Skip to main content
Neanderthals and Modern Humans
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 23
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Erixon, Lennart 2016. Is firm renewal stimulated by negative shocks? The status of negative driving forces in Schumpeterian and Darwinian economics: Table 1.. Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 40, Issue. 1, p. 93.

    Yravedra, José Julien, Marie-Anne Alcaraz-Castaño, Manuel Estaca-Gómez, Verónica Alcolea-González, Javier de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo Lécuyer, Christophe Marcel, Claude Hillaire and Burke, Ariane 2016. Not so deserted…paleoecology and human subsistence in Central Iberia (Guadalajara, Spain) around the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 140, p. 21.

    Fiorenza, Luca Benazzi, Stefano Henry, Amanda G. Salazar-García, Domingo C. Blasco, Ruth Picin, Andrea Wroe, Stephen and Kullmer, Ottmar 2015. To meat or not to meat? New perspectives on Neanderthal ecology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 156, p. 43.

    Egeland, Charles P. Nielsen, Trine Kellberg Byø, Malene Kjærgaard, Peter C. Larsen, Nicolaj K. and Riede, Felix 2014. The taphonomy of fallow deer (Dama dama) skeletons from Denmark and its bearing on the pre-Weichselian occupation of northern Europe by humans. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 31.

    Egeland, Charles P. Gasparian, Boris Arakelyan, Dmitri Nicholson, Christopher M. Petrosyan, Artur Ghukasyan, Robert and Byerly, Ryan 2014. Reconnaissance survey for Palaeolithic sites in the Debed River Valley, northern Armenia. Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 39, Issue. 4, p. 370.

    El Zaatari, Sireen and Hublin, Jean-Jacques 2014. Diet of upper paleolithic modern humans: Evidence from microwear texture analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 153, Issue. 4, p. 570.

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín d’Errico, Francesco Pacheco, Francisco Giles Blasco, Ruth Rosell, Jordi Jennings, Richard P. Queffelec, Alain Finlayson, Geraldine Fa, Darren A. Gutiérrez López, José María Carrión, José S. Negro, Juan José Finlayson, Stewart Cáceres, Luís M. Bernal, Marco A. Fernández Jiménez, Santiago and Finlayson, Clive 2014. A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue. 37, p. 13301.

    2014. Thin on the Ground.

    Harvati-Papatheodorou, Katerina 2013. A Companion to Paleoanthropology.

    Higgins, Ryan W. and Ruff, Christopher B. 2011. The effects of distal limb segment shortening on locomotor efficiency in sloped terrain: Implications for Neandertal locomotor behavior. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 146, Issue. 3, p. 336.

    2011. Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.

    Harvati, Katerina 2010. Neanderthals. Evolution: Education and Outreach, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 367.

    Riel-Salvatore, Julien 2010. A Niche Construction Perspective on the Middle–Upper Paleolithic Transition in Italy. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 17, Issue. 4, p. 323.

    Stewart, Kathlyn M. 2010. Human Brain Evolution.

    Tryon, Christian Pobiner, Briana and Kauffman, Rhonda 2010. Archaeology and Human Evolution. Evolution: Education and Outreach, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 377.

    Herrera, Kristian J. Somarelli, Jason A. Lowery, Robert K. and Herrera, Rene J. 2009. To what extent did Neanderthals and modern humans interact?. Biological Reviews, Vol. 84, Issue. 2, p. 245.

    Tattersall, Ian and Schwartz, Jeffrey H. 2009. Evolution of the GenusHomo. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 37, Issue. 1, p. 67.

    WESTAWAY, MICHAEL C. and GROVES, COLIN P. 2009. The mark of Ancient Java is on none of them. Archaeology in Oceania, Vol. 44, Issue. 2, p. 84.

    Elton, Sarah 2008. The environmental context of human evolutionary history in Eurasia and Africa. Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 212, Issue. 4, p. 377.

    Carrión, J. S. Scott, L. Arribas, A. Fuentes, N. Gil-Romera, G. and Montoya, E. 2007. Pleistocene landscapes in central Iberia inferred from pollen analysis of hyena coprolites. Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol. 22, Issue. 2, p. 191.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Neanderthals and Modern Humans
    • Online ISBN: 9780511542374
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Neanderthals and Modern Humans develops the theme of the close relationship between climate change, ecological change and biogeographical patterns in humans during the Pleistocene. In particular, it challenges the view that Modern Human 'superiority' caused the extinction of the Neanderthals between 40 and 30 thousand years ago. Clive Finlayson shows that to understand human evolution, the spread of humankind across the world and the extinction of archaic populations, we must move away from a purely theoretical evolutionary ecology base and realise the importance of wider biogeographic patterns including the role of tropical and temperate refugia. His proposal is that Neanderthals became extinct because their world changed faster than they could cope with, and that their relationship with the arriving Modern Humans, where they met, was subtle.


Review of the hardback:‘… valuable for its synthesis of the climatic backdrop to later human evolution, which reminds us of the remarkable climatic challenges that our Pleistocene predecessors had to face.’

Source: Science

Review of the hardback:‘… an interesting and stimulating read …’

Source: TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution

Review of the hardback:‘… an interesting and stimulating volume. I recommend this book for those interested in human evolution.’

Source: PalArch, Netherlands Scientific Journal

Review of the hardback:‘… it will help to shape the debates of the next decade.’

Source: Journal of Biosocial Science

Review of the hardback:'I'm sure that this study will have a great influence on many anthropologists and archaeologists.'

Source: Anthropological Science

‘… this book is certainly recommended, being a solitary volume giving the alternative environmentally driven perspective of Neanderthal extinction.‘

Source: Journal of Quaternary Science

'I found this a fascinating book to read, almost like a detective story as various strands of evidence are assembled and combined.'

Source: Rezensionen

'The book is well laid out and the argument develops logically over the eight chapters … this is a very erudite and worthwhile book that lays out a plausible set of testable conclusions.'

Source: Journal of Cambridge Archaeological Journal

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

C. Abegg & B. Thierry (2002). Macaque evolution and dispersal in insular south-east Asia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 75, 555–576

J. M. Adams & H. Faure (1997). Preliminary vegetation maps of the world since the Last Glacial Maximum: an aid to archaeological understanding. Journal of Archaeological Science, 24, 623–647

G. J. Adcock , E. S. Dennis , S. Easteal et al. (2001). Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: implications for modern human origins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 537–542

E. Aguirre (2000). Poor fossil record and major changes around 1 MaBP. Human Evolution, 15, 51–62

E. Aguirre & E. Carbonell (2001). Early human expansions into Eurasia: The Atapuerca evidence. Quaternary International, 75, 11–18

L. C. Aiello & R. I. M. Dunbar (1993). Neocortex size, group size, and the evolution of language. Current Anthropology, 34, 184–193

L. C. Aiello & P. Wheeler (1995). The expensive-tissue hypothesis: the brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Current Anthropology, 36, 199–221

R. B. Alley (2000). Ice-core evidence of abrupt climate changes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97, 1331–1334

R. B. Alley , J. Lynch-Stieglitz & J. P. Severinghaus (1999). Global climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96, 9987–9988

P. Allsworth-Jones (1993). The archaeology of archaic and early modern Homo sapiens: an african perspective. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 3, 21–39

S. Alonso & J. A. L. Armour (2001). A highly variable segment of human subterminal 16p reveals a history of population growth for modern humans outside Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 864–869

J. Alroy (1998). Cope's rule and the dynamics of body mass evolution in North American fossil mammals. Science, 280, 731–734

S. H. Ambrose (1998). Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans. Journal of Human Evolution, 34, 623–651

S. H. Ambrose (2001). Paleolithic technology and human evolution. Science, 291, 1748–1753

A. Anderson (2002). Faunal collapse, landscape change and settlement history in Remote Oceania. World Archaeology, 33, 375–390

C. M. Anderson (1989). Neandertal pelves and gestation length: hypotheses and holism in paleoanthropology. American Anthropologist, 91, 327–340

C. Anderson & N. R. Franks (2001). Teams in animal societies. Behavioral Ecology, 12, 534–540

A. A. Andreev , C. Siegert , V. A. Klimanov , A. Y. Derevyagin , G. N. Shilova & M. Melles (2002). Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation and climate on the Taymyr Lowland, Northern Siberia. Quaternary Research, 57, 138–150

S. C. Anton , W. R. Leonard & M. L. Robertson (2002). An ecomorphological model of the initial hominid dispersal from Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 43, 773–785

N. S. Arnold , T. H. Andel & V. Valen (2002). Extent and Dynamics of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (65,000–25,000 yr BP). Quaternary Research, 57, 38–48

A. Arribas & P. Palmqvist (1999). On the ecological connection between sabre-tooths and hominids: faunal dispersal events in the lower Pleistocene and a review of the evidence for the first human arrival in Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science, 26, 571–585

J. L. Arsuaga , I. Martínez , A. Gracia , J. M. Carretero & E. Carbonell (1993). Three new human skulls from the Sima de los Huesos middle Pleistocene site (Atapuerca, Spain). Nature, 362, 534–537

J. L. Arsuaga , I. Martínez , A. Gracia & C. Lorenzo (1997). The Sima de los Huesos crania (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain): a comparative study. Journal of Human Evolution, 33, 219–281

B. Asfaw , W. Henry Gilbert , Y. Beyenne et al. (2002). Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 416, 317–320

P. Awadalla , A. Eyre-Walker & J. Maynard Smith (1999). Linkage disequilibrium and recombination in hominid mitochondrial DNA. Science, 286, 2524–2525

R. L. Axtell , J. M. Epstein , J. S. Dean et al. (2002). Population growth and collapse in a multiagent model of the Kayenta Anasazi in Long House Valley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 99, 7275–7279

M. Balter (2001). What or who did in the Neandertals? Science, 293, 1980–1981

G. Barbujani & G. Bertorelle (2001). Genetics and the population history of Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 22–25

