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The Life and Death of ACT UP/LA
  • Benita Roth, Binghamton University, State University of New York

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    The Life and Death of ACT UP/LA
    • Online ISBN: 9781316226940
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316226940
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Book description

The Life and Death of ACT UP/LA explores the history of the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, Los Angeles, part of the militant anti-AIDS movement of the 1980s and 1990s. ACT UP/LA battled government, medical, and institutional neglect of the AIDS epidemic, engaging in multi-targeted protest in Los Angeles and nationally. The book shows how appealing the direct action anti-AIDS activism was for people across the United States; as well as arguing the need to understand how the politics of place affect organizing, and how the particular features of the Los Angeles cityscape shaped possibilities for activists. A feminist lens is used, seeing social inequalities as mutually reinforcing and interdependent, to examine the interaction of activists and the outcomes of their actions. Their struggle against AIDS and homophobia, and to have a voice in their healthcare, presaged the progressive, multi-issue, anti-corporate, confrontational organizing of the late twentieth century, and deserves to be part of that history.

Reviews

'Dense and meticulously annotated, it makes for a cumbersome, though essential, read. … Perhaps the most striking part of the book is learning how often members of ACT UP/LA were scared and frightened to participate in actions but still did.'

Scottie Campbell Source: Watermark Online (www.watermarkonline.com)

'Thoroughly researched by author Benita Roth, she offers a fresh perspective and respect for the rebellious and historical work done by the men and women of ACT UP.'

Bill Bliss Source: Rage Monthly

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Interviews by author with former ACT UP/LA activists, listed in chronological order.

  • Jan Speller, July 13, 2000, San Francisco, CA.

  • J. T. Anderson, Stephanie Boggs,a and Peter Cashman, July 23, 1999, West Hollywood, CA.

  • Jeri Deitrick, July 26, 2000, Los Angeles, CA.

  • Phill Wilson, July 26, 1999, Los Feliz, CA.

  • Mary Lucey, July 29, 1999, Los Angeles, CA.

  • Nancy MacNeil, July 29, 1999, Los Angeles, CA.

  • Ferd Eggan,b July 30, 1999, Los Angeles, CA.

  • Judy Sisneros, August 1, 2000, Los Angeles, CA.

  • Gunther Freehill,c August 4, 2000, Los Angeles, CA.

  • aStephanie Boggs died in April of 2010 of metastasized breast cancer.

  • bFerd Eggan died in 2007 of liver cancer.

  • cGunther Freehill died in 2013 of heart failure.

  • Walter “Cat” Walker, May 12, 2011, West Hollywood, CA.

  • Genevieve Clavreul, May 15, 2011, Pasadena, CA.

  • Richard “Doe” Racklin, May, 17, 2011, West Hollywood, CA.

  • Jeff Scheurholz and Peter Jimenez,d May 18, 2011, Los Angeles, CA.

  • Doug Sadownick, May 18, 2011, Culver City, CA.

  • Helene Schpak, May 18, 2011, Glassell Park, CA.

  • Ty Geltmaker, May 21, 2011, Silverlake, CA.

  • Wendell Jones, May 23, 2011, West Hollywood, CA.

  • James Rosen, January 14, 2012, Los Angeles, CA

  • Terri Ford, January 17, 2012, Los Angeles, CA.

  • Brian Pomerantz, January 17, 2012, Los Angeles, CA (not recorded).

  • dPete Jimenez died of AIDS in May 2012.

August 2012

Interviews conducted via email, with date indicating individuals’ responses to emailed questions.

  • Jake Epstine, August 4, 2012, from Los Angeles CA.

  • Larry Holmes, August 10, 2012, from Portland, OR.

  • John Fall, August 20, 2012, from Portland, OR.

Field notes

I took field notes on meetings (General Body, Women’s Caucus, Treatment and Data), events, and actions from November 1990 to mid-1992. The following notes are cited in the text:

Women’s Caucus meeting, November 11, 1990; “Women and AIDS” Teach-in, November 17, 1990; Women’s Caucus meeting, November 25, 1990; Women’s Caucus meeting, November 30, 1990; Women’s Caucus meeting, December 1, 1990; General Body meeting, December 10, 1990; Women’s Caucus meeting, December 23, 1990; General Body meeting, January 7, 1991; General Body meeting, January 14, 1991; Women’s Caucus meeting, January 27, 1991.

