Skip to main content
Modern Prometheus
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Modern Prometheus
    • Online ISBN: 9781316771440
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Would you change your genes if you could? As we confront the 'industrial revolution of the genome', the recent discoveries of Crispr-Cas9 technologies are offering, for the first time, cheap and effective methods for editing the human genome. This opens up startling new opportunities as well as significant ethical uncertainty. Tracing events across a fifty-year period, from the first gene splicing techniques to the present day, this is the story of gene editing - the science, the impact and the potential. Kozubek weaves together the fascinating stories of many of the scientists involved in the development of gene editing technology. Along the way, he demystifies how the technology really works and provides vivid and thought-provoking reflections on the continuing ethical debate. Ultimately, Kozubek places the debate in its historical and scientific context to consider both what drives scientific discovery and the implications of the 'commodification' of life.


'Kozubek … gives the general reader a solid introduction to the current state of affairs, as seen by its creators and those who are using it in research and commerce.'

George J. Annas Source: Science

'… as eye-witness to a revolution in reading and writing our own genomes, [Kozubek] has done a truly remarkable job of getting the nuances right, while dodging through the minefields between enthusiasm and easy dismissal. Provides a rich tapestry of insights into the scientific discovery, technology development and applications to many agricultural, environmental and medical problems which should matter deeply to all readers.'

George Church - Harvard University

'Over the last sixty years the vast enterprise of experimental biology has taken the world from complete ignorance of how complex organisms are created to a very detailed knowledge of the processes involved. Now we are entering a world in which we can manipulate these processes, even modifying the heredity of our species and all others. James Kozubek tells the story of how we came to this knowledge in a carefully woven fabric of presentation, starting with the most recent events and then delving back into the history. He focuses on the remarkable personalities involved and the controversies that have complicated the discovery process. It is a wonderful, rewarding and easily read book.'

David Baltimore - California Institute of Technology

… going through this book's pages is a worthwhile experience.'

Elof Axel Carlson Source: The Quarterly Review of Biology

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Abraham, A. (2014) Is there an inverted-U relationship between creativity and psychopathology? Front. Psychol. 5:750.
Abudayyeh, OO, Gootenberg, JS, Konermann, S et al. (2016) C2c2 is a single-component programmable RNA-guided RNA-targeting CRISPR effector. Science. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf5573.
Ainsworth, C. (2015) Agriculture: A new breed of edits. Nature. 528: S15S16. doi: 10.1038/528S15a.
Anticevic, A, Van Snellenberg, JX, Barch, DM. (2012) Neurobiology of emotional dysfunction in schizophrenia: new directions revealed through metaanalyses. BP. 71:e23e24. Author reply e25.
Apple, S. (2016) An old idea revived: Starve cancer to death. The New York Times.
Arber, W. (1965) Host-controlled modification of bacteriophage. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 19:365378.
Ashton, CH. Anything for a quiet life? (accessed June 2016).
Askew, C. (2015) Tmc gene therapy restores auditory function in deaf mice. Sci. Transl. Med. 7(295): 295ra108. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aab1996.
Au, A, Griffiths, LR, Cheng, KK et al. (2015) The influence of OLR1 and PCSK9 gene polymorphisms on ischemic stroke: Evidence from a meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 15(5):18224.
Baltimore, D, Berg, P, Botchan, M et al. (2015) Biotechnology: A prudent path forward for genomic engineering and germline gene modification. Science. 348(6230):3638. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1028.
Baker, M. (2012) Gene-editing nucleases. Nat. Meth. 9:2326.
Baker, M. (2015) Over half of psychology studies fail reproducibility test. Nature. doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18248.
Balazs, AB, Chen, J, Hong, CM et al. (2011) Antibody-based protection against HIV infection by vectored immunoprophylaxis. Nature. 481(7379):8184. doi: 10.1038/nature10660.
Bardwell, AJ, Bardwell, L, Iyer, N et al. (1994) Yeast nucleotide excision repair proteins Rad2 and Rad4 interact with RNA polymerase II basal transcription factor b. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:35693576.
Bardwell, L, Bardwell, AJ, Feaver, WJ et al. (1994) Yeast Rad3 protein binds directly to both Ssl2 and Ssl1 proteins: implications for the structure and function of transcription/repair factor b. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91:39263930.
Bardwell, AJ, Bardwell, L, Wang, Z et al. Recent insights on DNA repair: the mechanism of damaged nucleotide excision in eukaryotes and its relationship to other cellular processes. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 726:281–291.
Barrangou, R, Fremaux, C, Deveau, H et al. (2007) Crispr provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes. Science. 315:17091712.
Beck, T. (2015) A vaccine for depression? Nautilus.
Begley, CG, Ellis, LM. (2012) Drug development: Raise standards for preclinical cancer research. Nature. 28;483(7391):531533. doi: 10.1038/483531a.
Begley, S. (2015) Meet one of the world’s most groundbreaking scientists. He’s 34. STAT.
Begley, S. (2016) Controversial Crispr history sets off an online firestorm. STAT News.
Belluck, P. (2016) Monkeys built to mimic autism-like behaviors may help humans. The New York Times.
Benyamin, B, Pourcain, BSt, Davis, OS et al. (2014) Childhood intelligence is heritable, highly polygenic and associated with FNBP1L. Mol Psychiatry. 19(2):253258. doi: 10.1038/mp.2012.184.
Berg, P. (2000) A Stanford Professor’s Career in Biochemistry, Science Politics, and the Biotechnology Industry (typescript of an oral history conducted in 1997 by Sally Smith Hughes). Regional Oral History Office, University of California.
