Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 12
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ryan, Kevin M. 2018. Prosodic end-weight reflects phrasal stress. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory,

    Seifart, Frank Meyer, Julien Grawunder, Sven and Dentel, Laure 2018. Reducing language to rhythm: Amazonian Bora drummed language exploits speech rhythm for long-distance communication. Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 170354.

    Ulfsbjorninn, Shanti 2017. Beyond Markedness in Formal Phonology. Vol. 241, Issue. , p. 153.

    Cristófaro Silva, Thais Cantoni, Maria Oliveira, Nívia and Miranda, Izabel 2017. Sonic Signatures. Vol. 14, Issue. , p. 216.

    Gordon, Matthew K. 2017. Phonetic and Phonological Research on Native American Languages: Past, Present, and Future. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 83, Issue. 1, p. 79.

    Ryan, Kevin M. 2016. Phonological weight. Language and Linguistics Compass, Vol. 10, Issue. 12, p. 720.

    Baltazani, Mary and Kainada, Evia 2015. Drifting Without an Anchor: How Pitch Accents Withstand Vowel Loss. Language and Speech, Vol. 58, Issue. 1, p. 84.

    Scheer, Tobias 2014. Variation within and across Romance Languages. Vol. 333, Issue. , p. 77.

    Labrune, Laurence 2012. Questioning the universality of the syllable: evidence from Japanese. Phonology, Vol. 29, Issue. 01, p. 113.

    Davis, Stuart 2011. The Blackwell Companion to Phonology. p. 1.

    Topintzi, Nina 2011. The Blackwell Companion to Phonology. p. 1.

    Kraehenmann, Astrid 2011. The Blackwell Companion to Phonology. p. 1.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    • Online ISBN: 9780511750700
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The concept of the 'onset', i.e. the consonant(s) before the vowel of a syllable, is critical within phonology. While phonologists have examined the segmental behaviour of onsets, their prosodic status has instead been largely overlooked. In fact, most previous accounts have stipulated that onsets are insignificant when it comes to the 'heaviness' of syllables. In this book Nina Topintzi presents a new theory of onsets, arguing for their fundamental role in the structure of language both in the underlying and surface representation, unlike previous assumptions. To capture the weight behaviour of onsets, a novel account is proposed that relates their interaction with voicing, tone and stress. Using numerous case-studies and data from a variety of languages and phenomena (including stress, compensatory lengthening, gemination and word minimality), the book introduces a model that reflects the true behaviour of onsets, demonstrating profound implications for syllable and weight theories.


'… the book is well written and very readable. … It is a significant and welcome contribution to the field.'

Source: The Journal of Phonology

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Abo, Takaji, Bender, Byron W., Capelle, Alfred and DeBrum, Tony (1976) Marshallese-English Dictionary. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
Abrahamson, Arno and Abrahamson, Joyce (1984) Os Fonemas da Língua Júma. In Estudos Sobre Línguas Tupí do Brasil [Série Lingüística 11], Dooley, R. (ed.), pp. 157–74, Brasília: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Abramson, Arthur (1986) The Perception of Word-Initial Consonant Length: Pattani Malay. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 16: 8–16.
Abramson, Arthur (1987) Word-initial Consonant Length in Pattani Malay. Proceedings of the XIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Tallinn, pp. 68–70.
Abramson, Arthur (1991) Amplitude as a Cue to Word-initial Consonant Length: Pattani Malay. Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Aix- en-Provence, pp. 98–101.
Abramson, Arthur (1998) The Complex Acoustic Output of a Single Articulatory Gesture: Pattani Malay Word-initial Consonant Length. In Papers from the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 1994, Warotamasikkhadit, U. and Panakul, T. (eds.), pp. 1–20, Tempe, Arizona: Program for Southeast Asian Studies, Arizona State University.
Abramson, Arthur (1999) Fundamental Frequency as a Cue to Word-initial Length: Pattani Malay. Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, San Francisco, pp. 591–94.
Abramson, Arthur (2003) Acoustic Cues to Word-Initial Stop Length in Pattani Malay. In Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Barcelona, Spain, August 3–9, 2003. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, pp. 387–90.
Abramson, Arthur (2004) Toward Prosodic Contrast: Suai and Pattani Malay. In International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages: Emphasis on Tone Languages, Bel, Bernard and Marlien, Isabelle (eds.), pp. 1–4, Beijing: The Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
Afroudakis, Angelos (1985) Collection of Language Material from the Island of Samothraki. Manuscript No. 1293, Research Centre of Modern Greek Dialects and Idioms, Academy of Athens [Αφρουδάκης, Άγγελος (1985) Συλλογή Γλωσσικού Υλικού από τη Νήσο Σαμοθράκη. Αριθμός Χειρογράφου: 1293, Κέντρον Ερεύνης των Νεοελληνικών Διαλέκτων και Ιδιωμάτων – Ι.Λ.Ν.Ε. Ακαδημία Αθηνών].
Akinlabi, Akinbiyi (1993) Underspecification and the Phonology of Yoruba /r/. Linguistic Inquiry 24(1): 139–60.
Al-Harbi, Awwad (2005) Nankina Trochees. ms., Umm Al-Qura University. Available as ROA-724.
Albright, Adam (2002) Base Selection in Analogical Change in Yiddish. In The Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS 28), pp. 1–13.
Alderete, John (2001) Morphologically Governed Accent in Optimality Theory. New York and London: Routledge. Originally 1999 doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Alderete, John, Beckman, Jill, Benua, Laura, Gnanadesikan, Amalia, McCarthy, John and Urbanczyk, Suzanne (1999) Reduplication with Fixed Segmentism. Linguistic Inquiry 30: 327–64.
Andriotis, Nikolaos (1926–1928) Collection of Language Material from Samothraki. Manuscript No: 449, Research Centre of Modern Greek Dialects and Idioms, Academy of Athens [Ανδριώτης, Νικόλαος (1926–1928) Συλλογή Γλωσσικού Υλικού εκ Σαμοθράκης. Αριθμός Χειρογράφου: 449, Κέντρον Ερεύνης των Νεοελληνικών Διαλέκτων και Ιδιωμάτων – Ι.Λ.Ν.Ε. Ακαδημία Αθηνών].
Anttila, Arto (1994) Consonant Gradation is Epenthesis. Handout from paper presented at the Stanford Phonology Workshop (Feb 1994).
Anttila, Arto (2006) Variation and Opacity. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 24(4): 893–944.
Ashton, E. O., Mulira, E. M. K., Ndawula, E. G. M. and Tucker, A. N. (1954) A Luganda Grammar. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
Baertsch, Karen and Davis, Stuart (2003) The Split Margin Approach to Syllable Structure. ZAS Working Papers in Lingustics 32: 1–14.
