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The Magical Imagination
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Book description

This innovative history of popular magical mentalities in nineteenth-century England explores the dynamic ways in which the magical imagination helped people to adjust to urban life. Previous studies of modern popular magical practices and supernatural beliefs have largely neglected the urban experience. Karl Bell, however, shows that the magical imagination was a key cultural resource which granted an empowering sense of plebeian agency in the nineteenth-century urban environment. Rather than portraying magical beliefs and practices as a mere enclave of anachronistic 'tradition' and the fantastical as simply an escapist refuge from the real, he reveals magic's adaptive and transformative qualities and the ways in which it helped ordinary people navigate, adapt to and resist aspects of modern urbanization. Drawing on perspectives from cultural anthropology, sociology, folklore and urban studies, this is a major contribution to our understanding of modern popular magic and the lived experience of modernization and urbanization.


'… an important reassessment of cultural history that explores the democratization, transformation, and persistence of magical beliefs.'

Jason Marc Harris Source: The Journal of British Studies

'This is a rich and evocative book, which, if the reader can forgive the occasional descent into social science jargon … should be required reading for any student of folklore, and will [be] of great value to anyone interested in the history of Manchester, Norwich or Portsmouth, or urban history, psychogeography or related topics.'

John Rimmer Source: Magonia Online

'Karl Bell’s The Magical Imagination offers further insights into what has become a vibrant field of enquiry, exploring the flourishing of magic in three British cities during the long nineteenth century. … The Magical Imagination offers multiple approaches that researchers in diverse fields will find useful.'

Justin Sausman Source: British Society for Literature and Science (

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Select bibliography

Unpublished manuscripts

Norfolk Heritage Centre, Norwich

  • C398.3 – F. D. Sayer, Notes for a Discussion on Norfolk Folklore and S. J. Coleman, Norfolk and Its Folklore

  • C398.4 – D. Rabuzzi, In Pursuit of Norfolk’s Hyter Sprites (1981)

Norfolk Record Office (NRO), Norwich

Hammond Collection

  • HMN6/211 – Traditions and Reminiscences.

  • HMN6/213 – Newspaper cuttings relating to the supernatural.

  • HMN6/216 – Witchcraft in Norfolk, Ghost stories, c.1900

Other collections

  • Bol 4/123 – ‘England and the English as They Were’

  • MC27/2 – Ghost-binding

  • MC1398/1 – Legend of Norwich Castle Hill

  • MC2134/1 – Superstitions and witchcraft in Norfolk

  • MS2/630/151 – Weatherlore, ghosts and witchcraft anecdotes

  • MS4322 – Unpublished notes for a book by M. R. Taylor

  • MS4412–13 – Notes on Folklore by M. R. Taylor

Great Yarmouth Library

  • L398 – W. Gerish (de Castre), Norfolk Folklore Collection (six handwritten volumes and index, 1916–1918)

Manchester Local Studies Archive Centre, Manchester Central Library

  • Box 537 – Newspaper Cuttings (Custom and Folklore 3)

  • BR 398.5 C24 – Publications by Swindells, Manchester

  • F942.72.M6 – News cuttings, including ‘Early Recollections of Middleton – Old Middletonians – Their Sayings and Doings’, ‘Superstitions of Middleton Parish’, ‘Omens, Good and Otherwise’, ‘A Few More Omens and Superstitions’, and ‘Traits and Illustrations of Moston Life’. (1880s – 1890)

  • F942 7389.M1 – Newspaper Cuttings 1845–1866

  • M 38/4/2/71 – G. Milner (ed.), Odds and Ends, vol. 11 (1894), and vol. 71 (1931)

  • Q942 7389 M79 – Newspaper cuttings vol. 1

Portsmouth Central Library – Local Collection

  • 942.27 – H. G. Ames (ed.), Portsmouth in 1880

  • 942.27 – Hants Newspaper Cuttings, vol. 2 (1800–1828)

  • 942.2792 – W. H. Saunders, Tales of Old Portsmouth

British Library – Manuscript Room

  • Add. 24545 – J. Brand, Observations on Popular Antiquities, vol. 2 (1813), heavily annotated by J. Hunter.

