Skip to main content Accessibility help
Out of Poverty
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 36
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This book provides a comprehensive defense of third-world sweatshops. It explains how these sweatshops provide the best available opportunity to workers and how they play an important role in the process of development that eventually leads to better wages and working conditions. Using economic theory, the author argues that much of what the anti-sweatshop movement has agitated for would actually harm the very workers they intend to help by creating less desirable alternatives and undermining the process of development. Nowhere does this book put 'profits' or 'economic efficiency' above people. Improving the welfare of poorer citizens of third world countries is the goal, and the book explores which methods best achieve that goal. Out of Poverty will help readers understand how activists and policy makers can help third world workers.


‘This eloquent book makes the compassionate case for sweatshops in poor countries as what poor workers voluntarily select as employers because they are better than the alternatives. It is uncommonly clear in this book that the economists' case for sweatshops is based on what's best for the workers, not what's best for efficiency or profits or First World consumers.’

William Easterly - Co-Director, Development Research Institute, New York University, and author of The White Man's Burden and The Elusive Quest for Growth

‘Ben Powell has written a brilliant and thought-provoking book on sweatshops. He challenges a number of critical beliefs about them which, although springing from concern about the poor, lead to policies that will harm the poor. No policymakers, especially in aid and development agencies like USAID and UNDP, can afford to ignore this masterly book.’

Jagdish Bhagwati - Columbia University, and author of In Defense of Globalization

‘The term ‘sweatshops’ is a dirty word to students on American campuses and activists around the world, implying exploited workers toiling in horrible conditions for long hours at low pay. Powell's splendid new book gives us another perspective: how workers view sweatshops as an opportunity for improving their economic condition. Indeed, countless Americans, Japanese, and others enjoy their high standard of today living because their grandmothers and grandfathers worked in sweatshops a century ago.’

Douglas Irwin - Dartmouth College, and author of Free Trade Under Fire

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Academic Consortium on International Trade. “Sweatshop Letter.” Retrieved from
Gracia, Alta, “What is a Living Wage?” Retrieved from
American Center for International Labor Solidarity.
American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations.
Arnold, Denis. “Philosophical Foundations: Moral Reasoning, Human Rights, and Global Labor Practices.” In Rising above Sweatshops: Innovative Approaches to Global Labor Challenges, edited by Hartman, Laura, Arnold, Denis, and Wokutch, Richard E.. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003: 77–101.
Arnold, Denis. “Working Conditions: Safety and Sweatshops.” In The Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics, edited by Brenkert, George and Beauchamp, Tom. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010: 371–399.
Arnold, Denis and Bowie, Norman. “Sweatshops and Respect for Persons.” Business Ethics Quarterly 13, No. 2 (April 2003): 221–242.
Arnold, Denis and Bowie, Norman. “Respect for Workers in Global Supply Chains: Advancing the Debate over Sweatshops.” Business Ethics Quarterly 17, No. 1 (January 2007): 135–145.
Arnold, Denis and Hartman, Laura. “Beyond Sweatshops: Positive Deviancy and Global Labour Practices.” Business Ethics: A European Review 14, No. 3 (July 2005): 206–222.
Arnold, Denis and Hartman, Laura. “Moral Imagination and the Future of Sweatshops.” Business and Society Review 108, No. 4 (December 2003): 425–461.
Arnold, Denis and Hartman, Laura. “Worker Rights and Low Wage Industrialization: How to Avoid Sweatshops.” Human Rights Quarterly 28, No. 3 (August 2006): 676–700.
Asshagrie, Kebebew. “Statistics on Working Children and Hazardous Child Labour in Brief.” Geneva: International Labor Office, 1997.
Associated Press. “Factory in Bangladesh Lost Fire Clearance before Blaze.” New York Times, December 7, 2012. Retrieved from
Barzel, Yoram. “A Theory of Rationing by Waiting.” Journal of Law and Economics 17 (1974): 73–95.
Bastiat, Frederic. Selected Essays on Political Economy (1848). Retrieved from
Basu, Kaushik. “Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards.” Journal of Economic Literature 37, No. 3 (September 1999): 1083–1119.