Bagemihl, Bruce (1991) Syllable Structure in Bella Coola. Linguistic Inquiry 22: 589–646.
Bagemihl, Bruce (1998) Maximality in Bella Coola (Nuxalk). In Salish Languages and Linguistics, Theoretical and Descriptive Perspectives, Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa and Kinkade, M. Dale (eds.), pp. 71–98, Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Bakovic, Eric (1996) Foot Harmony and Quantitative Adjustments. ms., Rutgers University. Available as ROA-168.
Bao, Zhiming (1990) On the Nature of Tone. Doctoral dissertation, MIT.
Beckman, Jill (1999) Positional Faithfulness: an Optimality Theoretic Treatment of Phonological Asymmetries. New York, London: Garland. Originally 1998 doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Beltzung, Jean-Marc (2007) Allongements Compensatoires: une Typologie. Presented at the 7th Biennial Meeting of the Association for Linguistic Typology (ALT7), 24–26 September 2007, Paris, France.
Bender, Byron W. (1976) Spoken Marshallese. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
Bender, Byron W. (1991) On the Category Distributive. In Currents in Pacific Linguistics: papers on Austronesian languages and ethnolinguistics in honour of George W. Grace, Blust, Robert (ed.), pp. 11–26, Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Australian National University.
Bender, Byron W., Capelle, Alfred and Pagotto, Louise (in prep.) The Sound System of Marshallese. ms.
Benua, Laura (1995) Identity Effects in Morphological Truncation. In Papers in Optimality Theory, Beckman, Jill, Dickey, Laura Walsh and Urbanczyk, Suzanne (eds.), pp. 77–136, Amherst, MA: GLSA.
Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo (2001) Underlyingly Nonmoraic Coda Consonants, Faithfulness and Sympathy. ms., University of Manchester.
Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo (in prep.) Stratal Optimality Theory. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford University Press.
Blevins, Juliette (2001) Where Have All the Onsets Gone? Initial Consonant Loss in Australian Aboriginal Languages. In Forty years on: Ken Hale and Australian languages, Simpson, Jane, Nash, David, Laughren, Mary, Austin, Peter, Alpher, Barry (eds.), pp. 481–92, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Blumenfeld, Lev (2006) Constraints on Phonological Interactions. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.
Booij, Geert (1995) The Phonology of Dutch. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Borrelli, Doris (2002) Raddoppiamento Sintattico in Italian: A Synchronic and Diachronic Cross-Dialectical Study. New York and London: Routledge.
Bradshaw, Mary (1999) A Crosslinguistic Study of Consonant-Tone Interaction. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University.
Breen, Gavan (1992) Some Problems in Kukatj Phonology. Australian Journal of Linguistics 12(1): 1–43.
Broselow, Ellen, Chen, Su-I and Huffman, Marie (1997) Syllable Weight: Convergence of Phonology and Phonetics. Phonology 14: 47–82.
Buller, Barbara, Buller, Ernest and Everett, Daniel (1993) Stress Placement, Syllable Structure, and Minimality in Banawá. International Journal of American Linguistics 59: 280–93.
Bunn, Gordon and Bunn, Ruth (1970) Golin Phonology. In Pacific Linguistics A23: Papers in New Guinea Linguistics No.11, pp.1–7.
Camden, Pastor Bill (1977) A Descriptive Dictionary: Bislama to English. Rosebury, Australia: Bridge Printery.
Campos-Astorkiza, Rebeka (2004) Faith in Moras: A Revised Approach to Prosodic Faithfulness. In Proceedings of North East Linguistics Society 34, Moulton, K. and Wolf, M. (eds.), Amherst, MA: GLSA.
Capell, Arthur (1962) Some Linguistic Types in Australia. Oceanic Linguistics Monographs, Number 7, Sydney: University of Sydney.
Carlson, Robert J. (1990) A Grammar of Supyire: Kampwo Dialect. Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon.
Casali, Roderic (1996) Resolving Hiatus. Doctoral dissertation, UCLA.
Churchyard, Henry (1991) Compensatory Lengthening and ‘Gemination Throwback’ in Trukese and Puluwat as Evidence for Rime in Moraic Phonology. ms., University of Texas.
Clements, George N. (1986) Compensatory Lengthening and Consonant Gemination in LuGanda. In Studies in Compensatory Lengthening, Wetzels, Leo and Sezer, Engin (eds.), pp. 37–77, Dordrecht: Foris.
Clements, George N. (1990) The Role of the Sonority Cycle in Core Syllabification. In Papers in Laboratory Phonology I: Between the Grammar and Physics of Speech, Kingston, John and Beckman, Mary E. (eds.), pp. 283–333, Cambridge University Press.
Clements, George N. and Keyser, Samuel Jay (1983) CV Phonology: A Generative Theory of the Syllable. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Cohn, Abigail (2003) Phonological Structure and Phonetic Duration: the Role of the Mora. Working Papers of the Cornell Phonetics Laboratory 15: 69–100.
Coleman, John S. (1996) Declarative Syllabification in Tashlhiyt Berber. In Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods, Volume I, Durand, Jacques and Laks, Bernard (eds.), pp. 177–218, Salford: European Studies Research Institute.
Connell, Bruce A., Hayward, Richard A. and Ashkaba, John Abraha (2000) Observations on Kunama Tone. Studies in African Linguistics 29: 1–42.
Crosswhite, Katherine (1999) Vowel Reduction in Optimality Theory. Doctoral dissertation, UCLA.
Crosswhite, Katherine (2001) Predicting Syllabicity and Moraicity in Dihovo Macedonian. In University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences 2(1), Magnuson, J. S. and Crosswhite, K. M. (eds.), pp. 1–22.
Crowley, Terry (2004) Bislama Reference Grammar. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication No. 31, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Cruttenden, Alan (2001) Gimson's Pronunciation of English. 6th edition, London: Arnold.
Curtis, Emily Kathryn Jean (2003) Geminate Weight: Case Studies and Formal Models. Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington.
Davis, Stuart (1985) Topics in Syllable Geometry. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Davis, Stuart (1988) Syllable Onsets as a Factor in Stress Rules. Phonology 5: 1–19.
Davis, Stuart (1994) Geminate Consonants in Moraic Phonology. WCCFL 13: 32–45.
Davis, Stuart (1999a) On the Moraic Representation of Underlying Geminates. In The Prosody-Morphology Interface, Kager, René, Hulst, Harry and Zonneveld, Wim (eds.), pp. 39–61, Cambridge University Press.
Davis, Stuart (1999b) On the Representation of Initial Geminates. Phonology 16: 93–104.
Davis, Stuart and Torretta, Gina (1998) An Optimality-Theoretic Account of Compensatory Lengthening and Geminate Throwback in Trukese. NELS 28: 111–25.