  • Add. 29531 – G. Grote, Essay on Magic (handwritten, 1820)

Wellcome Institute

MS5100 – W. Holt Yates, Essay on Superstition

Street Ballads and Broadsides

Pearson Ballad Collection, vols. 1–4 (Language and Literature Library, Manchester Central Library).

vol. 1

  • ‘The Factory Girl’s Dream’

  • ‘The Young Men and Girls of the Period – Charm Tablet’

  • ‘The Devil and Little Mike’

  • ‘Dean Church Ghost! A Recitation’

vol. 2

  • ‘Lancashire Witches’

  • ‘Young Women’s Dreams’

  • ‘The Butcher turned Devil’

vol. 3

  • ‘Teddy’s Ghost’

  • Ballads (Manchester Language and Literature Library ref. MS F821.04.B25)

  • ‘The Boggart o’ Gorton Chapelyard’

  • ‘Dialogue and Song between Captain Swing and Joan o’ Greenfield, on the Burning of both Houses of Parliament’

  • Broadside Ballads (Manchester Language and Literature Library ref. BR Q398.8.S9), vol. 2

  • ‘Funny Doings of the Manchester Ghost’

  • Norwich Songs, Ballads, Etc., vols. 1–4 (Norfolk Heritage Centre ref. C821.04, Colman 59B [XL])

vol. 2

  • ‘The Norwich Fortune Teller; or The Trip Discovered’

  • ‘Signs! And Tokens! or A Wonderful Apparition’

  • ‘The Charlie in a Hobble; or The Watchman Gone Over the Left’

  • ‘Strange Alterations or More Wonders Still’

  • ‘Astrology (or Predictive Astronomy)’

vol. 4

  • ‘The Disappointment of the Black Club’

  • ‘Gog and Magog’

  • ‘The Pranks of the Castle-Hill Ghosts; or, A Token of the Birth of Young Stormer’

  • ‘The Pranks of the Ghost; or Chapelfield Humbug’

  • ‘The Benefits of Mesmerism; or The Queen’s Pranks at Buckingham Palace’

  • ‘Window Smashing in Norwich; Or The Mad Pranks of a Glazier’s Ghost’

  • Broadsides, Ballads and Songs (Norfolk Heritage Centre ref. 821.04 [OS])

  • ‘The Adventures of Paddy O’Brien; or The Humbug off Mussel’

  • ‘The Adventures of Paddy O’Brien, or Mesmerism No Go’

  • ‘Most Astonishing and Wonderful Appearance of Three Monsters to Three Young Ladies, on Tuesday Night, August 18th 1829’

  • ‘The Philistines amongst the Bakers!’

  • ‘The Monster Humbug, or Norwichers Hoaxed Again’

  • Baring-Gould Collection (British Library)

  • ‘A Prophecy for 1973’

  • ‘A Hundred Years to Come’

  • Madden Collection (Cambridge University Library)

  • ‘A Choice Pennyworth of Wit and Fortune-teller’s New Guide,’ vol. 2, no. 133

  • ‘The Conjuror,’ vol. 7, no. 271

  • ‘The Prophecy,’ vol. 7, no. 562

  • ‘A Dream of Napoleon,’ vol. 18, no. 212

  • ‘Manchester’s an Altered Town,’ vol. 18, no. 820

  • ‘The Royal Fortune-Teller, or Good Advice to Maids, Wives and Widows,’ vol. 18, no. 994

  • ‘The Orton Ghost; or, The Devil Outwitted,’ vol. 18, no. 1137

  • ‘Prophecy for 1850,’ vol. 18, no. 1176

  • ‘Old Women’s Sayings!,’ vol. 21, no. 205

  • ‘The Devil and the Washerwomen,’ vol. 21, no. 440

  • ‘A Choice Pennyworth of Wit, and Fortune-teller’s New Guide,’ vol. 22, no. 133

Collected Ephemera – Handbills, Prints and Posters

  • Chetham Library, Manchester

  • Cambrics – A collection of posters and handbills, including a poster for Herman Boaz’s magical exhibitions in Manchester, 1798

  • Peoples Museum Archive, Manchester

  • NMLH 1993.372.42 – The Causes of the Present State of the Nation

  • PDB/NMLH 81 – Political Drama No. 17: State Witches Laying a Spell over the Country