Berg, P. (2003) Moments of discovery: My favorite experiments. JBC. 278:4041740424. doi: 10.1074/jbc.X300004200.
Berg, P. (2008) Meetings that changed the world: Asilomar 1975: DNA modification secured. Nature. 455(7211):290291.
Berg, P, Mertz, JE. (2010) Personal reflections on the origins and emergence of recombinant DNA technology. Genetics. 184(1):917. doi: 10.1534/genetics.109.112144.
Berg, P, Baltimore, D, Boyer, HW et al. (1974) Potential biohazards of recombinant DNA molecules. Science 185:303.
Berg, DE, Jackson, DA, Mertz, JE. (1974) Isolation of a lambda dv plasmid carrying the bacterial gal operon. J. Virol. 14(5):10631069.
Berger, L. (2015) Being there: Heidegger on why our presence matters. The Stone. The New York Times.
Bessen, J. (2016) What does it mean for researchers, journalists and the public when secrecy surrounds science?
Bianconi, E. (2013) An estimation of the number of cells in the human body. Ann. Hum. Biol. 40(6):463471.
Bikard, D, Jiang, W, Samai, P et al. (2013) Programmable repression and activation of bacterial gene expression using an engineered Crispr-Cas system. Nucleic Acids Res. 41:74297437. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt520.
Blitz, IL, Biesinger, J, Xie, X, Cho, KWY. (2013) Biallelic genome modification in F0 Xenopus tropicalis embryos using the Crispr/Cas system. Genesis. 51:827834. doi: 10.1002/dvg.22719.
Bloom, P. (2013) The baby in the well: The case against empathy. A Critic at Large, The New Yorker.
Boeke, JD, Church, G, Hessel, A et al. (2016) The Genome Project – Write. Science. doi:10.1126/science.aaf6850.
Bolotin, A, Quinquis, B, Sorokin, A, Ehrlich, SD. (2005) Clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (Crisprs) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin. Microbiology. 151:25512561.
Borenstein, S. (2006) NASA chief’s gamble – or calculated decision – that paid off, big time. Associated Press.
Botchan, M, Stringer, J, Mitchison, T, Sambrook, J. (1980) Integration and excision of SV40 DNA from the chromosome of a transformed cell. Cell. 20:143152.
Boyer, HW. (1994) Recombinant DNA Research at UCSF and Commercial Application at Genentech. Interviews Conducted by Sally Smith Hughes. The UCSF Oral History Program and the Program in the History of the Biological Sciences and Biotechnology.
Braskie, MN, Jahanshad, N, Stein, JL et al. (2012) Relationship of a variant in the NTRK1 gene to white matter microstructure in young adults. J. Neurosci. 32:59645972.
Breivikmay, J. (2016) Obama’s pointless cancer “moonshot.” The New York Times.
Brouns, SJJ, Jore, MM, Lundgren, M et al. (2008) Small Crispr RNAs guide antiviral defense in prokaryotes. Science. 321:960964.
Campbell, AM. (1963) Episomes. Adv. Genet. 11:101145.
Carey, B. (2016) Scientists move closer to understanding schizophrenia’s cause. The New York Times.
Chandrasegaran, S, Smith, J. (1999) Chimeric restriction enzymes: what is next? Biol. Chem. 380:841848.
Chang, ACY, Cohen, SN. (1974) Genome construction between bacterial species in vitro: Replication and expression of Staphylococcus plasmid genes in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 71(4):10301034.
Chen, C. (2015) These superhumans are real and their DNA could be worth billions. Bloomberg.
Chen, J, Lipska, BK, Halim, N et al. (2004) Functional analysis of genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): effects on mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in postmortem human brain. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75:807821.
Cheng, MY, Lee, IP, Jin, M et al. (2011) An insult-inducible vector system activated by hypoxia and oxidative stress for neuronal gene therapy. Transl Stroke Res. 2(1):92100.
Cheng, MY, Sun, G, Jin, M et al. (2009) Blocking glucocorticoid and enhancing estrogenic genomic signaling protects against cerebral ischemia. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 29(1):130136.
Chiang, MC, Barysheva, M, Shattuck, DW et al. (2009) Genetics of brain fiber architecture and intellectual performance. J. Neurosci. 29:22122224.
Chiang, MC, Barysheva, M, Toga, AW et al. (2011) BDNF gene effects on brain circuitry replicated in 455 twins. Neuroimage. 55:448454.
Cho, SW, Kim, S, Kim, JM, Kim, J-S. (2013) Targeted genome engineering in human cells with the Cas9 RNA-guided endonuclease. Nat. Biotechnol. 31:230232.
Chuong, E, Elde, N, Feschotte, C. (2016) Regulatory evolution of innate immunity through co-option of endogenous retroviruses. Science 351(6277):10831087. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5497.
Cohen, SN. (2013) DNA cloning: A personal view after 40 years. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 110(39):1552115529. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1313397110.
Cohen, S, Chang, A, Boyer, H, Helling, R. (1973) Construction of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 70(11):32403244. doi: 10.1073/pnas.70.11.3240.
Cohen, SN, Chang, AC, Hsu, L. (1972) Nonchromosomal antibiotic resistance in bacteria: Genetic transformation of Escherichia coli by R-factor DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 69(8):21102114. doi: 10.1073/pnas.69.8.2110.
Comfort, N. (2016) A Whig History of Crispr.
