Skip to main content
Maintenance in Medieval England
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Maintenance in Medieval England
    • Online ISBN: 9781107358324
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This is the first book covering those who abused and misused the legal system in medieval England and the initial attempts of the Anglo-American legal system to deal with these forms of legal corruption. Maintenance, in the sense of intermeddling in another person's litigation, was a source of repeated complaint in medieval England. This book reveals for the first time what actually transpired in the resultant litigation. Extensive study of the primary sources shows that the statutes prohibiting maintenance did not achieve their objectives because legal proceedings were rarely brought against those targeted by the statutes: the great and the powerful. Illegal maintenance was less extensive than frequently asserted because medieval judges recognized a number of valid justifications for intermeddling in litigation. Further, the book casts doubt on the effectiveness of the statutory regulation of livery. This is a treasure trove for legal historians, literature scholars, lawyers, and academic libraries.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
C 1

Court of Chancery: Six Clerks Office: Early Proceedings, Richard II to Philip and Mary

C 66

Chancery and Supreme Court of Judicature

CP 40

Court of Common Pleas: Plea Rolls


Justices in Eyre, of Assize, of Oyer et Terminer, and of the Peace, etc.; Rolls

KB 9

Court of King’s Bench: Crown Side: Indictment Files, Oyer et Terminer Files and Information Files

