hill, June 22.
Wong, Scott (2015e). “House Could Vote on Highway Bill This Week.” The Hill, July 13.
Wong, Scott (2015f). “Leadership Allies Reject Effort to Move Funding Bill the Right.” The Hill, December 16.
Wong, Scott (2016). “Ryan Faces New Pressures from House Conservatives.” The Hill, September 8.
Wong, Scott and Lane, Sylvan (2016). “Ryan Secures Big Win with Bipartisan Puerto Rico Bill.” The Hill, May 24.
Zeller, Shawn (2017). “Survey: Republicans See Harm from Freedom Caucus.” Roll Call, May 4.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.