L. S. Barham (1998). Possible early pigment use in south-central Africa. Current Anthropology, 39, 703–710

L. Barham (2002a). Backed tools in Middle Pleistocene central Africa and their evolutionary significance. Journal of Human Evolution, 43, 585–603

L. S. Barham (2002b). Systematic pigment use in the Middle Pleistocene of south-central Africa. Current Anthropology, 43, 181–190

L. K. Barlow , J. P. Sadler , A. Ogilvie et al. (1998). Ice core and environmental evidence for the end of Norse Greenland. The Holocene, 7, 489–499

M. Bar-Matthews , A. Ayalon & A. Kaufman (1997). Late Quaternary Paleoclimate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region from Stable Isotope Analysis of Speleothems at Sorqe Cave, Israel. Quaternary Research, 47, 155–168

E. Barron & D. Pollard (2002). High-resolution climate simulations of Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 in Europe. Quaternary Research, 58, 296–309

N. H. Barton & G. M. Hewitt (1985). Analysis of hybrid zones. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 16, 113–148

O. Bar-Yosef (2000). The impact of radiocarbon dating on Old World archaeology: past achievements and future expectations. Radiocarbon, 42, 23–39

O. Bar-Yosef & A. Belfer-Cohen (2001). From Africa to Eurasia – early dispersals. Quaternary International, 75, 19–28

O. Bar-Yosef & S. Kuhn (1999). The big deal about blades: laminar technologies and human evolution. American Anthropology, 101, 1–17

K. L. Beals , C. L. Smith & S. M. Dodd (1984). Brain Size, Cranial Morphology, Climate, and Time Machines. Current Anthropology, 25, 301–330

M. Belmaker , E. Tchernov , S. Condemi & O. Bar-Yosef (2002). New evidence for hominid presence in the Lower Pleistocene of the Southern Levant. Journal of Human Evolution, 43, 43–56

K. D. Bennett , P. C. Tzedakis & K. J. Willis (1991). Quaternary refugia of north European trees. Journal of Biogeography, 18, 103–115

J. M. Bermúdez de Castro , J. L. Arsuaga , E. Carbonell , A. Rosas , I. Martínez & M. Mosquera (1997). A hominid from the Lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: possible ancestor to Neandertals and modern humans. Science, 276, 1392–1395

R. C. Bigalke (1968). The contemporary mammal fauna of Africa. Quarterly Review of Biology, 43, 265–300

L. R. Binford (1980). Willow smoke and dogs' tails: hunter–gatherer settlement systems and archaeological site formation. American Antiquity, 45, 4–20

M. W. Binford , A. L. Kolata , M. Brenner et al. (1997). Climate Variation and the Rise and Fall of an Andean Civilization. Quaternary Research, 47, 235–248

B. Blades (1999). Aurignacian Settlement Patterns in the Vezere Valley. Current Anthropology, 40, 712–718

C. Blasi , M. L. Carranza , L. Filesi , A. Tilia & A. Acosta (1999). Relation between climate and vegetation along a Mediterranean-Temperate boundary in central Italy. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 8, 17–27

P. Bleed (1986). The optimal design of hunting weapons: maintainability or reliability. American Antiquity, 51, 737–747

R. Bobe , A. K. Behrensmeyer & R. E. Chapman (2002). Faunal change, environmental variability and late Pliocene hominin evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 42, 475–497

H. Bocherens , M. Fizet , A. Mariotti et al. (1991). Isotopic biogeochemistry (13C, 15N) of fossil vertebrate collagen: application to the study of a past food web including Neandertal man. Journal of Human Evolution, 20, 481–492

H. Bocherens , D. Billiou , A. Mariotti et al. (1999). Palaeoenvironmental and palaeodietary implications of isotopic biogeochemistry of last interglacial Neanderthal and mammal bones in Scladina Cave (Belgium). Journal of Archaeological Science, 26, 599–607

J-P. Bocquet-Appel & P-Y. Demars (2000a). Population kinetics in the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science, 27, 551–570

T. Boettger , F. W. Junge & T. Litt (2000). Stable climatic conditions in central Germany during the last interglacial. Journal of Quaternary Science, 15, 469–473

G. C. Bond & R. Lotti (1995). Iceberg discharges into the North Atlantic on millennial time scales during the last glaciation. Science, 267, 1005–1010

G. Bond , W. Showers , M. Cheseby et al. (1997). A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates. Science, 278, 1257–1266

F. Bordes (1961). Mousterian cultures in France. Science, 134, 803–810

E. Bosch , F. Calafell , D. Comas , P. J. Oefner , P. A. Underhill & J. Bertranpetit (2001). High-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome variation shows a sharp discontinuity and limited gene flow between northwestern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68, 1019–1029

A. Bouzouggar , J. K. Kozlowski & M. Otte (2002). Étude des ensembles lithiques atériens de la grotte d'El Aliya a Tanger (Maroc). L'Anthropologie, 106, 207–248

J. M. Bowler , H. Johnston , J. M. Olley et al. (2003). New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia. Nature, 421, 837–840

D. Brandon-Jones (1996). The Asian Colobinae (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae) as indicators of Quaternary climatic change. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 59, 327–350

P. J. Brantingham , A. I. Krivoshapkin , L. Jinzeng & Y. Tserendagva (2001). The initial Upper Palaeolithic in northeast Asia. Current Anthropology, 42, 735–746

G. Brauer , Y. Yokoyama , C. Falgueres & E. Mbua (1997). Modern human origins back-dated. Nature, 386, 337–338

W. S. Broecker & S. Hemming (2001). Climate swings come into focus. Science, 294, 2308–2309

A. S. Brooks , D. M. Helgren , J. S. Cramer et al. (1995). Dating and context of three Middle Stone Age sites with bone points in the Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Science, 268, 548–553

D. Brose & M. Wolpoff (1971). Early Upper Palaeolithic Man and late Middle Palaeolithic tools. American Anthropologist, 73, 1156–1194

J. H. Brown & A. Kodric-Brown (1977). Turnover rates in insular biogeography: effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology, 58, 445–449

M. Brunet , F. Guy , D. Pilbeam et al. (2002). A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa. Nature, 418, 145–151

C. Buckley & J. Steele (2002). Evolutionary ecology of spoken language: co-evolutionary hypotheses are testable. World Archaeology, 34, 26–46

H. T. Bunn , L. E. Bartram & E. M. Kroll (1988). Variability in bone assemblage formation from Hadza hunting, scavenging, and carcass processing. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 7, 412–457

H. T. Bunn & J. A. Ezzo (1993). Hunting and scavenging by Plio-Pleistocene hominids: nutritional constraints, archaeological patterns, and behavioural implications. Journal of Archaeological Science, 20, 365–398

F. Burjachs & R. Julia (1994). Abrupt climatic changes during the last glaciation based on pollen analysis of the Abric Romani, Catalonia, Spain. Quaternary Research, 42, 308–315

A. B. G. Bush & S. G. H. Philander (1998). The Role of ocean-atmosphere interactions in tropical cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum. Science, 279, 1341–1344

A. M. Byers (1994). Symboling and the Middle–Upper Palaeolithic transition: a theoretical and methodological critique. Current Anthropology, 35, 369–399

N. Bynum (2002). Morphological variation within a macaque hybrid zone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118, 45–49

S. Cachel (1997). Dietary shifts and the European Upper Palaeolithic transition. Current Anthropology, 38, 579–603

R. L. Cann , M. L. Stoneking & A. C. Wilson (1987). Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature, 325, 31–36

D. Caramelli , D. Lalueza-Fox , C. Vernesi et al. (2003). Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 100: 6593–6597

E. Carbonell , J. M. Bermúdez de Castro , J. L. Arsuaga et al. (1995). Lower Pleistocene hominids and artefacts from Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain). Science, 269, 826–832

E. Carbonell , M. Mosquera , X. P. Rodriguez & R. Sala (1999a). Out of Africa: the dispersal of the earliest technical systems reconsidered. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 18, 119–136

E. Carbonell , M. D. García-Antón , C. Mallol et al. (1999b). The TD6 level lithic industry from Gran Dolina, Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain): production and use. Journal of Human Evolution, 37, 653–693

C. Carcaillet & J-L. Vernet (2001). Comments on ‘the full-glacial forests of central and southeastern Europe’ by Willis et al. Quaternary Research, 55, 385–387

S. E. Carney , K. A. Gardner & L. H. Riesberg (2000). Evolutionary changes over the last fifty-year history of a hybrid population of sunflowers (Helianthus). Evolution, 54, 462–474

D. Carrier (1984). The energetic paradox of human running and hominid evolution. Current Anthropology, 25, 483–495

J. S. Carrión (1992). Late Quaternary pollen sequence from Carihuela Cave, southeastern Spain. Review of Palaeobotany & Palynology, 71, 37–77

J. S. Carrión , M. Dupré , M. P. Fumanal & R. Montes (1995). A Palaeoenvironmental study in semi-arid southeastern Spain: the palynological and sedimentological sequence at Perneras Cave (Lorca, Murcia). Journal of Archaeological Science, 22, 355–367

J. S. Carrión & M. Munuera (1997). Upper Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental change in Eastern Spain: new pollen-analytical data from Cova Beneito (Alicante). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 128, 287–299

J. S. Carrión , M. Munuera & C. Navarro (1998). The palaeoenvironment of Carihuela Cave (Granada, Spain): a reconstruction on the basis of palynological investigations of cave sediments. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 99, 317–340

E. Cerdeño (1998). Diversity and evolutionary trends of the Family Rhinocerotidae (Perissodactyla). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 141, 13–34

P. G. Chase & H. Dibble (1987). Middle Palaeolithic symbolism: A review of current evidence and interpretations. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 6, 263–293