KB 27

Court of Kings’ Bench: Plea and Crown Sides: Coram Rege Rolls

KB 29

Court of King’s Bench: Crown Side: Controllment Rolls

KB 146

Court of King’s Bench: Plea Side: Panella Files

SC 8

Special Collections: Ancient Petitions

  • MS Additional 20,059

  • MS Additional 31,826

  • MS Harley 445

  • MS Harley 748

  • MS Harley 961

  • MS Harley 1118

  • MS Harley 4021

  • MS Harley 4701

  • MS Lansdowne 466

  • MS Additional 3469

  • MS Additional 3505

  • MS Additional 6854

  • MS Ee. 5.22

  • MS Ff. 5.19

  • MS Gg. 5.19

  • MS Hh. 2.11

  • MS Additional A 107

  • MS Hatton 28

  • MS 177

Am. Bar Assoc. Model Rules of Professional Conduct (1983).
Ancient Charters Royal and Private Prior to A.D. 1200, Round J.H., ed., 10 Pipe Roll Society (London, 1888).
Anglo-Norman Political Songs, Aspin Isabel, ed. (Oxford, 1953).
The Anonimalle Chronicle 1333 to 1381, Galbraith V.H. ed., (New York, 1970).
Bacon’s History of the Reign of King Henry VII, Rawson J., ed., (Cambridge, 1885).
Bede, The Ecclesiastical History of England (Oxford, 1994).
Blackstone William, 4 vols., Commentaries on the Laws of England (London, 1765–69; facsimile of the first edition, Chicago, 1979).
Bracton de Legibus et Conseutudinibus Angliae, Woodbine G., ed., and Thorne Samuel, trans., 4 vols. (Cambridge, MA, 1968).
Britton, Nichols F. M., ed., 2 vols. (Oxford, 1865).Calendar of Chancery Warrants, A.D. 1244–1326 (London, 1927).
Calendar of Close Rolls, Edward I 1279–1288 (London, 1902).
Calendar of Close Rolls, Edward I, 1302–07 (London, 1908).
Calendar of Close Rolls, Edward II 1318–1323 (London, 1895).
Calendar of Close Rolls, Edward III 1354–1360 (London, 1908).
Calendar of Close Rolls, Henry IV 1399–1402 (London, 1927).
Calendar of Fine Rolls, Edward I. A.D. 1272–1307 (London, 1911).
Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward I, A.D. 1272–81 (London, 1901).
Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward I, A.D. 1301–07 (London, 1898).
Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward III, A.D. 1330–1334 (London, 1893).
Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward III, A.D. 1343–45 (London, 1902).
Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward III, A.D. 1345–48 (London, 1902).
Calendar of Patent Rolls, Henry VII 1485–1494 (London, 1914).
Calendars of the Proceedings in Chancery in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, 2 vols. (London, 1827).
“The Carpenters: The Resurrection” in Richard Beadle, ed., The York Plays. A Critical Edition of the York Corpus Christi Play as Recorded in British Library, MS Additional 35290, 2 vols. (Early English Text Society, Supplementary Series 23, Oxford, 2009).
The Charters of the Honour of Mowbray, Greenway D.E., ed. (London, 1972).
Chrimes S.B., and Brown A.L., eds., Select Documents of English Constitutional History 1307–1485 (London, 1961).
The Complete Works of John Gower, Macaulay G.C., ed., 4 vols. (Oxford, 1899).
Conventum inter Guillelmum Acquitanorum comitem et Hugonem Chiliarchum, reprinted and translated in Martindale Jane, ed., Status Authority and Regional Power: Acquitaine and France, 9th to 12th Centuries (Aldershot, 1997).
Cowell John, The Interpreter (Cambridge, 1637).
Coke Edward, The First Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England or a Commentary on Littleton, 2 vols. (London, 1832).
Coke Edward, The Second Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England (London, 2 vols. (1797; reprint, 1986).
Coke Edward, The Fourth Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England, 2 vols. (London, 1797; reprint, 1986).
Crown Pleas of the Wiltshire Eyre 1249, Meekings C.A.F., ed. (Devizes, 1961).
De Pace Regis et Regni (London, 1609; reprint, 2007).
Digest of Justinian, Watson Alan, ed., 4 vols. (Philadelphia, 1998).
Dugdale William, Monasticon Anglicanum, 6 vols. (London, 1847).
Early Yorkshire Charters, Farrer William, ed., 12 vols. (Edinburgh, 1914).
English Historical Documents, Douglas David, ed., 3 vols. (London, 1953).
English Historical Documents, Douglas David, ed., 10 vols. (New York, 1969).
The Eyre of Northamptonshire, 3–4 Edward III, A.D. 1329–1330, Sutherland Donald, ed., 2 vols. (London, 1983), Selden Society, vols. 97 and 98.
Fitzhberbert Anthony, La Graunde Abridgement (London, 1577).
Fitzhberbert Anthony, The New Natura Brevium, 9th ed. (Dublin, 1793).
Fleta, Sayles G.O., ed. and trans., 3 vols. (London, 1953, 1972, 1983), Selden Society, vols. 72, 89,
Foulke Le Fitz Waryn, Hathaway E.J., Ricketts P.T., Robson C.A., and Wilshere A.D., eds. (Oxford: Anglo-Norman Text Society, 1975).
Hawkins William, A Treatise of the Pleas of the Crown, 5th ed. (London, 1771).
Hoccleve Thomas, The Regiment of Princes, Charles Blythe, ed., METS TEXTS, Teams, Middle English Texts Series,
Jacob Giles, A New Law Dictionary, 9th ed. (London, 1772).
Langland William, The Vision of Piers Plowman, Schmidt A.V.C., ed. (New York, 1978).
Langland William, Piers Plowman: A Parallel-Text Edition of the A, B, C, and Z Versions, 2nd ed., Schmidt A.V.C., ed., 3 vols. (Kalamazoo, 2011).
The Law Commission, Proposals for Reform of the Law Relating to Maintenance and Champerty (London, 1966).
Leges Henri Primi, Downer L.J., ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972).
Liber de Antiquis Legibus: Cronica Maiorum et Vicecomitum Londonarium, Stapleton Thomas, ed. Camden Society, original series, 34 (1846; reprint, New York 1968).
The Macro Plays, Eccles Mark, ed. (London, 1969).
Ministry of Justice, Review of Civil Litigation Costs: Final Report (2009), pp. 125–33, (Jackson Proposals).
“Mum and the Sothsegger,” James Dean, ed., METS TEXTS, Teams, Middle English Texts Series,
Munimenta Gildhallae Londoniensis, Henry Riley, ed., 4 vols. (Rolls Series, London, 1860–62).
The National Archives,
Novae Narrationes, Elsie Shanks and S.F.C. Milsom, eds., Selden Society, vol. 80 (London, 1963).
Parliament Rolls of Medieval England, C. Given-Wilson, Paul Brand, Seymour Phillips, Mark Ormrod, Geoffrey Martin, Anne Curry, and Rosemary Horrox, eds. (online version).