Dayley, Jon P. (1989) Tümpisa (Panamint) Shoshone grammar [University of California Publications in Linguistics 115]. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Lacy, Paul (1999) Tone and Prominence. ms., University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Lacy, Paul (2000) Markedness in Prominent Positions. In Proceedings of HUMIT, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 40, Matushansky, Oraet al. (eds.) [also available as ROA-432].
Lacy, Paul (2002) The Interaction of Tone and Stress in Optimality Theory. Phonology 19: 1–32.
Lacy, Paul (2006) Markedness: Reduction and Preservation in Phonology. Cambridge University Press.
Lacy, Paul (2007) The Interaction of Tone, Sonority and Prosody. In The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology, Paul de Lacy (ed.), pp. 281–307, Cambridge University Press.
Delgutte, Bertrand (1982) Some Correlates of Phonetic Distinctions at the Level of the Auditory Nerve. In The Representation of Speech in the Peripheral Auditory System, Carlson, R. and Granström, B. (eds.), pp. 131–50, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Dimmendaal, Gerrit J. (1983) The Turkana Language. Dordrecht: Foris.
Donohue, Mark (1999) A Grammar of Tukang Besi. Grammar Library series No. 20. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Downing, Laura (1998) On the Prosodic Misalignment of Onsetless Syllables. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16: 1–52.
Duanmu, San (1990) A Formal Study of Syllable, Tone, Stress and Domain in Chinese Languages. Doctoral dissertation, MIT.
Dyen, Isidore (1965) A Sketch of Trukese Grammar. New Haven, Connecticut: American Oriental Society.
Elbert, Samuel H. (1974) Puluwat grammar. Pacific Linguistics, series B-29 Canberra: Australian National University.
Elbert, Samuel H. (1988) Echo of a Culture: A Grammar of Rennell and Bellona. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication, No. 22, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Elenbaas, Nine and Kager, René (1999) Ternary Rhythm and the Lapse Constraint. Phonology 16: 273–329.
Erwin, Sean (1996) Quantity and Moras: An Amicable Separation. In UCLA Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17: The structure of Malagasy, vol. I, Pearson, Matthew and Paul, Ileana (eds.), pp. 2–30, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Evans, Jonathan P. (2001) Contact-Induced Tonogenesis in Southern Qiang. Language and Linguistics 2(2): 63–110.
Everett, Daniel (1988) On Metrical Constituent Structure in Pirahã Phonology. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 6: 207–46.
Everett, Daniel (1996) Prosodic Levels and Constraints in Banawá and Suruwahá. Available as ROA-496.
Everett, Daniel (2003) Iambic Feet in Paumari and the Theory of Foot Structure. Linguistic Discovery 2: 22–44.
Everett, Daniel and Everett, Keren (1984) On the Relevance of Syllable Onsets to Stress Placement. Linguistic Inquiry 15: 705–11.
Everett, Keren (1998) Acoustic Correlates of Stress in Pirahã. MA Thesis, University of Pittsburgh.
Fabb, Nigel (1997) Linguistics and Literature: Language in the Verbal Arts of the World. Oxford: Blackwell.
Frantz, Chester I. and Frantz, Marjorie (1966) Gadsup Phoneme and Toneme Units. Linguistic Circle of Canberra Publications A 7: 1–11, Papers in New Guinea Linguistics 5, Canberra: Linguistic Circle of Canberra, Australian National University.
GabasJr., Nilson (1998) Estudo Fonológico da Língua Karo. Munich and Newcastle: LINCOM Europa.
GabasJr., Nilson (1999) A Grammar of Karo (Tupi). Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.
Gafos, Diamandis (1998) Eliminating Long-Distance Consonantal Spreading. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16: 223–78.
Gahl, Susanne (1996) Syllable Onsets as a Factor in Stress Rules: the Case of Mathimathi Revisited. Phonology 13: 329–44.
García-Bellido, Paloma and Clayre, Beatrice (1997) Prosodic Constraints and Representations in the Berawan Word. Oxford Working Papers in Linguistics, Philology, and Phonetics 2: 17–52.
Garrett, Edward (1999) Minimal Words Aren't Minimal Feet. In UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 1, Papers in Phonology 2, Gordon, Matthew (ed.), pp. 68–105.
George, Isaac (1970) Nupe Tonology. Studies in African Linguistics 1: 100–22.
Goedemans, Rob (1996) An Optimality Account of Onset-Sensitive Stress in Quantity-Insensitive Languages. Linguistic Review 13: 33–47.
Goedemans, Rob (1998) Weightless Segments. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics.
Goldrick, Matthew (2000) Turbid Output Representations and the Unity of Opacity. In Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society, Vol. I, Hirotani, Masako, Coetzee, Andries, Hall, Nancy and Kim, Ji-yung (eds.) pp. 231–45, Amherst, MA: GLSA.
González, Carolina (2003) The Effect of Stress and Foot Structure on Consonantal Processes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California.
Goodenough, Ward H. and Sugita, Hiroshi (1980) Trukese-English Dictionary. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society.
Gordon, Matthew (1998a) A Fortition-Based Approach to Balto-Fennic-Sámi Consonant Gradation. Folia Linguistica Historica 18: 49–79.
Gordon, Matthew (1998b) The Phonetics and Phonology of Non-Modal Vowels: a Cross-linguistic Perspective. Berkeley Linguistics Society 24: 93–105.
Gordon, Matthew (2002) A Phonetically-Driven Account of Syllable Weight. Language 78: 51–80.
Gordon, Matthew (2004) Syllable Weight. In Phonetically Based Phonology, Hayes, Bruce, Kirchner, Robert and Steriade, Donca (eds.), pp. 277–312, Cambridge University Press.
Gordon, Matthew (2005) A Perceptually-Driven Account of Onset-Sensitive Stress. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 23: 595–653.
Gordon, Matthew (2006) Syllable Weight: Phonetics, Phonology, and Typology. New York and London: Routledge. Originally 1999 doctoral dissertation, UCLA.
Green, Antony Dubach (2002) Word, Foot, and Syllable Structure in Burmese. ms., University of Potsdam, available as ROA-551.
Green, Thomas (1995) The Stress Window in Pirahã: a Reanalysis of Rhythm in Optimality Theory. ms., MIT, available as ROA-45.
Gussenhoven, Carlos (2008) Vowel Duration, Syllable Quantity and Stress in Dutch. In The Nature of the Word. Essays in Honor of Paul Kiparsky, Hanson, K. and Inkelas, S. (eds.), pp. 181–98, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Gussenhoven, Carlos and Jacobs, Haike (2005) Understanding Phonology. First edition 1998, London: Hodder Arnold.
Hajek, John and Goedemans, Rob (2003) Word-initial Geminates and Stress in Pattani Malay. The Linguistic Review 20: 79–94.