Comfort, N. (2016) Genes are overrated. The Atlantic.
Cong, L, Ran, FA, Cox, D et al. (2013) Multiplex genome engineering using Crispr/Cas systems. Science. 339:819823.
Cools, J. (2012) Using the hemoglobin switch for the treatment of sickle cell disease. Haematologica. 97(2):156. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2012.062190.
Crichton, M. (1991) Jurassic Park. Century Books.
Crow, JF, Dove, WF (eds). (1995) Perspectives: Anecdotal, Historical and Critical Commentaries on Genetics. The Genetics Society of America.
Cyranoski, D. (2015) CRISPR tweak may help gene-edited crops bypass biosafety regulation. Technique deletes plant genes without adding foreign DNA. Nature News. doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18590.
Cyranoski, D. (2015) Scientists sound alarm over DNA editing of human embryos: Experts call for halt in research to work out safety and ethics issues. Nature News. doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17110.
Datta, N. (1962) Transmissible drug resistance in an epidemic strain of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Hygiene. 60(3):301310. doi: 10.1017/s0022172400020416.PMC 2134509.
Datta, N, Pridie, RB, Anderson, ES. (2009) An outbreak of infection with Salmonella typhimurium in a general hospital. J. Hygiene. 58(02):229. doi: 10.1017/S0022172400038316.
Deltcheva, E, Chylinski, K, Sharma, CM et al. (2011) Crispr RNA maturation by trans-encoded small RNA and host factor RNase III. Nature. 471:602607.
Dennis, EL, Jahanshad, N, Rudie, JD et al. (2011) Altered structural brain connectivity in healthy carriers of the autism risk gene, CNTNAP2. Brain Connect. 1:447459.
Deveau, H, Barrangou, R, Garneau, JE et al. (2008) Phage response to Crispr encoded resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus. Bacteriol. 190:13901400.
Dobrikova, EY, Broadt, T, Poiley-Nelson, J et al. (2008) Recombinant oncolytic poliovirus eliminates glioma in vivo without genetic adaptation to a pathogenic phenotype. Mol. Ther. 16:18651872.
Doudna, J. (2015) Genome-editing revolution: My whirlwind year with Crispr. Nature. 528(7583):469471. doi: 10.1038/528469a.
Doudna, JA, Charpentier, E. (2014) Genome editing: The new frontier of genome engineering with Crispr-Cas9. Science. 346(6213):1258096. doi: 10.1126/science.1258096.
East, EM. (1916) Studies on size inheritance in nicotiana. Genetics. 1:164176.
The Economist. (2008) Cancer stem cells: The root of all evil? The Economist.
Edelman, G. (2006) Second Nature: Brain Science and Human Knowledge. Yale University Press.
Egan, MF, Kojima, M, Callicott, JH et al. (2003) The BDNF val66met polymorphism affects activity-dependent secretion of BDNF and human memory and hippocampal function. Cell. 112:257269.
Endy, D, Zoloth, L. (2016) Should we synthesis a human genome? (accessed June 2016).
Esvelt, K, Church, G, Lunshof, J. (2014) “Gene drives” and Crispr could revolutionize ecosystem management. Scientific American.
Farrer, LA, Cupples, LA, Haines, JL et al.; APOE and Alzheimer Disease Meta Analysis Consortium. (1997) Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease: A meta-analysis. JAMA. 278:13491356.
Feaver, WJ, Svejstrup, JQ, Bardwell, L et al. (1993) Dual roles of a multiprotein complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in transcription and DNA repair. Cell. 75:13791387.
Fitch, WT, Hauser, MD, Chomsky, N. (2005) The evolution of the language faculty: clarifications and implications. Cognition. 97(2):179210.
Flavahan, WA, Drier, Y, Liau, BB et al. (2016) Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas. Nature. 529:10114. doi: 10.1038/nature16490.
Flowers, GP, Timberlake, AT, McLean, KC, Monaghan, JR, Crews, CM. (2014) Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis in axolotl using Cas9 RNA-guided nuclease. Development. 141:21652171. doi: 10.1242/dev.105072.
Fosse, R, Joseph, J, Richardson, K. (2015) A critical assessment of the equal-environment assumption of the twin method for schizophrenia. Front. Psychiatry. 6:62. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00062.
Fredrickson, DS. (2001) The Recombinant DNA Controversy: A Memoir. Science, Politics, and the Public Interest 1974–1981. ASM Press.
Friedberg, EC. (1992) Xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, essential genes, helicases and DNA repair: what’s the relationship? Cell. 71:887889.
Friedberg, EC. (2014) Master molecule, heal thyself. J. Biol. Chem. 289(20):1369113700. doi: 10.1074/jbc.X114.572115.
Friedberg, EC, Goldthwait, DA. (1969) Endonuclease II of E. coli. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 33:271275.
Friedberg, EC, Goldthwait, DA. (1969) Endonuclease II of E. coli. I. Isolation and purification. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 62:934940.
Friedberg, EC, Bardwell, AJ, Bardwell, L et al. (1995) Nucleotide excision repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: its relationship to specialized mitotic recombination and RNA polymerase II basal transcription. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 347:6368.
Friedberg, EC, Hadi, SM, Goldthwait, DA. (1969) Endonuclease II of E. coli. II. Enzyme properties and studies on the degradation of alkylated and native deoxyribonucleic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 244:58795889.
Frodeman, R, Briggle, A. (2016) When philosophy lost its way. The Stone. The New York Times.
Gantz, VM, Bier, E. (2015) Genome editing. The mutagenic chain reaction: a method for converting heterozygous to homozygous mutations. Science. 348:442444.