Paston Letters and Papers of the Fifteenth Century, Norman Davis, Richard Beadle, and Colin Richmond, eds., 3 vols. Early English Text Society, Supplementary Series 20–22 (Oxford, 2004–05).
The Poems of William of Shoreham, Konrath M., ed. Early English Text Society, Extra Series, LXXXVI (London, 1902).
Private Indentures for Life Service in Peace and War 1278–1476, in XXII Camden Misc. (5th ser.), Michael Jones and Simon Walker, eds. (London, 1994).
Rastell William, A Collection of Entrees (London, 1670).
Rastell William, Les Termes de la Ley (London, 1721).
Register of Early Writs, Elsa de Haas and G.D.G. Hall, eds. (London, 1970), Selden Society, vol. 87.
Registrum Omnium Brevium tam Originalium quam Judicialium, William Rastell, ed., 3 vols. (London, 1531).
“Richard the Redeless,” James Dean, ed., METS TEXTS, Teams, Middle English Texts Series,
The Riverside Chaucer, 3rd ed., Larry Benson, ed. (Dallas, 1987).
Rotuli Parliamentorum, 6 vols. (London, 1767).
“Second Shepherd’s Play,” in A.C. Cawley, ed., in The Wakefield Pageants in the Towneley Cycle (Manchester, 1958), pp. 43–63.
Select Cases in Chancery, William Baildon, ed. (London, 1896), Selden Society, vol. 10.
Select Cases in the Council of Henry VII, C.G. Bayne and William Huse Dunham, eds. (London, 1958), Selden Society, vol. 75.
Select Cases in the Court of the King’s Bench, G.O. Sayles, ed., 7 vols. (London, 1939), Selden Society, vols. 55, 57, 58, 74, 76, 82, 88.
Selected English Works of John Wyclif, Thomas Arnold, ed., 3 vols. (Oxford, 1871) (republished in Liberty Fund Online).
Smith Thomas, De Republica Anglorum (London, 1583; 1970 ed.).
Solictors Regulation Authority, Code of Conduct 2011.
Statutes of the Realm, A. Luders, T. Tomlins, J. France, W. Tauton, and J. Raithby, eds., 11 vols. (London, 1810–28).
Staunford William, Les Plees del Coron (London, 1567; 1971 ed.).
Surveys of the Estates of Glastonbury Abbey c. 1135–1201, Stacy N.E., ed. (Oxford, 2001).
The Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Realm of England Commonly Called Glanvill, Hall G.D.G., ed. and trans., (Oxford, 1993).
Viner Charles, Abridgement, 2nd ed. (London, 1793).
Acheson Eric, A Gentry Community: Leicestershire in the Fifteenth Century (Cambridge, 2003).
Alford John, “Literature and Law in Medieval England,” PMLA 92 (1977), pp. 941–51.
Alford John, Piers Plowman: A Glossary of Legal Diction (Cambridge, 1988).
Alford John, A Companion to Piers Plowman (Berkeley, 1988).
Alford John, and Seniff Dennis, Literature and Law in the Middle Ages (New York, 1984).
Alford Ryan Patrick, “The Star Chamber and the Regulation of the Legal Profession,” American Journal of Legal History 51 (2011), pp. 639726.
Andrews Neil, English Civil Procedure: Fundamentals of the New Civil Justice System (Oxford, 2003).
Andrews Neil, Contract Law (Cambridge, 2011).
Anglo-Norman Dictionary Online.
Avery Margaret, “The History of the Equitable Jurisdiction of Chancery before 1460,” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 42 (1969), pp. 129–44.
Baker J.H., The Order of Serjeants at Law (London, 1984).
Baker J.H., “Counsellors and Barristers” in The Legal Profession and the Common Law (London, 1986), pp. 99124.
Baker J.H., “Solicitors and the Law of Maintenance 1590–1640,” in The Legal Profession and the Common Law (London, 1986), pp. 125–50.
Baker J.H., Introduction to English Legal History, 4th ed. (London, 2002).
Baker J.H., The Oxford History of the Laws of England, vol. VI: 1483–1558 (Oxford, 2003).
Baker J.H., “Note: The Inn of the Outer Temple,” Law Quarterly Review 124 (2008), pp. 384–87.
Baker J.H., The Men of Court 1440–1550 2 vols. (London, 2012).
Baldwin J.F., The King’s Council in England during the Middle Ages (Gloucester, MA, 1913; reprint, 1965).
Baldwin William Edward, ed., Bouvier’s Law Dictionary, Baldwin’s Edition (Cleveland, 1934).
Barlow Frank, The Feudal Kingdom of England 1042–1216, 5th ed. (London, 1999).
Barton J.L., “Equity in Medieval Common Law,” in Newman Ralph, ed., Equity in the World’s Legal Systems (Brussels, 1973), pp. 139–59.
Baxter Stephen, Karkov Catherine, Nelson Janet L., and Pelteret David, eds., Early Medieval Studies in Memory of Patrick Wormald (Farnham, 2009).
Baxter Stephen, Karkov Catherine, Nelson Janet L., and Pelteret David, “Lordship and Justice in Late Anglo-Saxon England: The Judicial Functions of Soke and Commendation Revisited,” in Baxter, Karkov, Nelson, and Pelteret, eds., Early Medieval Studies, pp. 389–407.
Bean J.M.W., From Lord to Patron (Pittsburgh, 1989).
Beardwood Alice, “The Trial of Walter Langton, Bishop of Lichfield, 1307–1313,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 54 (1964), pp. 145.
Bellamy J.G., “The Coterel Gang: An Anatomy of a Band of Fourteenth-Century Criminals,” The English Historical Review, 79 (1964), pp. 698717.
Bellamy J.G., “Justice under the Yorkist Kings,” American Journal of Legal History 9 (1965), pp. 135–55.
Bellamy J.G., Crime and Public Order in England in the Middle Ages (London, 1973).
Bellamy J.G., Criminal Law and Society in Late Medieval and Tudor England (New York, 1984).
Bellamy J.G., Bastard Feudalism and the Law (Portland, 1989), pp. 79101.
Bennett Michael, Richard II and the Revolution of 1399 (Gloucester, 1999).
Black’s Law Dictionary, 6th ed. (St. Paul, 1990).
Bodkin Edmund, The Law of Maintenance and Champerty and the Lawful Financing of Actions by Solicitors, Legal Aid and Trade Protection Societies and Others (London, 1934).
Booth Paul, “The Last Week of the Life of Edward the Black Prince,” in Skoda Hannah, Lantschner Patrick, and Shaw R.J., Contract and Exchange in Later Medieval Europe: Essays in Honor of Malcolm Vale (Woodbridge, 2012), pp. 221–45.
Booth Paul, “Taxation and Public Order: Cheshire in 1353,” Northern History 12 (1976), pp. 1625.
Brand Paul, “Oldcotes v. d’Arcy,” in Hunnisett R.F. and Post J.B., eds., Medieval Legal Records Edited in Memory of C. A. F. Meekings (London, 1978), pp. 64113.
Brand Paul, The Making of the Common Law (London, 1992).
Brand Paul, The Origins of the English Legal Profession (Oxford, 1992).
Brand Paul, “Ethical Standards for Royal Justices in England, c. 1175–1307,” The University of Chicago Law School Roundtable, 8 (2001), pp. 250–74.