Bauer, P. T.Dissent on Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.
Bauer, P. T.The Development Frontier. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Baumol, William. “Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive.” Journal of Political Economy 98, No. 5 (October 1990): 893–921.
Berggren, N.The Benefits of Economic Freedom.” The Independent Review 8, No. 2 (Fall 2003): 193–211.
Bisseker, Claire. “Clothing Industry. Policy Doesn’t Fit Practice.” Financial Mail (South Africa), September 10, 2010.
Boettke, Peter. Living Economics: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. Oakland: The Independent Institute, 2012.
Borjas, George. “Immigration.” In The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, edited by Henderson, David. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2008: 254–256.
Borjas, George. “The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 118, No. 4 (November 2003): 1335–1374.
Brown, Drusilla, Deardorff, Alan, and Stern, Robert. “Child Labor: Theory, Evidence and Policy.” In International Labor Standards: History, Theories and Policy, edited by Basu, K., Horn, H., Roman, L., and Shapiro, J.. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2003.
Busse, Matthias. “On the Determinants of Core Labor Standards: The Case of Developing Countries.” Economics Letters 83, No. 2 (May 2004): 211–217.
Card, David and Krueger, Alan. Myth and Measurement: The New Economics of the Minimum Wage. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Card, David and Shleifer, Andrei. “Immigration and Inequality.” American Economic Review 99, No. 2 (2009): 1–21.
Carson, Kevin. “Vulgar Libertarianism.” Mutualist Blog: Free Market Anti-Capitalism, January 11, 2005. Retrieved from
Chang, Jack. “Bolivians Fail to Find Better Life in Brazil; Bolivians Are Migrating to Brazil in Search of a Better Life, but Many End Up Working under Harsh Conditions and Earning Low Pay.” Miami Herald, December 28, 2007.
Chartier, Gary. “Sweatshops, Labor Rights, and Competitive Advantage.” Oregon Review of International Law 10, No. 1 (September 2008): 149–188.
Clark, J. R. and Powell, Benjamin. “Sweatshop Working Conditions and Employee Welfare: Say It Ain’t Sew.” Comparative Economic Studies 55 (2013): 343–357.
Clarke, Natalie. “The True Price of the £6 Dress.” The Daily Mail, September 13, 2007. Retrieved from
Clean Clothes Campaign.
Clemens, Michael. “Economics and Emigration: Trillion-Dollar Bills on the Sidewalk?Journal of Economic Perspectives 25, No. 3 (Summer 2011): 83–106.
Clemens, Michael, Montenegro, Claudio, and Pritchett, Lant. “The Place Premium: Wage Differences for Identical Workers across the U.S. Border.” Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 148 (2008).
CNN. “Gap: Report of Kids’ Sweatshop ‘Deeply Disturbing.’CNN World, October 29, 2007. Retrieved from
Collier, Paul. “Haiti: From Natural Catastrophe to Economic Security.” A Report for the Secretary-General of the United Nations, January 2009. Retrieved from
Cowen, Tyler and Tabbarrok, Alex. Modern Principles: Macroeconomics. New York: Worth Publishers, 2009.
Coyne, Christopher. After War: The Political Economy of Exporting Democracy. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008.
Deere, Donald Riche, Murphy, Kevin, and Welch, Finis. “Sense and Nonsense on the Minimum Wage.” Regulation 18, No. 1 (1995): 47–56.
Easterly, William. The Elusive Quest for Growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.
Edmonds, Eric. “Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?Journal of Human Resources 40, No. 1 (Winter 2005): 77–99.
Edmonds, Eric and Pavcnik, Nina. “Child Labor in the Global Economy.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 19, No. 1 (Winter 2005): 199–220.
Elliot, Kimberly and Freeman, Richard. “White Hats or Don Quixotes? Human Rights Vigilantes in the Global Economy.” In Emerging Labor Market Institutions for the Twenty First Century, edited by Freeman, R., Hersch, J., and Mishel, L.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004: 47–98.