M. Chazan (1995). The language hypothesis for the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition: an examination based on a multiregional lithic analysis. Current Anthropology, 36, 749–768

R. Cheddadi , K. Mamakowa , J. Guiot , J-L. Beaulieu , M. Reille , V. Andrieu , W. Granoszewski & O. Peyron (1998). Was the climate of the Eemian stable? A quantitative climate reconstruction from seven European pollen records. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 143, 73–85

S. Chilardi , D. W. Frayer , P. Gioia , R. Macchiarelli & M. Mussi (1996). Fontana Nuova di Ragusa (Sicily, Italy): southernmost Aurignacian site in Europe. Antiquity, 70, 553–563

S. E. Churchill (1998). Cold adaptation, heterochrony, and Neandertals. Evolutionary Anthropology, 7, 46–60

R. L. Cifelli (1981). Patterns of evolution among the Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla (Mammalia). Evolution, 35, 433–440

P. U. Clark & A. C. Mix (2002). Ice sheets and sea level of the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 1–7

CLIMAP Project Members (1976). The surface of the Ice-Age Earth. Science, 191, 1131–1137

COHMAP Members. (1988). Climate Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations. Science, 241, 1043–1052

P. A. Colinvaux , P. E. Oliveira , J. E. Moreno , M. C. Miller & M. B. Bush (1996). A long pollen record from lowland Amazonia: forest and cooling in glacial times. Science, 274, 85–88

H. B. S. Cooke (1968). The fossil mammal fauna of Africa. Quarterly Review of Biology, 43, 234–264

H. B. S. Cooke (1978). Suid evolution and correlation of African hominid localities: an alternative taxonomy. Science, 201, 460–463

G. R. Coope (2002). Changes in the thermal climate in northwestern Europe during marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 3, estimated from fossil insect assemblages. Quaternary Research, 57, 401–408

M-A. Courty & J. Vallverdu (2001). The microstratigraphic record of abrupt climate changes in cave sediments of the western Mediterranean. Geoarchaeology, 16, 467–500

G. W. Cox & R. E. Ricklefs (1977). Species diversity and ecological release in Caribbean land bird faunas. Oikos, 28, 113–122

M. K. Crombie , R. E. Arvidson , N. C. Sturchio , Z. El Alfy & K. Abu Zeid (1997). Age and isotopic constraints on Pleistocene pluvial episodes in the Western Desert, Egypt. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 130, 337–355

G. Cuenca-Bescós , C. Laplana & J. I. Canudo (1999). Biochronological implications of the Arvicolidae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Lower Pleistocene hominid-bearing level of Trinchera Dolina 6 (TD6 Atapuerca, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution, 37, 353–374

R. A. C. Dam , J. Fluin , P. Suparan & S. Kaars (2001). Palaeoenvironmental developments in the Lake Tondano area (N. Sulawesi, Indonesia) since 33,000 yr B.P. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 171, 147–183

B. J. Danielson (1991). Communities in a landscape: the influence of habitat heterogeneity on the interactions between species. American Naturalist, 138, 1105–1120

P. D. Danley , J. A. Markert , M. E. Arnegard & T. D. Kocher (2000). Divergence with gene flow in the rock-dwelling cichlids of Lake Malawi. Evolution, 54, 1725–1737

W. Dansgaard , S. J. Johnsen , H. B. Clausen et al. (1993). Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. Nature, 364, 218–220

W. Dansgaard , J. W. C. White & S. J. Johnsen (1989). The abrupt termination of the Younger Dryas climatic event. Nature, 339, 532–534

K. K. Dasmahapatra , M. J. Blum , A. Aiello et al. (2002). Inferences from a rapidly moving hybrid zone. Evolution, 56, 741–753

R. S. Davis & V. A. Ranov (1999). Recent work on the Paleolithic of Central Asia. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8, 186–193

N. B. Davies (1976). Food, flocking and territorial behaviour of the pied wagtail (Motacilla alba yarellii Gould) in winter. Journal of Animal Ecology, 45, 235–253

T. Dayan , D. Simberloff , E. Tchernov & Y. Yom-Tov (1991). Calibrating the paleothermometer: climate, communities, and the evolution of size. Paleobiology, 17, 189–199

M. C. Dean , C. B. Stringer & T. C. Bromage (1986). Age at death of the Neanderthal child from Devil's Tower, Gibraltar and the implications for studies of general growth and development in Neanderthals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 70, 301–310

A. Debénath (2000). Le peuplement préhistorique du Maroc: données récentes et problemes. L'Anthropologie, 104, 131–145

P-Y. Demars (1998). Circulation des silex dans le nord de l'Aquitaine au Paléolithique Supérieur. L'occupation de l'espace par les dernieres chasseurs-cueilleurs. Gallia Préhistoire, 40, 1–28

P. deMenocal (1995). Plio-Pleistocene African Climate. Science, 270, 53–59

P. B. deMenocal (2001). Cultural responses to climate change during the late Holocene. Science, 292, 667–673

O. A. Derbeneva , E. B. Starikovskaya , D. C. Wallace & R. I. Sukernik (2002). Traces of early Eurasians in the Mansi of Northwest Siberia revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70, 1009–1014

F. d'Errico , C. Henshilwood & P. Nilssen (2001). Engraved bone fragment from South Africa: implications for the origin of symbolism and language. Antiquity, 75, 309–318

F. d'Errico & A. Nowell (2000). A new look at the Berekhat ram figurine: implications for the origins of symbolism. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 10, 123–167

F. d'Errico , J. Zilhao , M. Julien , D. Baffier & J. Pelegrin (1998). Neanderthal acculturation in western Europe? Current Anthropology, 39 (Suppl.), 1–44

J. Diamond (2002). Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication. Nature, 418, 700–707

U. Dieckmann & M. Doebeli (1999). On the origin of species by sympatric speciation. Nature, 400, 354–357

P. D. Ditlevsen , H. Svensmark & S. Johnsen (1996). Contrasting atmospheric and climate dynamics of the last-glacial and Holocene periods. Nature, 379, 810–812

C. Duarte , J. Mauricio , P. B. Pettitt et al. (1999). The early Upper Palaeolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96, 7604–7609

G. H. du Boulay , M. Lawton & A. Wallis (1998). The story of the internal carotid artery of mammals: from Galen to sudden infant death syndrome. Neuroradiology, 40, 697–703

R. C. Dunnell (1999). The concept of waste in an evolutionary archaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 18, 243–250

R. C. Dunnell & D. M. Greenlee (1999). Late Woodland Period ‘waste’ reduction in the Ohio River Valley. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 18, 376–395

L. M. Dupont (1993). Vegetation zones in NW Africa during the Brunhes Chron reconstructed from marine palynological data. Quaternary Science Reviews, 12, 189–202

L. Dupont , S. Jahns , F. Marret & S. Ning (2000). Vegetation change in equatorial West Africa: time-slices for the last 150 ka. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 155, 95–122

M. Dynesius & R. Jansson (2000). Evolutionary consequences of changes in species' geographical distributions driven by Milankovitch climate oscillations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97, 9115–9120

M. Elliot , L. Labeyrie & J.-C. Duplessy (2002). Changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation associated with the Dansgaard–Oeschger temperature oscillations (60–10 ka). Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 1153–1165

J. L. Elson , R. M. Andrews , P. F. Chinnery , R. N. Lightowlers , D. M. Turnbull & N. Howell (2001). Analysis of European mtDNAs for recombination. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68, 145–153

R. G. Elston & D. W. Zeanah (2002). Thinking outside the box: a new perspective on diet breadth and sexual division of labor in the Great Basin. World Archaeology, 34, 103–130

S. Elton , L. C. Bishop & B. Wood (2001). Comparative context of Plio-Pleistocene hominin brain evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 41, 1–27

W. Enard , M. Przeworski , S. E. Fisher et al. (2002). Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature, 418, 869–872

L. Excoffier & S. Schneider (1999). Why hunter–gatherer populations do not show signs of Pleistocene demographic expansions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96, 10597–10602

A. Eyre-Walker , N. H. Smith & J. Maynard Smith (1999). How clonal are human mitochondria? Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, 266, 477–484

C. Falgueres , J-J Bahain , Y. Yokoyama et al. (1999). Earliest humans in Europe: the age of TD6 Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain. Journal of Human Evolution, 37, 343–352

FAUNMAP Working Group (1996). Spatial response of mammals to late Quaternary environmental fluctuations. Science, 272, 1601–1606

J. Féblot-Augustins (1990). Exploitation des matieres premieres dans l'Acheuléen d'Afrique: perspectives comportementales. Paléo, 2, 27–42

J. Féblot-Augustins (1993). Mobility strategies in the late Middle Palaeolithic of Central Europe and Western Europe: elements of stability and variability. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 12, 211–265

E. Fehr & S. Gachter (2002). Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature, 415, 137–140

S. H. Ferguson , M. K. Taylor , E. W. Born , A. Rosing-Asvid & F. Messier (1999). Determinants of home range size for polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Ecology Letters, 2, 311–318

C. B. Field , M. J. Behrenfeld , J. T. Randerson & P. Falkowski (1998). Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science, 281, 237–240

I. Figueiral & J.-F. Terral (2002). Late Quaternary refugia of Mediterranean taxa in the Portuguese Estremadura: charcoal based palaeovegetation and climatic reconstruction. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 549–558

K. E. Filchak , J. B. Roethele & J. L. Feder (2000). Natural selection and sympatric divergence in the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella. Nature, 407, 739–742

B. Fitzhugh (2001). Risk and invention in human technological evolution. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 20, 125–167

M. Fizet , A. Mariotti , H. Bocherens , B. Lange-Badré et al. (1995). Effect of diet, physiology and climate on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of collagen in a late Pleistocene anthropic palaecosystem: Marillac, Charente, France. Journal of Archaeological Science, 22, 67–79