January 30, 2009. “Martin Delaney 1945–2009.” “The Rachel Maddow Show,” MSNBC. Available online at http://www.bing.com/videos/watch/video/martin-delaney-1945–2009/687ciy8.

Archival Collections

I used documents from my own collection (1990–1992) and from the ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives at the USC Libraries (see http://one.usc.edu or www.onearchives.org). Documents from the ONE Archive came from either of two collections: the ACT UP/LA Collection, which was uncatalogued at the time that I looked through it, and the AIDS History Project Collection, which was a broader, catalogued collection of documents relevant to the history of AIDS. Documents listed here are from the ONE collections unless noted.

ACT UP/LA Minutes

Between my collection and the material at the ONE Archive, I was able to review approximately 90 percent of ACT UP/LA’s General Body meeting minutes. Minutes from those and other committee meetings on the following dates were used in the text:

From the “General Body meetings”: January 25, 1988; March 14, 1988; March 28, 1988; June 13, 1988; July 11, 1988; September 12, 1988; September 26, 1988; January 7, 1991; January 21, 1991; February 25, 1991 (Author’s collection); April 4, 1991 (Author’s collection); June 3, 1991 (Author’s collection); January 20, 1992; February 17, 1992; March 8, 1992; March 23, 1992; April 6, 1992; April 13, 1992; April 20, 1992; June 15, 1992; July 13, 1992; July 20, 1992; July 27, 1992; August 24, 1992; August 31, 1992; September 21, 1992; October 19, 1992; October 26, 1992; December 7, 1992; January 4, 1993; January 18, 1993; February 8, 1993; February 15, 1993; March 8, 1993; March 29, 1993; May 3, 1993; January 3, 1994; April 11, 1994; August 1, 1994; August 8, 1994; August 15, 1994; December 5, 1994; April 17, 1995; May, 16, 1995; June 5, 1995; April 1, 1996; April 8, 1996.

From Women’s Caucus meetings: October 28, 1990 (Author’s collection).

From the Coordinating Committee: July 5, 1992.

ACT UP/LA Position Papers/Reports

Position papers and reports were given/handed out at ACT UP/LA meetings. Some were signed by authors. Where there is no author listed, authorship is attributed to “ACT UP/LA.”