Elliott, Kimberly, Hufbauer, Gary, and Oegg, Barbara. “Sanctions.” In The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, edited by Henderson, David, 2008. Retrieved from
Esbenshade, Jill. Monitoring Sweatshops: Workers, Consumers, and the Global Apparel Industry. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004.
Fair Labor Association.
Featherstone, Liza and United Students Against Sweatshops. Students Against Sweatshops. New York: Verso, 2002.
Fishback, Price. Government and the American Economy: A New History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Fishback, Price. “Operations of ‘Unfettered’ Labor Markets: Exit and Voice in American Labor Markets at the Turn of the Century.” Journal of Economic Literature 36, No. 2 (June 1998): 722–765.
Magazine, Forbes. “America’s Deadliest Jobs.”
Friedberg, R. and Hunt, J.. “The Impact of Immigrants on Host Country Wages, Employment and Growth.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 9, No. 2 (Spring 1995): 23–44.
Friedman, Milton and Friedman, Rose. Two Lucky People. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Garwood, Shae. Advocacy across Borders: NGOs, Anti-Sweatshop Activism, and the Global Garment Industry. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press, 2011.
Goldin, Claudia and Katz, Larry. “Mass Secondary Schooling and the State: The Role of State Compulsion and the High School Movement.” NBER Working Paper No. 10075 (2003).
Goodin, Robert E. “Exploiting a Situation and Exploiting a Person.” In Modern Theories of Exploitation, edited by Reeve, Andrew. London: Sage, 1987: 166–200.
Green, Leslie. Legal Obligation and Authority. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, October 1, 2010. Retrieved from
Gwartney, James, Lawson, Robert, and Hall, Joshua. Economic Freedom of the World Annual Report. Vancouver, BC, Canada: The Fraser Institute, 2011.
Hall, Joshua and Leeson, Peter. “Good for the Goose, Bad for the Gander: International Labor Standards and Comparative Development.” Journal of Labor Research 28, No. 4 (September 2007): 658–676.
Harrison, Ann and Scorse, Jason. “Multinationals and Anti-Sweatshop Activism.” American Economic Review 100, No. 1 (2010): 247–273.
Hayek, Friedrich. “Competition as a Discovery Procedure.” Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 5, No. 3 (1968, 2002): 9–23.
Hayek, Friedrich. “The Use of Knowledge in Society.” American Economic Review 35, No. 4 (September 1945): 519–530.
Heady, Christopher. “The Effect of Child Labor on Learning Achievement.” World Development 31, No. 3 (2003): 385–398.
Henderson, David. “The Case for Sweatshops.” Hoover Institution, Stanford University, February 7, 2000. Retrieved from
Hersch, Joni. “Compensating Differentials for Sexual Harassment.” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, May 2011. Retrieved from
Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights. “Alert – Violation of CAFTA at Sam Bridge SA Guatemala,” October 21, 2007. Retrieved from
Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights. “Major Worker Rights Victory in Guatemala,” October 13, 2009. Retrieved from
Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights. “Women Exploiting Women,” February 25, 2009. Retrieved from
International Labor Organization. “Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.” 1998. Retrieved from
International Labor Organization. Every Child Counts: New Global Estimates on Child Labour. Geneva: ILO, 2002.
International Labor Organization. “Safety and Health at Work.” Retrieved from
International Labor Organization. “Summary of the Results of the Child and Adolescent Labour Survey in Costa Rica.” 2004. Retrieved from
International Labor Organization. “Summary of the Results of the Child Labour Survey in El Salvador.” 2004. Retrieved from
International Labor Organization. “Summary of the Results of the National Child Labour Survey in the Dominican Republic.” 2004. Retrieved from
International Labor Rights Forum.
Irwin, Doug. Free Trade Under Fire. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Kaufman, Leslie and Gonzalez, David. “Labor Standards Clash with Global Reality.” New York Times, April 24, 2001. Retrieved from
Keady, Jim. “When Will Nike ‘Just Do It’ on the Sweatshop Issue?” Huffington Post, October 2, 2009.