Gasiunas, G, Barrangou, R, Horvath, P, Siksnys, V. (2012) Cas9-crRNA ribonucleoprotein complex mediates specific DNA cleavage for adaptive immunity in bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 109:E2579E2586.
Gibson, DG, Glass, JI, Lartigue, C et al. (2010) Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome. Science. 329:5256. doi: 10.1126/science.1190719.
Gilbert, LA, Larson, MH, Morsut, L et al. (2013) Crispr-mediated modular RNA-guided regulation of transcription in eukaryotes. Cell. 154:442451. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.044.
Goldberg, N. (1986) Writing Down the Bones. Shambala.
Goldstein, DB, Allen, A, Keebler, J, et al. (2013) Sequencing studies in human genetics: design and interpretation. Nature Rev. Genet. 14:460470.
Gordon, JW. (1999) Genetic enhancement in humans. Science. 283(5410):20232024. doi: 10.1126/science.283.5410.2023.
Gottschall, J. (2012) The Storytelling Animal: How Stories Make Us Human. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Grady, D. (2011) An immune system trained to kill cancer. The New York Times: D1.
Greco, E, Minasi, MG, Fiorentino, F. (2015) Healthy babies after intrauterine transfer of mosaic aneuploid blastocysts. N. Engl. J. Med. 373(21):20892090. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1500421.
Greely, H. (2015) On Science, Crispr-Cas9, and Asilomar. Law and Biosciences Blog. Stanford Law Rev.
Gromeier, M, Lachmann, S, Rosenfeld, MR, Gutin, PH, Wimmer, E. (2000) Intergeneric poliovirus recombinants for the treatment of malignant glioma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 97:68036808.
Harada, K, Kameda, M, Suzuki, M, Mitsuhashi, S. (1964) Drug resistance of enteric bacteria. 3. Acquisition of transferability of nontransmissible R(Tc) factor in cooperation with F factor and formation of Fr(Tc). J. Bacteriol. 88:12571265.
Harmon, A. (2015) Open season is seen in gene editing of animals. The New York Times.
Harrison, RP. (2014) Juvenescence: A Cultural History of our Age. University of Chicago Press.
Hart, J, Chabris, CF. (2016) Does a “Triple Package” of traits predict success? Personality and Individual Differences. 94:216222.
Hedgpeth, J, Goodman, HM, Boyer, HW. (1972) DNA nucleotide sequence restricted by the RI endonuclease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 69(11):34483452.
Hellmann, M. (2014) Researchers hope “super bananas” will combat vitamin A deficiency. Time.
The Hinxton Group. (2006) An International Consortium on Stem Cells, Ethics and Law. Consensus Statement.
Horvath, P, Romero, DA, Coûté-Monvoisin, A-C et al. (2008) Diversity, activity, and evolution of Crispr loci in Streptococcus thermophilus. Bacteriol. 190:14011412.
Huebbe, P, Nebel, A, Siegert, S et al. (2011) APOE e4 is associated with higher vitamin D levels in targeted replacement mice and humans. FASEB J. 25(9):32623270. doi: 10.1096/fj.11-180935. PMID 21659554.
Hutchison, CA 3rd, Chuang, RY, Noskov, VN et al. (2016) Design and synthesis of a minimal bacterial genome. Science. 351:1414. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6253.
Huttlin, EL, Ting, L, Bruckner, RJ et al. (2015) The BioPlex Network: A systematic exploration of the human interactome. Cell. 162(2):425440. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.06.043.
Hwang, WY, Fu, Y, Reyon, D et al. (2013) Efficient genome editing in zebrafish using a Crispr-Cas system. Nat. Biotechnol. 31:227229.
Ishino, Y, Shinagawa, H, Makino, K, Amemura, M, Nakata, AJ. (1987) Nucleotide sequence of the iap gene, responsible for alkaline phosphatase isozyme conversion in Escherichia coli, and identification of the gene product. Bacteriol. 169:54295433.
Jacob, F, Brenner, S, Cuzin, F. (1963) On the regulation of DNA replication in bacteria. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 28:329348.
Jahanshad, N, Kohannim, O, Hibar, DP et al. (2012) Brain structure in healthy adults is related to serum transferrin and the H63D polymorphism in the HFE gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 109:E851E859.
Jahanshad, N, Rajagopalan, P, Thompson, PM. (2013) Neuroimaging, nutrition, and iron-related genes. Cell. Molec. Life Sci. 70(23):44494461. doi: 10.1007/s00018-013-1369-2.
James, W. (1956) The Will To Believe, Dover Publications, 21, 25.
Jansen, R, Embden, JDAV, Gaastra, W, Schouls, LM. (2002) Identification of genes that are associated with DNA repeats in prokaryotes. Mol. Microbiol. 43:15651575.
Jasin, M, Berg, P. (1988) Homologous integration in mammalian cells without target gene selection. Genes Dev. 2(11):13531363.
Jasin, M, de Villiers, J, Weber, F, Schaffner, W. (1985) High frequency of homologous recombination in mammalian cells. Cell. 43:695703.
Jia, H, Wang, N. (2014) Targeted genome editing of sweet orange using Cas9/sgRNA. PLoS ONE 9:e93806. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093806.
Jiang, W, Zhou, H, Bi, H et al. (2013) Demonstration of Crispr/Cas9/sgRNA-mediated targeted gene modification in Arabidopsis, tobacco, sorghum and rice. Nucleic Acids Res. 41:e188. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt780.