ACT UP/LA. 1988. “The New INS vs. Lady Liberty,” c. January.
ACT UP/LA. 1988. “Appendix Bathhouse Background in the Context of the AIDS Epidemic.” Three-page unsigned document, c. February.
ACT UP/LA. 1990. “Sexism in ACT UP/LA,” c. late January 1990.
ACT UP/LA. 1990. Report on “Minutes – ACT-Now General Membership Meeting in Chicago – April 22, 1990.”
ACT UP/LA. 1991. “Needle Exchange Program,” c. March. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1991. “What Is Youth Action?” October 21. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “CNN/ Clean Needles Now” statement, c. April.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “Confrontation, Then Mediation: ACT UP/LA, NME, and Medical Apartheid.” Anonymously (co?-) authored report, c. May.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “Scattering Activist Ashes to Save County AIDS Clinic 5p21,” June 30.
ACT UP/LA Treatment and Data Committee. 1991. “Current Scope of Need,” January 4. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA Treatment and Data Committee. 1991. “ACT UP/LA Treatment & Data Committee Treatment Issues Report.” Number 8, August 19.
ACT UP/LA Treatment and Data Committee. 1990. “ACT UP/Los Angeles Treatment and Data Committee Treatment Primer” table of contents, c. December. Author’s collection.
Alternative Budget Coalition. 1990. “The “A,B,C’S” of the LA County Budget,” c. June.
Bloor Jim. 1992. “A Sort-of Rebuttal to Last Week’s ‘How ACT UP/LA Is Losing Its Power,’” position paper dated April 13.
Burke Jim. 1998. “An Open Letter to the Community,” c. February.
Chang Henry. 1992. “Let the Needles Do the Talking!” CNN/Clean Needles Now position paper, April 20, 1992.
CNN/Clean Needles Now. 1992. “Policy Statement on Needle Exchange, Harm Reduction, and Treatment on Demand,” April.
Cook Gregory. 1992. “ACT UP LA at the National Democratic Convention,” Report, July 27.
Day Larry, Williams Ed, and Confer Brad (Education Committee of ACT UP/LA). 1988. “ACT UP/LA Position Paper: Los Angeles County Bathhouse Closure,” February 29.
Freehill Gunther. 1990. “On Negotiation,” July 30.
Fuller Doug, and Ashton Tay. 1991. “Coalitioning,” c. November 1991.
Geltmaker Ty. 1991. “Hospital Update,” June 10. Author’s collection.
Kimball John. 1992. “The Trouble with ACT UP/Los Angeles,” c. June.
Kostopoulos Mark. 1990. “Sexism Discussion,” February 5.
Kostopoulos Mark. 1990. “On Tactics: For ACT UP Members Only, Not To Be Reprinted,” July.
Kostopoulos Mark. 1991. “Red Hot and Blue,” February 11. Author’s collection.
Kostopoulos Mark. 1992. “How ACT UP/LA Is Losing Its Power,” April 6.
Lacaillade David (for the Retreat Working Group). 1992. “Retreat.” Packet including sign up sheets, c. late February/March 1992.
Lacaillade David. 1992. “Small Bandages on Large Wounds: Reporting on the Second Gates Meeting Concerning AIDS Care at LA County/USC Medical Center,” October 9.
Lacaillade David. 1993. “Two Meetings and a Third Postponed: Reorganizing the Council and Identifying New Principals in AIDS Care at LAC/USC Medical Center,” February.
Lacaillade David. c. July 1993. “They Still Lie.” Report to the General Body of ACT UP/LA.
Meyer Amy. 1991. Report on “ACT UP Action Network Conference Call,” July 10.
Mirken Bruce. 1990. “Should ACT UP Negotiate?” c. July.
Richards Wade. 1990. “Girl! Where in the World Did You Get That White Sheet? Or What Did Wade Really Say at the ACT UP/LA Retreat?” December.
Richards Wade, and Lacaillade David. 1992. “ACT UP/LA Retreat.” March.
Rouse Bill, and Wheatley Mickey, Carson Craig, and Turner Dwayne. 1990. “Let’s Not Negotiate Our Silence: Silence = Death,” July 16.
Simmons Mark, and Brown David. 1991. “ACT-UP/Los Angeles’ Network & Outreach Six Months Goal Setting Strategy,” July 1. Author’s collection.
Simmons Mark, and Members of ACT UP’s People of Color Caucus. 1991. “Report from Seattle,” c. December.
Wheatley Mickey, and Rouse Bill. 1990. “Let’s Not Make a Pact with the Devil,” July 23.
Wheatley Mickey, Goldstein Darren, and Albanese Michael. 1990. “Finally, Health Care for ACT UP.” Position paper dated August 27, 1990.
Wildes Lee, and Corbin Steven. 1992. “ACT UP – Get Moving!” June 23.

ACT UP/LA Newsletter Articles

Listed by author; if unsigned, author is listed as “ACT UP/LA.”

