Skip to main content
Media Politics in China
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Deng, Jianguo 2018. The Paper Janus: How exceptionalism based on regaining influence and doing new media help a Chinese mobile news app negotiate censorship for better journalism. Communication and the Public, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, p. 113.

    Fang, Kecheng and Repnikova, Maria 2018. Demystifying “Little Pink”: The creation and evolution of a gendered label for nationalistic activists in China. New Media & Society, Vol. 20, Issue. 6, p. 2162.

    Repnikova, Maria 2017. Media Openings and Political Transitions: Glasnost versus Yulun Jiandu. Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 64, Issue. 3-4, p. 141.

    Tong, Jingrong 2017. The Taming of Critical Journalism in China. Journalism Studies, p. 1.


Book description

Who watches over the party-state? In this engaging analysis, Maria Repnikova reveals the webs of an uneasy partnership between critical journalists and the state in China. More than merely a passive mouthpiece or a dissident voice, the media in China also plays a critical oversight role, one more frequently associated with liberal democracies than with authoritarian systems. Chinese central officials cautiously endorse media supervision as a feedback mechanism, as journalists carve out space for critical reporting by positioning themselves as aiding the agenda of the central state. Drawing on rare access in the field, Media Politics in China examines the process of guarded improvisation that has defined this volatile partnership over the past decade on a routine basis and in the aftermath of major crisis events. Combined with a comparative analysis of media politics in the Soviet Union and contemporary Russia, the book highlights the distinctiveness of Chinese journalist-state relations, as well as the renewed pressures facing them in the Xi era.


'Meet China's critical journalists in this gripping book. They may not protest in the streets, but they cover critical social and political issues by deftly navigating the mine field of Chinese politics. Largely based in commercial media outlets, they build relationships of fluid collaboration with party officials while engaging in guarded improvisation in their journalistic profession. Different from their peers who manufacture journalism as party propaganda, they are more like social activists with a cause. And yet, all their critical journalism is produced, ironically, in a political context proverbially known as authoritarian. Maria Repnikova's important book draws on 120 interviews and a sophisticated understanding of Chinese media systems to illuminate how and why this ironical situation is possible and even understandable. In so doing, it explodes not a few conventional postulates about Chinese politics, media and society. This is a major contribution to the study of media politics and journalism in China and beyond.'

Guobin Yang - University of Pennsylvania

'Media Politics in China is timely, extremely well-written and represents scholarship that is simultaneously broadly theoretical and intimately granular. Repnikova's approach to Chinese state-society relations through her treatment of the iterative, improvised relationship between government/Party and critical journalists takes our understanding of media politics in China to a whole new level.'

Andrew Mertha - Cornell University, New York

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Androunas, Elena. Soviet Media in Transition: Structural and Economic Alternatives. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.
Anzhao kexue fazhan guan de yaoqiu qieshi zhuanbian zuofeng: xuexi hu jintao tongzhi zai zhongyang ji-wei di-qi ci quanti huiyi shang de zhongyao jianghua’ (Study Comrade Hu Jintao’s Speech at the Seventh Plenary Conference of the Central Commission for Inspecting Discipline) (按照科学发展观的要求切实转变作风: 学习胡锦涛同志在中央纪委第七次全体会议上的重要讲话). Qiushi (Seek Truth) (求是) no. 5 (2007): 1619.
Areddy, James T. ‘China’s Coal Sector has Safety Setback’. The Wall Street Journal, 3 September 2012.
Arksey, Hilary. Interviewing for Social Scientists: An Introductory Resource with Examples. London: Sage, 1999.
Bagdikian, Ben H. The New Media Monopoly. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2004.
Bâli, Asli. ‘From Subjects to Citizens? The Shifting Paradigm of Electoral Authoritarianism in Egypt’. Middle East Law and Governance 1, no. 1 (2009): 3889.
Balkin, J.M.How Mass Media Stimulate Political Transparency’. Cultural Values 3, no. 4 (1999): 393413.
Balzer, Harley. ‘Managed Pluralism: Vladimir Putin’s Emerging Regime’. Post-Soviet Affairs 19, no. 3 (1 January 2003): 189227.
Bandurski, David. ‘A News Story on School Collapses Tantalizes, Then Disappears’. China Media Project, 22 May 2009.
Bandurski, David. ‘China’s Boldest Media: Losing the Battle?’ China Media Project. 14 August, 2012. 30 July 2013.
Bandurski, David and Hala, Martin. Investigative Journalism in China: Eight Cases in Chinese Watchdog Journalism. Hong Kong; London: Hong Kong University Press, 2010.
Barabantseva, Elena. ‘In Pursuit of an Alternative Model? The Modernisation Trap in China’s Official Development Discourse’. East Asia 29, no. 1 (2011): 6379.
Barry, Ellen. ‘Trial of Russian Activist Aleksei Navalny to Begin’. The New York Times, 16 April 2013.
Bauer, Martin W. and Gaskell, George D. (eds.). Qualitative Researching with Text, Image and Sound: A Practical Handbook for Social Research. London: Sage, 2000.
Baum, Richard. Burying Mao: Chinese Politics in the Age of Deng Xiaoping. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Baum, Richard. ‘Political Implications of China’s Information Revolution: The Media, the Minders, and Their Message’. In China’s Changing Political Landscape: Prospects for Democracy, edited by Li, Cheng, 161185. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008.
‘BBC News – Sichuan 2008: A Disaster on an Immense Scale’.
Becker, Jonathan. ‘Lessons from Russia: A Neo-Authoritarian Media System’. European Journal of Communication 19, no. 2 (2004): 139163.
‘Beijing Flood Stories Cut from Southern Weekend’. China Digital Times.
Belin, Laura. ‘Politics and Mass Media under Putin’. In Russian Politics under Putin, edited by Cameron, Ross, 133155. Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press, 2004.
Bellin, Eva. ‘Reconsidering the Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Lessons from the Arab Spring’. Comparative Politics 44, no. 2 (2012): 127149.
Bennett, Lance W.The Media and Democratic Development: The Social Basis for Political Communication’. In Communicating Democracy: The Media and Political Transitions, edited by O’Neil, Patrick H., 195207. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998.
Bennett, Lance W., Lawrence, Regina G., and Livingston, Steven. When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina. Chicago, IL; Bristol: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Berg, S.Snowball Sampling’. In Encyclopaedia of Statistical Sciences, edited by Kotz, Samuel and Johnson, Norman L., 528532. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1988.
Bermeo, Nancy. Liberalization and Democratization: Change in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
Bialer, Seweryn (ed.). Politics, Society, and Nationality Inside Gorbachev’s Russia. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1988.
Bijian, Zheng. ‘China’s “Peaceful Rise” to Great-Power Status’. Foreign Affairs 84 (5)(2005): 1824.
Binyan, Liu. ‘After Tiananmen Square, a “Dark Age” for Press Freedom in China’. Nieman Reports, 28 August 2014.
Birch, Sarah. Elections and Democratization in Ukraine. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000.
Boin, Arjen. The Politics of Crisis Management: Public Leadership under Pressure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Boswell, T. Revolution in the World-System. New York; London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1989.
Bovt, Georgy. ‘The Russian Press and Civil Society: Freedom of Speech vs. Freedom of Market’. In Civil Society and the Search for Justice in Russia, edited by Marsh, Christopher and Gvosdev, Nikolas K.. Lanham, MD; Oxford: Lexington Books, 2002: 91104.
Boyatzis, Richard E. Transforming Qualitative Information: Thematic Analysis and Code Development. Thousand Oaks, CA; London: Sage Publications, 1998.
Brady, Anne-Marie. China’s Thought Management. Abingdon, OX; New York: Routledge, 2012.
Brady, Anne-Marie. Marketing Dictatorship: Propaganda and Thought Work in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD; Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.
Brady, Anne-Marie. ‘We Are All Part of the Same Family’: China’s Ethnic Propaganda’. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 41, no. 4 (2013): 159181.
Brandt, Loren and Rawski, Thomas. China’s Great Economic Transformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Branigan, Tania. ‘Anti-Pollution Protesters Halt Construction of Copper Plant in China’, The Guardian. 3 July 2012.
Branigan, Tania. ‘Snowstorms Cause Havoc in China’. The Guardian, 28 January 2008.
Branigan, Tania. ‘Wang Keqin and China’s Revolution in Investigative Journalism’. The Guardian, 23 May 2010.
Brenderbach, Martin. ‘Public Opinion – A New Factor Influencing the PRC Press’. Asien 96 (July 2005): 2945.
Brown, Archie. The Gorbachev Factor. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Brown, Archie. The Rise and Fall of Communism. London: Bodley Head, 2009.
Brynen, Rex, Korany, Bahgat, and Noble, Paul. Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1995.
Bunce, Valerie J. and Wolchik, Sharon L.. Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Postcommunist Countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Büsgen, M.NGOs and the Search for Chinese Civil Society Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations in the Nujiang Campaign’. ISS Working Paper 422 (February 2006): 161.
Cabestan, Jean-Pierre. ‘Is China Moving Towards “Enlightened” But Plutocratic Authoritarianism?China Perspectives no. 55 (2004).
Cairns, Christopher. ‘Prerequisites for Selective Censorship: Leaders’ Evolving Beliefs and Bureaucratic Re-Centralization’. PhD Dissertation, Chapter 3. Cornell University, 2016.
Haili, Cao, Hongxiao, Chang, Yan, Wu, and Jing, Li (曹海丽, 常红晓, 吴燕, 林靖). ‘Zhenhan zhongguo: jiuyuan pian: juguo jiuzai’ (China Shocked: The Rescue Edition: The Whole Nation Provides Disaster Relief) (震撼中国·救援篇:举国救灾). Caijing, 26 May 2008.
Carlson, Allen, Gallagher, Mary, Lieberthal, Kenneth, and Manion, Melanie. Contemporary Chinese Politics: New Sources, Methods, and Strategies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Carothers, Thomas. ‘The End of the Transition Paradigm’. Journal of Democracy 13, no. 1 (2002): 521.
‘Censorship, Prosecution Drive Exodus of Opinion Leaders from China’s Sina Weibo’. Global Voices Advocacy, 6 January 2015.
Cerf, Christopher, Albee, Marina, Gushchin, Lev, and Korotych, Vitalii Voices of Glasnost: Letters from the Soviet People to Ogonyok Magazine. London: Kyle Cathie, 1990.
Chaisty, Paul and Whitefield, Stephen. ‘Forward to Democracy or Back to Authoritarianism? The Attitudinal Bases of Mass Support for the Russian Election Protests of 2011–2012’. Post-Soviet Affairs (June 2013): 117.
‘Charter 08’. Foreign Policy, 8 October 2010.
Chang, Jack. ‘Environmental Issues Top Major Legislative Meeting in China-US News’. US News & World Report. 7 March 2015. 12 March 2015. 192015/03/07/environmental-issues-top-major-legislative-meeting-in-china.
Cheek, Timothy. The Intellectual in Modern Chinese History. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Cheek, Timothy and Saich, Tony (eds.). New Perspectives on State Socialism in China. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.
Baocheng, Chen (陈宝成). ‘Guangdong sheng-wei xuanchuanbu fubuzhang zhuanren nanfang baoye dangwei shuji’ (Vice-Minister of the Guangdong Department of Propaganda was Transferred to the Position of the Party Secretary of the Nanfang Press Group) (广东省委宣传部副部长转任南方报业党委书记). Caixin (财新网). 3 May 2012.
Chen, Cheng. ‘Institutional Legitimacy of an Authoritarian State: China in the Mirror of Eastern Europe’. Problems of Post-Communism 52, no. 4 (2005): 313.
Chen, Hong, Qi, Hui, Long, Ruyin, and Zhang, Maolong,. ‘Research on 10-year Tendency of China Coal Mining Accidents and the Characteristics of Human Factors’. Safety Science 50, no. 4 (2012): 745770.
Huiying, Chen (陈慧颖). ‘Zhenhan zhongguo, jinjibian: baoxian: buneng chengshou zhi qing’ (China Shocked, Economics Edition: Insurance: Cannot Bear It) (震撼中国·经济篇:保险:不能承受之轻). Caijing, 26 May 2012.