Kleen, Michael. “Sweatshops and Social Justice: Can Compassionate Libertarians Agree?” Center for a Stateless Society, November 17, 2011. Retrieved from
Knight, Frank. “The Role of Principles in Economics and Politics.” American Economic Review 41 (1951): 1–29.
Kristof, Nicholas. “Inviting All Democrats.” New York Times, January 14, 2004. Retrieved from
Kristof, Nicholas. “My Sweatshop Column.” New York Times, January 14, 2009. Retrieved from
Kristof, Nicholas. “Where Sweatshops Are a Dream.” New York Times, January 14, 2009. Retrieved from
Krueger, Alan. “International Labor Standards and Trade.” In Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics 1996, edited by Bruno, M. and Pleskovic, B.. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1997, 281–302.
Krugman, Paul. “In Praise of Cheap Labor: Bad Jobs at Bad Wages Are Better Than No Jobs at All.” Slate Magazine, March 1997. Retrieved from
Krugman, Paul. “Reckonings; Hearts and Heads.” New York Times, April 22, 2001. Retrieved from
Leighton, Wayne and Lopez, Edward. Madmen, Intellectuals, and Academic Scribblers. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2012.
Leonard, Thomas. “Protecting Family and Race: The Progressive Case for Regulating Women’s Work.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 64, No. 3 (2005): 757–791.
Levinson, Jeff, ed. Mill Girls of Lowell. Boston: History Compass, 2007.
Lindert, Peter and Williamson, Jeffrey. “English Workers’ Living Standards during the Industrial Revolution: A New Look.” In The Economics of the Industrial Revolution, edited by Mokyr, Joel. New Jersey: Rowman and Allanheld, 1985: 1–25.
Lindsay, Samuel. “Child Labor in the United States.” American Economic Association 8 (February 1907): 256–259.
Lowell Offering, The. 1841.
Lowell Textile Workers Petition. Voice of Industry, January 15, 1845.
Maquila Solidarity Network.
Margolis, Mac. “Roads to Nowhere; More and More Migrants from Poor Countries Are Heading to Other Former Backwaters for Work.” Newsweek, September 11, 2006. Retrieved from
Mayer, Robert. “Sweatshops, Exploitation, and Moral Responsibility.” Journal of Social Philosophy 38, No. 4 (2007): 605–619.
Mayer, Robert. “What’s Wrong with Exploitation?Journal of Applied Philosophy 24, No. 2 (2007): 137–150.
McCloskey, Deirdre. Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can’t Explain the Modern World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
McCloskey, Deirdre. “The Industrial Revolution 1780–1860: A Survey.” In The Economics of the Industrial Revolution, edited by Mokyr, Joel. New Jersey: Rowman and Allanheld, 1985.
Meyers, Chris. “Wrongful Beneficence: Exploitation and Third World Sweatshops.” Journal of Social Philosophy 35, No. 3 (2004): 319–333.
Miller, John. “Why Economists Are Wrong about Sweatshops and the Anti-Sweatshop Movement.” Challenge 47, No. 1 (January/February 2003): 93–122.
Mises, Ludwig. Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth. Auburn, AL: Ludwig Von Mises Institute, 1920, 1990.
Mises, Ludwig. Human Action. Auburn, AL: Ludwig Von Mises Institute, 1949, 1998.
Moehling, Carolyn. “State Child Labor Laws and the Decline in Child Labor.” Explorations in Economic History 36, No. 1 (1999): 72–106.
Mokyr, Joel. The Enlightened Economy: An Economic History of Britain, 1700–1850. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.
Moore, Michael and Viscusi, Kip. Compensation Mechanisms for Job Risks. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Munger, Michael. “Euvoluntary or Not, Exchange Is Just.” Social Philosophy and Policy 28, No. 2 (Summer 2011): 192–211.
National Labor Committee.
Munger, Michael. “Major Worker Rights Victory in Guatemala.” October 2009. Retrieved from
Munger, Michael. “Violation of CAFTA at Sam Bridge SA Guatemala.” October 2007. Retrieved from
National Labor Committee. “Child Labor: 11 year-old Halima Sews Clothing for Hanes.” Retrieved from
National Park Service. Lowell: The Story of an Industrial City. Official National Park Handbook, Handbook 140. Division of Publications National Park Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1992.