F. Florschutz , J. Menendez Amor & T. A. Wijmstra (1971). Palynology of a thick Quaternary succession in southern Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 10, 233–264

L. J. Flynn , R. H. Tedford & Z. Qiu (1991). Enrichment and stability in the Pliocene mammalian fauna of North China. Paleobiology, 17, 246–265

R. Foley (1994). Speciation, extinction and climatic change in hominid evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 26, 275–289

R. Foley (1998). Genes, evolution, and diversity: yet another look at the problem of modern human origins. Evolutionary Anthropology, 6, 191–193

R. Foley (2001). In the shadow of the modern synthesis? Alternative perspectives on the last fifty years of paleoanthropology. Evolutionary Anthropology, 10, 5–14

R. Foley & M. M. Lahr (1997). Mode 3 technologies and the evolution of modern humans. Cambridge Archaeology, 7, 3–36

R. A. Foley & P. C. Lee (1989). Finite social space, evolutionary pathways, and reconstructing hominid behaviour. Science, 243, 901–906

R. G. Franciscus & E. Trinkaus (1988). Nasal morphology and the emergence of Homo erectus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 75, 517–527

G. C. Frison (1989). Experimental use of Clovis weaponry and tools on African elephants. American Antiquity, 54, 766–784

G. C. Frison (1998). Paleoindian large mammal hunters on the plains of North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, 14576–14583

H. Fritz & P. Duncan (1994). On the carrying capacity for large ungulates of African savanna ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B, 256, 77–82

M. R. Frogley , P. C. Tzedakis & T. H. E. Heaton (1999). Climate Variability in northwest Greece during the last interglacial. Science, 285, 1886–1889

L. Gabunia , A. Vekua , D. Lordkipanidze et al. (2000). Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy, geological setting, and age. Science, 288, 1019–1025

L. Gabunia , S. C. Antón , D. Lordkipanidze , A. Vekua , A. Justus & C. C. Swisher III (2001). Dmanisi and dispersal. Evolutionary Anthropology, 10, 158–170

P. Gagneux & A. Varki (2001). Genetic differences between humans and great apes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 18, 2–13

C. Gamble (2001). Modes, movement and moderns. Quaternary International, 75, 5–10

G. García-Ramos & D. Rodríguez (2002). Evolutionary speed of species invasions. Evolution, 56, 661–668

R. H. Gargett (1989). Grave shortcomings: the evidence for Neanderthal burial. Current Anthropology, 30, 157–190

F. Gasse (2000). Hydrological changes in the African tropics since the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 189–211

C. Gaven , C. Hillaire-Marcel & N. Petit-Maire (1981). A Pleistocene lacustrine episode in southeastern Libya. Nature, 290, 131–133

S. Gavrilets , H. Li & M. D. Vose (1998). Rapid parapatric speciation on holey adaptive landscapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B, 265, 1483–1489

V. Geist (1977). A comparison of social adaptations in relation to ecology in gallinaceous bird and ungulate societies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 8, 193–207

T. Goebel (1999). Pleistocene human colonization of Siberia and peopling of the Americas: an ecological approach. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8, 208–227

G. A. Goodfriend (1999). Terrestrial stable isotope records of late Quaternary paleoclimates in the eastern Mediterranean region. Quaternary Science Reviews, 18, 501–513

S. J. Gould & N. Eldredge (1977). Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology, 3, 115–151

D. K. Grayson & F. Delpech (2002). Specialized early Upper Palaeolithic hunters in southwestern France? Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 1439–1449

GRIP Members (1993). Climate instability during the last interglacial period recorded in the GRIP ice core. Nature, 364, 203–207

A. T. Grove & A. Warren (1968). Quaternary landforms and climate on the south side of the Sahara. Geographical Journal, 134, 194–208

J. Guiot , A. Pons , J. L. Beaulieu & M. Reille (1989). A 140,000-year continental climate reconstruction from two European pollen records. Nature, 338, 309–313

G. Gvirtzman & M. Wieder (2001). Climate of the last 53,000 years in the eastern Mediterranean, based on soil-sequence stratigraphy in the coastal plain of Israel. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20, 1827–1849

E. Hagelberg , N. Goldman , P. Lió , S. Whelan , W. Schiefenhovel , J. B. Clegg & D. K. Bowden (1999). Evidence for mitochondrial DNA recombination in a human population of island Melanesia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266, 485–492

J. Haigh & J. Maynard Smith (1972). Population size and protein variation in man. Genetic Research, 19, 73–89

F. E. Hamilton (1999). Southeastern archaic mounds: examples of elaboration in a temporally fluctuating environment? Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 18, 344–355

W. D. Hamilton (1964). The genetical theory of social behaviour. I, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1–52

W. R. Hamilton (1978). Fossil giraffes from the Miocene of Africa and a revision of the phylogeny of the Giraffoidea. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, Series B, 283, 165–229

M. F. Hammer , T. Karafet , A. Rasanayagam et al. (1998). Out of Africa and back again: nested cladistic analysis of human Y chromosome variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 15, 427–441

I. Hanski (1983). Coexistence and competitors in a patchy environment. Ecology, 64, 493–500

R. M. Harding , S. M. Fullerton , R. C. Griffiths & J. B. Clegg (1997). A gene tree for beta-globin sequences from Melanesia. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 44, S133–S138

H. C. Harpending , M. A. Batzer , M. Gurven , L. B. Jorde , A. R. Rogers & S. T. Sherry (1998). Genetic traces of ancient demography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, 1961–1967

H. C. Harpending & H. Davis (1977). Some implications for hunter–gatherer ecology derived from the spatial structure of resources. World Archaeology, 8, 275–286

H. Harpending & A. Rogers (2000). Genetic perspectives on human origins and differentiation. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 1, 361–385

H. Harpending , S. T. Sherry , A. L. Rogers & M. Stoneking (1993). The genetic structure of ancient human populations. Current Anthropology, 34, 483–496

E. E. Harris & J. Hey (1999). X Chromosome evidence for ancient human histories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96, 3320–3324

S. Harrison (1991). Local extinction in a metapopulation context: an empirical evaluation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 42, 73–88

J. P. Haskell , M. E. Ritchie & H. Olff (2002). Fractal geometry predicts varying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges. Nature, 418, 527–530

J. Hawks , K. Hunley , S-H. Lee & M. Wolpoff (2000). Population bottlenecks and Pleistocene human evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 17, 2–22

J. D. Hawks & M. H. Wolpoff (2001). The accretion model of Neandertal evolution. Evolution, 55, 1474–1485

B. Hayden (1993). The cultural capacities of Neandertals: a review and re-evaluation. Journal of Human Evolution, 24, 113–146

J. P. Helmke , M. Schulz & H. A. Bauch (2002). Sediment-color record from the Northeast Atlantic reveals patterns of millennial-scale climate variability during the past 500,000 years. Quaternary Research, 57, 49–57

J. Henrich & R. Boyd (2001). Why people punish defectors. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 208, 79–89

C. S. Henshilwood , F. d'Errico , R. Yates et al. (2002). Emergence of modern human behaviour: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa. Science, 295, 1278–1280

C. Henshilwood & J. Sealy (1997). Bone artefacts from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa. Current Anthropology, 38, 890–895

G. M. Hewitt (1996). Some genetic consequences of ice ages and their role in divergence and speciation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 58, 247–276

G. M. Hewitt (1999). Post-glacial re-colonization of European biota. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 68, 87–112

G. M. Hewitt (2000). The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature, 405, 907–913

R. A. Hill & R. I. M. Dunbar (2002). Climatic determinants of diet and foraging behaviour in baboons. Evolutionary Ecology, 16, 579–593

T. W. Holliday (1997a). Postcranial evidence of cold adaptation in European Neanderthals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 104, 245–258

T. W. Holliday (1997b). Body proportions in Late Pleistocene Europe and modern human origins. Journal of Human Evolution, 32, 423–447

T. W. Holliday (1998). The ecological context of trapping among recent hunter–gatherers: implications for subsistence in terminal Pleistocene Europe. Current Anthropology, 39, 711–719

T. W. Holliday & A. B. Falsetti (1995). Lower limb length of European early modern humans in relation to mobility and climate. Journal of Human Evolution, 29, 141–153

H. Hooghiemstra , H. Stalling , C. O. C. Agwu & L. M. Dupont (1992). Vegetational and climatic changes at the northern fringe of the Sahara 250,000–5000 years BP: evidence from 4 marine pollen records located between Portugal and the Canary Islands. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 74, 1–53

R. A. Housley , C. S. Gamble , M. Street & P. Pettitt (1997). Radiocarbon evidence for the late glacial human recolonisation of northern Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 63, 25–54

J. J. Hublin (1992). Recent human evolution in Northwestern Africa. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 337, 185–191

K. A. Hughen , J. T. Overpeck , L. C. Peterson & S. Trumbore (1996). Rapid climate changes in the tropical Atlantic region during the last deglaciation. Nature, 380, 51–54

K. D. Hunt (1994). The evolution of human bipedality: ecology and functional morphology. Journal of Human Evolution, 26, 183–202

G. E. Hutchinson (1959). Homage to Santa Rosalia, or why are there so many kinds of animals? American Naturalist, 93, 145–159

J. Imbrie , E. A. Boyle , S. C. Clemens et al. (1992). On the structure and origin of major glaciation cycles. Palaeoceanography, 7, 701–738

D. E. Irwin (2000). Song variation in an avian ring species. Evolution, 54, 998–1010

L. A. Isbell & T. P. Young (1996). The evolution of bipedalism in hominids and reduced group size in chimpanzees: alternative responses to decreasing resource availability. Journal of Human Evolution, 30, 389–397

N. G. Jablonski & G. Chaplin (1993). Origin of habitual terrestrial bipedalism in the ancestor of the Hominidae. Journal of Human Evolution, 24, 259–280