Hajek, John and Goedemans, Rob (in prep.) On the Representation of Onset Weight. ms., University of Melbourne, Utrecht University and Universiteit Leiden.
Hale, Ken (1981a) Part I: Remarks on Lardil Phonology and Morphology. In A Preliminary Dictionary of Lardil, Hale, Kenet al., Document 0028 of the Aboriginal Studies Electronic Data Archive (ASEDA), Canberra: AIATSIS (Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies).
Hale, Ken (1981b) Part III: Damin Vocabulary. In A Preliminary Dictionary of Lardil, Hale, Kenet al., Document 0028 of the Aboriginal Studies Electronic Data Archive (ASEDA), Canberra: AIATSIS (Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies).
Hale, Ken and Nash, David (1997) Damin and Lardil Phonotactics. In Boundary Rider: Essays in Honour of Geoffrey O'Grady, Tryon, Darrell and Walsh, Michael (eds.), Pacific Linguistics C-136, pp. 247–59, Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, the Australia National University.
Hall, Tracy A. (2000) Syllabically Conditioned Coalescence and Deletion in Zoque: an Optimality-Theoretic Approach. Linguistics 38 (4): 711–38.
Halle, Morris and Stevens, Kenneth (1971) A Note on Laryngeal Features. RLE Quarterly Progress Report 101: 198–312.
Ham, William (2001) Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Geminate Timing. New York and London: Routledge.
Hammond, Michael (1999) The Phonology of English. Oxford University Press.
Hansson, Gunnar Olafur (2004) Tone and Voicing Agreement in Yabem. In WCCFL 23: Proceedings of the 23rd West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, Schmeiser, B., Chand, V., Kelleher, A. and (eds.), A. Rodrίguez, pp. 318–31, Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Hargus, Sharon (2001) Quality Sensitive Stress Reconsidered. University of Washington Working Papers in Linguistics 20: 25–56.
Hargus, Sharon and Beavert, Virginia (2006) Word-initial Clusters and Minimality in Yakima Sahaptin. Phonology 23: 21–58.
Harrison, Sheldon P. (1976) Mokilese Reference Grammar. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Hart, Michele E. (1991) The Moraic Status of Initial Geminates in Trukese. BLS 17: 107–20.
Haudricourt, Andre-George (1954) De l'Origine des Tons en Vietnamien. Journal Asiatique 242: 69–82.
Hayes, Bruce (1989) Compensatory Lengthening in Moraic Phonology. Linguistic Inquiry 20: 253–306.
Hayes, Bruce (1995) Metrical Stress Theory: Principles and Case Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Heisenberg, August (1921) Die Liquida P im Dialekt von Samothrake. In For G. N. Chatzidakis, ɪ, pp. 89–99, Athens: P.D. Sakellariou.
Hendricks, Sean (1999) Reduplication Without Template Constraints: A Study in Bare-Consonant Reduplication. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona.
Hendricks, Sean (2001) Bare-Consonant Reduplication without Prosodic Templates: Expressive Reduplication in Semai. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 10: 287–306.
Hermans, Ben (2001) CL in OT. Linguistics in the Netherlands 18: 139–50.
Hermans, Ben and Oostendorp, Marc (2008) Umlaut is Phonological: Evidence from Ineffability. Paper presented at the 16th Manchester Phonology Meeting, May 2008, Manchester, UK.
Hollenbach, Barbara (1977) Phonetic vs. Phonemic Correspondence in Two Trique Dialects. In Studies in Otomanguean Phonology, Merrifield, William R. (ed.), pp. 35–67, Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas at Arlington.
Hombert, Jean-Marie (1978) Consonant Types, Vowel Quality, and Tone. In Tone: A Linguistic Survey, Fromkin, V. (ed.), pp. 77–111, New York: Academic Press.
Honda, Kiyoshi (2004) Physiological Factors Causing Tonal Characteristics of Speech: from Global to Local Prosody. Paper presented at Speech Prosody 2004, Nara, Japan. Retrieved 2 Sept 2008:
Howe, Darin (2000) Oowekyala Segmental Phonology. Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia.
Howe, Darin (2001) Syllabic Obstruents in Oowekyala. Paper presented at: Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, Workshop on American Indian Languages, University of California, Santa Barbara.
Hubbard, Kathleen (1994) Duration in Moraic Theory. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
Hulst, Harry (1984) Syllable Structure and Stress in Dutch. Dordrecht: Foris.
Hyde, Brett (2001) Metrical and Prosodic Structure in Optimality Theory. Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University.
Hyde, Brett (2007) Issues in Banawá Prosody: Onset Sensitivity, Minimal Words, and Syllable Integrity. Linguistic Inquiry 38(2): 239–85.
Hyman, Larry (1985) A Theory of Phonological Weight. Publications in Language Sciences 19, Dordrecht: Foris [reissued in 2003 by the University of Chicago Press].
Hyman, Larry (2006) World-Prosodic Typology. Phonology 23: 225–57.
Itô, Junko and Mester, Armin (1992) Weak Layering and Word Binarity. ms., University of California, Santa Cruz.
Jakobson, Roman (1931) Die Betonung und ihre Rolle in der Wort- und Syntagma-phonologie. Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague 4. Reprinted in R. Jakobson (1962) Selected Writings I: Phonological Studies, pp. 117–136, Mouton: The Hague.
Jeanne, Laverne M. (1982) Some Phonological Rules of Hopi. International Journal of American Linguistics 48: 245–70.
Jensen, Christian (2004) Stress and Accent: Prominence Relations in Southern Standard British English. Doctoral dissertation, University of Copenhagen.
Jones, Daniel (1956) The Pronunciation of English. 4th edition, Cambridge University Press.
Kager, René (1989) A Metrical Theory of Stress and Destressing in English and Dutch. Dordrecht: Foris.
Kager, René (1999) Optimality Theory. Cambridge University Press.
Kalstrom, Marjorie K. and Pike, Eunice V. (1968) Stress in the Phonological System of Eastern Popoloca. Phonetica 18: 16–30.
Katamba, Francis and Cooke, Peter (1987) Ssematimba ne Kikwabanga: the Music and Poetry of a Ganda Historical Song. World of Music 29(2): 49–68.
Katsanis, Nikolaos (1996) The Dialect of Samothraki Greek. Municipality of Samothraki [Κατσάνης, Νικόλαος (1996) Το Γλωσσικό Ιδίωμα της Σαμοθράκης. Δήμος Σαμοθράκης].
Kavitskaya, Darya (2002) Compensatory Lengthening: Phonetics, Phonology, Diachrony. New York and London: Routledge.
Kenstowicz, Michael (1994a) Phonology in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kenstowicz, Michael (1994b) Sonority-Driven Stress. Available as ROA-33.
Key, Michael (2007) Headed Spans and Bantu Tonology. In University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 32: Papers in Optimality Theory III, Bateman, L. et al. (eds.), pp. 187–207 [also available as ROA-809]. Amherst, MA: GLSA.