Brand Paul, “Stewards, Bailiffs, and the Emerging Legal Profession,” in Evans Ralph, ed., Lordship and Learning: Studies in Memory of Trevor Austin (Woodbridge, 2004), pp. 139–53.
Brooks Christopher, Pettyfoggers and Vipers of the Commonwealth (Cambridge, 1986).
Brooks Christopher, Lawyers, Litigation, and English Society since 1450 (London, 1998).
Brundage James, “Vultures, Whores, and Hypocrites: Images of Lawyers in Medieval Literature,” Roman Legal Tradition 1 (2002), pp. 56103.
Bryan James, The Development of the English Law of Conspiracy (Baltimore, 1909).
Burrow J.A.Lady Meed and the Power of Money,” Medium Aevum 74.1 (2005), pp. 113–18.
Cam Helen, “Studies in the Hundred Rolls: Some Aspects of Thirteenth-Century Administration,” in Vinogradoff Paul, ed., Oxford Studies in Social and Legal History (1921; reprint, New York, 1974), pp. 1198.
Cam Helen, The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls (London, 1930).
Cameron A., “The Giving of Livery and Retaining in Henry VII’s Reign,” Renaissance and Modern Studies 18 (1974), pp. 1735.
Carpenter Christine, “Law, Justice, and Landowners in Late Medieval England,” Law and History Review 1 (1983), pp. 205237.
Carpenter Christine, Locality and Polity: A Study of Warwickshire Landed Society, 1401–1499 (Cambridge, 1992).
Carpenter Christine, The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, c. 1437–1509 (Cambridge, 1997).
Carpenter Christine, “England: The Nobility and the Gentry,” in Rigby S.G., ed., A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2003), pp. 261–82.
Carpenter D.A.The Second Century of English Feudalism,” Past & Present 168 (2000), pp. 3071.
Castor Helen, The King, the Crown, and the Duchy of Lancaster (Oxford, 2000).
Chrimes S.B., Henry VII (Berkeley, 1972).
Clanchy Michael, “Law and Love in the Middle Ages,” in Bossy John, ed., Disputes and Settlememts: Law and Human Relations in the West (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 4767.
Clark Elaine, “Some Aspects of Social Security in Medieval England, Journal of Family Law 7 (1982), pp. 307–20.
Clark Linda, ed., Parchment and People: Parliament in the Middle Ages (Edinburgh, 2004).
Cohen Herman, A History of the English Bar and Attornatus to 1450 (London, 1929).
Condon M.M., “Anachronism with Intent? Henry VII’s Council Ordinance of 1491/2,” in Griffiths Ralph and Sherborne James, eds., Kings and Nobles in the Later Middle Ages (Gloucester, 1986), pp. 228–53.
Coss Peter, “Bastard Feudalism Revised,” Past & Present, 125 (1989), pp. 2764.
Coss Peter, Lordship, Knighthood and Locality (Cambridge, 1991).
Coss Peter, The Origins of the English Gentry (Cambridge, 2003).
Coss Peter, “Hilton, Lordship and the Culture of the Gentry,” in Dyer Christopher, Coss Peter, and Wickham Chris, eds., Rodney Hilton’s Middle Ages: An Exploration of Historical Theories, Past & Present Supplement 2 (Oxford, 2007), pp. 3452.
Crook David, “The Later Eyres,” The English Historical Review 97 (1982), pp. 241–68.
Crook David, Records of the General Eyre (London, 1982).
Crook David, “Triers and the Origin of the Grand Jury,” Journal of Legal History 12 (1991), pp. 103–16.
Crouch David, “Bastard Feudalism Revised,” Past & Present 131 (1991), pp. 170–77.
Cunningham Sean, Henry VII (London, 2007).
Davies R.R., Lords and Lordship in the British Isles in the Late Middle Ages (Oxford, 2009).
DeWindt Edwin, The Liber Gersumarum of Ramsey Abbey: A Calendar and Index of B.L. Harley MS 445 (Toronto, 1976).
DeWindt Edwin, Dictionary of National Biography (online version).
Dodd Gwilym, “The Hidden Presence: Parliament and the Private Petition in the Fourteenth Century,” in Musson Anthony, ed., Expectations of Law in the Middle Ages (Rochester, 2001), pp. 135–49.
Dodd Gwilym, “Henry IV’s Council, 1399–1406,” in Dodd Gwilym and Biggs Donald, eds., Henry IV: The Establishment of the Regime, 1399–1406 (York, 2003), pp. 95115.
Dodd Gwilym, Justice and Grace: Private Petitioning and English Parliament in the Late Middle Ages (Oxford, 2007).
Dunham William, Lord Hastings’ Indentured Retainers 1461–1483 (New Haven, 1955).
Dyer Christopher, Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages: Social Change in England, c. 1200–1520 (Cambridge, 1998).
Dyer Christopher, “The Ineffectiveness of Lordship in England, 1200–1400,” in Dyer Christopher, Coss Peter, and Wickham Chris, eds., Rodney Hilton’s Middle Ages (Oxford, 2007).
Elton Geoffrey, The Tudor Constitution (Cambridge, 1972).
Fisher John, John Gower, Moral Philosopher and Friend of Chaucer (New York, 1964).
Fletcher George, Loyalty: An Essay on the Morality of Relationships (Oxford, 1993).
Frye N.M., “Edward III’s Removal of His Ministers and Justices, 1340–1,” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 48 (1975), pp. 149–61.
Galloway Andrew, “Piers Plowman and the Subject of the Law,” Yearbook of Langland Studies 15 (2001), pp. 117–28.
Ganshof F.L., Feudalism, 3rd ed. (Northampton, 1964).
Giancarlo Matthew, Parliament and Literature (Cambridge, 2007).
Gibson Gail, “Doodles and Dragons,” in Folger Shakespeare Library, The Collation: Research and Exploration at the Folger (November 12, 2015),
Given-Wilson Chris, The Royal Household and the King’s Affinity (New Haven, 1986).
Given-Wilson Chris, The English Nobility in the Late Middle Ages (London, 1996).
Given-Wilson Chris, Henry IV (New Haven, 2016).
Goldberg P.J.P., Medieval England: A Social History 1250–1500 (London, 2004).
Gorski Richard, The Fourteenth-Century Sheriff (Woodbridge, 2003)
Green Richard Firth, A Crisis of Truth: Literature and Law in Ricardian England (Philadelphia, 1998).
Green Richard Firth, “Medieval Literature and Law,” in Wallace David, ed., The Cambridge History of Medieval Literature (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 410–31.
Griffiths Ralph, The Reign of King Henry VI (Gloucester, 1981; 1998 ed.).
Griffiths Ralph, King and Country: England and Wales in the Fifteenth Century (London, 1991).
Griffiths Ralph, The Reign of King Henry VI, 2nd ed. (Stroud, 1998).
Guy J.A., “The Development of Equitable Jurisdiction,” in Ives E.W. and Manchester A.H., eds., Law, Litigants, and the Legal Profession (London, 1979), pp. 8086.