  • Norfolk Heritage Centre

  • 942.615 MAN – Norwich Mancroft Ward (1812–1878) – Collected street ephemera

  • Colman 58B [OS] – Broadsides, Bills and Cuttings Collected by James Sillett (1893)

  • Colman 60A [XL] – Balloon Ascents – Public Gardens – Monster Fete – Theatres – A collection of handbills, theatre posters and street ballads from Norwich, 1700s –1890s

  • Portsmouth Central Library

  • Madden Collection of Playbills

  • Ref. 327 – Society’s Hall, Kent Street, Portsea – 2 Entertainments in 1 Wednesday October 13th 1841

  • Ref. 401 – Queen’s Room, Portsea, Positively the last four nights, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday November 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th 1853 – The Wizard of Wizards – Jacobs

  • (No reference given) – First Appearance of Mr Thioden in his grand TEMPLE OF MAGIC! in which he will introduce many novelties never seen in these Towns, April 1844

Pamphlets and Sermons

Anon., Extraordinary Life and Character of Mary Bateman, The Yorkshire Witch (6th edn, Leeds, John Davies, 1810)
Bentley, R., Consecration of Cemeteries Apostolical and Necessary – A Letter to the Mayor of Norwich (London, W. Kent and Co, 1855)
Capt. Cooper, The Duty of Constables (Norwich, Crouse and Stevenson, 1791)
Freeman, W., What Hinders the Progress of National Education? (Norwich, Jarrold and Sons, 1888)
Gunn, J., A Letter Addressed by Mr John Gunn to His Parishioners on His Resigning His Preferment and Retiring from the Ministry (Norwich, The Mercury Office, 1875)
Hatton, J., A Lecture on the Sanitary Conditions of Chorlton-upon-Medlock, delivered at the request of the Manchester and Salford Sanitary Association – January 12th 1854 (Manchester, Beresford and Galt, 1854)
Hull, R., Clairvoyance and the Clergy (Norwich, Jarrold and Sons,1850)
Love, B., ‘A Few Pages about Manchester’ (Manchester, Love and Barton, n.d.) in Miscellanies, a collection of pamphlets and manuscripts compiled by Henry D. Byng (Portsmouth Central Library, local collection ref. 123938 01/01)
Love, B., The Handbook of Manchester, 2nd edn (Manchester, Love and Barton, 1842)
Madge, T., The Importance of Education to the Poor Stated, and the Promotion of it recommended as an object of Christian Benevolence – A Sermon preached in The Chapel in Churchgate Street, Bury St Edmunds (Bury St. Edmunds, G. Ingram, 1810)
Morse, A., Education, Secular and Religious, in Townships (Swaffham, 1855)
Naylor, M. J., The Inanity and Mischief of Vulgar Superstitions (Cambridge, B. Flower, 1795)
Phayre, Revd. R., A Sermon Preached in the Parish Church of Raynham St. Mary on the Sinfulness of Astrology (Norwich, Charles Muskett, 1849)
Religious Tract Society, Magic, Pretended Miracles, and Remarkable Natural Phenomena (London, Religious Tract Society, 1848)
Religious Tract Society, Remarkable Delusions; or Illustrations of Popular Errors (London, Religious Tract Society, 1848)
Scott, R., An Analytical Investigation of the Scriptural Claims of The Devil: to which is added, an explanation of the terms SHEOL, HADES, and GEHENNA, as employed by the Scripture Writers: In a Series of Lectures, Delivered at Portsmouth, in the month of October, November, and December, 1820, – January, February, and March 1821 (London, 1822)
Stroughton, J., Mental Cultivation – An Address Delivered at the Town Hall, Windsor, June 8th 1836 (Eton, E. Williams and Son, 1836)
T. F. E., A Discourse on Table Rapping, Addressed to Some Inquiring Friends (21 December 1867)
Wigram, J. C., A Letter on the Spiritual Necessities of Portsea, within and without the walls, addressed to The Principal Inhabitants of the Town and its Vicinity (London, The Operative Jewish Converts Institution, 1851)


Many of these chapbooks do not cite authors, publishers, or dates of publication. This information is only given where indicated.