Jiang, Chen (陈江). ‘Zhiming 43 fenzhong’ (Fatal 43 Minutes) (致命43分钟). Nanfang Zhoumo. 26 November 2009.
Lidan, Chen. ‘Wo guo yulun jiandu de lilun yu jiangou’ (Yulun Jiandu’s Theoretical Construction in China) (我国舆论监督的理论与建构). Xinwen Jie (Press Circles) (新闻界). April 2004: 24.
Chen, Ni. ‘Institutionalizing Public Relations: A Case Study of Chinese Government Crisis Communication on the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake’. Public Relations Review 35, no. 3 (2009).
Chen, Ni. ‘Beijing’s Political Crisis Communication: An Analysis of Chinese Government Communication in the 2009 Xinjiang Riot’. Journal of Contemporary China 21, no. 75 (2012): 461479.
Yiming, Chen (陈一鸣). ‘Beichuan zhongxue: xiaoxin liaoshang’ (Beichuan Middle School: Careful Healing) (北川中学:小心疗伤). Nanfang Zhoumo, 29 May 2008.
Chengju, Huang. ‘The Development of a Semi-Independent Press in Post-Mao China: An Overview and a Case Study of Chengdu Business News’. Journalism Studies 1, no. 4 (2000): 649664.
Chengpeng, Li. ‘Patriotism With Chinese Characteristics’. The New York Times, 25 May 2012.
Cheung, Anne S.Y. ‘Public Opinion Supervision – A Case Study of Media Freedom in China’. Columbia Journal of Asian Law 20, no. 2 (2007): 357384.
‘China Jails “New Citizens’ Movement”’. BBC News. 19 June 2014. 11 March 2015.
‘China: International Energy Data and Analysis’. U.S. Energy Information Administration
‘China Media Bulletin: Issue No. 88’. 14 June 2013.
Cho, Li-Fung. ‘The Emergence, Influence, and Limitations of Watchdog Journalism in Post-1992 China: A Case Study of Southern Weekend’. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. University of Hong Kong: Journalism and Media Studies Centre, 2007.
Chŏng, Chae-ho and Chung, Jae Ho. China’s Crisis Management. London: Routledge, 2012.
Chongjian wenchuan – renlei kangzheng, jiuzai shi de qiji (Rebuilding Wenchuan – A Miracle in Quake Proof Provision of Disaster Relief in Human History) (重建汶川-人类抗争救灾是的奇迹). Beijing: Dizhen chubanshe (Earthquake Publishing House), 2012.
Clarke, Gerard. The Politics of NGOs in South-East Asia: Participation and Protest in the Philippines. London: Routledge, 1998.
Cody, Edward. ‘In China, Flooding Traps 172 Miners Underground’. The Washington Post, 18 August 2007.
Cohen, Stephen F. The Voices of Glasnost: Interviews with Gorbachev’s Reformers. New York; London: Norton, 1990.
Collier, David and Mahoney, James. ‘Insights and Pitfalls: Selection Bias in Qualitative Research’. World Politics 49, no. 1 (1996): 5691.
Collier, David and Levitsky, Steven. ‘Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research’. World Politics 49, no. 3 (1997): 430451.
Colton, Timothy J. and Hough, Jerry F.. Growing Pains: Russian Democracy and the Election of 1993. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.
Colton, Timothy J. and McFaul, Michael. Popular Choice and Managed Democracy the Russian Elections of 1999 and 2000. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.
‘Concern for Women’s Rights Activists Detained in China’. BBC News, 9 March 2015.
Coronel, Sheila S. and Severino, Howie G.. Investigative Reporting for Television in Southeast Asia. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, 2006.
Baoguo, Cui (催保国). 2010 nian: zhongguo chuanmei chanye fazhan baogao (2010: Report on Development of China’s Media Industry) (2010年: 中国传媒产业发展报告).Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press, 2010.
Curran, James and Seaton, Jean. Power Without Responsibility: The Press, Broadcasting and the Internet in Britain. London; New York: Routledge, 2009.
Curran, James and Park, Myung-Jin. De-Westernizing Media Studies. London: Routledge, 2000.
Curry, Jane L. and Dassin, Joan. Press Control Around the World. New York: Praeger, 1982.
Dalpino, Catharin E. Deferring Democracy: Promoting Openness in Authoritarian Regimes. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.
Davies, Gloria. Worrying about China: The Language of Chinese Critical Inquiry. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 2007.
De Burgh, Hugo. The Chinese Journalist: Mediating Information in the World’s Most Populous Country. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.
De Burgh, Hugo. Investigative Journalism: Context and Practice. London: Routledge, 2004.
De Burgh, Hugo. ‘Kings Without Crowns? The Re-Emergence of Investigative Journalism in China’. Media, Culture & Society 25, no. 6 (2003): 801820.
De Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
DeLong-Bas, Natana J. ‘The New Social Media and the Arab Spring’. Oxford Islamic Studies Online.
Dombernowsky, Laura. ‘Chinese Journalism Students: Balancing Competing Values’. In Chinese Investigative Journalists’ Dreams, edited by Svensson, Marina, Saether, Elin, and Zhang, Zhi’an, 5375. Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books, 2014.
Denyer, Simon. ‘Arrest of Inspirational Editor Shen Hao Marks End of an Era for Chinese Journalism’. The Washington Post, 9 January 2015.
‘Detentions of Chinese Activists Tripled Last Year: Report’. Radio Free Europe, 3 March 2014.
Dewhirst, Martin. ‘Censorship in Russia: 1991 and 2001’. In Russia after Communism, edited by Fawn, Rick and White, Stephen, 2134. London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2002.
Diamant, Neil J., Lubman, Stanley B., and O’Brien, Kevin J.. Engaging the Law in China: State, Society, and Possibilities for Justice. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.
Diamond, Larry J. Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation. Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Diamond, Larry J. and Linz, Juan J.. ‘Introduction: Politics, Society, and Democracy in Latin America’. In Democracy in Developing Countries: Latin America, edited by Diamond, Larry J., Linz, Juan J., and Lipset, Seymour M.. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Diamond, Larry J., Linz, Juan J., and Lipset, Seymour M.. ‘Introduction: What Makes for Democracy?’ In Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experiences with Democracy, edited by Diamond, Larry, Linz, Juan J., and Lipset, Seymour M., 166. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995.
Diamond, Larry J. and Morlino, Leonardo. Assessing the Quality of Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.
Diamond, Larry J., Plattner, Marc F., and Costopoulos, Philip J.. Debates on Democratization. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.
Dickson, Bruce J. Red Capitalists in China: The Party, Private Entrepreneurs, and Prospects for Political Change. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Dijk, Van and Teun, A.Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis’. Discourse & Society 4, no. 2 (1993): 249283.
Dillon, Nara. ‘Governing Civil Society: Adapting Revolutionary Methods to Serve Post-Communist Goals’. In Mao’s Invisible Hand: The Political Foundations of Adaptive Governance, edited by Heilmann, Sebastian and Perry, Elizabeth J., 138165. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Asia Center, 2011.
Dimitrov, Martin K.Popular Autocrats’. Journal of Democracy 20, no. 1 (2008): 7881.
Buzhi, Ding and Hongjun, Zhu (丁补之, 朱红军). ‘Mianzhu fuxin er xiao: daota jiaoshe shi zenmeyang jiancheng de?’ (Mianzhu Fuxin Number 2 School: How was the Collapsed School Building Constructed?) (绵竹富新二小:垮塌校舍是怎样建成的). Nanfang Zhoumo, 29 May 2008.
Dittmer, Lowell. ‘The Structural Evolution of “Criticism and Self-Criticism”’. The China Quarterly 56 (1973): 708729.
Donohue, George A., Tichenor, Phillip J., and Olien, Clarice N., ‘A Guard Dog Perspective on the Role of Media’. Journal of Communication 45, no. 2 (1995): 115132.
‘Dozens Die in China Train Crash’. BBC, 24 July 2011.
Duchâtel, Mathieu and Godement, François, ‘China’s Politics under Hu Jintao’. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 38, no. 3 (2009): 311.
Duncan, Maxim. ‘China Families Protest Mine Disaster; Toll Hits 104’. Reuters, 23 November 2009.
‘Duonan heyi xingbang’ (How to Rejuvenate a Country from Many Disasters) (多难何以兴邦). Nanfang Zhoumo, 5 June 2008.
Junfei, Du. ‘The Road to Openness: The Communication Legacy of the Wenchuan Earthquake’. In Convulsion: Media Reflections, edited by Liang, , 116125. Beijing: China Democracy and Legal System Publishing House, 2008.
Editorial Board. ‘A Documentary on Air Pollution Sparks a Code Red in China’. The Washington Post, 9 March 2015.
Eickelman, Dale F. and Anderson, Jon W.. New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2003.
Esarey, Ashley. ‘Cornering the Market: State Strategies for Controlling China’s Commercial Media’. Asian Perspectives 29, no. 4 (2005): 3783.
Esarey, Ashley and Qiang, Xiao. ‘Political Expression in the Chinese Blogosphere: Below the Radar’. Asian Survey 48, no. 5 (2008): 752777.
Joseph, Esherick W. and Wasserstrom, Jeffrey W.. ‘Acting Out Democracy: Political Theater in Modern China’. The Journal of Asian Studies 49(4) (1990): 835865.
Fairclough, Gordon. ‘Eleven Schools Collapsed in Quake’. Wall Street Journal, 15 April 2010.
Fairclough, Norman. Language and Power. Harlow: Longman, 2001.
Farid, May. ‘China’s Grassroots NGOs and the Local State: Mechanisms of Influence and the Expansion of Rights’. SSRN eLibrary (2011).
Federman, Adam. ‘Moscow’s New Rules’. Columbia Journalism Review (January/February 2010).
Feldbrugge, Ferdinand J.M. Samizdat and Political Dissent in the Soviet Union. Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff, 1975.
Ferdinand, Peter. The Internet, Democracy and Democratization. London: Cass, 2000.
Fewsmith, Joseph. ‘Review of China’s Democratic Future: How It Will Happen and Where It Will Lead’. Taiwan Journal of Democracy 1, no. 2 (2005): 151154.
Finkelstein, David M. and Kivlehan, Maryanne. China’s Leadership in the 21st Century: The Rise of the Fourth Generation. London: M.E. Sharpe, 2003.
Fisher, Julie. Nongovernments: NGOs and the Political Development of the Third World. Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1997.
Fossato, Floriana. ‘The Russian Media: From Popularity to Distrust’. Current History 100, no. 648 (2001): 343347.
Fossato, Floriana and Lloyd, John. The Web That Failed: How Opposition Politics and Independent Initiatives are Failing on the Internet in Russia. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, 2008.
Foster, Kenneth W.Associations in the Embrace of an Authoritarian State: State Domination of Society?Studies in Comparative International Development 35, no. 4 (1 December 2001): 84109.
‘Four Years on: What China Got Right When Rebuilding after the Sichuan Earthquake’. 11 May 2012.
Jianfeng, Fu and Yijiang, Yao (傅剑锋, 姚忆江). ‘Jianshe bu zhuanjia rending ju yuan zhongxue shi wenti jianzhu – ju yuan zhongxue daota beiju diaocha’ (The Experts from the Construction Department Firmly Believe That the Construction of the Ju Yuan Middle School has a Problem – The Investigation into the Yu Juan Middle School’s Tragic Collapse) (建设部专家认定聚源中学是问题建筑 –聚源中学倒塌悲剧调查). Nanfang Zhoumo, 29 May 2008.
Fukuyama, Francis. ‘The Patterns of History’. Journal of Democracy 23, no. 1 (2012).
Gandhi, Jennifer. ‘Coordination among Opposition Parties in Authoritarian Regimes’. Princeton: Princeton University, 2008.
Gandhi, Jennifer and Lust-Okar, Ellen. ‘Elections under Authoritarianism’. Annual Review of Political Science 12, no. 1 (2009): 403422.
Gang, Qian. ‘Why Southern Weekly?’ China Media Project, 18 February 2013.