ACT UP/LA. 1988. “Emergency Community Meeting.” ACT UP/LA 1: 9, November/December, pp. 56.
ACT UP/LA. 1988. “Condensation of Demands to be Presented to the County as Formulated by Being Alive.” ACT UP/LA 1:9, November/December, pp. 34.
ACT UP/LA. 1989. “Vigil Support.” ACT UP/LA 2:1, February/March, p. 3.
ACT UP/LA. 1989. “Times Is Up!ACT UP/LA 2:2, April/May.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “CNN/Clean Needles Now (ACT UP/LA) Policy Statement on Needle Exchange, Harm Reduction and Treatment on Demand.” ACT UP/LA News 5:1, March/April, p. 9.
Anderson J. T. 1995. “ACT UP/LA Speaks at Candlelight March.” ACT UP/LA Newsletter, Winter, p. 4.
Beecher Richard. 1989. “ACT UP Throws a Piece of the Rock!ACT UP/LA 2:6, December 1989/January 1990, pp. 12, 12.
Bledsoe Joe. 1990. “From the Inside Looking Out.” ACT UP/LA News 2:6, December 1989/January 1990, p. 8.
Boggs Stephanie Alana. 1995. “World AIDS Day Demonstration.” ACT UP/LA Newsletter, Winter, pp. 1, 5.
Cashman Peter. 1988. “ACT UP Fights Lying Down.” ACT UP/LA 1:6, August, p. 3.
Day Larry. 1988. “What a Week It Was!ACT UP/LA 1:4, June, p. 3.
Day Larry. 1989. “ACT UP/LA Attends LAC/USC AIDS Community Advisory Council Meeting.” ACT UP/LA 2:3, July.
Day Larry. 1990. “Campaign Continues.” ACT UP/LA 3:4, August/September, p. 2.
Eggan Ferd. 1990. “ACT NOW to Network.” ACT UP/LA 3:5, October/November, p. 9.
Fall John. 1988. “A Brief Personal View of the Happenings in Washington October 8–11.” ACT UP/LA 1:8, October, p. 4.
Farrell Kevin. 1990. “Why Stop the Rose Parade?ACT UP/LA 3:1, February/March, p. 3.
Ford Terri, and Sisneros Judy. 1991. “Lights! Camera! AIDS Action Now! ACT UP Hits the Oscars.” ACT UP/LA News 4: 2, April/May, p. 1.
Freehill Gunther. 1990. “After the Boycott.” ACT UP/LA News 3:4, August/September, p. 10.
Iosty Richard. 1992. “Magic Johnson and the Spectacle of Male Heterosexual Sentimentality.” ACT UP/LA News 4:5, December 1991/January 1992, p. 4.
Kostopoulos Mark. 1988. “People with AIDS: Care and Uncaring.” ACT UP LA 1:3, April/May, p. 4.
Kostopoulos Mark. 1988. “ACT UP/LA’s January Action.” ACT UP/LA 1:9, November/December, p. 3.
Kostopoulos Mark. 1989. “Montreal AIDS Conference.” ACT UP/LA 2:3 Newsletter, July, p. 10.
McDaniel Jim. 1991. “Interview with three founding members of ACT UP/LA.” ACT UP/LA News 4:5, December 1991/January 1992, pp. 67.
Morello Enric. 1988. “We’ve Won an AIDS Ward.” ACT UP/LA 1:7, September, pp. 12.
Morello Enric. 1989. “From the Editor.” ACT UP/LA 2:1, February/March, p. 2.
Lacaillade David. 1991. “Back to the Rose Parade: American Are Still Dying for Health Care.” ACT UP/LA News 4:1, January/February, p. 6.
Lacaillade David. 1991. “Shrine Tours Interrupts Oscars, ACT UP/LA Member Arrested.” ACT UP News 4:2, April/May, p. 6.
Lacaillade David. 1992. “While County Fiddles, People Die.” ACT UP/LA News 5:3, Fall.
Merkin Bruce. 1991. “ ‘AIDS Is a Disaster! Prisoners Die Faster!’” ACT UP/LA News 4:3, June/July, p. 1.
Norman Connie. 1990. “LA County Board of Stupes.” ACT UP/LA 3:5, October/November, p. 5.
Podolsky Robin, 1989. “Shutting Down the Feds.” ACT UP/LA 2:6, December 1989/January 1990.
Puente Michael. 1988. “AIDS in the Latino Community.” ACT UP/LA Newsletter 1:3, April/May, pp. 56.
Reece Ray. 1990. “Déjà vu: Back to the Baths.” ACT UP/LA 3:5, October/November, p. 14.
Roy Chris. 1989. “Health Services Action.” ACT UP/LA 2:2, April/May.
Satterlees Mark. 1991. “Inter/Views You.” ACT UP/LA News 4:2, April/May p. 3
Schuerholz Jeff, and Tarley Philip. 1992. “Jailtime in Houston.” ACT UP/LA News 5:3, Fall, pp. 45.
Schpak Helene. 1992. “Mark Kostopoulos October 26, 1954–June 20, 1992.” ACT UP/LA News 5:3, p. 3.
Schultz Randy. 1988. “AIDS and People of Color.” ACT UP/LA Newsletter 1:3, April/May, p. 5.
Simmons Mark. 1991. “People of Color AIDS Activist Conference.” ACT UP/LA News 4:3, June/July, p. 8.
Simmons Mark. 1991. “AB 101, Race and AIDS.” ACT UP/LA News 4:5, December 1990/January 1991, p. 3.
Sisneros Judy 1990. “Women’s Caucus Report.” ACT UP/LA Newsletter 3:4, August/September, p. 15.
speller jan. 1990. “Women Demand Action.” ACT UP/LA 3:4, August/September, p. 8.
Tausner Mauri. 1991. “93 Arrested in National CDC Action.” ACT UP/LA News 4:1, January/February, p. 3.
Yellowbird Ellen. 1991. “Frontera: The Struggle for Humane Conditions Continues.” ACT UP/LA News 4:1, January/February, pp. 1, 8.