Kingston, John and Solnit, David (1988a) The Inadequacy of Underspecification. In Proceedings of NELS 19: 264–278. Amherst, MA: GLSA.
Kingston, John and Solnit, David (1988b) The Tones of Consonants. ms., University of Massachusetts, Amherst and University of Michigan.
Kiparsky, Paul (1973) ‘Elsewhere’ in Phonology. In A Festschrift for Morris Halle, Anderson, S. and Kiparsky, P. (eds.), pp. 93–106, New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Kiparsky, Paul (2000) Opacity and Cyclicity. The Linguistic Review 17: 351–67.
Kiparsky, Paul (2002) Syllables and Moras in Arabic. In The Syllable in Optimality Theory, Féry, Caroline and Vijver, Ruben (eds.), pp. 147–82, Cambridge University Press.
Kiparsky, Paul (2008a) Compensatory Lengthening. ms., Stanford University, available at:
Kiparsky, Paul (2008b) Fenno-Swedish Quantity: Contrast in Stratal OT. In Rules, Constraints and Phonological Phenomena, Vaux, Bert (ed.), pp. 185–219, Oxford University Press.
Kisseberth, Charles (1970) Vowel Elision in Tonkawa and Derivational Constraints. In Studies Presented to Robert B. Lees by his Students, Sadock, Jerrold M. and Vanek, Anthony L. (eds.), pp. 109–37, Edmonton, AB and Champaign, IL: Linguistic Research.
Kraehenmann, Astrid (2001) Swiss German Stops: Geminates all over the Word. Phonology 18: 109–45.
Krekoukias, Dimitrios A. (1964) Collection of Language Material from Samothraki. Manuscript No. 839, Research Centre of Modern Greek Dialects and Idioms, Academy of Athens [Κρεκούκιας, Δημήτριος Α. (1964) Συλλογή Γλωσσικού Υλικού εκ Σαμοθράκης. Αριθμός Χειρογράφου: 839, Κέντρον Ερεύνης των Νεοελληνικών Διαλέκτων και Ιδιωμάτων – Ι.Λ.Ν.Ε. Ακαδημία Αθηνών].
Ladefoged, Peter and Maddieson, Ian (1996) The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford; Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Lahiri, Aditi and Koreman, Jacques (1988) Syllable Weight and Quantity in Dutch. In Proceedings of WCCFL 7, Borer, Hagit (ed.), pp. 217–28, Stanford, CA: The Center for the Study of Language and Information.
Lavoie, Lisa M. (2001) Consonant Strength: Phonological Patterns and Phonetic Manifestations. New York and London: Garland Publishing.
Leben, William (2001) Tonal Feet. Paper presented in Typology of African Prosodic Systems Workshop, Bielefeld University, Germany, May 18–20, 2001.
Lee, Byung-Gun (1996) The Emergence of the Faithful. Available as ROA-166.
Levelt, Clara and Vijver, Ruben (2004) Syllable Types in Cross-Linguistic and Developmental Grammars. In Constraints in Phonological Acquisition, Kager, René, Pater, Joe and Zonneveld, Wim (eds.), pp. 204–18, Cambridge University Press [also available as ROA-265].
Levin, Juliette (1985) A Metrical Theory of Syllabicity. Doctoral dissertation, MIT.
Liberman, Mark and Prince, Alan (1977) On Stress and Linguistic Rhythm. Linguistic Inquiry 8(2): 249–336.
Lin, Yen-Hwei (1997) Syllabic and Moraic Structures in Piro. Phonology 14: 403–36.
Lin, Yen-Hwei (1998a) Cyclic and Noncyclic Affixation in Piro. In Phonology in Progress – Progress in Phonology: HILP Papers III, pp. 167–88, The Hague: Holland Academic Press.
Lin, Yen-Hwei (1998b) On Minor Syllables. In Proceedings of LP'98, Fujimura, O., Joseph, B.D. and Palek, B. (eds.), pp. 163–83, Charles University in Prague: The Karolinum Press.
Lombardi, Linda (1999) Positional Faithfulness and Voicing Assimilation in Optimality Theory. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 17: 267–302.
Lombardi, Linda (2002) Markedness and the Typology of Epenthetic Vowels, ms. University of Amherst, available as ROA–578.
Longacre, Robert E. (1957) Proto-Mixtecan. International Journal of American Linguistics 23(4) Part 3 (Publication 5 of the Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics).
Loporcaro, Michele (1991) Compensatory Lengthening in Romanesco. In Certamen phonologicum II, Papers from the 1990 Cortona Phonology Meeting, Bertinetto, P. M., Kenstowicz, M. and Loporcaro, M. (eds.), pp. 279–307, Turin: Rosenberg & Sellier.
Lynch, John (1974) Lenakel Phonology. Doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii.
Lynch, John (1975) Bislama Phonology and Grammar: A Review Article. Kivung 8(2): 186–204.
Lynch, John (1978) A Grammar of Lenakel. Pacific Linguistics B55, Canberra: Australian National University.
Lynch, John (2000) Reconstructing Proto-Oceanic Stress. Oceanic Linguistics 39: 53–82.
Maddieson, Ian (1997) Phonetic Universals. In Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, Hardcastle, William J. and Laver, John (eds.), pp. 619–39, Oxford: Blackwell.
Madsen, Shannon (2000) Stress Patterns in Spanish Blends. In UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics, no.4: Papers in Phonology 4, Albright, Adam and Cho, Taehong (eds.).
Mateus, Maria Helena and d'Andrade, Ernesto (2002) The Phonology of Portuguese. Oxford University Press.
Matteson, Esther (1965) The Piro (Arawakan) Language. Berkeley: University of California Press.
McCarthy, John (1979) Formal Problems in Semitic Phonology and Morphology. Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
McCarthy, John (2000) Faithfulness and Prosodic Circumscription. In Optimality Theory: Syntax, Phonology, and Acquisition, Dekkers, Joost, Leeuw, Frank and Weijer, Jeroen (eds.), pp. 151–89, Oxford University Press.
McCarthy, John (2002) A Thematic Guide to Optimality Theory. Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, John (2003a) OT Constraints are Categorical. Phonology 20: 75–138.
McCarthy, John (2003b) Sympathy, Cumulativity, and the Duke-of-York Gambit. In The Optimal Syllable, Féry, Caroline and Vijver, Ruben (eds.), pp. 23–76, Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, John (2004) Headed Spans and Autosegmental Spreading. ms., University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
McCarthy, John (2007) Hidden Generalizations: Phonological Opacity in Optimality Theory. London: Equinox.