Gang, Qian and Bandurski, David. ‘China’s Emerging Public Sphere: The Impact of Media Commercialization, Professionalism, and the Internet in an Era of Transition’. In Changing Media, Changing China, edited by Shirk, Susan L., 3877. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Ganguly, Sumit. ‘Bangladesh and India’. In Assessing the Quality of Democracy, edited by Diamond, Larry J. and Morlino, Leonardo. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.
Gao, Li and Stanyer, James, ‘Hunting Corrupt Officials Online: The Human Flesh Search Engine and the Search for Justice in China’. Information, Communication and Society 17 (2014): 814829.
Mingyong, Gao (高明勇). Weibo wen zheng de 30 tang ke (30 Lessons from Interviews with Officials about Weibo) (微博问政的30堂课). Hangzhou, China: Zhejiang renmin chubanshe (Zhejiang People’s Publishing House) (浙江人民出版社), 2012.
Gardels, Nathan. ‘The Price China has Paid: An Interview with Liu Binyan’. The New York Review of Books, 19 January 1989.
Gehlbach, Scott. ‘Reflections on Putin and the Media’. Post-Soviet Affairs 26, no. 1 (2010): 7787.
Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Gibbs, Joseph. Gorbachev’s Glasnost: The Soviet Media in the First Phase of Perestroika. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1999.
Gilley, Bruce. China’s Democratic Future: How It Will Happen and Where It Will Lead. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
Gilley, Bruce. ‘Democratic Enclaves in Authoritarian Regimes’. Democratization 17, no. 3 (2010): 389415.
Gilley, Bruce and Diamond, Larry. Political Change in China: Comparisons with Taiwan. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008.
Ginsburg, Tom. ‘Administrative Law and the Judicial Control of Agents in Authoritarian Regimes’. In Rule by Law: The Politics of Courts in Authoritarian Regimes, edited by Ginsburg, Tom and Moustafa, Tamir, 5873. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Givens, John Wagner and Repnikova, Maria. ‘Advocates of Change in Authoritarian Regimes: How Chinese Lawyers and Chinese and Russian Journalists Stay Out of Trouble’. SSRN eLibrary (2011).
Gong, Ting. ‘Dangerous Collusion: Corruption as a Collective Venture in Contemporary China’. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 35, no. 1 (2002): 85103.
Gorbachev, Mikhail S. Memoirs. London: Bantam, 1997.
Gorbachev, Mikhail S. Perestroika. London: Collins, 1987.
Gorbachev, Mikhail and Mlynář, Zdeněk. Conversations with Gorbachev: On Perestroika, the Prague Spring, and the Crossroads of Socialism. New York; Chichester: Columbia University Press, 2013.
Gordon, Kim. ‘China Speaks Out’. Prospect, 20 March 1999.
Graber, Doris A. Mass Media and American Politics. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2005.
Greenslade, Roy. ‘China Launches Attack on Tibet Coverage’. The Guardian, 25 March 2008.
Griffiths, P., Gossop, M., Powis, B., and Strang, J.. ‘Reaching Hidden Populations of Drug Users by Privileged Access Interviewers: Methodological and Practical Issues’. Addiction 88, no. 12 (1 December 1993): 16171626.
Gross, Natalie. ‘Glasnost: Roots and Practice’. Problems of Communism (November 1987): 6980.
Jun, Guan (关军). ‘Daping haishi zouchu yangxing’ (Daping is Beginning to Come Out of the Shadow) (大平开始走出阴影). Nanfang Zhoumo, 27 October 2005.
‘Guanyu chengli jiaoyubu wenchuan dizhen zaihou xuexiao huifu chongjian gongzuo lingdao xiaozu de tongzhi’ (The Ministry of Education Notice about the Establishment of the Ministry of Education’s Leadership Group Concerning the Work on the Recovery and Reconstruction of Schools Following the Wenchuan Earthquake) (教育部关于成立教育部汶川地震灾后学校恢复重建工作领导小组的通知). Zhonghua renmin gonghe guo jiaoyubu (Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China) (中华人民共和教育部), 11 June 2008.
‘“Guanmei Goujie” Zheng Jie’ (Correctly Separating the Collision between Officials and Mining Managers) (官煤勾结征解) Caijing, 22 October 2005.
Guoguang, Wu. ‘One Head, Many Mouths: Diversifying Press Structures in Reform China’. In Power, Money, and Media: Communication Patterns and Bureaucratic Control in Cultural China, edited by Lee, Chin-Chuan, 4568. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2000.
Hackett, Robert. ‘Media Reform: Democratizing the Media, Democratizing the State’. Canadian Journal of Communication 28, no. 3 (2003).
Hallin, Daniel C. Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Halper, Stefan. The Beijing Consensus: Legitimizing Authoritarianism in Our Time. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2012.
Han, Rongbin. ‘Manufacturing Consent in Censored Cyberspace: China’s “Fifty-Cent Army”’. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 44, no. 2 (2015).
Han, Rongbin. ‘Defending Authoritarian Regime On-line: China’s “Voluntary Fifty-cent Army”’. The China Quarterly 224 (2015): 10061025.
Haraszti, Miklos. The Velvet Prison: Artists under State Socialism. New York, NY: Basic Books: 1987.
Hassid, Jonathan. ‘China’s Contentious Journalists: Reconceptualizing the Media’. Problems of Post-Communism 55, no. 4 (2008): 5261.
Hassid, Jonathan. China’s Unruly Journalists: How Committed Professionals are Changing the People’s Republic. London and New York: Routledge, 2015.
Hassid, Jonathan. ‘Controlling the Chinese Media: An Uncertain Business’. Asian Survey 48, no. 3 (1 June 2008): 414430.
Hassid, Jonathan. ‘Four Models of the Fourth Estate: A Typology of Contemporary Chinese Journalists’. The China Quarterly 208 (2011): 813832.
Hassid, Jonathan. ‘Safety Valve or Pressure Cooker? Blogs in Chinese Political Life’. Journal of Communication 62, no. 2 (2012): 212230.
Hassid, Jonathan and Repnikova, Maria. ‘Why Chinese Print Journalists Embrace the Internet’. Journalism 17, no. 7 (2016): 882898.
He, Alex Jingwei, Huang, Genghua. ‘Fighting for Migrant Labor Rights in the World’s Factory: Legitimacy, Resource Constraints and Strategies of Grassroots Migrant Labor NGOs in South China’. Journal of Contemporary China 24 (2015): 471492.
He, Baogang and Warren, Mark E.. ‘Authoritarian Deliberation: The Deliberative Turn in Chinese Political Development’. Perspectives on Politics 9, no. 02 (2011): 269289.
He, Baogang and Thøgersen, Stig, ‘Giving the People a Voice? Experiments with Consultative Authoritarian Institutions in China’. Journal of Contemporary China 19, no. 66 (2010): 675692
Heilmann, Sebastian. ‘Policy Experimentation in China’s Economic Rise’. Studies in Comparative International Development (SCID) 43, no. 1 (2008): 126.
Heilmann, Sebastian. ‘Policy-Making through Experimentation: The Formation of a Distinctive Policy Process’. In Mao’s Invisible Hand: The Political Foundations of Adaptive Governance, edited by Heilmann, Sebastian and Perry, Elizabeth J., 62102. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Asia Center, 2011.
Hem, Mikal. ‘Evading the Censors: Critical Journalism in Authoritarian States’. Reuters Institute Fellowship Paper, University of Oxford, Trinity Term, 2014.
Herman, Edward S. and Chomsky, Noam. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of Mass Media. New York: Pantheon Books, 1988.
Heydemann, Steven. ‘Upgrading Authoritarianism in the Arab World’. Saban Center Analysis Paper Series no. 13 (October 2007).
Hildebrandt, Timothy. Social Organizations and the Authoritarian State in China. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Hille, Kathrin. ‘China: Citizens United’. Financial Times, 29 July 2013.
Hille, Kathrin. ‘Real Name Rule to Add to Sina Weibo’s Woes’. Financial Times, 28 February 2012. f-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2cRu2f1qm.
Ho, Peter and Edmonds, Richard L. (eds.). China’s Embedded Activism: Opportunities and Constraints of a Social Movement. Abingdon; New York: Routledge, 2008.
Holmes, Stephen. ‘Conclusion: The State of the State in Putin’s Russia’. In The State after Communism, edited by Colton, Timothy J. and Holmes, Stephen, 299311. Lanham, MD; Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.
Hopkins, Mark W. Mass Media in the Soviet Union. New York: Pegasus, 1970.
Horsley, Jamie P. ‘China Adopts First Nationwide Open Government Information Regulations’. 24 April 2007.
Fangyu, Hou (侯方域). ‘Nanfang Shibian’ (Southern Incident) (南方事變). Yangguang Shiwu Zhoukan (阳光时务周刊), 9 August 2012.
‘How Officials can Spin the Media’. China Media Project. 21 April 2012.
Howard, Marc M. The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Hsing, You-tien and Ching Kwan, Lee. Reclaiming Chinese Society: The New Social Activism. London: Routledge, 2009.
Baijing, Hu (胡百精, ed.). ‘Ziran zainan zhong de weiji guanli zhenglu yu shehui dongyuan moshi – yi ‘5.12’ dizhen we ge an’ (The Crisis Management Strategy and Societal Mobilisation Model during Natural Disasters – The Case Study of the ‘5.12’ earthquake) (自然灾难中的微机管理策略与社会动员模式 – 以’5.12地震为个案). In Zhongguo weiji guanli baogao 2008–2009 (The Report of China’s Crisis Management in 2008–2009) (中国危机管理报告 2008–2009), 148176. Beijing, China: Zhongguo Renmin daxue chubanshe (Renmin University Press), 2009.
Dejia, Hu. Dui hu jintao ‘tidao yulun jiandu’ de lijie (The Understanding of Hu Jintao’s Mention of Strengthening Yulun Jiandu) (对胡锦涛提到舆论监督的理解). Beijing: China Youth University for Political Sciences, 2008.
‘Hu jintao zai renmin ribao kaocha gongzuo de jianghua’ (Hu Jintao’s Speech While Investigating the Work of People’s Daily) (胡锦涛在人民日报考察工作的讲话). Xinhua News, 26 June 2008.
Shuli, Hu. ‘The Rise of the Business Media in China’. In Changing Media, Changing China, edited by Shirk, Susan, 7791. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Shuli, Hu (胡舒立). ‘Fuxin kuangnan zai bi meikuang gaige’ (Fuxin Mining Disaster is Again Forcing the Reform of the Mining Industry) (阜新矿难再逼煤矿改革). Caijing, 21 February 2005.
‘Hu Shuli Leaves Caijing, China’s Boldest News Magazine’. Huffington Post, 9 November 2009.
Huang, Ronggui and Sun, Xiaoyi. ‘Weibo Network, Information Diffusion and Implications for Collective Action in China’. Information, Communication & Society, 17 no. 1 (2013): 86104.
Xiuli, Huang (黄秀丽). ‘Zhongzui zhikong yizai zuji kuangnan?’ (The Meaning of Felony Accusation Lies in Blocking Mining Accidents?) (重罪指控意在阻击矿难?). Nanfang Zhoumo, 17 September 2010.
Huckin, Thomas N. ‘Critical Discourse Analysis’. In Functional Approaches to Written Text: Classroom Applications, edited by Miller, Tom, 1997.
Hui, Dennis and Hang, Lai. ‘Politics of Sichuan Earthquake, 2008’. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 17, no. 2 (2009): 137140.
Hung, Chin-Fun. ‘China’s Changing State-Society Relations in the Internet Age: Case Study of Zhao Zuohai’. International Journal of China Studies 3, no. 3 (2012): 363381.
Huntington, Samuel P. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman; London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
Illarionov, Andrei. ‘The Siloviki in Charge’. Journal of Democracy 20, no. 2 (2009): 6972.
Inwood, Heather. ‘Multimedia Quake Poetry: Convergence Culture after the Sichuan Earthquake’. The China Quarterly 208 (2011): 932950.
Jacobs, Andrew and Wong, Edward. ‘China Reports Student Toll for Quake’. The New York Times, 8 May 2009.
Jankowski, Nick and Jensen, Klaus Bruhn. A Handbook of Qualitative Methodologies for Mass Communication Research. London: Routledge, 1991.
Jenkins, Henry, Thorburn, David, and Seawell, Brad. Democracy and New Media. Cambridge, MA: London, 2003.