Neumark, David and Wascher, William. Minimum Wages. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008.
O’Connor, Anne-Marie. “The Plight of Women Around the World; Central America; Labor: Sweatshops Meet U.S. Consumer Demand.” The Atlanta Journal Constitution, September 3, 1995.
Pearce, Fred. The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth. Boston: Beacon Press, 2012.
Pierson, David. “An Influx of Illegal Workers; Sound Familiar? It’s Happening in China, Where the Pay Looks Good to Vietnamese.” Los Angeles Times, September 19, 2010.
Pollin, Robert, Burns, Justine, and Heintz, James. “Global Apparel Production and Sweatshop Labor: Can Raising Retail Prices Finance Living Wages?Cambridge Journal of Economics 28, No. 2 (2004): 153–171.
Powell, Benjamin. “East Asian State Development Planning: Did It Create an East Asian Miracle.” Review of Austrian Economics 18, No. 3/4 (2005): 305–323.
Powell, Benjamin. “In Reply to Sweatshop Sophistries.” Human Rights Quarterly 28, No. 4 (November 2006): 1031–1042.
Powell, Benjamin., ed. Making Poor Nations Rich: Entrepreneurship and the Process of Development. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008.
Powell, Benjamin. “Some Implications of Capital Heterogeneity.” In Handbook on Contemporary Austrian Economics, edited by Boettke, Peter. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2010: 124–135.
Powell, Benjamin and Skarbek, David. “Sweatshop Wages and Third World Workers: Are the Jobs Worth the Sweat?Journal of Labor Research 27, No. 2 (Spring 2006): 263–274.
Powell, Benjamin and Ryan, Matt. “Does Development Aid Lead to Economic Freedom?Journal of Private Enterprise 22, No. 1 (Fall 2006): 1–21.
Powell, Benjamin and Ryan, Matt. “Stop Aiding Dictators.” Providence Journal, February 27, 2006. Retrieved from
Powell, Benjamin and Zwolinski, Matt. “The Ethical and Economic Case against Sweatshop Labor: A Critical Assessment.” Journal of Business Ethics 107, No. 4 (2012): 449–472.
Ravallion, Martin and Wodon, Quentin. “Does Child Labor Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioral Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy.” Economic Journal 110 (2000): C158–C175.
Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.
Reed, Lawrence. “Child Labor and the British Industrial Revolution.” The Freeman 41, No. 8 (August 1991).
Riper, Tom. “America’s Most Dangerous Jobs,” Forbes, August 13, 2007. Retrieved from
Rottenberg, Simon, ed. The Economics of Legal Minimum Wages. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1981.
Sachs, Jeffrey. The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2005.
Sample, Ruth. Exploitation: What It Is and Why It’s Wrong. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.
Samuelson, Paul. Economics, 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.
Scholars Against Sweatshop Labor. Statement. October 2001. Retrieved from
Schultz, Paul. “School Subsidies for the Poor: Evaluating the Mexican Progresa Poverty Program.” Journal of Development Economics 74, No. 1 (2004): 199–250.
Simons, Henry. Simons’ Syllabus, edited by Tullock, Gordon. Fairfax, VA: Center for the Study of Public Choice, 1983.
Skarbek, David, Skarbek, Emily, Skarbek, Brian, and Skarbek, Erin. “Sweatshops, Opportunity Costs, and Non-Monetary Compensation: Evidence from El Salvador.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 71, No. 3 (2012): 539–561.
Snyder, Jeremy C.Efficiency, Equality, and Price Gouging: A Response to Zwolinski.” Business Ethics Quarterly 19, No. 2 (April 2009): 303–306.
Snyder, Jeremy C.Exploitation and Sweatshop Labor: Perspectives and Issues.” Business Ethics Quarterly 20, No. 2 (April 2010): 187–213.
Snyder, Jeremy C.Needs Exploitation.” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11, No. 4 (2008): 389–405.
