Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. In the fall of 2000, the logic community at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana hosted Greg Hjorth, Rodney G. Downey, Zoé Chatzidakis and Paola D'Aquino as visiting lecturers. Each of them presented a month-long series of expository lectures at the graduate level. This volume, the eighteenth publication in the Lecture Notes in Logic series, contains refined and expanded versions of those lectures. The four articles are entitled 'Countable models and the theory of Borel equivalence relations', 'Model theory of difference fields', 'Some computability-theoretic aspects of reals and randomness' and 'Weak fragments of Peano arithmetic'.