A. P. Jackson , H. Eastwood , S. M. Bell et al. (2002). Identification of Microcephalin, a protein implicated in determining the size of the human brain. American Journal of Human Genetics, 71, 136–142

S. Jahns , M. Huls & M. Sarnthein (1998). Vegetation and climate history of west equatorial Africa based on a marine pollen record off Liberia (site GIK 16776) covering the last 400,000 years. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 102, 277–288

L. Jin , P. A. Underhill , V. Doctor et al. (1999). Distribution of haplotypes from a chromosome 21 region distinguishes multiple prehistoric human migrations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96, 3796–3800

K. Johannesson (2001). Parallel speciation: a key to sympatric divergence. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 148–153

T. C. Johnson , E. T. Brown , J. McManus , S. Barry , P. Barker & F. Gasse (2002). A high-resolution paleoclimate record spanning the past 25,000 years in southern East Africa. Science, 296, 113–132

J. S. Jones & S. Rouhani (1986). How small was the bottleneck? Nature, 319, 449–450

L. B. Jorde , M. Bamshad & A. R. Rogers (1998). Using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to reconstruct human evolution. Bioessays, 20, 126–136

L. B. Jorde , A. R. Rogers , M. Bamshad et al. (1997). Microsatellite diversity and the demographic history of modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 94, 3100–3103

L. B. Jorde , W. S. Watkins , M. J. Bamshad et al. (2000). The distribution of human genetic diversity: a comparison of mitochondrial, autosomal, and Y-chromosome data. American Journal of Human Genetics, 66, 979–988

H. Kaessmann , F. Heibig , A. Haesler & S. Paabo (1999). DNA sequence variation in a non-coding region of low recombination on the human X chromosome. Nature Genetics, 22, 78–81

H. Kaplan & K. Hill (1985). Food-sharing among Ache foragers: tests of explanatory hypotheses. Current Anthropology, 26, 223–245

H. Kaplan , K. Hill , J. Lancaster & A. M. Hurtado (2000). A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, 156–185

J. Kappelman (1996). The evolution of body mass and relative brain size in fossil hominids. Journal of Human Evolution, 30, 243–276

I. Karavanich & F. H. Smith (1998). The Middle/Upper Palaeolithic interface and the relationship of Neanderthals and early modern humans in the Hrvatsko Zagorje, Croatia. Journal of Human Evolution, 34, 223–248

P. Karieva (1990). Population dynamics in spatially complex environments: theory and data. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B, 330, 175–190

R. L. Kelly (1983). Hunter–gatherer mobility strategies. Journal of Anthropological Research, 39, 277–306

R. L. Kelly (1992). Mobility/sedentism: concepts, archaeological measures, and effects. Annual Review of Anthropology, 21, 43–66

R. L. Kelly & L. C. Todd (1988). Coming into the country: early paleoindian mobility and hunting. American Antiquity, 53, 231–244

J. T. Kerr & L. Packer (1997). Habitat heterogeneity as a determinant of mammal species richness in high-energy regions. Nature, 385, 252–254

J. D. Kingston , B. D. Marino & A. Hill (1994). Isotopic evidence for Neogene hominid paleoenvironments in the Kenya Rift Valley. Science 264, 955–959

M. Kirkpatrick & N. H. Barton (1997). Evolution of a species' range. The American Naturalist, 150, 1–23

R. Klein (1995). Anatomy, behaviour, and modern human origins. Journal of World Prehistory, 9, 167–198

R. G. Klein (2000). Archeology and the evolution of human behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, 17–36

J. Klicka & R. M. Zink (1997). The importance of recent Ice Ages in speciation: a failed paradigm. Science, 277, 1666–1669

A. S. Kondrashov & F. A. Kondrashov (1999). Interactions among quantitative traits in the course of sympatric speciation. Nature, 400, 351–354

K. D. Kornbacher (1999). Cultural elaboration in prehistoric coastal Peru: an example of evolution in a temporally variable environment. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 18, 282–318

M. Koumouzelis , J. K. Kozlowski , C. Escutenaire et al. (2001). Le fin du Paléolithique moyen et le début du Paléolithique supérieur en Grece: la sequence de la Grotte 1 de Klissoura. L'Anthropologie, 105, 469–504

C. C. Kratzing & R. B. Cross (1984). Effects of facial cooling during exercise at high temperature. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 53, 118–120

M. Krings , C. Capelli , F. Tschentscher et al. (2000). A view of Neandertal genetic diversity. Nature Genetics, 26, 144–146

M. Krings , H. Geisert , R. W. Schmitz , H. Krainitzki & S. Paabo (1999). DNA sequence of the mitochondrial hypervariable region II from the Neandertal type specimen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96, 5581–5585

M. Krings , A. Stone , R. W. Scmitz , H. Krainitzki , M. Stoneking & S. Paabo (1997). Neandertal DNA sequences and the origin of modern humans. Cell, 90, 19–30

S. L. Kuhn & M. C. Stiner (1998). The earliest Aurignacian of Riparo Mochi (Liguria, Italy). Current Anthropology, 39, S175–S189

S. L. Kuhn , M. C. Stiner , D. S. Reese & E. Gulec (2001). Ornaments of the earliest Upper Palaeolithic: new insights from the Levant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 7641–7646

G. J. Kukla (2000). The last interglacial. Science, 287, 987–988

G. J. Kukla , M. L. Bender , J-L. Beaulieu et al. (2002). Last interglacial climates. Quaternary Research, 58, 2–13

G. Kukla , J. F. McManus , D-D. Rousseau & I. Chuine (1997). How long and how stable was the last interglacial? Quaternary Science Reviews, 16, 605–612

M. M. Lahr (1994). The Multiregional model of modern human origins: a reassessment of its morphological basis. Journal of Human Evolution, 26, 23–56

M. Lahr & R. Foley (1994). Multiple dispersals and modern human origins. Evolutionary Anthropology, 3, 48–60

M. M. Lahr & R. V. S. Wright (1996). The question of robusticity and the relationship between cranial size and shape in Homo sapiens. Journal of Human Evolution, 31, 157–191

C. S. L. Lai , S. E. Fisher , J. A. Hurst , F. Vargha-Khadem & A. P. Monaco (2001). A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature, 413, 519–523

C. Lalueza , A. Pérez-Pérez & D. Turbón (1996). Dietary inferences through buccal microwear analysis of Middle and Upper Pleistocene human fossils. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 100, 367–387

K. Lambeck & J. Chappell (2001). Sea level change through the last glacial cycle. Science, 292, 679–686

K. Lambeck , T. M. Esat & E-K. Potter (2002a). Links between climate and sea levels for the past three million years. Nature, 419, 199–206

K. Lambeck , Y. Yokoyama & T. Purcell (2002b). Into and out of the Last Glacial Maximum: sea-level change during Oxygen Isotope Stages 3 and 2. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 343–360

S. Lebel , E. Trinkaus , M. Faure et al. (2001). Comparative morphology and paleobiology of Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Bau de l'Aubesier, Vaucluse, France. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 11097–11102

S. A. Levin (1992). The problem of pattern and scale in ecology: the Robert MacArthur Award Lecture. Ecology, 73, 1943–1967

M. A. Levine (1999). Botai and the origins of horse domestication. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 18, 29–78

S. Lev-Yadun (2000). The cradle of agriculture. Science, 288, 1602–1603

A-M. Lezine , J-L. Turon & G. Buchet (1995). Pollen analyses off Senegal: evolution of the coastal palaeoenvironment during the last deglaciation. Journal of Quaternary Science, 10, 95–105

D. E. Lieberman , B. M. McBratney & G. Krovitz (2002). The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 99, 1134–1139

D. E. Lieberman & J. J. Shea (1994). Behavioral differences between archaic and modern humans in the Levantine Mousterian. American Anthropologist, 96, 300–332

J. M. Lindly & G. A. Clark (1990). Symbolism and modern human origins. Current Anthropology, 31, 233–261

S. L. Lindstedt & M. S. Boyce (1985). Seasonality, fasting endurance, and body size in mammals. American Naturalist, 125, 873–878

J. Lynch-Stieglitz , W. B. Curry & N. Slowey (1999). Weaker Gulf Stream in the Florida Straits during the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature, 402, 644–648

V. Macaulay , M. Richards , E. Hickey et al. (1999). The emerging tree of west Eurasian mtDNAs: a synthesis of control-region sequences and RFLPs. American Journal of Human Genetics, 64, 232–249

M. Madsen , C. Lipo & M. Cannon (1999). Fitness and reproductive trade-offs in uncertain environments: explaining the evolution of cultural elaboration. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 18, 251–281

P. Malaspina , F. Cruciani , B. M. Ciminelli et al. (1998). Network analyses of Y-chromosomal types in Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia reveal specific patterns of geographic distribution. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63, 847–860

G. Manzi , F. Mallegni & A. Ascenzi (2001). A cranium for the earliest Europeans: Phylogenetic position of the hominid from Ceprano, Italy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 10011–10016

C. W. Mareau (1998). A critique of the evidence for scavenging by Neanderthals and early modern humans: new data from Kobeh Cave (Zagros Mountains, Iran) and Die Kelders Cave I Layer 10 (South Africa). Journal of Human Evolution, 35, 111–136

C. W. Mareau & S. Y. Kim (1998). Mousterian large-mammal remains from Kobeh Cave: behavioural implications for Neanderthals and early modern humans. Current Anthropology, 39, S79–S113

A. K. Markova , A. N. Simakova , A. Y. Puzachenko & L. M. Kitaev (2002). Environments of the Russian Plain during the Middle Valdai Briansk Interstade (33,000–24,000 yr BP) indicated by fossil mammals and plants. Quaternary Research, 57, 391–400

G. Marth , G. Schuler , R. Yeh et al. (2003). Sequence variations in the public genome data reflect a bottlenecked population history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 100, 376–381