ACT UP/LA Ephemera: Almost of all these documents are unsigned and thus authorship is attributed to “ACT UP/LA.” They are listed chronologically.

ACT UP California. 1991. ” Prisoners & AIDS: Some Facts.” handout c. May. Author’s collection.
ACT UP California. 1991. “ACT UP Demands.” Flyer c. May. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1987. “Bring the Spirit of Washington Home!” Flyer, December.
ACT UP LA. 1987. “Agenda for 12/4/85” [sic].
ACT UP/LA. 1988. “Demonstration Against AIDS Hysteria and for Lesbian and Gay Rights.” Unsigned press release c. January.
ACT UP/LA. 1989. Agenda, July 31.
ACT UP/LA. 1989. “Proposal for Fall Action.” August 7.
ACT UP/LA. 1989. “ACT UP Attacks Archbishop’s Reversal on Safe Sex Education.” Press release dated December 8.
ACT UP/LA. 1990. “ACT UP/LA Structure.” March.
ACT UP/LA. 1990. “National AIDS Actions for Healthcare.” Flyer/schedule regarding Chicago events, April 20–23.
ACT UP/LA. c. 1990. “A Very Brief History of ACT UP/Los Angeles.” July. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1990. “Week of Outrage/ November 26–December 3, 1990.” Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1991. “Proposal for National Action.” c. February. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1991. “Proposed Response to RHB Letter.” c. February.
ACT UP/LA. 1991. “Attention New Members.” March, Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1991. Flyer announcing May 6 Sacramento protest. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1991. “This Clinic Is Built on a Fault.” Leaflet, June 3.
ACT UP/LA. 1991. “Rally A.B. 101.” Flyer, June. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1991. “AB 101 Letter Writing Guide.” c. June. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1991. “What Does It Take to Make You Angry?” Flyer, c. August.
ACT UP/LA. 1991. “ACT UP/LA Condemns Cardinal Roger Mahony’s Censorship.” Press release, c. August.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “Dateline: 21–27 January 1989.” Reprint of article from the AIDS Project LA Newsletter, as part of the From the Archives series.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “Public Policy Survey.” January.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. General Body Meeting Agenda, March 2. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “CNN Needle Exchange Budget Expenditures – 1 Year of Distribution: May 1, 1992–May 1, 1993.” c. April.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “ACT UP/LA’s 1992 Reality Ball.” May 20.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “ACT UP/LA Media Advisory: AIDS Budget Cuts – Press Conference.” June 9.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “Day of RAGE!” Flyer, dated June 29.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “Media Advisory: AIDS Budget Cuts Protest.” June 30.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “What’s Wrong with This Picture.” Flyer about County/USC Hospital. c. February. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “NME University Hospital … Is Breaking Our Hearts.” Flyer. c. February.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “ACT UP Camps!” Sign-in sheet, March.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. CNN [Clean Needles Now]. Press Release, March 23.
ACT UP/LA, c. 1992. “County AIDS Fact Sheet.” July.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “Demand a Cure for AIDS!” Press Release, September 26.
ACT UP/LA. 1992. “Ad Hoc Financial Status Committee.” October 12.
ACT UP/LA. 1993. “ACT UP/LA May Be Bankrupt within Two Weeks.” February.
ACT UP/LA. c. 1993. “ACT UP Visits Amgen: Because AIDS Is Big Business But Who’s Making a Killing? Press release/informational packet. March.
ACT UP/LA. 1993. “ACT UP Goes to Washington.” April.
ACT UP/LA. 1993. “ACT UP Itinerary in DC.” April.
ACT UP/LA. c. 1993. “ACT UP Itinerary in DC.” c. April.
ACT UP/LA. c. 1993. “ACT UP Marches on Washington.” Press Release, c. April.
ACT UP/LA. 1993. “Support Lesbians with AIDS.” Multi-page publicity/information packet, April 23.
ACT UP/LA. 1993. “ACT UP/Los Angeles to Demand Lesbians with AIDS Research at Health and Human Services.” Press Release, dated April 19.
ACT UP/LA. 1993. Letter signed by “The General Membership ACT UP/LA.” to “Jeff and Gabriel.” September 27.
ACT UP/LA 1996. Email “RED HOT MONEY.” April 10.
ACT UP/LA. 1996. “ACT UP Zaps President Clinton at Hollywood Gala! AIDS Activists Charge: “Four Years of Broken Promises.” Press Release, dated September 13.
ACT UP/LA People of Color Committee. 1992. People of Color Committee Working Document, April 6.
Beeker Richard L., and Wells Joshua, 1991. “Dear Friend.” Letter, September.
Geltmaker Ty, and Rosen James. 1991. “Scoundrel Time, or, The Silence of the Moles.” Letter dated August 19.
Kostopoulos Mark et al. 1991. “Creation of a ‘Red Hot and Blue’ Committee.” Letter dated July 12.
Kostopoulos Mark. 1991. “Letter to ACT UP/Network Members.” July 13.
Perkins David Lee. 1990. “Press Release for Frontera.” November 30. Author’s collection.