The Conjurer Unmasked, or The Magical Mirror (Manchester, n.d.)
The Family Oracle; or The Art of Preserving Beauty (Newcastle, 1828)
The Gipsy’s Oracle by the Celebrated Mother Shipton (London, n.d.)
The Golden Dreamer; or, Dreams Realised, Containing the Interpretation of a Great Variety of Dreams (Glasgow, c.1850)
A Groatsworth of Wit for a Penny; or, The Interpretation of Dreams (n.d.)
Wesley, J., Household Receipt Book, or Primitive Physic (Leeds, n.d.)
Ingelsby’s New London Conjurer; or Whole Art of Legerdemain (Otley, n.d.)
The Ladies’ New Dream Book (Manchester, Thomas Pearson, n.d.)
Life and Prophecies of Robert Nixon, of the Bridge-house, Near the Forest of Delamere, in Cheshire (Manchester, n.d.)
Life, Death, and the Whole of the Wonderful Prophecies of Mother Shipton, the Northern Prophetess (Manchester, n.d.)
Boreman, T., Love’s True Oracle, or a New and Curious Fortune Book, both for Men, Maids, Wives and Widows (Newcastle, M. Angus, n.d.)
Mother Bunch’s Closet Newly Broke Open, part 1 (Newcastle, n.d.)
Napoleon Bonaparte’s Celebrated Book of Fate (Derby, n.d.)
A New and Well-Experienced Card Fortune Book (Manchester, n.d.)
Partridge and Flamstead’s New and Well Experienced Fortune Book (Newcastle, n.d.)
Aarons, J., The Poor Man’s Friend, and Guide to Health; or Invaluable Remedies (Manchester, 1847)
The Second Part of Mother Bunch of the West, containing many Rarities out of her Golden Closet of Curiosities (Newcastle, n.d.)
Tales of Wonder (Manchester, n.d.)
The Universal Dream Book; or, Dreamers’ Interpreter (Leeds, Webb, Millington and Co., n.d.)
The Universal Dreamer; or The Secrets of Futurity Disclosed (London, Ryle and Co, n.d.)
The Whole Art of Legerdemain; or, The Conjurer Unmasked (Derby, n.d.)
The Witch of the the Woodlands; or The Cobler’s New Translation (London, Howard and Evans, n.d.)

Newspaper and Magazines

  • Ainsworth’s Magazine

  • Ashton-under-Lyne Reporter

  • Birmingham Daily Post

  • Cassell’s Illustrated Family Paper

  • Cassell’s Saturday Journal

  • Chamber’s Journal

  • City News

  • Eastern Daily Press

  • Gorton and Openshaw Reporter

  • Hampshire Telegraph

  • Household Words

  • The Hull Packet

  • The Leigh Chronicle

  • Manchester City News

  • Manchester Evening News

  • Manchester Guardian

  • Manchester Journal; or Prescott’s Lancashire Advertiser

  • Manchester Times

  • The Monitor

  • New Monthly Magazine and Universal Register

  • Norfolk Chronicle and Norwich Gazette

  • Norfolk and Norwich Monitor, and Police Gazette

  • Norwich Mercury

  • Oldham Chronicle

  • Pall Mall Gazette

  • Reynolds’ Miscellany of Romance, General Literature, Science, and Art

  • The Times

Notes and Queries Collections

Cheshire Notes and Queries, vol. 1 (1881) and vol. 2 (1882)
East Anglian Notes and Queries, vols. 1–4 (1864–1871)
Hampshire Notes and Queries, vol. 1 (1883) and vol. 3 (1887)
Manchester City News Notes and Queries, vols. 1–7 (1878–1888)
Norfolk and Norwich Notes and Queries, vol. 1 (1896–99) and vol. 2 (1899–1904)