Hanawalt Barbara, The Ties That Bound (New York, 1986).
Hanna Ralph, London Literature, 1300–1380 (Cambridge, 2005).
Happe Peter, Cyclic Form and the English Mystery Plays: A Comparative Study of the English Biblical Cycles and Their Continental and Iconographic Counterparts (New York, 2004).
Harriss Gerald, The Dimensions of Politics,” in Britnell R.H. and Pollard A.J., eds., The McFarlane Legacy: Studies in Late Medieval Politics and Society (New York, 1995), pp. 120.
Harriss Gerald, Shaping the Nation (Oxford, 2005).
Harriss Gerald, ed., K.B. McFarlane: Letters to Friends 1940–1966 (Oxford, 1997).
Harding Alan, The Law Courts of Medieval England (London, 1973).
Harding Alan, “Plaints and Bills,” in Jenkins Daffyd, ed., Legal History Studies 1972 (Cardiff, 1975), pp. 6586.
Harding Alan, “The Origins of the Crime of Conspiracy,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (5th Ser.), 33 (1983), pp. 89108.
Harding Alan, England in the Thirteenth Century (Cambridge, 1993).
Harding Alan, Medieval Law and the Foundations of the State (Oxford, 2002).
Hector L.C., and Harvey Barbara, eds., The Westminster Chronicle 1381–1394 (Oxford, 1982).
Heffernan Thomas, “A Middle English Poem on Lovedays,” Chaucer Review 10 (1975), pp. 172–85.
Helmholz Richard, The Oxford History of the Laws of England, vol. I: The Canon Law and Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction from 597 to the 1640s (Oxford, 2004).
Hicks Michael, Bastard Feudalism (London, 1995).
Hicks Michael, “The 1468 Statute of Livery,” Historical Research 64 (1991), pp. 1528.
Hilton R.H. The English Peasantry in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 1975).
Holdsworth W.S., A History of English Law, 17 vols. (London, 1936–66).
Holmes G.A., The Estates of the Higher Nobility in Late Medieval England (Manchester, 1917).
Holmes G.A., “Judgement of the Younger Despenser, 1326,” English Historical Review 70 (1955), pp. 261–67.
Holmes G.A., The Good Parliament (Oxford, 1975).
Horner Olga, “‘Us must make lies’: Witness, Evidence and Proof in the York Resurrection,” Medieval English Theatre 20 (1998), pp. 2476.
Horrox Rosemary, “Urban Patronage and Patrons in the Fifteenth Century,” in Griffiths Ralph, ed., Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England (Gloucester, 1981), pp. 156–61.
Horrox Rosemary, Richard III: A Study in Service (Cambridge, 1986).
Horrox Rosemary, “The Urban Gentry in the Fifteenth Century,” in Thomson J.A.F., ed., Towns and Townspeople in the Fifteenth Century (Gloucester, 1988), pp. 2244.
Horrox Rosemary, Fifteenth-Century Attitudes (Cambridge, 1994).
Hudson John, Land, Law, and Lordship in Anglo-Norman England (Oxford, 1997).
Hudson John, The Oxford History of the Laws of England, vol. II: 871–1216 (Oxford, 2012).
Hunter Linsey, “Charter Diplomatics and Norms of Landholding and Lordship between the Humber and Forth, c.1066-c.1250,” unpublished PhD thesis, University of St. Andrews (2012).
Hyams Paul, “Warranty and Good Lordship in Twelfth Century England,” Law and History Review 5 (1987), pp. 437503.
Hyams Paul, Rancor and Reconciliation (Ithaca, 2003).
Hyams Paul, “Thinking English Law in French: The Angevins and the Common Law,” in Tuten Belle, ed., Feud, Violence and Practise: Essays in Medieval Studies in Honor of Stephen D. White (Burlington, VT, 2010).
Ives Eric, The Common Lawyers of Pre-Reformation England: Thomas Kebell: A Case Study (Cambridge, 1983).
James Mark, “The End of Champerty?,” The New Law Journal (April 15 and 22, 2011), pp. 547–48.
John Eric, Orbis Britanniae and Other Studies (Leicester, 1966).
Johnston Michael, Romance and Gentry in Late Medieval England (Oxford, 2014).
Jolliffe J.E.A., The Constitutional History of Medieval England from the English Settlements to 1485 (London, 1961).
Kaeuper Richard, “Law and Order in Fourteenth-Century England: The Evidence of Special Commissions of Oyer and Terminer,” Speculum 54 (1979), pp. 734–84.
Kaye J.M., Medieval English Conveyances (Cambridge, 2010).
Keen Maurice, English Society in the Later Middle Ages (Middlesex, 1990).
Keen Maurice, The Origins of the English Gentleman (Stroud, 2002).
Kendall Elliot, Lordship and Literature: John Gower and the Politics of the Great Household (Oxford, 2008).
Kennedy Kathleen, “Maintaining Injustice: Literary Representations of the Legal System c. 1400,” unpublished PhD thesis, Ohio State University (2004).
Kennedy Kathleen, “Retaining Men (and a Retaining Woman) in Piers Plowman,” Yearbook of Langland Studies 20 (2006), pp. 191214.
Kennedy Kathleen, Maintenance, Meed, and Marriage (New York, 2009).
King Pamela, “Morality Plays,” in Beadle Richard and Fletcher Alan, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Theatre, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 2008), pp. 247–52.
Kirby J.L., Henry IV of England (London, 1970).
Kleineke Hannes, The Chancery Case between Nicholas Radford and Thomas Tremayne: The Exeter Depositions of 1439, 55 Devon and Cornwall Record Society, New Series (Exeter 2013).
Kontorovich Eugene, “Peter Thiel’s Funding of Hulk Hogan-Gawker Litigation Should Not Raise Concerns,” Volokh Conspiracy, May 26, 2016,
Lachaud Frederique, “Liveries of Robes in England, c. 1200–c. 1330,” English Historical Review 111 (1996), pp. 279–98.
Lambert T.B., and Rollason David, eds., Peace and Protection in the Middle Ages (Toronto: Pontifical Institute for Medieval Studies, 2009).
Lancaster Lorraine, “Kinship in Anglo-Saxon Society (7th Century to Early 11th),” in Thrupp Sylvia, ed., Early Medieval Society (New York, 1967).
Lander J.R., “Family, ‘Friends’ and Politics in Fifteenth-Century England,” in Griffiths Ralph and Sherborne James, Kings and Nobles in the Later Middle Ages: A Tribute to Charles Ross (Gloucester, 1986), pp. 2740.
Langbein John, Lettow Rene Lerner, and Smith Bruce, History of the Common Law: The Development of Anglo-American Legal Institutions (New York, 2009).
Langford Carol, “Betting on the Client: Alternative Litigation Financing Is an Ethically Risky Proposition for Attorneys and Clients,” University of San Francisco Law Review 49 (2015), pp. 247–65.