B. Martínez Navarro , A. Turq , J. Agustí Ballester & O. Oms (1997). Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Granada, Spain) and the first human occupation of Europe. Journal of Human Evolution, 33, 611–620

J. Maynard Smith (1966). Sympatric speciation. American Naturalist, 100, 637–650

E. Mayr (1950). Taxonomic categories of fossil hominids. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 15, 109–118

S. McBrearty & A. S. Brooks (2000). The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behaviour. Journal of Human Evolution, 39, 453–563

M. McGlone (1996). When history matters: scale, time, climate and tree diversity. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 5, 309–314

H. M. McHenry (1994). Behavioral ecological implications of early hominid body size. Journal of Human Evolution, 27, 77–87

H. M. McHenry & L. R. Berger (1998). Body proportions in Australopithecus afarensis and A. africanus and the origin of the genus Homo. Journal of Human Evolution, 35, 1–22

B. K. McNab (1971). On the ecological significance of Bergmann's Rule. Ecology, 52, 845–854

P. Mellars (1999). The Neanderthal problem continued. Current. Anthropology, 40, 341–364

K. G. Miller , R. G. Fairbanks & G. S. Mountain (1987). Tertiary oxygen isotope synthesis, sea level history, and continental margin erosion. Paleoceanography, 2, 1–19

K. Milton (1981). Distribution patterns of tropical plant foods as an evolutionary stimulus to primate mental development. American Anthropologist, 83, 534–548

S. Mithen & M. Reed (2002). Stepping out: a computer simulation of hominid dispersal from Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 43, 433–462

M. M. Miyamoto , F. Kraus & O. A. Ryder (1990). Phylogeny and evolution of antlered deer determined from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 87, 6127–6131

A. Montet-White (1994). Alternative interpretations of the late Upper Palaeolithic in Central Europe. Annual Review of Anthropology, 23, 483–508

S. Montuire & F. Marcolini (2002). Palaeoenvironmental significance of the mammalian faunas of Italy since the Pliocene. Journal of Quaternary Science, 17, 87–96

M. Mussi & W. Roebroeks (1996). The big mosaic. Current Anthropology, 37, 697–699

B. Narcisi (2001). Palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic implications of the Late-Quaternary sediment record of Vico volcanic lake (central Italy). Journal of Quaternary Science, 16, 245–255

G. P. Nicholas (1998). Wetlands and hunter–gatherers: a global perspective. Current Anthropology, 39, 720–731

M. Nikaido , A. P. Rooney & N. Okada (1999). Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interspersed elements: hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96, 10261–10266

A. P. Nimmergut , J. R. M. Allen , V. J. Jones , B. Huntley & R. W. Battarbee (1999). Submillennial environmental fluctuations during marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 2: a comparative analysis of diatom and pollen evidence from Lago Grande di Monticchio, South Italy. Journal of Quaternary Science, 14, 111–123

M. Nordborg (1998). On the probability of Neanderthal ancestry. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63, 1237–1240

J. F. O'Connell & K. Hawkes (1988). Hadza hunting, butchering, and bone transport and their archaeological implications. Journal of Anthropological Research, 44, 113–161

K. Ohnuma , K. Aoki & T. Akazawa (1997). Transmission of tool-making through verbal and non-verbal communication: preliminary experiments in Levallois flake production. Anthropological Science, 105, 159–168

O. Oms , J. M. Parés , B. Martínez-Navarro et al. (2000). Early human occupation of Western Europe: paleomagnetic dates for two paleolithic sites in Spain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97, 10666–10670

D. W. Oppo , J. F. McManus & J. L. Cullen (1998). Abrupt climate events 500,000 to 340,000 years ago: evidence from subpolar North Atlantic sediments. Science, 279, 1335–1338

H. J. O'Regan , A. Turner & D. M. Wilkinson (2002). European Quaternary refugia: a factor in large carnivore extinction? Journal of Quaternary Science, 17, 789–795

I. V. Ovchinnikov , A. Gotherstrom , G. P. Romanova , V. M. Kharitonov , K. Liden & W. Goodwin (2000). Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus. Nature, 404, 490–493

J. M. Parés & A. Pérez-González (1995). Paleomagnetic age for hominid fossils at Atapuerca Archaeological site, Spain. Science, 269, 830–832

J. M. Parés & A. Pérez-González (1999). Magnetochronology and stratigraphy at Gran Dolina section, Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution, 37, 325–342

R. W. Park (1998). On the Dorset/Thule analogy for the Middle/Upper Paleolithic transition. Current Anthropology, 39, 355–356

P. A. Parsons (1993). Evolutionary adaptation and stress: energy budgets and habitats preferred. Behavior Genetics, 23, 231–238

P. Pavlov , J. I. Svendsen & S. Indrelid (2001). Human presence in the European Arctic nearly 40,000 years ago. Nature, 413, 64–67

O. Pearson (2000). Activity, climate, and postcranial robusticity. Current Anthropology, 41, 569–607

C. M. Pease , R. Lande & J. J. Bull (1989). A model of population growth, dispersal and evolution in a changing environment. Ecology, 70, 1657–1664

D. Peteet (2000). Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97, 1359–1361

M. Pickford & J. Morales (1994). Biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography of East Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 112, 297–322

M. S. Ponce de León & C. P. E. Zollikofer (2001). Neanderthal cranial ontogeny and its implications for late hominid diversity. Nature, 412, 534–538

C. M. Pond (1978). Morphological aspects and the ecological and mechanical consequences of fat deposition in wild vertebrates. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 9, 519–570

A. Pons (1984). Les changements de la végetation de la region méditerrané Durant le Pliocene et le Quaternaire en relation avec l'histoire du climat et de l'action de l'homme. Webbia, 38, 427–439

G. G. Pope (1983). Evidence for the age of the Asian Hominidae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 80, 4988–4992

N. Porat , M. Chazan , H. Schwarcz & L. Kolska Horwitz (2002). Timing of the Lower to Middle Paleolithic boundary: new dates from the Levant. Journal of Human Evolution, 43, 107–122

J. F. Porcasi , T. L. Jones & L. M. Raab (2000). Trans-Holocene marine mammal exploitation on San Clemente Island, California: a tragedy of the commons revisited. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 19, 200–220

A. H. Porter & N. A. Johnson (2002). Speciation despite gene flow when developmental pathways evolve. Evolution, 56, 2103–2111

R. Potts (1996a). Evolution and climate variability. Science, 273, 922–923

R. Potts (1998). Variability selection in hominid evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology, 7, 81–96

H. H. T. Prins & J. M. Reitsma (1989). Mammalian biomass in an African equatorial rain forest. Journal of Animal Ecology, 58, 851–861

A. A. Prokopenko , E. B. Karabanov , D. F. Williams & G. K. Khursevich (2002). The stability and the abrupt ending of the last interglaciation in southeastern Siberia. Quaternary Research, 58, 56–59

H. R. Pulliam , J. B. Dunning & J. Liu (1992). Population dynamics in complex landscapes: a case study. Ecological Applications, 2, 165–177

L. Queiroz do Amaral (1996). Loss of body hair, bipedality and thermoregulation. Comments on recent papers in the Journal of Human Evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 30, 357–366

Y. Rak (1990). On the differences between two pelvises of Mousterian context from the Qafzeh and Kebara caves, Israel. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 81, 323–332

L. Raposo & J. L. Cardoso (1998). Las industrias liticas de la gruta de Columbeira (Bombarral, Portugal) en el contexto del musteriense final de la Peninsula Ibérica. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 55, 39–62

J. P. Raynal , F. Z. Sbihi Alaoui , D. Geraads , L. Magoga & A. Mohi (2001). The earliest occupation of North-Africa: the Moroccan perspective. Quaternary International, 75, 65–75

K. E. Reed (1997). Early hominid evolution and ecological change through the African Plio-Pleistocene. Journal of Human Evolution, 32, 289–322

D. E. Reich , M. Cargill , S. Bolk et al. (2001). Linkage disequilibrium in the human genome. Nature, 411, 199–204

M. Reille , V. Andrieu , J-L. Beaulieu , P. Guenet & C. Goeury (1998). A long pollen record from Lac du Bouchet, Massif Central, France: for the period ca. 325 to 100 ka BP (OIS 9c to OIS 5e). Quaternary Science Reviews, 17, 1107–1123

M. Reille & J-L. Beaulieu (1995). Long Pleistocene pollen records from the Praclaux Crater, south-central France. Quaternary Research, 44, 205–215

M. Reille , J-L. Beaulieu , H. Svoboda , V. Andrieu-Ponel & C. Goeury (2000). Pollen analytical biostratigraphy of the last five climatic cycles from a long continental sequence from the Velay region (Massif Central, France). Journal of Quaternary Science, 15, 665–685

J. H. Reletheford (1999). Models, predictions, and the fossil record of modern human origins. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8, 7–10

J. H. Reletheford & L. B. Jorde (1999). Genetic evidence for larger African population size during recent human evolution. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 108, 251–260

W. R. Rice & E. E. Hostert (1993). Laboratory experiments on speciation: what have we learned in 40 years? Evolution, 47, 1637–1653

M. Richards , V. Macaulay , E. Hickey et al. (2000). Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool. American Journal of Human Genetics, 67, 1251–1276

M. B. Richards & V. A. Macaulay (2001). The mitochondrial gene tree comes of age. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68, 1315–1320

M. B. Richards , V. A. Macaulay , H.-J. Bandelt & B. C. Sykes (1998). Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA in western Europe. Annals of Human Genetics, 62, 241–260

M. P. Richards , P. B. Pettitt , M. C. Stiner & E. Trinkaus (2001). Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 6528–6532

M. P. Richards , P. B. Pettitt , E. Trinkaus , F. H. Smith , M. Paunovic & I. Karavanic (2000). Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: the evidence from stable isotopes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97, 7663–7666