McCarthy, John and Prince, Alan (1986) Prosodic Morphology 1986. Report no. RuCCS-TR-32. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science; available online at:
McCarthy, John and Prince, Alan (1993) Generalized Alignment. In Yearbook of Morphology, Booij, Geert and Marle, Jaap (eds.), pp. 79–153, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
McCarthy, John and Prince, Alan (1994) The Emergence of the Unmarked: Optimality in Prosodic Morphology. In Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society 24, Mercè Gonzàlez (ed.), pp. 333–79, Amherst, MA: GLSA.
McCarthy, John and Prince, Alan (1995) Faithfulness and Reduplicative Identity. In University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 18, Beckman, Jill, Dickey, Laura Walsh and Urbanczyk, Suzanne (eds.), pp. 249–384, Amherst, MA: GLSA.
McCrary, Cristie (2002) Vowel Length, Consonant Length and Raddoppiamento- Sintattico: Segment Duration in Italian Revisited. Paper presented at the 10th Manchester Phonology Meeting, Manchester, UK.
McGarrity, Laura W. (2003) Constraints on Patterns of Primary and Secondary Stress. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.
Mellander, Evan (2003a) A Prosodic Theory of Prominence and Rhythm. Doctoral dissertation, McGill University.
Mellander, Evan (2003b) Weightless Syllables in Alamblak and the Case Against head dependence. Poster presented at the CASTL Kick-Off Conference, 2–4 October 2003; University of Tromsø, Norway.
Mester, Armin (1990) Patterns of Truncation. Linguistic Inquiry 20: 478–85.
Michelson, Karin (1988) A Comparative Study of Lake-Iroquoian Accent. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Michelson, Karin (1989) Invisibility: Vowels Without a Timing Slot in Mohawk. In Theoretical Perspectives on Native American Languages, Gerdts, Donna and Michelson, Karin (eds.), pp. 38–69, Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Mohanan, K. P. (1986) The Theory of Lexical Phonology. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Mohanan, Tara (1989) Syllable Structure in Malayalam. Linguistic Inquiry 20: 589–625.
Morén, Bruce (2000) The Puzzle of Kashmiri Stress: Implications for Weight Theory. Phonology 17: 365–96.
Morén, Bruce (2001) Distinctiveness, Coercion and Sonority: a Unified Theory of Weight. London: Routledge. Originally 1999 doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland at College Park.
Morin, Yves-Charles (1992) Phonological Interpretations of Historical Lengthening. In Phonologica 1992: Proceedings of the 7th International Phonology Meeting, Dressler, Wolfgang U., Prinzhorn, Martin and Rennison, John, pp. 135–55, Turin: Rosenberg & Sellier.
Morphy, Frances (1983) Djapu, a Yolngu Dialect. In Handbook of Australian Languages Vol. III, Dixon, R. M. W and Blake, Barry J. (eds.), pp. 1–188, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Muller, Jennifer (1999) A Unified Mora Account of Chuukese. In Proceedings of WCCFL 18, Bird, S., Carnie, A., Haugen, J. and Norquest, P. (eds.) Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Muller, Jennifer (2001) The Phonology and Phonetics of Word-Initial Geminates. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University.
Murray, Robert and Vennemann, Theo (1983) Sound Change and Syllable Structure in Germanic Phonology. Language 59: 514–28.
Nater, Hank F. (1977) Stem list of the Bella Coola language. PdR Press Publications of Salish Languages 4, Lisse, Holland: Peter de Ridder Press.
Nater, Hank F. (1979) Bella Coola Phonology. Lingua 49: 169–87.
Nater, Hank F. (1984) The Bella Coola Language. Canada: National Museum of Manitoba, Mercury Series. Ethnology Service Papers 92. Ottawa.
Nelson, Nicole (1998) Right Anchor, Aweigh. ms., Rutgers University [also available as ROA-284].
Nespor, Marina and Vogel, Irene (1986) Prosodic Phonology. Dordrecht: Foris.
Newman, Stanley (1947) Bella Coola I: Phonology. International Journal of American Linguistics 13: 129–34.
Newman, Stanley (1971) Bella Coola Reduplication. International Journal of American Linguistics 37: 34–8.
Newton, Brian (1972) Loss of /r/ in a Modern Greek dialect. Language 48: 566–72.
Noonan, Michael (1992) A Grammar of Lango. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Odden, David (2005) Introducing Phonology. Cambridge University Press.
Odden, David (2007) The Unnatural Tonology of Zina Kotoko. In Tones and Tunes; v.1: Typological Studies in Word and Sentence Prosody, Riad, Tomas and Gussenhoven, Carlos (eds.), pp. 63–89, Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Ohala, John J. (1983) The Origin of Sound Patterns in Vocal Tract Constraints. In The Production of Speech, MacNeilage, J. (ed.), pp. 189–216, New York: Springer Verlag.
Ohala, John J. (1997) The Relation Between Phonetics and Phonology. In The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, Hardcastle, W. and Laver, J. (eds.), pp. 674–94, Oxford: Blackwell.
Ola, Olanike (1995) Properheadedness and Binarity: Prosodic Words in Yoruba. In Theoretical Approaches to African Linguistics, Akinlabi, Akinbiyi (ed.), pp. 273–93, New Jersey: Africa World Press.
Ola, Olanike (1997) Benue-Congo Prosodic Phonology and Morphology. Lincom Studies in African Linguistics 15, München, Newcastle: Lincom Europa.
Oostendorp, Marc (2000) Back to the Base. On the Richness of the Base Hypothesis. ms, Meertens Institute, Amsterdam.
Oostendorp, Marc (2005) Derived Environment Effects and Consistency of Exponence. Talk presented at University College London, December 2005.
Papadopoulos, Anthimos (1927) Grammar of Modern Greek Northern Idioms. Athens: P. D. Sakellarios [Παπαδόπουλος, Άνθιμος (1927) Γραμματική των Βορείων Ιδιωμάτων της Νέας Ελληνικής. Εν Αθήναις: Π. Δ. Σακελλάριος].
Parker, Steven G. (2002) Quantifying the Sonority Hierarchy. Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Payne, David and Rich, Furne (1988) Sensitivity to Onset in Arabela Stress. ms., Información de Campo 743. Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Perú: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
Pearce, Mary (2005) Iambicity Without Stress in Kera. In Proceedings of the University of Cambridge Third Postgraduate Conference in Language Research (CamLing 2005), Chatzidamianos, al. (eds.), pp. 271–78, Cambridge Institute of Language Research.
Peng, Long (1992) A Unified Theory of Tone-Voice. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona.
Peterson, Tyler (2007) Issues of Homophony and the Minimal Word in the Adyghan Languages. Paper presented at: Conference on the Languages of the Caucasus, 7–9 December 2007; Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.
Pigott, Glyne (1995) Epenthesis and Syllable Weight. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 13: 283–326.
Pigott, Glyne (1998) Foot Form and the Parsing of Weightless Syllables. Paper presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society.