Latham R.E., Revised Medieval Latin Word-List (Oxford, 1980).
Lewis N.B., “The Organisation of Indentured Retinues in Fourteenth-Century England,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (4th Ser.), 27 (1945), pp. 2939.
Leyser Karl, “Kenneth Bruce McFarlane: A Memoir,” in Gerald Harriss, ed., K.B. McFarlane, Letters to Friends, 1940–1966 (Magdalen College, Oxford, 1997).
Lindeman Ralph, “Special Report: Third-Party Investors Offer New Funding Source for Major Commercial Lawsuits,” ABA/BNA Lawyers Manual on Professional Conduct 26 (March 31, 2010), pp. 207–14.
Luckett Dominic, “Crown Office and Licensed Retinues in the Reign of Henry VII,” in Archer Rowena and Walker Simon, eds., Rulers and Ruled in Late Medieval England: Essays Presented to Gerald Harriss (London, 1995), pp. 223–38.
McFarlane K.B., Lectures, “Lords and Retainers,” unpublished manuscript in the Magdalen College Archives, University of Oxford. These lectures were delivered in 1966 and are a revision of lectures given in a 1959 course.
McFarlane K.B., The Nobility of Later Medieval England: The Ford Lectures for 1953 and Related Studies (Oxford, 1973).
McFarlane K.B., England in the Fifteenth Century: Collected Essays (London, 1981).
McIntosh Marjorie, Autonomy and Community: The Royal Manor of Havering, 1200–1500 (Cambridge, 1986).
McKelvie Gordon, “The Livery Statute of 1429,” in Clark Linda, ed., The Fifteenth Century (Woodbridge, 2015), vol. XIV, pp. 5565.
Maddern Phillippa, “Honour among the Pastons: Gender and Integrity in Fifteenth-Century English Provincial Society,” Journal of Medieval History 14 (1988), pp. 357–71.
Maddern Phillippa, Violence and Social Order: East Anglia 1422–1442 (Oxford, 1992).
Maddicott J.R.The County Community and the Making of Public Opinion in Fourteenth Century England,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (5th Ser.), 28 (1978), pp. 2743.
Maddicott J.R. Law and Lordship: Royal Justices as Retainers in Thirteenth- and Fourteenth-Century England, Past & Present, Supp. (1978).
Maddicott J.R.Parliament and the Constituencies 1272–1377,” in Davies R.G. and Denton J.H., eds., The English Parliament in the Middle Ages (Manchester, 1981).
Maddicott J.R.Poems of Social Protest in Early Fourteenth-Century England,” in Ormrod W.M., ed., England in the Fourteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton Symposium (Bury St. Edmunds, 1986), pp. 130–44.
Marshall John, “‘Fortune in the Worldys Worschyppe’: The Satirising of the Suffolks in Wisdom,” Medieval English Theatre 14 (1992), pp. 3766.
Markesinis B.S., and Deakin S.F., Tort Law, 4th ed. (Oxford, 1999).
Martindale Jane, “Conventum inter Gullelmum Acquitanorum comitem et Hugonem Chiliarchum,” The English Historical Review 84 (1969), pp. 528–48.
Middleton Anne, “The Audience and Public of ‘Piers Plowman,’” in Lawton David, ed., Middle English Alliterature Poetry and Its Literary Background (Bury St. Edmunds, 1982), pp. 101–23.
Miller William, Bloodtaking and Peacemaking: Feud, Law and Society in Saga Iceland (Chicago, 1990).
Milsom S.F.C., The Legal Framework of English Feudalism (Cambridge, 1976).
Morgan Gerald, “The Status and Meaning of Meed in the First Version of Piers Plowman,” Neophilologus 72.3 (1988), pp. 449–63.
Mulheron Rachel, and Cashman Peter, “Third Party Funding: A Changing Landscape,” Civil Justice Quarterly 27 (2008), pp. 312–41.
Murphy J., “Capacity of Parties,” in Clerk and Lindsell on Torts, 21st ed. (London, 2014), sections 5-66 to 5-67, pp. 350–51.
Musson Anthony, Public Order and Law Enforcement: The Local Administration of Criminal Justice, 1294–1350 (Woodbridge, 1996).
Musson Anthony, and Ormrod W. Mark, The Evolution of English Justice (Basingstoke, 1999).
Myers Alec, “Parliamentary Petitions in the Fifteenth Century. Part I: Petitions from Individuals and Groups,” The English Historical Review 52 (1937), pp. 385404.
Myers Alec, “Parliamentary Petitions in the Fifteenth Century. Part II: Petitions of the Commons and Commons Petitions,” The English Historical Review 52 (1937), pp. 590613.
Neuberger David Edmond, Lord Neuberger , “Barretry, Maintenance, and Champerty to Litigation Funding,” Harbour Litigation Funding, First Annual Lecture (Gray’s Inn, May 8, 2013), available at https://www.supremecourt/uk/docs/speech-13058.pdf.
Nightingale Pamela, “The Intervention of the Crown and the Effectiveness of the Sheriff in the Execution of Judicial Writs, c. 1355–1530,” English Historical Review, 123 (2008), pp. 134.
Nisse Ruth, Defining Acts: Drama and the Politics of Interpretation in Late Medieval England (Notre Dame, 2005).
O’Brien Bruce, “Authority and Community,” in Crick Julia and Van Houts Elisabeth, eds., A Social History of England 900–1200 (Cambridge, 2011), pp. 7697.
Olson Walter, “Champerty and Maintenance Explainer” (Gawker/Hogan/Thiel edition)”, Overlawyered, May 25, 2016,
Ormrod W.M., Dodd Gwilym, and Musson Anthony, “Agenda for Legislation, 1322–c. 1340,” The English Historical Review 105 (1990), pp. 133.
Ormrod W.M., Dodd Gwilym, and Musson Anthony, The Reign of Edward III: Crown and Political Society in England 1327–1377 (New Haven, 1990).
Ormrod W.M., Dodd Gwilym, and Musson Anthony, eds., Medieval Peititions: Grace and Grievance (York, 2009).
Ormrod W.M., Dodd Gwilym, and Musson Anthony, Edward III (New Haven, 2011).
Ostrom Theresa, “‘And He Honoured Þat Hit Hade Euermore After’: The Influence of Richard II’s Livery System on Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,” unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Florida (May, 2003).
Oxford English Dictionary Online.
Owst G.R., Preaching in Medieval England: An Introduction to Sermon Manuscripts of the Period c. 1350–1450 (New York, 1965).
Owst G.R., Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England (New York, 1966).
Palmer Robert, “The Feudal Framework of English Law,” Michigan Law Review 79 (1980–81), pp. 1130–64.
Palmer Robert, The County Courts of Medieval England 1150–1350 (Princeton, 1982).
Palmer Robert, “The Origins of Property,” Law and History Review 3 (1985), pp. 150.
Palmer Robert, “England: Law, Society and the State,” in Rigby S.G., ed., A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2003), pp. 242–60.