Jensen, Klaus and Jankowski, Nick. A Handbook of Qualitative Methodologies for Mass Communication Research. London: Routledge, 1991.
Jiang, Jessie. ‘China’s Rage over Toxic Baby Milk’. Time. 16 April 2012.,8599,1842727,00.html.
Jiang, Min. ‘Authoritarian Deliberation on Chinese Internet’. Electronic Journal of Communication 20, no. 3&4 (2010).
Jianzhu gongcheng kangzhen shefang fenlei biaozhun (Standard for Classification of Seismic Protection of Buildings’ Construction) (建筑工程抗震设防分类标准). Zhonghua renmin gonghe he guo zhufang he chengxiang jianzhu bu; guojia zhiliang jiandu jianyan jianyi zongju (People’s Republic Housing and Town and County Construction Bureau; the State’s Quality Supervision and Quarantine Inspection Central Headquarters) (中华人民共和国住房和城乡建设部; 国家质量监督检验检疫总局), 30 May 2008.
‘Jiaoyubu jianshebu xiuding nongcun xuexiao jianshe biaozhun 12 yue qi shishi’ (Department of Education and Construction Revise the Standards for Construction of Schools in Rural Areas to Take Effect at the Beginning of December) (教育部建设部修订农村学校建设标准 12月起实), Zhongguo Wang (中国网), 24 November 2008.
Johnson, Chalmers. Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China, 1937–1945. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1962.
Johnson, Ian. ‘Is Democracy Chinese? An Interview with Journalist Chang Ping’. NYRblog, 27 January 2012.
Joseph, Richard A. State, Conflict, and Democracy in Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Jing, Ju (鞠靖). ‘Shendu baodao shengchan fangshi de xin bianhua: shendu baodao jizhe QQ qun chutan’ (A New Change in the Mode of Production of In-Depth Reporting: A First Exploration of QQ Groups among In-Depth Journalists) (深度报道生产方式的新变化: 深度报道记者QQ群初探). Xinwen Jizhe (Journalist) (新闻记者) no. 1 (2012).
Jun, Jing. ‘Environmental Protests in Rural China’. In Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance, edited by Perry, Elizabeth J. and Selden, Mark, 143160. London: Routledge, 2000.
Kaiman, Jonathan. ‘China Cracks down on Social Media with Threat of Jail for “Online Rumors”’.The Guardian, 10 September 2013.
Kamrava, Mehran and Mora, Frank O.. ‘Civil Society and Democratisation in Comparative Perspective: Latin America and the Middle East’. Third World Quarterly 19, no. 5 (15 December 1998): 893915.
Katzenstein, Peter J. A World of Regions: Asia and Europe in the American Imperium. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.
Keane, John. The Media and Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991.
Khamis, Sahar and Vaughn, Katherine. ‘Cyberactivism in the Egyptian Revolution: How Civic Engagement and Citizen Journalism Tilted the Balance’. Arab Media & Society no. 14 (Summer 2011).
Kim, Lucian and Levitov, Maria. ‘Russia Heat Wave May Kill 15,000, Shave $15 Billion of GDP’. Bloomberg, 10 August 2010.
King, Gary, Pan, Jennifer, and Roberts, Margaret. ‘How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression’. American Political Science Review 107, no. 2 (May 2013): 118.
Koltsova, Olessia. News Media and Power in Russia. London: Routledge, 2006.
Korotych, Vitaliĭ O. and Porter, Cathy. The Best of Ogonyok: The New Journalism of Glasnost. London: Heinemann, 1990.
Kraus, Richard Curt. The Party and the Arty in China: The New Politics of Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2004.
‘Kuangnan tanyuan’ (Extensive Investigation into the Roots of Coal-Mmining Accidents) (矿难探源). Caijing, 29 December 2005.
Kuhn, Anthony. ‘The Anti-Pollution Documentary That’s Taken China by Storm’. NPR News. 4 March, 2015. 14 March 2015.
Lachapelle, Jean, Way, Lucan A., and Levitsky, Steven. ‘Crisis, Coercion, and Authoritarian Durability: Explaining Diverging Responses to Anti-Regime Protest in Egypt and Iran.’ SSRN eLibrary (2012).
LaFraniere, Sharon. ‘School Construction Critic Gets Prison Term in China’. The New York Times, 23 November 2009.
LaFraniere, Sharon and Ansfield, Jonathan. ‘Editor Gets Fired after Criticizing Chinese Registration System’. The New York Times, 9 May 2010.
Lagerkvist, Johan. ‘New Media Entrepreneurs in China: Allies of the Party-State or Civil Society?Journal of International Affairs 65, no. 1 (2011): 169182
Lagerkvist, Johan. ‘The Legacy of the 1989 Beijing Massacre: Establishing Neo-Authoritarian Rule, Silencing Civil Society’. International Journal of China Studies 5 no. 2 (2014): 349369.
Lai, Dennis and Hui, Hang. ‘Research Note: Politics of Sichuan Earthquake’. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 17 no. 2 (2009): 138.
Lai, Karyn. An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Lakoff, George. Don’t Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing Co, 1990.
Lan, Yuxin. ‘Coverage of the Wenchuan Earthquake: An Overview’. The China Nonprofit Review 1, no. 2 (2009): 221245.
Landry, Pierre F. Decentralized Authoritarianism in China: The Communist Party’s Control of Local Elites in the Post-Mao Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Landry, Pierre F. and Stockmann, Daniela. ‘Crisis Management in an Authoritarian Regime: Media Effects during the Sichuan Earthquake by Pierre F. Landry, Daniela Stockmann’. SSRN eLibrary (2009).
Landry, Pierre F., Davis, Deborah, and Wang, Shiru. ‘Elections in Rural China: Competition Without Parties’. Comparative Political Studies 43, no. 6 (1 June 2010): 763790.
Larson, Christina. ‘In China, Politically Connected Firms have Higher Worker Death Rates’. BusinessWeek, 28 January 2013.–01-28/in-china-corrupt-officials-and-worker-deaths#p1.
Lee, Ching Kwan. Against the Law: Labor Protests in China’s Rustbelt and Sunbelt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
Lei, Ya-Wen. ‘The Political Consequences of the Rise of the Internet: Political Beliefs and Practices of Chinese Netizens’. Political Communication 28 (2011): 291322.
Lemos, Gerard. The End of the Chinese Dream: Why Chinese People Fear the Future. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012.
Leng, Shujie and Wertime, David. ‘China’s Anti-Corruption Campaign Ensnares Tens of Thousands More’. Foreign Policy. 9 January, 2015. 11 March 2015.
Levitsky, Steven and Way, Lucan A.. ‘The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism’. Journal of Democracy 13, no. 2 (2002): 5165.
Levitsky, Steven and Way, Lucan A.. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War. 1st ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Levy, Richard. ‘Village Elections, Transparency, and Anticorruption: Henan and Guangdong Provinces’. In Grassroots Political Reform in Contemporary China, edited by Perry, Elizabeth J. and Goldman, Merle, 2047. Cambridge; London: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Li, Jinquan. Voices of China: The Interplay of Politics and Journalism. New York; London: Guilford Press, 1990.
Wei’ao, Li (李微敖). ‘Hegang “Renwei” Kuangnan’ (Hegang ‘Man-Made’ Mining Accident) (鹤岗‘人为’矿难). Caijing, 6 December 2009.
Wei’ao, Li, Shengke, Gao, and Yuxiao, Dong (李微敖, 高耘科, 董欲晓). ‘Chuan zhen chongjian de zhangdan’ (Sichuan Earthquake Reconstruction Bill) (川震重建的帐单). Caijing, 7 May 2012.
Zixin, Li (李梓新). Zainan ruhe baodao (How Disasters Are Reported) (灾难如何报道). Nanfang Ribao Chubanshe (Southern Newspaper Press) (南方日报出版社), 2009.
Lieberthal, Kenneth. Governing China: From Revolution through Reform. New York; London: W.W. Norton, 2004.
Lieberthal, Kenneth and Oksenberg, Michel. Policy Making in China. Princeton:Princeton University Press, 1988.
Liebman, Benjamin L.The Media and the Courts: Towards Competitive Supervision?The China Quarterly 208 (2011): 833850.
Liebman, Benjamin L.Watchdog or Demagogue? The Media in the Chinese Legal System’. Columbia Law Review 105, no. 1 (1 January 2005): 1157.
Ligachev, E.K. Inside Gorbachev’s Kremlin: The Memoirs of Yegor Ligachev. Boulder, CO; Oxford: Westview Press, 1996.
Lim, Louisa. The People’s Republic of Amnesia. New York, NY: Oxford University Press: 2015.
Lin, Yutang. A History of the Press and Public Opinion in China. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1936.
Link, Perry. ‘China: The Anaconda in the Chandelier’. The New York Review of Books, 11 April 2002.
Link, Perry. The Uses of Literature: Life in the Socialist Chinese Literary System. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Link, Perry. Evening Chats in Beijing. New York: Norton, 1992.
Linz, Juan J. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes. Boulder, CO; London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000.
Lipman, Maria. ‘Rethinking Russia: Freedom of Expression Without Freedom of Press’. SIPA Journal of International Affairs 63 (2010): 153169.
Lipman, Maria. ‘Russia’s No-Participation Pact’. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 30 March 2011.
Littlefield, Robert and Quenette, Andrea. ‘Crisis Leadership and Hurricane Katrina: The Portrayal of Authority by the Media in Natural Disasters’. Journal of Applied Communication Research 35, no. 1 (2007): 2647.
Liu, Xiabo. ‘Corruption Lingers in the Shadows of the Chinese Media’. China Perspectives 54 (2004): 4548.
‘Looking Back on Chinese Media Reporting of School Collapses’. China Media Project, 7 May 2009.
Lopez-Pintor, Rafael and Morlino, Leonardo. ‘Italy and Spain’. In Assessing the Quality of Democracy, edited by Diamond, Larry J. and Morlino, Leonardo, 85123. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.
Lorentzen, Peter L.China’s Strategic Censorship’. American Journal of Political Science 58, no. 2 (2014): 402414.
Lorentzen, Peter L., Landry, Pierre F., and Yasuda, John K.. ‘Undermining Authoritarian Innovation: The Power of China’s Industrial Giants’, The Journal of Politics 76, no. 1 (2014): 182194.
Louw, Eric. The Media and Political Process. London: Sage, 2010.
Lubman, Stanley B. Bird in a Cage: Legal Reform in China after Mao. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.
Lux, Steven J. and Straussman, Jeffrey D.. ‘Searching for Balance: Vietnamese NGOs Operating in a State-Led Civil Society’. Public Administration and Development 24, no. 2 (May 2004): 173181.
Lynch, Daniel C. After the Propaganda State: Media, Politics, and ‘Thought Work’ in Reformed China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999.
Lynch, Marc. ‘Tunisia and the New Arab Media Space’. Foreign Policy Blogs, 15 January 2011.
Changbo, Ma (马昌博). ‘Tunlan kuangnan: an jian shengzhang de lei yu tong’ (Tunlan Mining Accident: The Tiredness and Pain of the Provincial Governor) (屯兰矿难:‘安监省长’的累与痛). Nanfang Zhoumo, 26 February 2009.
Changbo, Ma (马昌博). ‘Weixian “feng kou fei” an: jiu jizhe quan bei panxing’ (Weixian’s Case of ‘shut Up fees’: Nine Journalists have been Completely Sentenced) (蔚县‘封口费’案:九记者全被判刑). Nanfang Zhoumo, 1 April 2010.
MacDonald, Adam P.From Military Rule to Electoral Authoritarianism: The Reconfiguration of Power in Myanmar and Its Future’. Asian Affairs: An American Review 40, no. 1 (2013): 2036.
MacIntyre, Donald. ‘Rumours of the Death of Investigative Journalism Are Greatly Exaggerated’. In Investigative Journalism: Dead or Alive, edited by Mair, John and Keeble, Richard Lance. Suffolk: Abramis Academic Publishing, 2011.
MacKinnon, Rebecca. ‘China’s “Networked Authoritarianism”’. Journal of Democracy 22, no. 2 (2011): 3246.