Jinek, M, Chylinski, K, Fonfara, I et al. (2012) A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity. Science. 337:816821.
Jinek, M, East, A, Cheng, A et al. (2013) RNA-programmed genome editing in human cells. eLife. 2:e00471.
Jinek, M, Jiang, F, Taylor, DW et al. (2014) Structures of Cas9 endonucleases reveal RNA-mediated conformational activation. Science. 343:1247997. doi: 10.1126/science.1247997; pmid: 24505130.
Kahn, J. (2015) The Crispr quandry. The New York Times Magazine.
Kaufman, JC (ed). (2014) Creativity and Mental Illness. Cambridge University Press.
Kaufman, R. (2011) It doesn’t add up. Science. doi: 10.1126/science.caredit.a1100139.
Kazmin, A. (2016) Monsanto’s India spat inflames corporate fears. Financial Times.
Kaiser, J. (2015) CRISPR helps heal mice with muscular dystrophy. Science. doi: 10.1126/science.aae0169.
Kelly, TJ Jr, Smith, HO. (1970) A restriction enzyme from Hemophilus influenzae. J. Mol. Biol. 51(2):393409.
Kim, YJ, Mantel, PL, June, CH, Kim, SH, Kwon, BS. (1999) 4-1BB costimulation promotes human T cell adhesion to fibronectin. Cell Immunol. 192(1):1323.
Kistler, KE, Vosshall, LB, Matthews, BJ. (2015) Genome engineering with CRISPR-Cas9 in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Cell Rep. 11:5160.
Kleinstiver, BP, Pattanayak, V, Prew, MS et al. (2016) High-fidelity Crispr–Cas9 nucleases with no detectable genome-wide off-target effects. Nature. 529(7587):490495. doi: 10.1038/nature16526.
Knight, H. (2015) A metabolic master switch underlying human obesity. MIT News.
Knudson, A. (1971) Mutation and cancer: statistical study of retinoblastoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 68(4):820823.
Kochunov, P, Glahn, DC, Lancaster, JL et al. (2010) Genetics of microstructure of cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor imaging. Neuroimage. 53:11091116.
Kohannim, O, Jahanshad, N, Braskie, MN et al. (2012) Predicting white matter integrity from multiple common genetic variants. Neuropsychopharmacol. 37(9):20122019.
Kolata, G. (2015) A proposal to modify plants gives G.M.O. debate new life. The New York Times.
Kolata, G. (2015) Scientists discover reason brain tumors grow fast. The New York Times.
Kong, A, Frigge, ML, Masson, G, et al. (2012) Rate of de novo mutations and the importance of father’s age to disease risk. Nature. 488:471475. doi: 10.1038/nature11396.
Kozubek, J. (2011) FDA decision will lead to first ever genetically-modified animal for consumption. TPM Idea Lab.
Kozubek, J. (2014) Love is not algorithmic. The Atlantic.
Kozubek, J. (2016) An ON/OFF switch for genes. Sci. Am. 314:5257. doi: 10.1038/scientificamerican0116-52.
Kozubek, J. (2016) Why can’t we prevent Alzheimer’s? The Atlantic.
Kuwana, Y, Asakura, Y, Utsunomiya, N et al. (1987) Expression of chimeric receptor composed of immunoglobulin-derived V regions and T-cell receptor-derived C regions. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 149(3): 960968.
Lander, E. (2016) The heroes of Crispr. Cell. 164(1–2):1828. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.12.041.
Lander, ES. (2015) Brave new genome. N. Engl. J. Med. 373:58. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1506446.
Lear, J. (1978) Recombinant DNA: The Untold Story. Crown Publishers.
Lederberg, J. (1952) Cell genetics and hereditary symbiosis. Physiol. Rev. 32(4): 403430.
Lederberg, J. (1996) Interview with Prof. Lederberg, Winner of the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. Conducted by Lev Pevzner.
Lederberg, J, Cavalli, LL, Lederberg, EM. (1952) Sex compatibility in Escherichia coli. Genetics 37(6):720730.
Liu, B, Song, M, Li, J et al. (2010) Prefrontal-related functional connectivities within the default network are modulated by COMT val158met in healthy young adults. J. Neurosci. 30:6469.
Liu, X, Jiang, S, Fang, C et al. (2015) Affinity-tuned ErbB2 or EGFR chimeric antigen receptor T cells exhibit an increased therapeutic index against tumors in mice. Cancer Res. 75:3596. doi: 10.1158/0008–5472.CAN-15-0159.
Liu, Z, Li, X, Zhang, JT et al. (2016) Autism-like behaviours and germline transmission in transgenic monkeys overexpressing MeCP2. Nature. 530(7588):98102. doi: 10.1038/nature16533.
MacArthur, D, Manolio, TA, Dimmock, DP et al. (2014) Guidelines for investigating causality of sequence variants in human disease. Nature. 508:469476.
Mackinnon, DW, Nielson, G. (eds) (1962) The personality correlates of creativity: A study of American architects. Proceedings of the XIV International Congress of Applied Psychology. Volume 2, Personality Research. Munksgaard:1139.
Madabhushi, R, Gao, F, Pfenning, AR et al. (2015) Activity-induced DNA breaks govern the expression of neuronal early-response genes. Cell. 161:15921605.
Makari, G. (2016) Notes from psychiatry’s battle lines. The New York Times.
Makarova, KS, Grishin, NV, Shabalina, SA, Wolf, YI, Koonin, EV. (2006) A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, functional analogies with eukaryotic RNAi, and hypothetical mechanisms of action. Biol. Direct. 1:7.