Cranworth, E. F., ‘East Anglian Superstitions’, Eastern Counties Magazine, vol. 1 (1901), pp. 115–20, and Eastern Counties Magazine, vol. 1, 3 (1901), pp. 169–75
Gunn, Rev. J., ‘Proverbs, Adages and Popular Superstitions, Still Preserved in the Parish of Irstead’, Norfolk Archaeology, vol. 2 (1849), pp. 291–308
Jessop, A., ‘Superstition in Arcady’, The Nineteenth Century (1882), pp. 733–55
Knights, M., ‘Some Old Inn Signs of Norwich’, East Anglian Handbook and Agricultural Annual for 1884 (1884), pp. 75–81
Ollier, C., ‘A Few Passages on Dreams, Night-Noises, and Phantoms’, Ainsworth’s Magazine, 5 (June 1844), pp. 504–09
Roeder, C., ‘Some Moston Folk-Lore’, Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, vol. 25 (1907), pp. 65–78
Roper, C., ‘On Witchcraft Superstition in Norfolk’, Harper’s New Monthly Magazine (October 1893), pp. 792–97
Sargeant, H., Portsmouth in History and Literature, The Library Association Record, May 1938, pp. 218–22
Schiller, F. C. S., ‘A Commercial View of the Occult’, The Occult Review (January 1905), pp. 16–18
Taylor, M., ‘Norfolk Folklore’, Folk-lore, vol. 40, no. 2 (June 1929), pp. 113–33
Thelwell, M., ‘The Power of Darkness’, The Eastern Counties Magazine, vol. 1 (1900–1901), pp. 291–98
Varden, J. T., ‘Traditions, Superstitions, and Folklore, chiefly relating to the Counties of Norfolk and Suffolk’, East Anglian Handbook for 1885 (Norwich, 1885), pp. 65–132