MacKinnon, Rebecca. ‘Flatter World and Thicker Walls? Blogs, Censorship and Civic Discourse in China’. Public Choice 134, no. 1–2 (1 January 2008): 3146.
MacKinnon, Rebecca. ‘China’s Censorship 2.0: How Companies Censor Bloggers’. First Monday 14 (2) (2009).
Magnier, Mark. ‘China Tightens Media Limits Loosened in Quake’. Los Angeles Times, 5 June, 2008;
Makley, Charlene. ‘Spectacular Compassion’. Critical Asian Studies 46 no. 3 (2014): 371404.
Manion, Melanie. Corruption by Design: Building Clean Government in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Martin, Nicholas. ‘Safety, Media Coverage and Provincial SOEs: Explaining Ownership Variation in Chinese Coal-Industry Restructuring’, Working Paper 2013-39 (2013); available at:
Mauldin, William and Kolyandr, Alexander. ‘Moscow Editor Fired Over Coverage of Putin’. Wall Street Journal, 14 December 2011.
McFaul, Michael. Between Dictatorship and Democracy: Russian Post-Communist Political Reform. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2004.
McFaul, Michael. ‘Lessons from Russia’s Protracted Transition from Communist Rule’. Political Science Quarterly 114, no. 1 (1 April 1999): 103130.
McFaul, Michael. ‘Transitions from Postcommunism’. Journal of Democracy 16, no. 3 (2005): 519.
McFaul, Michael and Lipman, Maria. ‘“Managed Democracy” in Russia: Putin and the Press’. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 6, no. 3 (2001): 116127.
McFaul, Michael and Lipman, Maria. ‘Putin and the Media’. In The Putin Russia: Past Imperfect, Future Uncertain, edited by Herspring, Dale, 6384. New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2003.
McManus, John H. Market-Driven Journalism: Let the Citizen Beware? Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1994.
McNabb, David E. Research Methods for Political Science: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods. Armonk, NY; London: M.E. Sharpe, 2004.
McNair, Brian. Glasnost, Perestroika and the Soviet Media. London: Routledge, 1991.
McQuail, Denis. ‘Accountability of Media to Society Principles and Means’. European Journal of Communication 12, no. 4 (1 December 1997): 511529.
McReynolds, Louise. The News under Russia’s Old Regime: The Development of a Mass-Circulation Press. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
‘Media Watchdog Ranks Russia 9th in Unsolved Journalist Killings’. The Moscow Times, 3 May 2013.
Medvedev, Grigori. No Breathing Room: The Aftermath of Chernobyl. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
Mercer, Claire. ‘NGOs, Civil Society, and Democratization: A Critical View of the Literature’. Progress in Development Studies 2, no. 1 (2002): 522.
Mertha, Andrew. Review of ‘China’s Democratic Future: How It Will Happen and Where It Will Lead’. Perspectives on Politics 4, no. 03 (2006): 613614.
Mertha, Andrew. ‘“Fragmented Authoritarianism” 2.0: Political Pluralization in the Chinese Policy Process’. The China Quarterly 200 (2009): 9951012.
Mertha, Andrew. ‘Society in the State: China’s Nondemocratic Political Pluralization’. In Chinese Politics: State, Society, and the Market, edited by Hays, Peter and Rosen, Stanley, 6984. Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge.
Mertha, Andrew. The Politics of Piracy: Intellectual Property in Contemporary China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.
Michelson, Ethan. ‘Lawyers, Political Embeddedness, and Institutional Continuity in China’s Transition from Socialism’. American Journal of Sociology 113, no. 2 (2007): 352414.
Mickiewicz, Ellen. Television, Power, and the Public in Russia. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Migdal, Joel S. State in Society; Studying How States and Societies Transform and Constitute One Another. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. Boston, MA: Ticknor and Fields, 1863.
Shuliang, Ming (明叔亮). ‘Dianxin: cuiruo de yinji tongxin’ (Telecommunications: Weak Disaster Response) (震撼中国·经济篇:电信:脆弱的应急通信). Caijing, 26 May 2008.
Moeller, Susan D. Compassion Fatigue: How the Media Sell Disease, Famine, War and Death. London: Routledge, 1999.
Moore, Malcolm. ‘Barack Obama’s Exclusive Interview with the Chinese Media’. Telegraph Blogs, 19 November 2009.
Morozov, Evgeny. ‘Moldova’s Twitter Revolution’. Foreign Policy Blogs, 7 April 2009.
Morse, Yonatan L.The Era of Electoral Authoritarianism’. World Politics 64, no. 01 (2012): 161198.
Mughan, Anthony and Gunther, Richard. ‘The Political Impact of the Media: A Reassessment’. In Democracy and the Media: A Comparative Perspective, edited by Mughan, Anthony and Gunther, Richard, 402449. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Mulvenon, James C.China: Conditional Compliance’. In Coercion and Governance in Asia: The Declining Political Role of the Military, edited by Alagappa, Muthiah, 317321. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.
Xianghong, Nan (南香红). Juzai shidai de meiti caozuo (Media Operations in the Disaster Era) (巨灾时代的美体操作). Guangzhou: Nanfang Daily Press, 2009.
Zhenzhong, Nan (南振中). ‘Yulun jiandu shi weihu renmin qunzhong genben liyi de zhongyao tujin’ (Yulun Jiandu is an Important Channel for Protecting the Basic Interests of the Masses) (舆论监督是维护人民群众根本利益的重要途径). Qiushi (Seek Truth) (求是) no. 12 (2005): 2629.
Nathan, Andrew J.Authoritarian Resilience’. Journal of Democracy 14, no. 1 (2003): 617.
Naughton, Barry J.China’s Distinctive System: Can It Be a Model for Others?Journal of Contemporary China 19, no. 65 (2010): 437460.
Naughton, Barry J. The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.
Naughton, Barry J. and Yang, Dali L. (eds.). Holding China Together: Diversity and National Integration in the Post-Deng Era. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Neuman, Scott. ‘Chinese Activist Tells of “Crazy Retaliation” Against His Family’. 10 May 2012.
‘Niandu huati zhuizong 2005 nian de kuangnan’ (End-of-the-Year Topic Focuses on 2005 Coal-Mining Accidents) (年度话题追踪 2005年的矿难). Caijing, 26 December 2005.
Nie, Xiaofeng. ‘China Should Pay Greater Attention to Supervision by Public Opinion’. Xinhua Hong Kong Services, 17 April 1998.
‘No More Survivors in China Blast’. BBC, 1 December 2004,
Norris, Pippa, Kern, Montague, and Just, Marion (eds.). Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government and the Public. New York; London: Routledge, 2003.
Nove, Alec. Glasnost in Action: Cultural Renaissance in Russia. Boston; London: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
Oates, Sarah. Revolution Stalled: The Political Limits of the Internet in the Post-Soviet Sphere. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
O’Brien, Kevin J. Rightful Resistance in Rural China. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
O’Brien, Kevin J.Chinese People’s Congresses and Legislative Embeddedness: Understanding Early Organizational Development’. Comparative Political Studies 27, no. 1 (1994).
O’Brien, Kevin J. (ed.). Popular Protest in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
O’Brien, Kevin J.Villagers, Elections, and Citizenship in Contemporary China’. Modern China 27, no. 4 (2001): 407435.
O’Donnell, Guillermo. ‘Horizontal Accountability in New Democracies’. In The Self-Restraining State: Power and Accountability in New Democracies, edited by Schedler, Andreas, Diamond, Larry J., and Plattner, Marc F., 5963. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
O’Sullivan, John and Heinonen, Ari. ‘Old Values, New Media’. Journalism Practice 2, no. 3 (2008): 357371.
Ogden, S. Inklings of Democracy in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.
Olcott, Marina B. and Ottaway, Marina. ‘Challenge of Semi-Authoritarianism’. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Paper, 1 October 1999.
Olson, Richard S. and Drury, A. Cooper. ‘Un-Therapeutic Communities: A Cross-National Analysis of Post-Disaster Political Unrest’. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 15, no. 2 (1997): 221238.
Osnos, Evan. ‘Boss Rail’. The New Yorker, 22 October 2012.
Osnos, Evan. ‘Qinghai Earthquake’. The New Yorker Blogs, 14 April 2010.
Osnos, Evan. ‘How a High-Speed Rail Disaster Exposed China’s Corruption: The New Yorker’. The New Yorker, 22 October 2012.
Ottaway, Marina. Democracy Challenged: The Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2003.
Paige, Jeffery M. (Revolution and the Agrarian Bourgeoisie in Nicaragua). CRSO Working Paper. Center for Research on Social Organization. Ann Harbor: The University of Michigan, 1988.
Park, Myung-Jin and Curran, James. De-Westernising Media Studies. London: Routledge, 2000.
Patterson, Thomas E.Bad News, Bad Governance’. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 546, no. 1 (1 July 1996): 97108.
Pavlik, John V. Journalism and New Media. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2001.
Peerenboom, Randall. China’s Long March Toward Rule of Law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Pei, Minxin. From Reform to Revolution: The Demise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 1994.
Pei, Minxin. China’s Trapped Transition: The Limits of Developmental Autocracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
Pelling, Mark and Dill, Kathleen. ‘Disaster Politics: Tipping Points for Change in the Adaptation of Sociopolitical Regimes’. Progress in Human Geography 34, no. 1 (1 February 2010): 2137.
Perry, Elizabeth J. Anyuan: Mining China’s Revolutionary Tradition. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2012.
Perry, Elizabeth J.Studying Chinese Politics: Farewell to Revolution?The China Journal no. 57 (2007).
Perry, Elizabeth J. and Selden, Mark. Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance. London; New York: Routledge, 2010.
Perry, Elizabeth J. and Goldman, Merle. Grassroots Political Reform in Contemporary China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
Perry, Elizabeth J. and Heilmann, Sebastian. ‘Embracing Uncertainty: Guerrilla Policy Style and Adaptive Governance in China’. In Mao’s Invisible Hand: The Political Foundations of Adaptive Governance, edited by Heilmann, Sebastian and Perry, Elizabeth J., 130. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Asia Center, 2011.
Peruzzotti, Enrique and Smulovitz, Catalina. ‘Societal Accountability in Latin America’. Journal of Democracy 11, no. 4 (2000): 147158.
Phillips, Tom. ‘China Underreporting Coal Consumption by up to 17%, Data Suggests’. The Guardian. 4 November 2015.
Chuanrong, Pi (皮传荣). ‘Wenchuan dizhen meiti baodao zhi fansi’ (Reflections on the Media Reporting of the Wenchuan Earthquake) (汶川地震媒体报道之反思). Xinan Mingzu Daxue Xuebao (西南民族大学学报) no. 8 (2008): 149204.
Pilger, John (ed.). Tell Me No Lies: Investigative Journalism and Its Triumphs. London: Cape, 2004.
Xiang, Ping (冯翔). ‘Shisi Feng Hexin Yu Yi Ci Kuangnan’ (Fourteen Congratulatory Letters and One Mining Disaster) (十四封贺信与一次矿难). Nanfang Zhoumo, 1 April 2010.
Plattner, Marc F. and Diamond, Larry J.. ‘Rethinking Civil Society’. Journal of Democracy 5, no. 3 (1994): 418.
Politkovskaya, Anna. A Small Corner of Hell: Dispatches from Chechnya. Translated by Burry, Alexander and Tulchinsky, Tatiana. University Of Chicago Press, 2003.
‘President Vladimir Putin Took Part in the 59th World Newspaper Congress’. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, 5 June 2006.!OpenDocument.
‘Profile: Mikhail Khodorkovsky’. BBC, 30 December 2010, sec. Europe.
Protess, David L. and Cook, Fay Lomax. The Journalism of Outrage: Investigative Reporting and Agenda Building in America. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1992.
Przeworski, Adam and Limongi, Fernando. ‘Modernization: Theories and Facts’. World Politics 49, no. 02 (1997): 155183.
Przeworski, Adam, Stokes, Susan Carol, and Manin, Bernard. Democracy, Accountability, and Representation. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
‘Putin’s Comments on Politkovskaya Anger Activists’. RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, 11 October 2006.