Mali, P, Yang, L, Esvelt, KM et al. (2013) RNA-guided human genome engineering via Cas9. Science. 339:823826.
Mandal, PK, Ferreira, LM, Collins, R et al. (2014) Efficient ablation of genes in human hematopoietic stem and effector cells using CRISPR/Cas9. Cell Stem Cell. 15(5):643652. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2014.10.004.
Mandel, M, Higa, A. (1970) Calcium-dependent bacteriophage DNA infection. J. Mol. Biol. 53(1):159162.
Mangold, M, Siller, M, Roppenser, B et al. (2004) Synthesis of group A streptococcal virulence factors is controlled by a regulatory RNA molecule. Mol. Microbiol. 53:15151527.
Maron, DF. (2015) “Improving” humans with customized genes sparks debate among scientists: Medicine or meddling? Researchers at a gene-editing summit grapple with the future of genetic enhancement. Scientific American.
Marraffini, LA, Sontheimer, EJ. (2008) Crispr interference limits horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci by targeting DNA. Science. 322:18431845.
Martel, Y. (2004) We ate the children last. The Guardian.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Oral History Program. (1988) Oral History Collection on the Recombinant DNA Controversy, 1966–1978. MC.0100.
Matfield, M. (1986) New vectors for gene therapy. New Sci.: 32.
Matsumoto, M, Weickert, CS, Akil, M et al. (2003) Catechol O-methyltransferase mRNA expression in human and rat brain: Evidence for a role in cortical neuronal function. Neuroscience. 116:127137.
Maxmen, A. (2015) The Genesis Engine. Wired.
McGregor, J. (2016) Why this Wharton wunderkind wants leaders to replace their intuition with evidence. The Washington Post.
Merrill, MK, Bernhardt, G, Sampson, JH et al. (2004) Poliovirus receptor CD155-targeted oncolysis of glioma. Neuro-oncol. 6:208217.
Mertz, JE, Davis, RW. (1972) Cleavage of DNA by R 1 restriction endonuclease generates cohesive ends. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 69(11): 33703374.
Michaelson, JJ. (2012) Whole-genome sequencing in autism identifies hot spots for de novo germline mutation. Cell. 151(7):14311442. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.11.019.
Mitsuyasu, RT. (2000) Prolonged survival and tissue trafficking following adoptive transfer of CD4zeta gene-modified autologous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Blood. 96(3):785793.
Mojica, FJM, Díez-Villaseñor, C, García-Martínez, J, Soria, EJ. (2005) Intervening sequences of regularly spaced prokaryotic repeats derive from foreign genetic elements. Mol. Evol. 60:174182.
Mojica, FJM, Díez-Villaseñor, C, Soria, E, Juez, G. Biological significance of a family of regularly spaced repeats in the genomes of Archaea, bacteria and mitochondria. Mol. Microbiol. 2000; 36:244246.
Mojica, FJM, Ferrer, C, Juez, G, Rodríguez-Valera, F. (1995) Long stretches of short tandem repeats are present in the largest replicons of the Archaea Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax volcanii and could be involved in replicon partitioning. Mol. Microbiol. 17:8593.
Mojica, FJM, Garrett, RA. Discovery and Seminal Developments in the Crispr Field. Springer, 1–31.
Mojica, FJM, Juez, G, Rodríguez-Valera, F. (1993) Transcription at different salinities of Haloferax mediterranei sequences adjacent to partially modified PstI sites. Mol. Microbiol. 9:613621.
Montenegro, M. (2016) Crispr is coming to agriculture – with big implications for food, farmers, consumers and nature. Ensia.
Moreno, J. (2011) The Body Politic. Bellevue Literary Press.
Morrow, JF, Berg, P, Kelly, TJ Jr, Lewis, AM Jr. (1973) Mapping of simian virus 40 early functions on the viral chromosome. J. Virol. 12(3):653658.
Morrow, JF, Cohen, SN, Chang, AC, et al. (1974) Replication and transcription of eukaryotic DNA in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 71(5):17431747.
Müller-Hill, B. (1996) The lac Operon: A Short History of a Genetic Paradigm. Walter de Gruyter.
Mulligan, RC. (2014) Development of gene transfer technology. Hum. Gene Ther. 25:9951002. doi: 10.1089/hum.2014.2543.
Mulligan, RC, Howard, BH, Berg, P. (1979) Synthesis of rabbit β-globin in cultured monkey kidney cells following infection with a SV40 β-globin recombinant genome. Nature. 277:108114. doi: 10.1038/277108a0.
Nakayama, T, Fish, MB, Fisher, M et al. (2013) Simple and efficient Crispr/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in Xenopus tropicalis. Genesis. 51:835843. doi: 10.1002/dvg.22720.
Nature News (1974) NAS ban on plasmid engineering. Nature. 250:175.
Nishimasu, H, Ran, FA, Hsu, PD et al. (2014) Crystal structure of Cas9 in complex with guide RNA and target DNA. Cell. 156:935949. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.001; pmid: 24529477.
Niu, Y, Wang, H, Shivalila, CS et al. (2014) Generation of gene-modified cynomolgus monkey via Cas9/RNA-mediated gene targeting in one-cell embryos. Cell. 156(4):836843. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.01.027.
Odelberg, W (ed). (1979) Les Prix Nobel: The Nobel Prizes 1978. Nobel Foundation.