Palmer Robert, “The Social Status of Litigants in the Court of Common Pleas: 1465,”
Palmer Robert, “Volume of Litigation,” AALT, A Statistical Overview of English Legal History,
Payling Simon, Political Society in Lancastrian England: The Greater Gentry of Nottinghamshire (Oxford, 1991).
Perruso Richard, “The Iuramentum Perhorrescentiae under Canon Law: An Influence on the Development of Early Chancery Jurisdiction,” Comparative Legal History 3 (2014), pp. 237.
Phelan Amy, “A Study of the First Trailbaston Proceedings in England, 1304–7,” unpublished PhD thesis, Cornell University (1997).
Pike Luke, History of Crime in England, 2 vols. (London, 1873–76; reprint, 1983).
Plucknett T.F.T., Statutes and Their Interpretation in the First Half of the Fourteenth Century (London, 1922).
Plucknett T.F.T., Edward I and Criminal Law (Cambridge, 1960).
Pollard A.J., Late Medieval England 1399–1509 (Harlow, 2000).
Pollock Frederick, and Maitland Frederic William, The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1968).
Post J.B.Equitable Resorts before 1450,” in Ives E.W. and Manchester A.H., eds., Law, Litigants, and the Legal Profession (London, 1979), pp. 6879.
Postles David, “Gifts in Frankalmoign, Warranty of Land, and Feudal Society,” Cambridge Law Journal 50 (1991), pp. 330–46.
Postles David, “Seeking the Language of Warranty in Twelfth-Century England,” Journal of the Society of Archivists 20 (1999), pp. 209–22.
Powell Edward, Kingship, Law and Society: Criminal Justice in the Reign of Henry V (Oxford, 1989).
Powell Edward, “Law and Justice,” in Fifteenth-Century Attitudes, ed. Horrox Rosemary (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 2941.
Prestwich Michael, Plantagenet England 1225–1360 (Oxford, 2005).
Pronay Nicholas, “The Chancellor, the Chancery, and the Council at the End of the Fifteenth Century,” in Hearder H. and Loyn H.R., eds., British Government and Administration, Studies Presented to S.B. Chrimes (Cardiff, 1974), pp. 87103.
Raftis J., Ambrose, Tenure and Mobility (Toronto, 1964).
Reynolds Susan, Fiefs and Vassals (Oxford, 1994).
Richardson H.G., and Sayles G.O., “Parliaments and Great Councils in Medieval England – I,” Law Quarterly Review 77 (1961), pp. 149.
Richmond Colin, “Elizabeth Clere: Friend of the Pastons,” in Wogan-Browne Jocelyn, Voaden Rosalynn, Diamond Arlyn, Hutchison Ann, Meale Carol, and Johnson Leslie, eds., Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts in Late Medieval Britain: Essays for Felicity Riddy (Brepols, 2000), 259–73.
Richmond Colin, The Paston Family in the Fifteenth Century: Endings (Manchester, 2000).
Rigby S.H., English Society in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1995).
Robbins Rossell Hope, Historical Poems of the XIVth and XVth Centuries (New York, 1959).
Roskell J.S., Clark Linda, and Rawcliffe Carole, eds., The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1386–1421, 4 vols. (Stroud, 1992).
Rose Jonathan, “The Legal Profession in Medieval England: A History of Regulation,” Syracuse Law Review 48 (1998), pp. 1137.
Rose Jonathan, “Of Ambidexters and Daffidowndillies: Defamation of Lawyers, Legal Ethics and Professional Reputation,” The University of Chicago Law School Roundtable 8 (2001), pp. 423–66.
Rose Jonathan, “Litigation and Political Conflict in Fifteenth-Century East Anglia: Conspiracy and Attaint Actions and Sir John Fastolf,” Journal of Legal History 27 (2006), pp. 5380.
Rose Jonathan, “The Law of Maintenance and The Obligations of Lordship: A Case Study,” in Andersen Per, Salonen Kirsi, Sigh Helle Møller, and Vogt Helle, eds., Law and Disputing in the Middle Ages. Proceedings of the Ninth Carlsberg Academy Conference on Medieval Legal History 2012 (Copenhagen, 2013), pp. 111–21.
Rose Neil, “Drive for Transparency on Third-Party Funding,” Law Gazette (February 15, 2008),
Ross Charles, Edward IV (Berkeley, CA, 1974).
Rowney Ian, “Resources and Retaining in Yorkist England: William, Lord Hastings and the Honour of Tutbury,” in Pollard Tony, ed., Property and Politics: Essays in Later Medieval History (New York, 1984), pp. 139–55.
Sainty John, A List of English Law Officers, King’s Counsel and Holders of Patents of Precedence (London, 1987).
Sainty John, The Judges of England 1272–1990 (London, 1993).
Saul Nigel, “The Commons and the Abolition of Badges,” Parliamentary History 9 (1990), pp. 302–15.
Saul Nigel, Richard II (New Haven, 1997).
Sayles G.O., “Introduction, XI, Conspiracy and Allied Offenses,” in Select Cases in the Court of the King’s Bench (London, 1939), vol. III, 58 Selden Society.
Sayles G.O., The Dissolution of a Gild at York in 1306,” English Historical Review 55 (1940), pp. 8398.
Sayles G.O., The Medieval Foundations of England, 2nd ed. (London, 1950).
Scase Wendy, Literature and Complaint in England, 1272–1553 (Oxford, 2007).
Sebok Anthony, “The Inauthentic Claim,” Vanderbilt Law Review 64 (2011), pp. 61139.
Seipp David, “Jurors, Evidences and the Tempest of 1499,” in Cairns John and McLeod Grant, eds., The Dearest Birth Right of the People of England: The Jury in the History of the Common Law (Oxford, 2002), pp. 7592.
Seipp David, “Patterns and Problems in Fifteenth-Century Litigation: A View from the Year Books,” paper presented at the American Society for Legal History Annual Conference, Austin, TX, 2004.
Sheehan Michael, The Will in Medieval England (Toronto, 1963).
“Should You Be Allowed to Invest in a Lawsuit?,” New York Times Magazine (October 23, 2015),
Smith D. Vance, “The Labors of Reward: Meed, Mercede, and the Beginning of Salvation,” Yearbook of Langland Studies 8 (1995), pp. 127–54.
Smith R.M., “The Manorial Court and the Elderly Tenant in Late Medieval England,” in Pelling Margaret and Smith Richard, eds., Life, Death, and the Elderly: Historical Perspectives (London, 1991), pp. 3361.
Sorabji John, and Musgrove Robert, “Litigation Cost, Funding, and the Future,” in Dwyer Déidre, ed., The Civil Procedure Rules: Ten Years On (Oxford, 2010), pp. 229–46.
Spence George, The Equitable Jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery, 2 vols. (London, 1846).