Non-ACT UP/LA Documents

Listed by author.

ACT UP/DC. 1991. “Time to Become an AIDS Activist.” Flyer, September.
ACT UP Network. 1991. “Universal Health Care: A Handbook for Activists.” October. Author’s collection.
ACT UP/NY. 1991. “The 2nd ATAC 72 Hrs of AIDS Treatment Activism.” Flyer, c. September.
ACT UP National Women’s Network. 1993. Letter, “Dear Friends.” March 29.
ACT UP National Women’s Network. 1993. “Support Lesbians with AIDS.” Packet, April.
Arias Yolanda. 1991. Letter to ACT UP/LA, September 13.
ATAC 2. 1991. “About the Strategy Sessions.” Flyer, c. September.
Eggan Ferd. 1992. Letter from Community Development Department to “AIDS Service Organizations.” October 29.
Fowler Brad. 1989. “Los Angeles County Health Care: A Fashion Victim.” Set of ten postcards/color photos in art paper envelope credited to “Stiffsheets: Brad Fowler.”
Gates Robert C. 1988. Memorandum dated September 23 from Director of Health Services, Los Angeles County to Los Angeles County Supervisors.
Nowlin Eric and Northrup Ann. 1991. “Red, Hot and Blue Letter to all ACT UPs.” April 14. Author’s collection.
Queer Nation. 1991. “Do You Care Enough About Your Rights to Make a Few Simple Phone Calls?” Flyer c., May. Author’s collection.
S.A.N.O.E. 1990. “AIDS Activists to Stop Rose Parade.” Press Release, January 1.,
Shapiro Steven, 1996. Emails,. “Re: RED HOT MONEY.” April 7, April 11.
The ACT UP/NY Women & AIDS Book Group. 1990. Women, AIDS and Activism. Boston: South End Press.
Cox Cece, Means Lisa, and Pope Lisa. 1993. One Million Strong: The 1993 March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay, and Bi Equal Rights. Boston: Alyson Press.
Crimp Douglas with Rolston Adam. 1990. AIDS Demographics. Seattle: Bay Press.
Geltmaker Ty. 1992. “The Queer Nation Acts Up: Health Care, Politics, and Sexual Diversity in the County of Angels.” Society and Space 10, pp. 609650.
Leonard Z. 1990. Lesbians in the AIDS crisis. Pp. 2730 in Women, AIDS and Activism, edited by The ACT UP/NY Women and AIDS Book Group. Boston: South End Press.
Lurie R. 1990. Translating issues into actions: Introduction. Pp. 135138 in Women, AIDS and Activism, edited by The ACT UP/NY Women and AIDS Book Group. Boston: South End Press.

Listed by author.