Oettinger, MA, Schwatz, DG, Gorka, C, Baltimore, D. (1990) RAG1 and RAG2, adjacent genes that synergistically activate V(D)J recombination. Science. 248:15171523.
Open Science Collaboration. (2015) Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science. 349(6251). doi: 10.1126/science.aac4716.
Paine, JA, Shipton, CA Chaggar, S et al. (2000) Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content. Nat. Biotech. 23(4):482487. doi: 10.1038/nbt1082.
Pearson, H. (2008) Protein engineering: The fate of fingers. Nature. 455:160164. doi: 10.1038/455160a.
Pinker, S. (2015) Steven Pinker on new advances in behavioral genetics. The Washington Post.
Pinker, S, Jackendoff, R. (2005) The faculty of language: what’s special about it? Cognition 95(2):201236.
Pinker, S, Jackendoff, R. (2005) The nature of the language faculty and its implications for evolution of language. Cognition 97:211225.
Pollack, A. (2016) A biotech evangelist seeks a Zika dividend. The New York Times Magazine.
Pollack, A. (2016) New weapon to fight Zika: The mosquito. The New York Times.
Pollack, A. (2016) Scientists talk privately about creating a synthetic human genome. The New York Times.
Pourcel, C, Salvignol, G, Vergnaud, G. (2005) Crispr elements in Yersinia pestis acquire new repeats by preferential uptake of bacteriophage DNA, and provide additional tools for evolutionary studies. Microbiology. 151:653663.
Prinz, F, Schlange, T, Asadullah, K. (2011) Believe it or not: how much can we rely on published data on potential drug targets? Nature Rev. Drug Discov. 10:712. doi: 10.1038/nrd3439-c1.
Qi, LS, Larson, MH, Gilbert, LA et al. (2013) Repurposing Crispr as an RNA-guided platform for sequence-specific control of gene expression. Cell. 152:11731183. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.02.022.
Regalado, A. (2015) Engineering the perfect baby. Technol. Rev.
Regalado, A. (2016) A scientist’s contested history of Crispr. Technol. Rev.
Rope, AF, Wang, K, Evjenth, R et al. (2011) Using VAAST to identify an X-linked disorder resulting in lethality in male infants due to N-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 89(1): 2843.
Rouet, P, Smih, F, Jasin, M. (1994) Introduction of double-strand breaks into the genome of mouse cells by expression of a rare-cutting endonuclease. Mol. Cell Biol. 14(12):80968106.
Sapolsky, RM. (2015) Stress and the brain: individual variability and the inverted-U. Nat. Neurosci. 18(10):13441346. doi: 10.1038/nn.4109.
Sapranauskas, R, Gasiunas, G, Fremaux, C et al. (2011) The Streptococcus thermophilus Crispr/Cas system provides immunity in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 39:92759282.
Schwank, G, Koo, BK, Sasselli, V et al. (2013) Functional repair of CFTR by Crispr/Cas9 in intestinal stem cell organoids of cystic fibrosis patients. Cell Stem Cell. 13:653658. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2013.11.002.
Scranton, R. (2015) We’re doomed. Now what? The Stone. The New York Times.
Sekar, A. (2016) Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4. Nature. 530(7589):177183. doi: 10.1038/nature16549.
Sgaramella, V. (1972) Enzymatic oligomerization of bacteriophage P22 DNA and of linear Simian virus 40 DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 69(11):33893393.
Shapin, S. (2015) The desire to know: Scientific virtue is worth saving. The Boston Review: 32.
Shenk, JW. (2014) The end of “genius.” The New York Times.
Sherkow, J. (2015) The Crispr patent interference showdown is on: How did we get here and what comes next? Law and Biosciences Blog. Stanford Law Review.
Skerrett, P. (2015) Experts debate: Are we playing with fire when we edit human genes? STAT News.
Smidler, AL, Terenzi, O, Soichot, J, Levashina, EA, Marois, E. (2013) Targeted mutagenesis in the malaria mosquito using TALE nucleases. PLoS ONE. 8:e74511.
Smithies, O, Gregg, RG, Boggs, SS, Koralewski, MA, Kucherlapati, RS. (1985) Insertion of DNA sequences into the human chromosomal beta-globin locus by homologous recombination. Nature. 317(6034):230234.
Soldner, F, Stelzer, Y, Shivalila, CS et al. (2016) Parkinson-associated risk variant in distal enhancer of α-synuclein modulates target gene expression. Nature. 533(7601):9599. doi: 10.1038/nature17939.
Specter, M. (2015) The Gene Hackers: A powerful new technology enables us to manipulate our DNA more easily than ever before. The New Yorker.
Sternberg, SH, Redding, S, Jinek, M, Greene, EC, Doudna, JA. (2014) DNA interrogation by the Crispr RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9. Nature. 507:6267. doi: 10.1038/nature13011; pmid: 24476820.
Sugano, SS, Shirakawa, M, Takagi, J et al. (2014) Crispr/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. Plant Cell Physiol. 55:475481. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcu014.
Taylor-Weiner, H, Zivin, JG. (2015) Medicine’s Wild West: Unlicensed stem-cell clinics in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 373:985987. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1504560.
Thompson, PM, Ge, T, Glahn, DC, Jahanshad, N, Nichols, TE. (2013) Genetics of the connectome. Neuroimage. 80:475488.
Tomlinson, I. (2002) How many mutations in a cancer? Am. J. Pathol. 160(3): 755758. doi: 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64896-1.
Tucker, A. (2006) Obituary: ES Anderson. The Guardian.