J. Riel-Salvatore & G. A. Clark (2001). Grave markers. Middle and Upper Paleolithic burials and the use of chronotypology in contemporary Paleolithic research. Current Anthropology, 42, 449–479

R. L. Riolo , M. D. Cohen & R. Axelrod (2001). Evolution of cooperation without reciprocity. Nature, 414, 441–443

G. Roberts & T. N. Sherratt (2002). Does similarity breed cooperation? Nature, 418, 499–500

W. Roebroeks , N. J. Conrad & T. Kolfschoten (1992). Dense forests, cold steppes, and the Palaeolithic settlement of northern Europe. Current Anthropology, 33, 551–586

E. J. Rohling , M. Fenton , F. J. Jorissen , P. Bertrand , G. Ganssen & J. P. Caulet (1998). Magnitudes of sea-level lowstands of the past 500,000 years. Nature, 394, 162–165

N. Rolland & H. L. Dibble (1990). A new synthesis of Middle Paleolithic variability. American Antiquity, 55, 480–499

J. Rose , X. Meng & C. Watson (1999). Palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental responses in the western Mediterranean over the last 140 ka: evidence from Mallorca, Spain. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 156, 435–448

K. R. Rosenberg (1988). The functional significance of Neandertal pubic length. Current Anthropology, 29, 595–617

M. Rosenberg (1998). Cheating at musical chairs: territoriality and sedentism in an evolutionary context. Current Anthropology, 39, 653–681

M. L. Rosenzweig (1968). The strategy of body size in mammalian carnivores. American Midland Naturalist, 80, 299–315

K. H. Roucoux , N. J. Shackleton , L. Abreu , J. Schonfeld & P. C. Tzedakis (2001). Combined marine proxy and pollen analyses reveal rapid Iberian vegetation response to North Atlantic millennial-scale climate oscillations. Quaternary Research, 56, 128–132

D-D. Rousseau , N. Gerasimenko , Z. Matviischina & G. Kukla (2001). Late Pleistocene environments of the Central Ukraine. Quaternary Research, 56, 349–356

W. F. Ruddiman & A. McIntyre (1977). Late quaternary surface ocean kinematics and climate change in the high-latitude North Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research, 82, 3877–3887

C. B. Ruff (1994). Morphological adaptation to climate in modern and fossil hominids. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 37, 65–107

M. D. Russell (1985). The supraorbital torus: ‘A most remarkable peculiarity’. Current Anthropology, 26, 337–360

U. Salzmann , P. Hoelzmann & I. Morczinek (2002). Late Quaternary climate and vegetation of the Sudanian zone of northeast Nigeria. Quaternary Research, 58, 73–83

M. F. Sánchez Goñi , F. Eynaud , J-L. Turon & N. J. Shackleton (1999). High resolution palynological record off the Iberian margin: direct land-sea correlation for the last interglacial complex. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 171, 123–137

M. F. Sánchez Goñi , J-L. Turon , F. Eynaud & S. Gendreau (2000a). European climatic response to millennial-scale changes in the atmosphere-ocean system during the last glacial period. Quaternary Research, 54, 394–403

M. F. Sánchez Goñi , J-L. Turon , F. Eynaud , N. J. Shackleton & O. Cayre (2000b). Direct land/sea correlation of the Eemian, and its comparison with the Holocene: a high resolution palynological record off the Iberian margin. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 79, 345–354

D. Schluter & L. M. Nagel (1995). Parallel Speciation by Natural Selection. American Naturalist, 146, 292–301

D. Schluter & T. Price (1993). Honesty, perception and population divergence in sexually selected traits. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B, 253, 117–122

M. Scholz , L. Bachmann , G. J. Nicholson et al. (2000). Genomic differentiation of Neanderthals and anatomically modern man allows a fossil-DNA-based classification of morphologically indistinguishable hominid bones. American Journal of Human Genetics, 66, 1927–1932

D. P. Schrag , G. Hampt & D. W. Murray (1996). Pore fluid constraints on the temperature and oxygen isotopic composition of the glacial ocean. Science, 272, 1930–1932

O. Semino , G. Passarino , P. J. Oefner et al. (2000). The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective. Science, 290, 1155–1159

N. J. Shackleton , J. Backman , H. Zimmerman et al. (1984). Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of ice-rafting and history of glaciation in the North Atlantic region. Nature, 307, 620–623

N. J. Shackleton , M. Chapman , M. F. Sánchez-Goñi , D. Pailler & Y. Lancelot (2002). The classic marine isotope substage 5e. Quaternary Research, 58, 14–16

N. J. Shackleton & N. D. Opdyke (1973). Oxygen isotope and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pacific core V28–238: oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a 105 and 106 year scale. Quaternary Research, 3, 39–55

N. J. Shackleton & N. D. Opdyke (1976). Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of Pacific core V28–239, late Pliocene to latest Pleistocene. Geological Society of America Memoir, 145, 449–464

J. J. Shea (1998). Neandertal and early modern human behavioral variability. Current Anthropology, 39, S45-S78

P. Shen , F. Wang , P. A. Underhill et al. (2000). Population genetic implications from sequence variation in four chromosome genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97, 7354–7359

S. Siguroardottir , A. Helgason , J. R. Gulcher , K. Stefanson & P. Donnelly (2000). The mutation rate in the human mtDNA control region. American Journal of Human Genetics, 66, 1599–1609

T. Simmons & F. H. Smith (1991). Human population relationships in the late Pleistocene. Current Anthropology, 32, 623–627

G. G. Simpson (1953). The Baldwin effect. Evolution, 7, 110–117

G. G. Simpson (1951). The species concept. Evolution, 5, 285–298

I. Singleton & C. P. Schaik (2001). Orangutan home range size and its determinants in a Sumatran swamp forest. International Journal of Primatology, 22, 877–911

F. H. Smith , E. Trinkaus , P. B. Pettitt , I. Karavanic & M. Paunovic (1999). Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pecina Late Pleistocene hominid remains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96, 12281–12286

R. R. Sokal , N. L. Oden , J. Walker & D. M. Waddle (1997). Using distance matrices to choose between competing theories and an application to the origin of modern humans. Journal of Human Evolution, 32, 501–522

J. D. Speth (1989). Early hominid hunting and scavenging: the role of meat as an energy source. Journal of Human Evolution, 18, 329–343

J. D. Speth (1991). Protein selection and avoidance strategies of contemporary and ancestral foragers: unresolved issues. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B, 334, 265–270

S. Srikosamatara (1993). Density and biomass of large herbivores and other mammals in a dry tropical forest, western Thailand. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 9, 33–43

H. F. Stanley , M. Kadwell & J. C. Wheeler (1994). Molecular evolution of the family Camelidae: a mitochondrial DNA study. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B, 256, 1–6

S. Sterling (1999). Mortality Profiles as Indicators of Slowed Reproductive Rates: Evidence from Ancient Egypt. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 18, 319–343

J. R. Stewart & A. M. Lister (2001). Cryptic northern refugia and the origins of the modern biota. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 608–613

M. C. Stiner (2001). Thirty years on the ‘Broad Spectrum Revolution’ and paleolithic demography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 6993–6996

M. C. Stiner & S. L. Kuhn (1992). Subsistence, technology, and adaptive variation in middle Paleolithic Italy. American Anthropologist, 94, 306–339

M. C. Stiner , N. D. Munro & T. A. Surovell (2000). The tortoise and the hare. Small-game use, the broad spectrum revolution, and paleolithic demography. Current Anthropology, 41, 39–74

M. C. Stiner , N. D. Munro , T. A. Surovell , E. Tchernov & O. Bar-Yosef (1999). Paleolithic population growth pulses evidenced by small animal exploitation. Science, 283, 190–194

M. Stopp (2002). Ethnohistoric analogues for storage as an adaptive strategy in northeastern subarctic prehistory. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 21, 301–328

D. Stout (2002). Skill and cognition in stone tool production. An ethnographic case study from Irian Jaya. Current Anthropology, 43, 693–722

L. G. Straus (2000). A quarter-century of research on the Solutrean of Vasco-Cantabria, Iberia and beyond. Journal of Anthropological Research, 56, 39–58

L. G. Straus (2001). Africa and Iberia in the Pleistocene. Quaternary International, 75, 91–102

E. Strauss (1999). Can Mitochondrial Clocks Keep Time? Science, 283, 1435–1438

C. Stringer (2002a). Modern human origins: progress and prospects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B, 357, 563–579

C. B. Stringer & P. Andrews (1988). Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans. Science, 239, 1263–1268

G. Strkalj (2000). The conflict of pre-paradigm schools in modern human origins research. Acta Biotheoretica, 48, 65–71

M. Stuiver & P. M. Grootes (2000). GISP2 Oxygen Isotope Ratios. Quaternary Research, 53, 277–284

J. P. Suc & W. H. Zagwijn (1983). Plio-Pleistocene correlations between the Northwestern Mediterranean region and Northwestern Europe according to recent biostratigraphic and paleoclimatic data. Boreas, 12, 153–166

M. S. Sugiyama (2001). Food, foragers, and folklore: the role of narrative in human subsistence. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 22, 221–240

C. Swezey (2001). Eolian sediment responses to late Quaternary climate changes: temporal and spatial patterns in the Sahara. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 167, 119–155

C. C. Swisher III , W. J. Rink , S. C. Anton et al. (1996). Latest Homo erectus of Java: potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in southeast Asia. Science, 274, 1870–1874

G. Szabó & C. Hauert (2002). Phase transitions and volunteering in spatial public goods games. Physical Review Letters, 89, 118101-1-118101–4

P. Taberlet , L. Fumagalli , A-G. Wust-Saucy & J-F. Cosson (1998). Comparative phylogeography and postglacial colonization routes in Europe. Molecular Ecology, 7, 453–464