Primary Texts

Ainsworth, W. H., The Lancashire Witches (London, Chapman and Hall, 1851)
Allen, L., The History of Portsmouth (London, Hatfield & Co, 1817)
Andrews, W. (ed.), Bygone Norfolk (London, W. Andrews & Co, 1898)
Ashton, J., Chapbooks of the Eighteenth Century (London, Chatto and Windus, 1882)
Axon, W., The Annals of Manchester: A Chronological Record from the Earliest Times to the End of 1885 (Manchester, John Heywood, 1886)
Axon, W., Echoes of Old Lancashire (London, W. Andrews & Co, 1899)
Axon, W., Folk Songs and Folk Speech of Lancashire (Manchester, Tubbs and Brook, 1871)
Axon, W., Lancashire Gleanings (Manchester, Tubbs, Brook & Chrystal, 1883)
Baines, E., Baines History of Lancashire, vol. 2 (Manchester, John Heywood, 1889)
Bamford, S., Passages in the Life of a Radical, vol. 1 – Early Days (London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1893)
Bayne, A. D., A Comprehensive History of Norwich (Norwich, Jarrold and Sons, 1869)
Bentley, R., Consecration of Cemeteries Apostolical and Necessary – A Letter to the Mayor of Norwich (London, W. Kent, 1854)
Besant, W., and J. Rice, By Celia’s Arbour: A Tale of Portsmouth Town (London, Chatto and Windus, 1885)
Blitz, S., Fifty Years in the Magic Circle (San Francesco, A. L. Bancroft & Co, 1871)
Bowker, J., Goblin Tales of Lancashire (London, W. Swan Sonnenschein & Co, 1883)
Brierley, B., Home Memories, and Recollections of a Life (Manchester, Heywood & Son, 1886)
Brierley, B., Tales and Sketches of Lancashire Life, vol. 6 (Manchester, Heywood, 1885)
Buckingham, J. S., National Evils and Practical Remedies (London, Peter Jackson, 1849)
Clarke, A., Life and Labours of Adam Clarke, 2nd edn (London, Longman, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1842)
Culyer, E. A., Old Norfolk Inns: An Account of the Body-Snatchers in Norfolk (Norwich, Jarrold and Sons, 1888)
Dew, W., A Dyshe of Norfolke Dumplings (London, Jarrold and Sons, 1898)
Dipose, J., Omens and Superstitions: Curious Facts and Illustrative Sketches (Edinburgh, W. P.Nimmo, 1868)
Dolling, R. R., Ten Years in a Portsmouth Slum (London, Brown, Langham & Co, 1903)
Elliotson, Dr., Mesmerism in India (London, Hippolyte Bailliere, 1850)
Folio, F., Hawkers, Street Dealers and Quacks of the North of England Manufacturing Districts, their Dealings, Dodgings and Doings (Manchester, Heywood, 1858)
Forby, R., The Vocabulary of East Anglia, vol. 2 (London, J. B. Nichols and Son, 1830)
Forsyth, J. S., Demonologia; or Natural Knowledge Revealed (London, John Bumpus, 1827)
Fovargue, S., A New Catalogue of Vulgar Errors (Cambridge, 1767)
Gales, R. L., The Vanished Country Folk and Other Studies in Arcady (London, Simpkin & Co, 1914)
Gates, W. G., Free Mart Fair – Sketches of Old Portsmouth (Portsmouth, Charpentier, 1897)
Glyde, J., The Norfolk Garland (London, Jarrold and Sons, 1872)
Gomme, G. L., Folklore as an Historical Science (London, Methuen & Co, 1908)
Gomme, G. L., (ed.), The Gentleman’s Magazine Library, being a classified collection of the chief contents of The Gentleman’s Magazine from 1731 to 1868: ‘Popular Superstitions’ (London, Elliot Stock, 1884)
Gooch, R., The Dreamer’s Casket, or Oneiromancy Made Easy (Norwich, A. Goose, 1850)
Goodwin, W., Lives of the Necromancers (London, Frederick Mason, 1834)
Hardwick, C., Traditions, Superstitions, and Folklore (Manchester, A. Ireland, 1872)
Harland, J. (ed.), Ballads and Songs of Lancashire, Ancient and Modern (London, George Routledge, 1875)
Harland, J.Manchester Collectanea, vol. 1 (Manchester, Chetham Society, 1866) and vol. 2 (Manchester, Chetham Society, 1867)
Harland, J., and T. T. Wilkinson, Lancashire Legends (Manchester, John Heywood, 1882)
Harland, J., and T. T. Wilkinson,Lancashire Folk-Lore (London, Frederick Warne and Co, 1867)
Henderson, W., Notes on the Folk-lore of the Northern Counties of England and the Borders (London, Folk-lore Society, 1879)
Higson, J., Historical and Descriptive Notices of Droylsden, Past and Present (Didsbury, E. J. Morton, 1859)
Hone, W., The Everyday Book, vol. 2 (London, Thomas Tegg, 1833)
Hone, W., The Table Book, vol. 1 (London, Thomas Tegg, 1831)
Hudson, W. H., Hampshire Days (Reading, Barry Shurlock, 1903)
Hunt, J., Religious Thought in the Nineteenth Century (London, Gibbings & Co, 1896)
James, M. H., Bogie Tales of East Anglia (Ipswich, Pawsey and Hayes, 1891)
Jones, W., Credulities Past and Present (London, Chatto and Windus, 1880)
Kay, J. P., The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Class Employed in the Cotton Manufacture in Manchester – 2nd edn (London, James Ridgway, 1832)
Kent, C., The Land of the ‘Babes in the Wood’ or The Breckland of Norfolk (Norwich, Jarrold and Sons, 1910)
Knights, M., The Highways and Byeways of Old Norwich (Norwich, Jarrold and Sons, 1887)
Knights, M., Norfolk Stories – The Phantom Horseman, The Lost Village and Our Bells (Norwich, Jarrold, 1880)
Leland, C. G., Gypsy Sorcery and Fortune-Telling (London, Unwin, 1891)
L’Estrange, J. (ed.), Eastern Counties Collectanea (Norwich, Thomas Tallack, 1873)
Mackay, C., Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds (London, Richard Bentley, 1841)
Madders, S. S., Rambles in an Old City (London, Thomas Newby, 1853)
Martineau, H., Letters on Mesmerism (London, Edward Moxon, 1845)
Mayo, H., On the Truth Contained in Popular Superstitions with an Account of Mesmerism (Edinburgh, William Blackwood and Sons, 1851)
Moir, G., Magic and Witchcraft (London, Chapman and Hall, 1852)
Moutray Read, D. H., Highways and Byways in Hampshire (London, MacMillan, 1908)
NUT, National Union of Teachers Conference Souvenir – Portsmouth and its Story (University of London Press, 1926)
Newnham, W., Essay on Superstition: Being an Inquiry into the Effects of Physical Influence on the Mind (London, J. Hatchard and Son, 1830)
Ormerod, F., Lancashire Life and Character, 2nd edn (Manchester, John Heywood, 1915)
Porter, J., History of the Fylde of Lancashire (Blackpool, W. Porter and Sons, 1876)
Roback, C. W., The Mysteries of Astrology and the Wonders of Magic (London, Sampson Low, 1854)
Roby, J., Traditions of Lancashire, vol. 2 (Manchester, John Heywood, 1831)
Rye, W., A History of Norfolk (London, Elliot Stock, 1885)
Rye, W., Rubbish and Nonsense (Norwich, A. Goose, 1887)
Rye, W., Songs, Stories and Sayings of Norfolk (Norwich, 1897)
Rye, W., Tourist’s Guide to Norfolk (London, Edward Stanford, 1880)
Rye, W., (ed.), The Norfolk Antiquarian Miscellany, part 2 (Norwich, Samuel Miller & Co, 1877)
St. John, J. A., The Education of the People (London, Chapman & Hall, 1858)
Salverte, E. (with notes by A. T. Thomas MD), The Occult Sciences – The Philosophy of Magic, Prodigies and Apparent Miracles (London, Richard Bentley, 1846)
Sewell, Stories in Verse for the Street and Lane (London, Jarrold and Sons, 1861)
Shore, T. W., History of Hampshire, including the Isle of Wight (London, Elliot Stock, 1892)
Slight, H., History of Portsmouth (Portsmouth, 1838)
Strickland Constable, H., Observations suggested by the Cattle Plague, about Witchcraft, Credulity, Superstition, Parliamentary Reform and other Matters (London, Dalton and Lucy, 1866)
Suffling, E., The Land of the Broads, (Stratford, Benjamin Perry, 1892)
Tomlinson, W., Bye-ways of Manchester Life (Manchester, Butterworth and Nodal, 1887)
Wright, G. N., and T. Allen, Lancashire – Its History, Legends and Manufactures, vol. 2 (London, Peter Jackson, 1842)
Wright, T., Narratives of Sorcery and Magic, vol. 2 (London, G. T. Palmer, 1851)
Wright Procter, R., Memorials of Manchester Streets (Manchester, Thomas Sutcliffe, 1874)