Tunbridge, EM, Harrison, PJ, Weinberger, DR. (2006) Catechol-o-methyltransferase, cognition, and psychosis: Val158Met and beyond. BP. 60:141151.
Upadhyay, SK, Kumar, J, Alok, A, Tuli, R. (2013) RNA-guided genome editing for target gene mutations in wheat. G3 3:22332238. doi: 10.1534/g3.113.008847.
Vanneste, E, Voet, T, Le Caignec, C et al. (2009) Chromosome instability is common in human cleavage-stage embryos. Nat. Med. 15(5):577583. doi: 10.1038/nm.1924.
Vence, T. (2016) “Heroes of Crispr” disputed. The Scientist.
Vogel, G. (2001) Infant monkey carries jellyfish gene. Science. 226.
Walker, RE, Bechtel, CM, Natarajan, V et al. (2000) Long-term in vivo survival of receptor-modified syngeneic T cells in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood. 96(2):467474.
Wang, H, Isaacs, F, Carr, P et al. (2009) Programming cells by multiplex genome engineering and accelerated evolution. Nature. 460(7257): 894898.
Wang, H, Yang, H, Shivalila, CS et al. (2013) One-step generation of mice carrying mutations in multiple genes by Crispr/Cas-mediated genome engineering. Cell. 153(4):910918. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.025.
Wang, Z, Svejstrup, JQ, Feaver, WJ et al. (1994) Requirement for RNA polymerase II transcription factor b (TFIIH) during nucleotide excision repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature. 368:7476.
Watanabe, T, Fukasawa, T. (1961) Episome-mediated transfer of drug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. I. Transfer of resistance factors by conjugation. J. Bacteriol. 81:669678.
Watanabe, T, Ogata, C, Sato, S. (1964) Episome-mediated transfer of drug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. 8. Six-drug-resistance R factor. J. Bacteriol. 88:922928.
Whitfield-Gabrieli, S, Thermenos, HW, Milanovic, S et al. (2009) Hyperactivity and hyperconnectivity of the default network in schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 106:12791284.
Wilson, J. (2013) Oxidants, antioxidants and the current incurability of metastatic cancers. Open Biol. 3(1):120144. doi: 10.1098/rsob.120144.
Wilson, JH, Berget, PB, Pipas, JM. (1982) Somatic cells efficiently join unrelated DNA segments end-to-end. Mol. Cell Biol. 2:12581269.
Windbichler, N, Menichelli, M, Papathanos, PA et al. (2011) A synthetic homing endonuclease-based gene drive system in the human malaria mosquito. Nature. 473:212215.
Winocour, E, Keshet, I. (1980) Indiscriminate recombination in simian virus 40-infected monkey cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77:48614865.
Wray, H. (2011) On the trail of the Orchid Child. Sci. Am. Mind.
Wright, AV, Doudna, JA. (2016) Biology and applications of Crispr systems: harnessing nature’s toolbox for genome engineering. Cell. 164(1):2944.
Wu, Y, Zhou, H. (2015) Correction of a genetic disease by Crispr-Cas9-mediated gene editing in mouse spermatogonial stem cells. Cell Res. 25(1):6779. doi: 10.1038/cr.2014.160.
Wu, Y, Liang, D, Wang, Y et al. (2013) Correction of a genetic disease in mouse via use of Crispr-Cas9. Cell Stem Cell. 13:659662. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2013.10.016.
Xie, K, Yang, Y. (2013) RNA-guided genome editing in plants using a Crispr-Cas system. Mol. Plant. 6:19751983. doi: 10.1093/mp/sst119.
Yamano, T, Nishimasu, H, Zetsche, B et al. (2016) Crystal structure of Cpf1 in complex with guide RNA and target DNA. Cell. 165(4):949962. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.003.
Yang, H, Liu, Z, Ma, Y et al. (2013) Generation of haploid embryonic stem cells from Macaca fascicularis monkey parthenotes. Cell Res. 23:11871200. doi: 10.1038/cr.2013.93.
Yang, H, Wang, H, Shivalila, CS et al. (2013) One-step generation of mice carrying reporter and conditional alleles by Crispr/Cas-mediated genome engineering. Cell. 154(6):13701379. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.08.022.
Yang, J, Benyamin, B, McEvoy, BP et al. (2010) Common SNPs explain a large proportion of the heritability for human height. Nat. Genet. 42:565569.
Ye, X, Al-Babili, S, Klöti, A et al. (2000). Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science. 287(5451): 303305. doi: 10.1126/science.287.5451.303.
Zalocusky, KA, Ramakrishnan, C, Lerner, TN et al. (2016) Nucleus accumbens D2R cells signal prior outcomes and control risky decision-making. Nature. 531(7596):642646. doi: 10.1038/nature17400.
Zetsche, B, Gootenberg, J, Abudayyeh, O et al. (2015) Cpf1 Is a single RNA-guided endonuclease of a Class 2 CRISPR-Cas system. Cell. 163(3): 759771. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.09.038.
Zhao, Y, Dai, Z, Liang, Y et al. (2014) Sequence-specific inhibition of microRNA via Crispr/Crispri system. Sci. Rep. 4:3943. doi: 10.1038/srep03943.
Zimmer, C. (2015) Editing of pig DNA may lead to more organs for people. The New York Times.
Zinder, ND, Lederberg, J. (1952) Genetic exchange in Salmonella. J. Bacteriol. 64(5):679699.
Zizek, S. (2003) The Puppet and the Dwarf: The Perverse Core of Christianity. The MIT Press.


Altmetric attention score