Pinfang, Qian (钱平凡) and Zhou Jianyi (周健奇). Wo guo tigao meikuang anquan shengchan shuiping de cuoshi yu Jjngyan (My Country’s Policies and Experiences in Improving Mining Safety Level) (我国提高煤矿安全生产水平的措施与经验). Guowuyuan fazhan yanjiu zhongxin diaocha yanjiu baogao (The Development Research Centre of the State Council Research Report) (国务院发展研究中心调查研究报告). Guowuyuan fazhan zhongxin (Development Research Centre of the State Council) (国务院发展研究中心), 2011.
Qiang, Xiao. ‘The Rise of Online Public Opinion and Its Political Impact’. In Changing Media, Changing China, edited by Shirk, Susan, 202225. Oxford, UK; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Qiu, Jack Lingchuan. ‘Virtual Censorship in China: Keeping the Gate between Cyberspaces’. International Journal of Communication Law and Policy, 4 (1999/2000):125.
Qu, Yan., Wu, Philip Fei, and Wang, Xiaoqing. ‘Online Community Response to Major Disaster: A Study of Tianya Forum in the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake’. Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2009).
‘Quake Parents Protest in Sichuan’. Radio Free Asia, 11 January 2012.
2009 quanguo xinwen chubanye jiben qingkuang (Overview of All News Publications in 2009) (2009 全国新闻出版业基本情况) General Administration of the Press and Publication of the People’s Republic of China (GAPP), 7 September 2009.
Raymond, Fishman and Yongxiang, Wang. ‘The Unsafe Side of Chinese Crony Capitalism’. Harvard Business Review (February 2013).
Reilly, James. Strong Society, Smart State: The Rise of Public Opinion in China’s Japan Policy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.
Remington, Thomas F. Politics in Russia. Boston; London: Longman, 2009.
Repnikova, Maria. ‘China’s Journalists are No Revolutionaries’. Wall Street Journal, 15 January 2013.
Repnikova, Maria. ‘Partial Political Liberalisation in an Authoritarian Regime: A Case Study of China’s Media Politics’. MPhil Dissertation, University of Oxford, 2009.
Repnikova, Maria. ‘Information Management During Crisis Events: A Case Study of Beijing Floods of 2012’. Journal of Contemporary China 26, no. 105 (2017): 115.
Repnikova, Maria. ‘Thought Work Contested: Ideology and Journalism Education in China’. The China Quarterly 230 (2017).
Repnikova, Maria and Fang, Kecheng. ‘Behind the Fall of China’s Greatest Newspaper’. Foreign Policy. 30 January 2015.
‘Reporter Who Wrote about Kremlin Slush Fund Banned from Reentering Russia’. Reporters without Borders, 18 December 2007.
Richardson, John E. Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Richter, Andrei. Post-Soviet Perspective on Censorship and Freedom of the Media. International Communication Gazette 70, no. 5 (2008).
‘Rising Protests in China’. The Atlantic, 17 February 2012.
Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M., Vos, Femke, Below, Regina, and Sapir, Debarati Guha (Eds.) Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2008: The Numbers and Trends. Belgium Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 2009.
Roeder, Philip G. Red Sunset: The Failure of Soviet Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Rohde, David. ‘China’s Newest Export: Internet Censorship’. Reuters, 17 November 2011.
Rose, Richard, Mishler, William, and Haerpfer, Christian. Democracy and its Alternatives: Understanding Post-Communist Societies. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Rose, Richard, Mishler, William, and Munro, Neil. Popular Support for an Undemocratic Regime: The Changing Views of Russians. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Rosen, Stanley. ‘Retrofitting the Steel Frame: From Mobilizing the Masses to Surveying the Public’. In Mao’s Invisible Hand: The Political Foundations of Adaptive Governance in China, edited by Heilmann, Sebastian and Perry, Elizabeth J., 237269. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Asia Center, 2011.
Ross, Cameron. ‘Regional Elections and Electoral Authoritarianism in Russia’. Europe-Asia Studies 63, no. 4 (2011): 641661.
Rowen, Henry S.When Will the Chinese People Be Free?Journal of Democracy 18, no. 3 (2007): 3852.
‘Russian Journalist Wins Peter Mackler Award’. RIA Novosti. 17 April 2012.
Saich, Tony. ‘Negotiating the State: The Development of Social Organizations in China’. The China Quarterly 161 (1 March 2000): 124141.
Sakwa, Richard. Gorbachev and His Reforms, 1985–1990. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall College Div, 1991.
Sakwa, Richard. ‘Regime Change from Yeltsin to Putin: Normality, Normalcy or Normalisation?’ In Russian Politics under Putin, edited by Cameron, Ross, 1739. Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press, 2004.
Salame, Ghassan. Democracy without Democrats?: The Renewal of Politics in the Muslim World. London: I.B. Tauris, 1994.
Saleh, Yasmine and Finn, Tom. ‘Egypt Forces Assault Protest Camp, Many Scores Shot Dead’. Reuters, 14 August 2013.
Schedler, Andreas. ‘Conceptualizing Accountability’. In The Self-Restraining State: Power and Accountability in New Democracies, edited by Schedler, Andreas, Diamond, Larry, and Plattner, Marc F., 1328. Boulder, CO; London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1993.
Schedler, Andreas. ‘The Menu of Manipulation’. Journal of Democracy 13, no. 2 (2002): 3650.
Schedler, Andreas. ‘The New Institutionalism in the Study of Authoritarian Regimes’. SSRN eLibrary (2009).
Schedler, Andreas. Electoral Authoritarianism. L. Rienner, 2006.
Schmitter, Philippe C.The Limits of Horizontal Accountability’. In The Self-Restraining State: Power and Accountability in New Democracies, edited by Schedler, Andreas, Diamond, Larry J., and Plattner, Marc F., 5963. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Schneider, Florian and Hwang, Yin-Jye. ‘The Sichuan Earthquake and the Heavenly Mandate: Legitimizing Chinese Rule through Disaster Discourse’. Journal of Contemporary China 23, no. 88 (2014): 636656.
Schulz, Sandra. ‘The Courage of the Few: Dozens Targeted in Chinese Crackdown on Critical Voices’. Spiegel Online, 20 April 2011.
Schumpeter, Joseph A. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. Mansfield Centre, CT: Martino, 2011.
Shieh, Shawn and Deng, Guosheng. ‘An Emerging Civil Society: The Impact of the 2008 Sichuan Earthuake on Grass-Roots Associations in China’. The China Journal 65 (2011): 181194.
Scotton, James F. New Media for a New China. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
Sequeira, Consuelo Cruz. ‘Mistrust and Violence in Nicaragua: Ideology and Politics’. Latin American Research Review 30, no. 1 (January 1995): 212.
Shambaugh, David. China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation. Berkeley, CA; London: University of California Press, 2008.
Shambaugh, David. China Goes Global: The Partial Power. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Shambaugh, David. ‘China’s Propaganda System: Institutions, Processes and Efficacy’. The China Journal 57 (1 January 2007): 2558.
Shambaugh, David. Modernizing China’s Military: Progress, Problems, and Prospects. Berkeley; London: University of California Press, 2002.
Shambaugh, David. ‘The Coming Chinese Crackup’. Wall Street Journal, 6 March 2015.
Liang, Shen (沈亮). ‘“Qing ji hui” 169 suo xiwang xiaoxue jiben wanhao – zhuanfang nan dou gongyi jijinhui fu lishizhang jian mishuzhang, zhongguo qing-shaonian fazhan jijin qian chuangbanren xu yong guang’ (Qing Ji Hui 169 Primary Schools Are Basically Intact – Report Based on Interviews with the Vice-Chair of the Nan Dou Public Goods/Welfare Foundation, Secretary Jian, and the Founder of China’s Young People Development Fund, Xu Yong Guang) (“青基会”169所希望小学基本完好—专访南都公益基金会副理事长兼秘书长、中国青少年发展基金会前创办人徐永光). Nanfang Zhoumo, 29 May 2008.
Liang, Shen and Ruichun, Yang (沈亮, 杨瑞春). ‘Zhongguo hongshizihui zhimian xinren fengbo’ (China’s Red Cross Faces Crisis of Public Confidence) (中国红十字会直面信任风波). Nanfang Zhoumo, 5 June 2012.
Shevtsova, Lilia. ‘The Return of Personalized Power’. Journal of Democracy 20, no. 2 (2009): 6165.
Shevtsova, Lilia. ‘The Limits of Bureaucratic Authoritarianism’. Journal of Democracy 15, no. 3 (2004): 6777.
Shevtsova, Lilia. ‘Russia’s Hybrid Regime’. Journal of Democracy 12, no. 4 (2001): 6570.
Ping, Shi (石平). ‘Lingdao ganbu xuexi guanyu zai yulun jiandu xia gongzuo’ (Leading Cadres Learning to Work Under Public Opinion Supervision) (领导干部应习惯于在舆论监督下工作). Qiushi (Seek Truth) (求是) no. 14 (2009): 5354.
Shi, Tianjian. Political Participation in Beijing. Cambridge; London: Harvard University Press, 1997.
Shirk, Susan L. (ed.). Changing Media, Changing China. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Shirk, Susan L. (ed.). China: Fragile Superpower: How China’s Internal Politics Could Derail Its Peaceful Rise. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Shlapentokh, Vladimir. Soviet Intellectuals and Political Power: The Post-Stalin Era. London; New York: I.B. Tauris, 1990.
‘Should Journalists Participate in the Protests?’ Russia Beyond The Headlines, 12 April 2012.
‘Sichuan sheng nei gongji 5335 ming xuesheng zai wenchuan dizhen zhong yunan huo shizong’ (5,335 Students were Killed or Went Missing in Sichuan Province during the Wenchuan Earthquake) (四川省内共计5335名学生在汶川地震中遇难或失踪). Xinhuanews (新华社), 7 May 2009.–05/07/content_11328503.htm.
Mei, Shu (舒眉). ‘Zaihou jinrong: xuqiu bi congqian geng poqie’ (Post-Disaster Finance: The Demand is More Pressing Than Before) (灾后金融:需求比从前更迫切). Nanfang Zhoumo, 5 June 2008.
Shue, Vivienne. ‘Legitimacy Crisis in China?’ In State and Society in 21st Century China: Crisis, Contention, and Legitimation, edited by Gries, Peter H. and Rosen, Stanley. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Shue, Vivienne. The Reach of the State: Sketches of the Chinese Body Politic. Stanford: Stanford University, 1988.
Simon, Roger. Gramsci’s Political Thought: An Introduction. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 2002.
Singerman, Diane. Avenues of Participation: Family, Politics, and Networks in Urban Quarters of Cairo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Sklar, Richard L.Developmental Democracy’. Comparative Studies in Society and History 29, no. 04 (1987): 686714.
Slater, Dan and Wong, Joseph,. ‘The Strength to Concede: Ruling Parties and Democratization in Developmental Asia’. Perspectives on Politics 11, no. 3 (2013): 717733.
Slater, Dan and Fenner, Sofia. ‘State Power and Staying Power: Infrastructural Mechanisms and Authoritarian Durability’. Journal of International Affairs 65, no. 1 (2011): 1529.
Smith, Roberta. ‘Ai Weiwei Survey in Washington’. The New York Times, 11 October 2012.
Song, Yingyi. ‘A Glance at the Underground Reading Movement during the Cultural Revolution’. Journal of Contemporary China 16, no. 1 (2007): 325333.
Sorace, Christian. ‘China’s Vision for Developing Sichuan’s Post-Earthquake Countryside: Turning Unruly Peasants into Grateful Urban Citizens’. The China Quarterly 218 (2014): 404424.
Sorace, Christian. ‘The Communist Party Miracle? The Alchemy of Turning Post-Disaster Reconstruction into Great Leap Development’. Comparative Politics 208 (2014): 404427.
Sparks, Colin and Reading, Anna. Communism, Capitalism and the Mass Media. London: Thousand Oaks, 1998.
Sparks, Colin and Reading, Anna. ‘Understanding Media Change in East-Central-Europe’. Media Culture & Society 16, no. 2 (1994): 243270.
Sparrow, Bartholomew H. Uncertain Guardians: The News Media As a Political Institution. Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Spires, Anthony J.Contingent Symbiosis and Civil Society in an Authoritarian State: Understanding the Survival of China’s Grassroots NGOs’. American Journal of Sociology 117, no. 1 (July 2011): 145.