Stenton Frank, Documents Illustrative of the Social and Economic History of the Danelaw (London, 1920).
Stenton Frank, The First Century of English Feudalism 1066–1166 (Oxford, 1932).
Stenton Frank, Anglo-Saxon England, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1971).
Stephen Henry John, New Commentaries on the Laws of England, 21st ed., 4 vols. (1841–45) (London, 1950).
Stephen James Fitzjames, A History of the Criminal Law of England, 3 vols. (London, 1883).
Stevens Matthew, “Failed Arbitrations before the Court of Common Pleas: Cases Relating to London and Londoners, 1400–1468,” Journal of Legal History 31 (2010), pp. 2144.
Stones E.L.G., “The Folvilles of Ashby-Folville, Leicestershire and Their Associates in Crime, 1326–1347,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series, 7 (1957), pp. 117–36.
Storey R.L., The End of the House of Lancaster (Guildford, 1966).
Storey R.L., “Liveries and Commissions of the Peace, 1388–90,” in Barron Caroline and Du Boulay F.R.H., The Reign of Richard II (London, 1971), pp. 131–52.
Storey R.L., “Gentleman-Bureaucrats,” in Clough Cecil, ed., Profession, Vocation, and Culture in Later Medieval England (Liverpool, 1982), pp. 90129.
Strohm Paul, Social Chaucer (Cambridge, MA, 1989).
Strohm Paul, Hochon’s Arrow: The Social Imagination of Fourteenth-Century Texts (Princeton, 1992).
Stubbs William, Constitutional History of England, 3 vols. (Oxford, 1897; reprint, 1967).
Tartufffo Michele, ed., Abuse of Procedural Rights: Comparative Standards of Procedural Fairness (The Hague, London, and Boston, 1999).
Tatlock John, and Kennedy Arthur, A Concordance to the Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer (Gloucester, MA, 1963).
Thrupp Sylvia, The Merchant Class of Medieval London, 1300–1500 (Chicago, 1964).
Tierney Brian, Medieval Poor Law: A Sketch of Canonical Theory and Its Application in England (Berkeley, 1959).
Tout T.F., and Johnstone Hilda, State Trials of the Reign of Edward the First 1289–1293 (London, 1906).
Treitel Guenter, The Law of Contract, 11th ed. (London, 2003).
Tuck J.A., “The Cambridge Parliament 1388,” The English Historical Review, 84 (1968), pp. 225–43.
Tuck J.A., Richard II and the English Nobility (London, 1973).
Tucker P.The Early History of the Court of Chancery: A Comparative Study,” The English Historical Review 115 (2000), pp. 791811.
van Dijk Conrad, John Gower and the Limits of Law (Woodbridge, 2013).
Virgoe Roger, “The Crown, Magnates, and Local Government in Fifteenth-Century East Anglia,” in Highfield J.R.L. and Jeffs Robin, eds., The Crown and Local Communities in England and France in the Fifteenth Century (Gloucester, 1981), pp. 7287.
Walker Simon, The Lancastrian Affinity 1361–1399 (Oxford, 1990).
Walker Simon, Political Culture in Later Medieval England (Manchester, 2006).
Ward Matthew, “The Livery Collar: Politics and Identity during the Fifteenth Century,” in Clark Linda, ed., The Fifteenth Century XIII: Exploring the Evidence: Commemoration, Administration, and the Economy (Woodbridge, 2014), pp. 4161.
Watts John, Henry VI and the Politics of Kingship (Cambridge, 1996).
Waugh Scott, “Tenure to Contract: Lordship and Clientage in Thirteenth-Century England,” The English Historical Review 101 (1986), pp. 811–39.
Waugh Scott, England in the Reign of Edward III (Cambridge, 1991).
Waugh Scott, “The Third Century of English Feudalism,” in Prestwich Michael, Britnell Richard, and Frame Robin, eds., Thirteenth Century England VII (Woodbridge, 1999), pp. 4760.
Waugh Scott, “Book Review of Coss, Origins,” American Historical Review 109 (2004), pp. 1623–24.
Wendel W. Bradley, “Alternative Litigation Finance and Anti-Commodification Norms,” DePaul Law Review 62 (2014), pp. 655–95.
Wenzel Siegfried, Latin Sermon Collections from Later Medieval England: Orthodox Preaching in the Age of Wyclif (Cambridge, 2009), pp. 6673.
Wetherbee Winthrop, “John Gower,” in Wallace David, ed., The Cambridge History of Medieval Literature (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 589609.
Wetherbee Winthrop, “What Is the Future of DBAs?,” The New Law Journal (September 11, 2015), p. 4.
White Stephen D., “Pactum … Legem Vincit et Amor Judicium’: The Settlement of Disputes by Compromise in Eleventh-Century Western France,” American Journal of Legal History 22 (1979), pp. 291309.
White Stephen D., “Kinship and Lordship in Early Medieval England: The Story of Sigeberht, Cynewulf, and Cyneheard,” Viator 20 (1989), pp. 118.
White Stephen D., “Maitland on Family and Kinship,” in Hudson John, ed., The History of English Law: Centenary Essays on Pollock and Maitland’ (Oxford, 1996).
White Stephen D., Re-thinking Kinship and Feudalism in Early Modern Europe (Aldershot, 2005).
White Stephen D., “Protection, Warranty, and Vengeance in La Chanson de Roland,” in Lambert and Rollason, Peace and Protection (2009), pp. 155–67.
Whittick Christopher, “The Role of the Criminal Appeal in the Fifteenth Century,” in Guy J.A. and Neale H.G., Law and Social Change in British History (London, 1981), pp. 5572.
Wickert Maria, Studies in John Gower, trans. Robert Meindl (Washingon, DC, 1981).
Winfield P.H., The History of Conspiracy and Abuse of Legal Procedure (Cambridge, 1921).
Winfield P.H., The Present Law of Abuse of Legal Procedure (Cambridge, 1921).
Wood-Legh K.L., “Sheriffs, Lawyers, and Belted Knights in the Parliaments of Edward III,” English Historical Review 46 (1931), pp. 372–88.
Worby Sam, Law and Kinship in Thirteenth Century England (Woodbridge, 2010).
Wright R.S., Law of Criminal Conspiracies and Agreements (London, 1873).
Wright Susan, The Derbyshire Gentry in the Fifteenth Century (Chesterfield, 1983).
Wright Thomas, Political Songs of England (London: Camden Society, 1839).
Wright Thomas, Political Poems and Songs Relating to English History, Composed during the Period from the Accession of Edw. III. to That of Ric. III., 2 vols. (London, 1861).
Yunck John, The Lineage of Lady Meed: The Development of Medieval Venality Satire (Notre Dame, 1963).
Zander Michael, “Will the Revolution in the Funding of Civil Litigation in England Eventually Lead to Contingency Fees?,” De Paul Law Review 52 (2002), pp. 259–97.