N. Takahata & Y. Satta (1997). Evolution of the primate lineage leading to modern humans: phylogenetic and demographic inferences from DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 94, 4811–4815

D. E. Taneyhill (2000). Metapopulation dynamics of multiple species: the geometry of competition in a fragmented habitat. Ecological Monographs, 70, 495–516

I. Tattersall (2000). Paleoanthropology: the last half-century. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, 2–16

I. Tattersall & J. Schwartz (1999). Hominids and hybrids. The place of Neanderthals in human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96, 7117–7119

A. Templeton (2002). Out of Africa again and again. Nature, 416, 45–51

H. Thieme (1997). Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nature, 385, 807–810

L. G. Thompson , T. Yao , M. E. Davis et al. (1997). Tropical climate instability: the last glacial cycle from a Qinghai-Tibetan ice core. Science, 276, 1821–1825

A. Thorne , R. Grun , G. Mortimer , N. A. Spooner et al. (1999). Australia's oldest human remains: age of the Lake Mungo 3 skeleton. Journal of Human Evolution, 36, 591–612

S. A. Tishkoff , E. Dietzsch , W. Speed et al. (1996). Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins. Science, 271, 1380–1387

M. Tomasello (1999). The human adaptation for culture. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 509–529

A. Torroni , H-J. Bandelt , L. D'Urbano (1998). MtDNA Analysis reveals a major late Palaeolithic population expansion from southwestern to northeastern Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics, 62, 1137–1152

A. Torroni , H-J. Bandelt , V. Macaulay et al. (2001). A signal, from human mtDNA, of postglacial recolonization in Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics, 69, 844–852

C. Tougard (2001). Biogeography and migration routes of large mammal faunas in South-East Asia during the Late Middle Pleistocene: focus on the fossil and extant faunas from Thailand. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 168, 337–358

T. Tregenza & R. K. Butlin (1999). Speciation without isolation. Nature, 400, 311–312

E. Trinkaus (1984). Neanderthal pubic morphology and gestation length. Current Anthropology, 25, 508–514

E. Trinkaus (1986). Neanderthals and modern human origins. Annual Review of Anthropology, 15, 193–218

E. Trinkaus (1993). Femoral neck-shaft angles of the Qafzeh-Skhul early modern humans, and activity levels among immature Near Eastern Middle Palaeolithic hominids. Journal of Human Evolution, 25, 393–416

E. Trinkaus (1997). Appendicular robusticity and the paleobiology of modern human emergence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 94, 13367–13373

E. Trinkaus & M. L. Rhoads (1999). Neandertal knees: power lifters in the Pleistocene? Journal of Human Evolution, 37, 833–859

R. L. Trivers (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46, 35–57

C. Turner (2002). Formal status and vegetational development of the Eemian interglacial in northwestern and southern Europe. Quaternary Research, 58, 41–44

P. C. Tzedakis (1993). Long-term tree populations in northwest Greece through multiple Quaternary climatic cycles. Nature, 364, 437–440

P. C. Tzedakis (1994). Vegetation change through glacial-interglacial cycles: a long pollen sequence perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B., 345, 403–432

P. C. Tzedakis , M. R. Frogley & T. H. E. Heaton (2002). Duration of last interglacial conditions in northwestern Greece. Quaternary Research, 58, 53–55

P. C. Tzedakis , I. T. Lawson , M. R. Frogley , G. M. Hewitt & R. C. Preece (2002). Buffered tree population changes in a Quaternary refugium: evolutionary implications. Science, 297, 2044–2047

P. Ukkonen , J. P. Lunkka , H. Jungner & J. Donner (1999). New radiocarbon dates from Finnish mammoths indicating large ice-free areas in Fennoscandia during the Middle Weichselian. Journal of Quaternary Science, 14, 711–714

S. J. Ulijaszek (2001). Potential seasonal ecological challenge of heat strain among Australian Aboriginal people practicing traditional subsistence methods: a computer simulation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 116, 236–245

P. A. Underhill , P. Shen , A. A. Lin et al. (2000). Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations. Nature Genetics 26, 358–361

T. H. Andel & P. C. Tzedakis (1996). Palaeolithic landscapes of Europe and environs, 150,000–25,000 years ago. Quaternary Science Reviews, 15, 481–500

J. Vandenberghe , R. Coope & K. Kasse (1998). Quantitative reconstructions of palaeoclimates during the last interglacial-glacial in western and central Europe: an introduction. Journal of Quaternary Science, 13, 361–366

J. Made (1999). Ungulates from Atapuerca TD6. Journal of Human Evolution, 37, 389–414

C. P. Schaik , M. Ancrenaz , G. Borgen et al. (2003). Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. Science, 299, 102–105

S. L. Vartanyan , V. E. Garutt & A. V. Sher (1993). Holocene dwarf mammoths from Wrangel Island in the Siberian Arctic. Nature, 362, 337–340

D. Verschuren , K. R. Laird & B. F. Cumming (2000). Rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa during the past 1,100 years. Nature, 403, 410–414

L. Vigilant , M. Stoneking , H. Harpending , K. Hawkes & A. C. Wilson (1991). African populations and the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA. Science, 253, 1503–1507

A. H. L. Voelker (2002). Global distribution of centennial-scale records for Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3: a database. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 1185–1212

A. C. Walker (1981). Dietary hypotheses in human evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B, 292, 47–64

Z-L. Wang , F-Z. Wang , S. Chen & M-Y. Zhu (2002). Competition and coexistence in regional habitats. American Naturalist, 159, 498–508

Z-L. Wang , J-G. Zhang & X-M. Liu (2000). Competition and coexistence in spatially subdivided habitats. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 205, 631–639

W. A. Watts , J. R. M. Allen & B. Huntley (2000). Palaeoecology of three interstadial events during oxygen-isotope Stages 3 and 4: a lacustrine record from Lago Grande di Monticchio, southern Italy. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 155, 83–93

R. S. Webb , D. H. Rind , S. J. Lehman , R. J. Healy & D. Sigman (1997). Influence of ocean heat transport on the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature, 385, 695–699

T. Webb III & P. J. Bartlein (1992). Global changes during the last 3 million years: climatic controls and biotic responses. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23, 141–173

A. W. Weber , D. W. Link & M. A. Katzenberg (2002). Hunter–gatherer culture change and continuity in the Middle Holocene of the Cis-Baikal, Siberia. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 21, 230–299

C. Wedekind & M. Milinski (2000). Cooperation through image scoring in humans. Science, 288, 850–852

E. Weiss (2002). Drought-related changes in two hunter–gatherer California populations. Quaternary Research, 58, 393–396

R. S. Wells , N. Yuldasheva , R. Ruzibakiev et al. (2001). The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 10244–10249

P. E. Wheeler (1994). The thermoregulatory advantages of heat storage and shade-seeking behaviour to hominids foraging in equatorial savannah environments. Journal of Human Evolution, 26, 339–350

P. E. Wheeler (1996). The environmental context of functional body hair loss in hominids (a reply to Amaral, 1996). Journal of Human Evolution, 30, 367–371

T. D. White & J. M. Harris (1977). Suid evolution and correlation of African hominid localities. Science, 198, 13–21

K. J. Willis (1996). Where did all the flowers go? The fate of temperate European flora during glacial periods. Endeavour 20, 110–114

K. J. Willis , E. Rudner & P. Sumegi (2000). The full-glacial forests of central and southeastern Europe. Quaternary Research, 53, 203–213

K. J. Willis , E. Rudner & P. Sumegi (2001). Reply to Carcaillet and Vernet. Quaternary Research, 55, 388–389

K. J. Willis & R. J. Whittaker (2000). The refugial debate. Science, 287, 1406–1407

A. B. Wilson , K. Noack-Kunnmann & A. Meyer (2000). Incipient speciation in sympatric Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fishes: sexual selection versus ecological diversification. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B, 267, 2133–2141

G. M. Woillard (1978). Grand Pile peat bog: a continuous pollen record for the last 140,000 years. Quaternary Research, 9, 1–21

G. Woillard (1979). Abrupt end of the last interglacial in north-east France. Nature, 281, 558–562

G. M. Woillard & W. G. Mook (1982). Carbon-14 dates at Grande Pile: correlation of land and sea chronologies. Science, 215, 159–161

M. Wolpoff (1998). Concocting a divisive theory. Evolutionary Anthropology, 7, 1–3

B. Wood & M. Collard (1999). The human genus. Science, 284, 65–71

M. J. Wooller , D. L. Swain , K. J. Ficken , A. D. Q. Agnew , F. A. Street-Perrott & G. Eglington (2003). Late Quaternary vegetation changes around Lake Rutundu, Mount Kenya, East Africa: evidence from grass cuticles, pollen and stable carbon isotopes. Journal of Quaternary Science, 18, 3–15

A. A. Wright , J. J. Rivera & M. Shyan (2000). Music perception and octave generalization in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 129, 291–307

J. E. Yellen , A. S. Brooks , E. Cornelissen , M. J. Mehlman & K. Stewart (1995). A Middle Stone Age worked bone industry from Katanda, Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Science, 268, 553–556

M. Zabel , R. R. Schneider , T. Wagner , A. T. Adegbie , U. Vries & S. Kolonic (2001). Late Quaternary climate changes in central Africa as inferred from terrigenous input to the Niger Fan. Quaternary Research, 56, 207–217

M. A. Zeder & B. Hesse (2000). The initial domestication of goats (Capra hircus) in the Zagros Mountains 10,000 years ago. Science, 287, 2254–2257

J. Zilhao (2001). Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization at the origins of farming in west Mediterranean Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 14180–14185

J. Zilhao & F. d'Errico (1999). The chronology and taphonomy of the earliest Aurignacian and its implications for the understanding of Neanderthal extinction. Journal of World Prehistory, 13, 1–68


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 175 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 353 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th July 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.