Stark, David and Bruszt, László. Postsocialist Pathways: Transforming Politics and Property in East Central Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
‘State Team to Probe Coal Mine Disaster’. China Daily, 12 December 2007.–12/10/content_6308335.htm.
Statistical Reports on the Internet Development in China. China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), January 2012.
Steinhardt, Christoph H.From Blind Spot to Media Spotlight: Propaganda Policy, Media Activism and the Emergence of Protest Events in the Chinese Public Sphere’. Asian Studies Review 39, no. 1 (2015): 119137.
Stern, Rachel E. Environmental Litigation in China: A Study in Political Ambivalence. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Stern, Rachel E. and Hassid, Jonathan. ‘Amplifying Silence Uncertainty and Control Parables in Contemporary China’. Comparative Political Studies 45, no. 10 (1 October 2012): 12301254.
Stern, Rachel E. and O’Brien, Kevin J.. ‘Politics at the Boundary Mixed Signals and the Chinese State’. Modern China 38, no. 2 (1 March 2012): 174198.
Stockmann, Daniela. Media Commercialization and Authoritarian Rule in China. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Stockmann, Daniela. ‘Who Believes Propaganda? Media Effects during the Anti-Japanese Protests in Beijing’. The China Quarterly 202 (2010): 269289.
Stockmann, Daniela and Gallagher, Mary E.. ‘Remote Control: How the Media Sustain Authoritarian Rule in China’. Comparative Political Studies 44, no. 4 (1 April 2011): 436467.
Stoner-Weiss, Kathryn. ‘Russia: Authoritarianism Without Authority’. Journal of Democracy 17, no. 1 (2006): 104118.
(Successor of Internews Suspends Activity after Police Search). Committee to Protect Journalists, 23 April 2007.
Sullivan, Jonathan. ‘China’s Weibo: Is Faster Different?’ New Media & Society (7 February 2013).
Sun, Wanning and Chio, Jenny (eds.). Mapping Media in China: Region, Province, Locality. New York, NY: Routledge, 2012.
Sun, Xupei. An Orchestra of Voices: Making the Argument for Greater Speech and Press Freedom in the People’s Republic of China. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001.
Sun, Xupei. ‘Press Laws Save Media from Political Tangles’. Global Times, 13 May 2010.
Svensson, Marina. ‘Media and Civil Society in China: Community Building and Networking among Investigative Journalists and Beyond’. China Perspectives 3 (2012): 1928.
Swanson, David L.Transnational Trends in Political Communication: Conventional Views and New Realities’. In Comparing Political Communication: Theories, Cases, and New Challenges, edited by Esser, Frank and Pfetsch, Barbara, 4563. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Tai, Zixue and Sun, Tao. ‘Media Dependencies in a Changing Media Environment: The Case of the 2003 SARS Epidemic in China’. New Media & Society 9(6) (2007): 9871009.
Tang, Beibei. ‘The Discursive Turn: Deliberative Governance in China’s Urbanized Villages’. Journal of Contemporary China 24 (2015): 137157.
Guozhong, Tang (唐国忠). ‘Shanjie shandai shanyong shanguan xinwen meiti’ (Skilfully Understand, Treat, Use, and Manage News Media) (善解善待善用善管新闻媒体). Qiushi (Seek Truth) (求是) no. 3 (2008).
Taylor, Alan. ‘Rising Protests in China’. The Atlantic, 12 February 2012.
Taylor, Matthew. ‘Media Relations in Bosnia: A Role for Public Relations in Building Civil Society’. Public Relations Review 26 (2000): 114.
Teets, Jessica C.Let Many Civil Societies Bloom: The Rise of Consultative Authoritarianism in China’. The China Quarterly 213 (2013): 1938.
Tettey, Wisdom J. Media Pluralism, Democratic Discourses and Political Accountability in Africa. Harvard-World Bank Workshop: Harvard University, 29 May 2008.
‘The Battle for Moscow: Russian Opposition at Odds over Path for Future—Spiegel Online’. Spiegel, 14 March 2012.
‘The Dangers of Mining Around the World’. BBC, 14 October 2010.
Thornton, Patricia M.Censorship and Surveillance in Chinese Cyberspace: Beyond the Great Firewall’. In Chinese Politics: State, Society and the Market, edited by Gries, Peter Hays and Patterson, , 262284. London and New York: Routledge, 2009.
Thornton, Patricia M.China’s Democratic Future: How It Will Happen and Where It Will Lead by Bruce Gilley’. Political Science Quarterly 120, no. 2 (2005): 338339.
Tilly, Charles. From Mobilization to Revolution. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.
Tong, Jingrong. Investigative Journalism in China: Journalism, Power, and Society. London: Continuum, 2011.
Tong, Jingrong. ‘Press Self-Censorship in China: A Case Study in the Transformation of Discourse’. Discourse & Society 20, no. 5 (1 September 2009): 593612.
Tong, Jingrong. ‘The Crisis of the Centralized Media Control Theory: How Local Power Controls Media in China’. Media, Culture & Society 32, no. 6 (1 November 2010): 925942.
Tong, Jingrong and Sparks, Colin. ‘Investigative Journalism in China Today’. Journalism Studies 10, no. 3 (2009): 337352.
Tran, Mark. ‘Phenomenal Success for New Film That Criticises China’s Environmental Policy’. The Guardian, 11 March 192015/mar/02/china- environmental-policy-documentary-under-the-dome-chai-jing-video.
Truex, Rory. ‘Consultative Authoritarianism and Its Limits’. Comparative Political Studies 50, no. 3 (2014): 329361.
Truex, Rory. ‘Who Believes in People’s Daily? Bias and Trust in Authoritarian Media’. Paper Presented at the Comparative Politics Seminar, University of Pennsylvania, 10 April 2015.
Tsai, Lily L. Accountability Without Democracy: Solidary Groups and Public Goods Provision in Rural China. New York; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Tsang, Steve. ‘Consultative Leninism: China’s New Political Framework’. Journal of Contemporary China 18, no. 62 (2009): 865880.
Tu, Jianjun. ‘Coal Mining Safety: China’s Achilles’ Heel’. China Security 3 (2007): 3653.
Tu, Jianjun. ‘Safety Challenges in China’s Coal Mining Industry’. The Jamestown Foundation, China Brief, 15 March 2006.
Voltmer, Katrin. ‘The Media, Government Accountability, and Citizen Engagement’. In Public Sentinel: News Media & Governance Reform, edited by Norris, Pippa, 137163. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2010.
Waisbord, Silvio Ricardo. Watchdog Journalism in South America: News, Accountability, and Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Walker, Christopher and Cook, Sarah. ‘China’s Export of Censorship’. Far Eastern Economic Review. 12 October 2009.
Fengxiang, Wang (王风翔). ‘Dizhen zaihai de weiji baodao – yi 2008 nian sichuan wenchuan dizhen, 2010 nian qinghai baoshu dizhen de weiji baodao weilie’ (Reporting of Earthquake Disasters – Case Studies of 2008 Sichuan Wenchuan Earthquake and the 2010 Qinghai Baoshu Earthquake) (地震灾害的危机报告-以2008年四川汶川地震, 2010年青海宝树地震的危机报告为例). In Zhongguo weiji guanli baogao (Blue Book on Crisis Management) (中国危机管理报告), 130149. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press, 2011.
Wang, Haiyan. ‘How Big Is the Cage? An Examination of Local Press Autonomy in China’. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture 7, no. 1 (2010): 5672.
Wang, Haiyan. The Transformation of Investigative Journalism in China: From Journalists to Activists. London: Lexington Books, 2016.
Heyan, Wang (王和岩). ‘Weixian kuangnan “miehuo zhan”’ (The Struggle to “Put Out a Fire” after Weixian Coal-Mining Accident) (蔚县矿难‘灭火战’). Caijing, 22 February 2009.
Wang, Qinghua and Guo, Gang,. ‘Yu Keping and Chinese Intellectual Discourse on Good Governance’. The China Quarterly 224 (2015): 9851005.
Wang, Shaoguang. ‘Changing Models of China’s Policy Agenda Setting’. Modern China 34, no. 1 (1 January 2008): 5687.
Wang, Shaoguang. ‘Regulating Death at Coalmines: Changing Mode of Governance in China’. Journal of Contemporary China 15, no. 46 (2006): 130.
Yichao, Wang, Heyan, Wang, and Hujun, Li (王以超, 王和岩, 李虎军). ‘Zhenhan zhongguo: keji pian: kan bu jian de zhan xian’ (China Shocked: The Science Section: The Invisible Battle Front) (震撼中国·科技篇:看不见的战线). Caijing, 26 May 2008.
Wasserstrom, Jeffrey. ‘Illuminating the Misleading Takes on China 20 Years Since Tiananmen’. The Huffington Post. 5 July 2009.
Wedeen, Lisa. Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Weerakkody, Niranjala. Research Methods for Media and Communication. South Melbourne, VIC; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Weller, Robert P.Responsive Authoritarianism’. In Political Change in China: Comparisons with Taiwan, edited by Gilley, Bruce and Diamond, Larry, 117183. Boulder, CO; London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008.
Wen-Hsuan, . ‘A Unique Pattern of Policymaking in China’s Authoritarian Regime: The CCP’s Neican/Pishi Model’. Asian Survey 55, no. 6 (2015): 10931115.
Xiu, Wen, Yuzhe, Zhang, and Zhigang, Li (温秀, 张宇哲, 历志钢). ‘Zhenhan Zhongguo, Jingji Bian: Yinhang: Duochong Fengxian’ (Banks: Multiple Risks) (震撼中国·经济篇:银行:多重风险). Caijing, 26 May 2012.
Xueguo, Wen (文学国) and Zhengqing, Fan (范正青) (eds.) ‘Sichuan zaihou chongjian moshi: fazhanxing chongjian’ (The Model of Sichuan’s Post-disaster Reconstruction: The Development Type of Reconstruction) (四川灾后重建模式:发展型模式). In Zhongguo weiji guanli baogao (Blue Book on China’s Crisis Management) (中国危机管理报告), 103130. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press, 2011.
‘Wenchuan dizhen 5335 xuesheng yunan shizong’ (5,335 Students Were Killed and Missing in the Wenchuan Earthquake) (汶川地震5335学生遇难失踪). Nanfang Dushibao, 8 May 2009.
White, Stephen. After Gorbachev. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
White, Stephen. Media, Culture, and Society in Putin’s Russia. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.
White, Stephen. Understanding Russian Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Whitehead, Laurence. Democratization: Theory and Experience. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Winston, David. ‘From Yeltsin to Putin’. Hoover Policy Review 100 (2000).
Wodak, Ruth. Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Wodak, Ruth and Busch, B.. ‘Approaches to Media Texts’. In The Sage Handbook of Media Studies, edited by Downing, John H., 105123. Thousand Oaks, CA; London: Sage, 2004.
Wodak, Ruth and Krzyżanowski, Michał. Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Wong, Edward. ‘Editor Reviewing China Quake Deaths Is Sentenced’. The New York Times. 9 February 2010.
Wong, Edward and Piao, Vanessa. ‘China Cracks Down on News Reports Spread via Social Media’. The New York Times. 5 July 2016.
Wright, Mary C.A Review Article: The Pre-Revolutionary Intellectuals of China and Russia’. The China Quarterly 6 (1961): 175179.
Wright, Tim. The Political Economy of the Chinese Coal Industry: Black Gold and Blood-Stained Coal. London: Routledge, 2012.
Bingqing, Wu (吴冰清). ‘“Miaopu xingdong” de xuexiao weihe yili bu dao – miaopu xingdong yiwu zongganshi liang jianha zhuanfang’ (Why the Miaopo Xingdong Schools Didn’t Collapse – An Interview with the Secretary-General of the Miapu Xingdong Philanthropic Organisation) (苗圃行动’的学校为何屹立不倒?—‘苗圃行动’义务总干事梁建华专访). Nanfang Zhoumo, 29 May 2008.
Wu, Guoguang. ‘One Head, Many Mouths: Diversifying Press Structures in Reform China’. In Power, Money, and Media: Communication Patterns and Bureaucratic Control in Cultural China, edited by Lee, Chin-Chuan, 4568. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2000.