Podi, Napo (1995) Esquisse Comparative de l'Akasilimi et du Basaal. Doctoral dissertation, Université de Grenoble 3.
Prince, Alan (1990) Quantitative Consequences of Rhythmic Organization. In Papers from the Chicago Linguistic Society 26/2, Ziolkowski, M., Noske, M. and Deaton, K. (eds.), pp. 355–98.
Prince, Alan (1997) Topics in Optimality Theory: TETU, GTH and BC. Handout from LSA Class, retrieved on 17 December 2005 from:
Prince, Alan and Smolensky, Paul (1993/2004) Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. Malden, MA; Oxford, UK; Victoria, Australia: Blackwell.
Ramsay, Robert (2001) Tonogenesis in Korean. In Proceedings of the Symposium Crosslinguistic Studies of Tonal Phenomena: Historical Development, Phonetics of Tone, and Descriptive Studies, Kaji, Shigekiet al. (eds.), pp. 3–17, Tokyo, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.
Reh, Mechthild (1996) Anywa Language: Description and Internal Reconstructions. Cologne: Ruddiger Köppe Verlag.
Rehg, Kenneth (1993) Proto-Micronesian Prosody. In Tonality in Micronesian Languages, Edmondson, J. A. and Gregerson, K. J. (eds.), pp. 25–46, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Revithiadou, Anthi (1999) Headmost Accent Wins: Head Dominance and Ideal Prosodic Form in Lexical Accent Systems. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics. Originally 1998 doctoral dissertation, University of Leiden.
Rialland, Annie (1993) L'allongement Compensatoire: Nature et Modèles. In Architecture des représentations phonologiques, Laks, B. and Rialland, A. (eds.), pp. 59–92, collection ‘Sciences du Langage’, Editions du CNRS.
Rice, Keren (1992) On Deriving Sonority: A Structural Account of Sonority Relationships. Phonology 9: 61–99.
Rice, Keren and Avery, Peter (1989) On the Interaction between Sonorancy and Voicing. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 10: 65–82.
Rich, Furne (1963) Arabela Phonemes. In Studies in Peruvian Indian Languages I, Elson, Benjamin (ed.), pp. 193–206, Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields 9, Norman, OK: Summer Institute of Linguistics of the University of Oklahoma.
Robinson, Lila W. (1975) Some Phonological Rules of Iowa-Oto (Siouan). In Proceedings of the Mid-America Linguistics Conference, pp. 439–48, Linguistics Department, University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Roca, Iggy and Johnson, Wyn (1999) A Course in Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.
Rosenthall, Sam (1997) Vowel/Glide Alternation in a Theory of Constraint Interaction. New York and London: Garland Publishing. Originally 1994 doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Rosenthall, Sam and Hulst, Harry (1999) Weight-By-Position By Position. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 17: 499–540.
Sagey, Elizabeth (1986) The Representation of Features and Relations in Nonlinear Phonology. Doctoral dissertation, MIT.
Salmons, Joe (1992) Accentual Change and Language Contact: Comparative Survey and Case Study of Early Northern Europe. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press and London: Routledge.
Sapir, Edward (1965) A Grammar of Diola-Fogny. Cambridge University Press.
Saunders, Ross and Davis, Philip (1972) Verbal Categories in Bella Coola: Reduplication. Paper presented at the XI Conference on American Indian Languages, San Diego.
Scheer, Tobias and Szigetvári, Péter (2002) Unified Representations for the Syllable and Stress. Paper presented at the 10th Manchester Phonology Meeting, 23–25 May 2002, Manchester, UK.
Schein, Barry and Steriade, Donca (1986) On Geminates. Linguistic Inquiry 17: 691–744.
Schuh, Russell (1978) Tone Rules. In Tone: A Linguistic Survey, Fromkin, V. (ed.), pp. 221–56, New York: Academic Press.
Schuh, Russell (2002) The Phonology and Morphology of Bade and Ngizim. Retrieved from:
Scorza, David (1985) A Sketch of Au Morphophonemics and Syntax. In Pacific Linguistics A63, pp. 215–73. Canberra: Australian National University.
Seidel, August (1900) Die Sprache von Ufromi in Deutsch-Ostafrika. Zeitschrift fӥr afrikanische und oceanische Sprachen 5: 165–75.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1980) The Role of Prosodic Categories in English Word Stress. Linguistic Inquiry 11: 563–606.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1984a) On the Major Class Features and Syllable Theory. In Language Sound Structure: Studies in Phonology Presented to Moris Halle by his Teacher and Students, Aronoff, Mark and Oehrle, Richard T. (eds.), pp. 107–36, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1984b) Phonology and Syntax: The Relation between Sound and Structure. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1990) A Two-Root Theory of Length. In University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers14: 123–71, Dunlap, Elaine and Padgett, Jaye (eds.), Amherst, MA: GLSA.
Sezer, Engin (1986) An Autosegmental Analysis of Compensatory Lengthening in Turkish. In Studies in Compensatory Lengthening, Wetzels, Leo and Sezer, Engin (eds.), pp. 227–50, Dordrecht: Foris.
Shaw, Jason (2007) Compensatory Lengthening via Mora Preservation in OT-CC: Theory and Predictions. Paper presented at NELS 38.
Shaw, Patricia A. (2002) On the Edge: Obstruent Clusters in Salish. In Proceedings of the Workshop on the Structure and Constituency of the Languages of the Americas (WSCLA 7), Bar-el, L., Watt, L and Wilson, I. (eds.).
Shaw, Patricia A. (2009) Inside Access: The Prosodic Role of Internal Morphological Constituency. In The Nature of Word: essays in honor of Paul Kiparsky, Hanson, K. and Inkelas, S. (eds.), pp. 241–72, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Sherzer, Joel (1970) Talking Backwards in Cuna: The Sociological Reality of Phonological Descriptions. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 26: 343–53.
Shiraishi, Hidetoshi (1998) Evidence for Prominence-based Accent Shifting in Ainu (the Saru Dialect). In Proceedings of the 117th Meeting of the Japanese Society of Linguists, pp. 266–71.
Shryock, Aaron Michael (1995) WPP, No. 89: Investigating Laryngeal Contrasts: An Acoustic Study of the Consonants of Musey. US Los Angeles: Department of Linguistics, UCLA.
Sloan, Kelly (1988) Bare-Consonant Reduplication: Implications for a Prosodic Theory of Reduplication. In Proceedings of WCCFL 7, Hagit Borer (ed.), pp. 319–30, Stanford, CA: The Center for the Study of Language and Information.
Smith, Jennifer L. (2003) Onset Sonority Constraints and Subsyllabic Structure. Submitted to Phonologica 2002, Rennison, John R., Neubarth, Friedrich and Pöchtrager, Markus A. (eds.).