Secondary Texts

Abrams, L. ‘The Unseamed Picture: Conflicting Narratives of Women in the Modern European Past’ in A. Shepard and G. Walker (eds.), Gender and Change – Agency, Chronology and Periodisation (Oxford, Blackwell, 2009), pp. 222–41
Ackroyd, P., Albion – The Origins of the English Imagination (London, Chatto and Windus, 2002)
Ackroyd, P., London – The Biography (London, Chatto and Windus, 2000)
Adorno, T., and M. Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment (London, Verso, 1997)
Ahmed, S., and A. Fortier, ‘Re-imagining communities’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 6, 3 (2003), pp. 251–59
Altick, R., The Shows of London (Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press, 1978)
Amin, A., and N. Thrift, Cities – Reimagining the Urban (Cambridge, Polity Press, 2002)
Anon., Parish of Milton, Portsmouth – A Short History 1844–1944 (Portsmouth, 1944)
Ashton, J., ‘Beyond Survivialism: Regional Folkloristics in Late-Victorian England’, Folklore, vol. 108 (1997), pp. 19–23
Atkin, M., Norwich, History and Guide (Stroud, Sutton Publishing, 1993)
Bailey, M. D., ‘The Meanings of Magic’, Magic, Ritual, and Witchcraft, vol. 1 (Summer 2006), pp. 1–23
Bakhtin, M., Rabalais and His World, trans. H. Iswolsky (Bloomington, University of Indiana Press, 1984)
Balshaw, M., and L. Kennedy (eds.), Urban Space and Representation (London, Pluto Press, 2000)
Barringer, C. (ed.), Norwich in the Nineteenth Century (Norwich, Gliddon Books, 1984)
Barry, J., ‘Hell upon Earth or the Language of the Playhouse’ in S. Clark (ed.) Languages of Witchcraft – Narrative, Ideology and Meaning in Early Modern Culture (Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2001), pp. 139–58
Barry, J., ‘Literacy and Literature in Popular Culture: Reading and Writing in Historical Perspective’, in T. Harris (ed.), Popular Culture in England, c.1500–1850 (Basingstoke, Palgrave, 1995), pp. 69–94
Barthes, R., ‘Semiology and the Urban’ in N. Leach (ed.), Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory (London, Routledge, 1997), pp. 166–72
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