Wu, Shiwen. ‘Contentious Discourse and Dynamic Frames: Interplay among Online Public Opinion, Media Reporting, and Government Discourse with Respect to Social Events’. Working Paper Presented at the Media Activism Research Collective, Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania. 4 December 2015.
Yu, Xia (夏榆). ‘Jiuyuan de liliang bu zai renshu, zai zhuanye nengli’ (The Strength or Rescue Operations is Not in Numbers, but in Professionalism) (救援的力量不在人数,在专业能力). Nanfang Zhoumo, 29 May 2008.
Xiabo, Liu. ‘Listen Carefully to the Voices of the Tiananmen Mothers’. No Enemies, No Hatred. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press: 2013.
Miaofang, Xie and Hu Yazhu (谢苗枫,胡亚柱). ‘Sichuan sheng jiaoyuting guina xiaoshe daota wu dian yuanyin’ (Sichuan Province Department of Education Gives Five Reasons Why the Schools Collapsed) (四川省教育厅归纳校舍倒塌五点原因). Nanfang Ribao, 28 May 2008.
Yungeng, Xie (谢耘耕). Zhongguo shehui yuqing yu weiji guanli lanpishu (The Report on Chinese Social Opinion and Crisis Management) (中国社会与微机管理报告). Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press, 2012.
Xin, Xin. ‘The Impact of “Citizen Journalism” on Chinese Media and Society’. Journalism Practice 4, no. 3 (2010): 333344.
Xu, Bin. ‘Durkheim in Sichuan: The Earthquake, National Solidarity, and the Politics of Small Things’. Social Psychology Quarterly 72, no. 1 (2009): 58.
Xu, Bin. ‘For Whom the Bell Tolls: State-Society Relations and the Sichuan Earthquake Mourning in China’. Theory Soc 42 (2013): 509542.
Xu, Bin. ‘Consensus Crisis and Civil Society: The Sichuan Earthquake Response and State-Society Relations’. The China Journal 17 (2014): 91108.
Xu, Jian. Media Events in Web 2.0 China: Interventions of Online Activism. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2016.
‘Xuese xiao meiyao’ (Blood Stained Small-Scale Mining Operations) (血色小煤窑). Caijing, 5 April 2003.
Anjiang, Yang (阳安江). ‘Qianghua jiandu, tuijin chengfan tixi jianshi’ (Strengthen Supervision, Move Forward the Implementation of the Self-Restraint System) (强化监督,推进惩防体系建设). Qiushi (Seek Truth) (求是) no. 5 (2005): 3637.
Binbin, Yang, Hejuan, Zhao, Zhigang, Li, Hongxiao, Chang, Yingguang, Zhang, and Xiaolu, Chenzhong (杨彬彬, 赵何娟, 历志钢, 常红晓, 张映光, 陈中小路). ‘Xiaoshe yousi lu’ (The Worrisome Record of the School Buildings) (校舍忧思录). Caijing, 9 June 2008.
Yang, Dali. Remaking the Chinese Leviathan: Market Transition and the Politics of Governance in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005.
Yang, Guobin. The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online. New York; Chichester: Columbia University Press, 2009.
Yang, Guobin and Jiang, Min. ‘The Networked Practice of Online Political Satire in China: Between Ritual and Resistance’. International Communication Gazette. February 2015.
Shaohua, Yang (杨绍华). ‘Anzhao kexue fazhan guan de yaoqiu qieshi zhuanbian zuofeng: xuexi hu jintao tongzhi zai zhongyang ji-wei di-qi ci quanti huiyi shang de zhongyao jianhua’ (Study Comrade Hu Jintao’s Speech at the Seventh Plenary Conference of the Central Commission for Inspecting Discipline) (按照科学发展观的要求切实转变作风—学习胡锦涛同志在中央纪委第七次全体会议上的重要讲话). Qiushi, July 2007.
Yang, Stevenson. ‘The Absent-Minded Reform of China’s Media’. In China’s Leadership in the 21st Century: The Rise of the Fourth Generation, edited by Finkelstein, David M. and Kivlehan, Maryanne, 223249. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2002.
Shun, Yao (姚舜). Shi yao liantiao zhong de yaotou: dadian yisheng la danzi yue zhuan 3 wan (Yaotou role in the chain of medicine testing: the examining doctor gets a profit of 30,000 yuan per month) (试药链条中的药头:打点医生拉单子月赚3万). Jujiao Renwu. 31 December 2016;
Yardley, Jim. ‘Violence in Tibet as Monks Clash with the Police’. The New York Times, 15 March 2008.
‘Yi ge kuangzhu de facai shi’ (A Story of How One Mining Manager Became Wealthy) (一个矿主的发家史). Nanfang Zhoumo, 18 August 2005.
Yin, Liangen and Wang, Haiyan. ‘People-Centred Myth: Representation of the Wenchuan Earthquake in China Daily’. Discourse & Communication 4, no. 4 (2010): 383398.
Yu, Sun. Lessons from SARS Coverage. Nieman Reports, Winter 2003.
Wan, Yuan (袁玥). ‘Duo ming de shi jianzhuwu er bu shi dizhen – bei hushi de kanzheng shifang wenti’ (The Loss of Life Is from the Constructions Not from the Earthquake – the Ignored Question of Quake-proof Fortifications) (夺命的是建筑物而不是地震—被忽视的抗震设防问题). Nanfang Zhoumo, 29 May 2008.
Yurchak, Alexei. Everything Was Forever, Until It Was No More: The Last Soviet Generation. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2006.
Zakaria, Fareed. ‘The Rise of Illiberal Democracy’. Foreign Affairs 76, no. 6 (1997): 22.
Zassoursky, Ivan I. Mass Media Vtoroi Respubliki (Mass Media of the Second Republic). Moscow: Moscow State University, 1999.
Zelizer, Barbie. ‘How Communication, Culture, and Critique Intersect in the Study of Journalism’. Communication, Culture & Critique 1, no. 1: 8691.
Huixin, Zhang (张惠新). ‘Jinyibu tigao fanfuchanglian jianshe kexuehua shuiping’ (Go a Step Further in Improving the Scientific Standards of Opposing Corruption and Advocating Honesty) (进一步提高反腐倡廉建设科学化水平). Qiushi (Seek Truth) (求是) no. 23 (2010): 1517.
Zhang, Xiantao. The Origins of the Modern Chinese Press. Milton Park: Routledge, 2007.
Zhang, Xiaoling. ‘From Totalitarianism to Hegemony: The Reconfiguration of the Party-State and the Transformation of Chinese Communication’. Journal of Contemporary China 20, no. 68 (2011): 103115.
Zhang, XiaolingFrom Totalitarianism to Hegemony: The Reconfiguration of the Party-State and the Transformation of Chinese Communication’. Journal of Contemporary China 20, no. 68 (2010): 103115.
Yingguang, Zhang, Zhongxiaolu, Cheng, and Binbin, Yang (张映光, 陈中小路, 杨彬彬). ‘Gongjian jianzhu hechu bu lao’ (Where to Mend Strong Public Construction) (公共建筑何处补牢). Caijing, 9 June 2008.
Yue, Zhang and Ailing, Tan (张悦, 覃爱玲). ‘Jiuzhou tiyuguan: xingcun beichuan de biaoqing’ (Jiuzhou Gymnasium: Beichuan Expression Survives) (九洲体育馆:幸存北川的表情). Nanfang Zhoumo, 29 May 2008.
Zhi’an, Zhang (张志安). Jizhe ruhe zhuanye: shendu baodao jingyingde zhiye yishi yu baodao celu (Journalists’ Professionalism: The Professional Awareness and Reporting Strategies of In-Depth Journalists) (记者如何专业:深度报道精英的职业意识与报道策落). Guangzhou: Nanfang Ribao Chubanshe (南方日报出版社), 2007.
‘Zhao Death Shows Limits of China’s Media Freedom’. The Epoch Times, 27 January 2005.–1-27/26079.html.
Peixi, Zhao (赵培玺). ‘Xinwen jianduzhe bixu ziwo jiandu’ (News Supervisors Must Supervise Themselves). Qiushi (Seek Truth) (求是) 14 (2005): 55.
Zhao, Suisheng. ‘The China Model: Can It Replace the Western Model of Modernization?Journal of Contemporary China 19, no. 65 (2010): 419436.
Zhao, Yuezhi. ‘From Commercialization to Conglomeration: The Transformation of the Chinese Press Within the Orbit of the Party State’. Journal of Communication 50, no. 2 (2000): 326.
Zhao, Yuezhi. Communication in China: Political Economy, Power, and Conflict. Lanham, MD; Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.
Zhao, Yuezhi. Media, Market, and Democracy in China: Between the Party Line and the Bottom Line. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1998.
Zhao, Yuezhi. ‘Watchdogs on Party Leashes? Contexts and Implications of Investigative Journalism in Post-Deng China’. Journalism Studies 1, no. 4 (2000): 577597.
Zhao, Yuezhi and Wusan, Sun. ‘Public Opinion Supervision: Possibilities and Limits of the Media in Constraining Local Officials’. In Grassroots Political Reform in Contemporary China, edited by Perry, Elizabeth J. and Goldman, Merry, 303324. Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Chun, Zhou (周纯). ‘Wang dai zhoubian chanye diaocha: juejinzhe xiaotui mai shuizhe anzai?’ (Investigation into P2P Lending Industry: As Opportunitists Fade Away, Where are the Service Providers?) (网贷周边产业调查:掘金者消退卖水者安在). Lengjing Tengxun. 14 Novemer, 2016;
Fengzhen, Zhou (周奉真). ‘Maikefeng shidai yulun yindao wenti’ (The Question of Guidance of Public Opinion in the Microphone Era) (麦克风时代’与舆论引导问题). Qiushi (Seek Truth) (求是)4 (2010): 2122.
Haibin, Zhou (周海滨). ‘Zhenhai diaocha zu pilu wenchuan dizhen xiaoshe sunhui yanzhong yuanyin’ (The Group That Investigated the Earthquake Uncovered the Key Reasons Behind the Schools’ Ruins) (震害调查组披露汶川地震校舍损毁严重原因). Zhongguo Jingji Zhoukan, 25 May 2009.
Zhou, He. ‘Working with a Dying Ideology: Dissonance and its Reduction in Chinese Journalism’. Journalism Studies 1, no. 4 (2000): 599616.
Hongjun, Zhu (朱红军). ‘Dongqi zhongxue: canju huoke bimian’ (Dongqi Middle School: Could Tragedy Have Been Averted?) (东汽中学:惨剧如何避免). Nanfang Zhoumo., 29 May 2008.
Liyi, Zhu and Hao, Tan (失立毅,谭浩). ‘Wenchuan dizhen yijing zaocheng 69196 ren yunan 18379 ren shizong’ (Wenchuan Earthquake Already Incurred 69196 Deaths and 18379 Missing) (汶川地震已经造成69196人遇难18379人失踪). Xinwen Zhongxin. 6 July 2008.
Tao, Zhu (朱弢) and Heyan, Wang (王和岩). ‘Tunlan kuangnan nan ciren ze’ (Tunlan Mining Accident: Difficult to Brush Off Responsibility) (屯兰矿难难辞人责). Caijing, 2 March 2009.
Tao, Zhu (朱弢) and Heyan, Wang (王和岩). ‘Zhuiwen xinning kuangnan’ (Examining Xinning Mining Accident) (追问兴宁矿难). Caijing, 22 August 2005.
Zhu, Ying. Two Billion Eyes – the story of China Central Television. New York, NY: The New Press, 2014.
He, Zong (综合). ‘Jia renshu, Jia shijian, Jia tuzhi: Henan “Luoshengmen” kuangnan pu jianguan loudong’ (Fake Number of People, Fake Time, Fake Drawing: Henan “Luoshengmen” Mine Accident Exposure of Management Leaks) (假人数,假时间,假图纸河南‘罗生门’矿难曝监管漏洞). Nanfang Zhoumo, 5 January 2011.
‘Zuoyun kuangnan zhi sheng yiqi’ (Zuoyun Mine Disaster Only Saved by Miracle) (左云矿难只剩奇迹). Caijing, 29 May 2006.