Altman Lawrence K. 1993. “Widened Definition of AIDS Leads to More Reports of It.” The New York Times, April 30.
Askari Emilia. 1989. “Officers in Gloves Jail 80 at AIDS Protest: Activists Angry with Inaction by Federal Officials.” Herald Examiner, October 7.
Barker Karlyn. 1991., “Taking AIDS Battle to Capitol Hill.” The Washington Post, September 29.
Barro Josh. 2014. “Drug to Lower H.I.V. Risk Has Lone Public Naysayer.” The New York Times, Monday November 17, p. a16.
Behrens Steve. 1991. “Cardinal Blasts Airing of Documentary: Like Some Viewers, He’s No Fan of Point-of-View Shows.” Current, September 9, accessed online March 3, 2013, at http://www.current.org/wp-content/themes/current/archive-site.
Berke Richard L. 1991. “AIDS Battle Reverting to ‘Us Against Them.’” The New York Times, October 6.
Bernstein Sharon. 1991. “‘Stop the Church’ to Be Part of KCET Special.” Los Angeles Times, August 21.
Bernstein Sharon. 1991. “KCET Pays Price in Flap with Church.” Los Angeles Times, October 10, pp. F1, F10
Cenziper Debbie. 2009. “Investigation: Earmarked AIDS Funds Lack Oversight.” The Washington Post, October 19.
Cimons Marlene. 1990. “Activists Call for Expanded Definition of AIDS in Women.” Los Angeles Times, December 27, p. A5.
Clark Jeff. 1991. “LA Streets Still Sizzle.” Vanguard, 2:16 October 18, p. 1.
Clark Keith. 1991. “Near Riot in San Francisco.” Vanguard News and Reviews, 11:15 October 4, p. 1.
Coady Elizabeth. 1990.“300 Protest Definition of AIDS: ACT UP Group Claims CDC Is ‘Killing Women.’” Atlanta Journal and Constitution. December 4, p. D-2.
Cockburn Alexander. 1991. “Unchallenged, the Censors Will Prevail.” Los Angeles Times September 20.
Dawes Amy, and Elle Claudia. 1991. “Security Tight, Skies Clear, Traffic Smooth at Shrine.” Daily Variety, March 3.
Dawsey Darrell. 1989. “80 Arrested as AIDS Protest Is Broken Up.” Los Angeles Times, October 7.
Dyer R. A. 1992. “Dark Clouds Form for GOP Convention.” The Houston Chronicle, February 20, p. A17.
Ford Terri. 1991.“‘Stop the Church’ Stop the Censorship.” Frontiers, September 13, p. 27.
Fox David J. 1990. “Star Studded AIDS Fundraiser.” Los Angeles Times, September 7. Accessed July 10, 2012, at http://articles.latimes.com/1990–09-07/entertainment/ca-778_1_aids-research.
Freehill Gunther, and Martinez Eliseo Acevedo. 1991. “Blasphemy, Lies, Videotape: The Encounter Over AIDS: Public TV.” Los Angeles Times, September 13.
Fritsch Jane. 1990. “Activist Replaces Ailing City AIDS Coordinator.” Los Angeles Times, October 2, p. B7.
Frosch Dan. 2013. “Navajo Confront an Increase in New H.I.V. Infections.” The New York Times, May 20, p. A12.
Furillo Andy, Davilla Robert, and Hoge Patrick. 1991. “Downtown Engulfed by Gay Protest.” The Sacramento Bee, October 11, p. 1.
Gonzalez Cristina. 2011. “In Sickness and in Health: Love, Marriage, a Baby Carriage and … HIV?Real Health 25 Spring p. 9.
Grimaldi James V., and Wares Donna. 1990. “Frontera Wants Doctor Charged.” Orange County Register, December 6, pp. 1, 26.
Groopman Jerome. 2014. “Can AIDS be Cured?” The New Yorker, December 22 and 29, pp. 7896.
Gunnison Robert B. 1991. “Gay Rights Protest at State Capitol.” The San Francisco Chronicle, October 12, p. 1.
Harris Scott. 1991. “Gay Protests Spreads to LA Airport.” Los Angeles Times, October 10, pp. B1, B3.
Harris Scott. 1992. “Freed AIDS Patient Seeks Prison Reform.” Los Angeles Times, April 2, p. B2
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