Smith, Jennifer L. (2005) Phonological Augmentation in Prominent Positions. New York and London: Routledge.
Spaulding, Craig and Spaulding, Pat (1994) Phonology and Grammar of Nankina [Data papers on Papua New Guinea languages 41]. Ukarumpa, New Guinea: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Sprouse, Ronald (1996) Vowels that Borrow Moras: Geminates and Weight in OT. In Proceedings of the North Eastern Linguistic Society (NELS) 26 (1995), Kusumoto, Kiyomi (ed.), pp. 393–408, Amherst: GLSA.
Sprouse, Ronald (1997) A Case for Enriched Inputs. Handout for paper presented at TREND VII, held 3 May 1997 at UCSC. Available as ROA-193.
Steriade, Donca (1990) Moras and Other Slots. In Formal Linguistics Society of Midamerica 1, Meyer, D. and Tomioka, S. (eds.) pp. 254–80, Madison: Department of Linguistics, University of Wisconsin.
Steriade, Donca (1997) Phonetics in Phonology: the Case of Laryngeal Neutralization. ms., UCLA.
Strehlow, Theodor G. H. (1944) Aranda Phonetics and Grammar. Oceania Monographs 7, Sydney University Press.
Sumner, Meghan (1999) Compensatory Lengthening as Coalescence: Analysis and Implications. In Proceedings of WCCFL 18, Bird, S., Carnie, A., Haugen, J. and Norquest, P. (eds.), pp. 532–44, Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Svantesson, Jan-Olof (1983) Kammu Phonology and Morphology. Malmö: CWK Gleerup.
Takahashi, Toyomi (1994) Constraint Interaction in Aranda Stress. In UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 6: 479–507.
Tamura, Suzuko (1996) The Ainu-Japanese Dictionary: Saru Dialect. Tokyo: Sofukan.
Tang, Katrina Elizabeth (2008) The Phonology and Phonetics of Consonant-Tone Interaction. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Thurgood, Graham (1996) Language Contact and the Directionality of Internal Drift: the Development of Tones and Registers in Chamic. Language 71(1): 1–31.
Topintzi, Nina (2006a) A (not so) Paradoxical Instance of Compensatory Lengthening: Samothraki Greek and Theoretical Implications. Journal of Greek Linguistics 7: 71–119.
Topintzi, Nina (2006b) Moraic Onsets. Doctoral dissertation, UCL.
Topintzi, Nina (2007) Solving the Samothraki Greek Compensatory Lengthening Puzzle. In Selected Papers on Theoretical and Applied Linguistics of the 17th International Symposium (2005) Vol. I, Eleni Agathopoulou, Maria Dimitrakopoulou and Papadopoulou, Despoina (eds.), pp. 53–63, Thessaloniki: Monochromia.
Topintzi, Nina (2008a) On the Existence of Moraic Onset Geminates. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 26(1): 147–84.
Topintzi, Nina (2008b) Word Minimality in Bella Coola as Evidence for Moraic Onsets. In the Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society (Main Session), 7–9 April 2005, pp. 489–504, Chicago: CLS.
Topintzi, Nina and Oostendorp, Marc (2009a) Resolving Some Paradoxes Through Binary Feature Spans. Paper presented at OCP6 (Old World Conference in Phonology), 22–24 January 2009, Edinburgh, UK.
Topintzi, Nina and Oostendorp, Marc (2009b) Palatalization and Centralization in Samothraki Greek. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Linguistics Department 2008, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, pp. 385–99.
Tranel, Bernard (1987) The Sounds of French: an Introduction. Cambridge University Press.
Tranel, Bernard (1991) CVC Light Syllables, Geminates and Moraic Theory. Phonology 8: 291–302.
Trubetzkoy, Nikolay Sergeevich (1939) Grundzüge der Phonologie. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.
Vennemann, Theo (1988) Preference Laws for Syllable Structure and the Exploration of Sound Change. Berlin: Mouton.
Viemeister, Neal (1980) Adaptation of Masking. In Psychophysical, Physiological and Behavioural Studies in Hearing, Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Hearing, Brink, G. and Bilsen, F. A. (eds.), pp. 190–98, Delft: Delft University Press.
Walker, Rachel (2001) Positional Markedness in Vowel Harmony. In Proceedings of HILP 5, Linguistics in Potsdam 12, Féry, Caroline, Green, Antony Dubach and Vijver, Ruben (eds.), pp. 212–32, Potsdam: University of Potsdam.
Welmers, William (1962) The Phonology of Kpelle. Journal of African Languages 1: 69–93.
Wetzels, W. Leo and Mascaró, Joan (2001) The Typology of Voicing and Devoicing. Language 77: 207–44.
Williamson, Kay (1965) A Grammar of the Kolokuma Dialect of Ijo. Second edition 1969, West African Language Monographs 2, Cambridge University Press.
Wolf, Matthew (2008) Optimal Interleaving: Serial Phonology-Morphology Interaction in a Constraint-based Model. Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Woodbury, Hanni (1981) The Loss of a Phoneme. International Journal of American Linguistics 47: 103–20.
Yallop, Colin (1977) Alyawarra: An Aboriginal Language of Central Australia. Research and Regional Studies 10, Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
Yip, Moira (1980) The Tonal Phonology of Chinese. Doctoral dissertation, MIT.
Yip, Moira (1991) Coronals, Consonant Clusters and the Coda Condition. In The Special Status of Coronals. Internal and External Evidence, Paradis, Caroline and Prunet, Jean-François (eds.), pp. 61–78, San Diego: Academic Press.
Yip, Moira (1992) Sonorant vs. Obstruent Codas: a Prosodic Distinction. ms., University of California, Irvine.
Yip, Moira (1995) Tone in East Asian Languages. In Handbook of Phonological Theory, Goldsmith, J. (ed.), pp. 476–94, Oxford: Blackwell.
Yip, Moira (2002) Tone. Cambridge University Press.
Yip, Moira (2003) Casting Doubt on the Onset/Rime Distinction. Lingua 113(8): 779–816.
Yupho, Nawanit (1989) Consonant Clusters and Stress Rules in Pattani Malay. Mon-Khmer Studies 15: 125–37.
Zec, Draga (1988) Sonority Constraints on Prosodic Structure. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.
Zec, Draga (1995) Sonority Constraints on Syllable Structure. Phonology 12: 85–129.
Zec, Draga (2007) The Syllable. In The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology, Lacy, Paul (ed.), pp. 161–94, Cambridge University Press.
Zewen, François-Xavier Nicolas (1977) The Marshallese Language: A Study of its Phonology, Morphology, and Syntax. Berlin: Verlag von Dietrich Reimer.
Zoll, Cheryl (1998) Positional Asymmetries and Licensing. ms., MIT. Available as ROA-282.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 196 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 416 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.