Sobel, Russell and Leeson, Peter. “The Spread of Global Economic Freedom.” In Economic Freedom of the World 2007 Annual Report, edited by Gwartney, James and Lawson, Robert. Vancouver, BC, Canada: The Fraser Institute, 2007: 29–37.
Sollars, G. and Englander, F.. “Sweatshops: Kant and Consequences.” Business Ethics Quarterly 17, No. 1 (January 2007): 115–133.
Stearns, Peter. The Industrial Revolution in World History, 3rd ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 2007.
Stern, R. and Terrel, K.. “Labor Standards and the World Trade Organization.” University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, RSIE Discussion Paper No. 499 (2003).
Stringham, Edward. “Economic Value and Costs Are Subjective.” In Handbook on Contemporary Austrian Economics, edited by Boettke, Peter. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2010: 43–66.
Students Against Sweatshops.
Sweat Free Communities Campaign.
UNICEF. “The State of the World’s Children.” 1997. Retrieved from
United Students Against Sweatshops.
U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 1994 Child Labor Report, Bangladesh. Retrieved from
U.S. Labor Education in the Americas Project.
Valdman, Mikhail. “Exploitation and Injustice.” Social Theory and Practice: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal of Social Philosophy 34, No. 4 (October 2008): 551–572.
Valdman, Mikhail. “A Theory of Wrongful Exploitation.” Philosophers’ Imprint 9, No. 6 (July 2009): 1–14.
Viederman, Dan. “Any Job Is a Good Job? Think Again.” Huffington Post, February 18, 2011.
Viscusi, Kip, Harrington, Joseph, and Vernon, John. Economics of Regulation and Antitrust, 4th ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
Vogel, David. The Market for Virtue: The Potential and Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute, 2005.
War on Want.
Wertheimer, Alan. Exploitation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Wertheimer, Alan. “Matt Zwolinski’s ‘Choosing Sweatshops’: A Commentary.” Unpublished Manuscript. Presented at the Arizona Current Research Workshop, January 2007.
Wertheimer, Alan. “Matt Zwolinski’s ‘Choosing Sweatshops’: A commentary.” Unpublished manuscript. Presented at the Arizona Current Research Workshop in Tuscon, AZ, January 2005.
Whaples, R. Child Labor in the United States. In EH.Net Encyclopedia. 2005. Retrieved from
Whitehead, Jennifer. “Topshop Faces Accusations of Using Sweatshop Labour.” Brand Republic, August 14, 2007. Retrieved from
Williamson, Claudia. “Informal Institutions Rule: Institutional Arrangements and Economic Performance.” Public Choice 139, No. 3 (2009): 371–387.
Williamson, Claudia and Kerekes, Carrie. “Securing Private Property: Formal versus Informal Institutions.” Journal of Law and Economics 54, No. 3 (2011): 537–572.
Wolff, Robert Paul. In Defense of Anarchism, 3rd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.
Wood, Allen W.Exploitation.” Social Philosophy and Policy 12, No. 2 (1995): 136–158.
The Worker Rights Consortium.
World Bank. World Development Indicators Online. /
Yakovlev, Pavel and Sobel, Russell S.. “Occupational Safety and Profit Maximization: Friends or Foes?Journal of Socio-Economics 39, No. 3 (June 2010): 429–435.
Young, Iris Marion. “Responsibility and Global Justice: A Social Connection Model.” Social Philosophy and Policy 23, No. 1 (January 2006): 102–130.
Zwolinski, Matt. “The Ethics of Price Gouging.” Business Ethics Quarterly 18, No. 3 (July 2008): 347–378.
Zwolinski, Matt. “Price Gouging, Non-Worseness, and Distributive Justice.” Business Ethics Quarterly 19, No. 2 (April 2009): 295–306.
Zwolinski, Matt. “Structural Exploitation.” Social Philosophy and Policy 29, No. 1 (Winter 2012): 154–179.
Zwolinski, Matt. “Sweatshops, Choice, and Exploitation.” Business Ethics Quarterly 17, No. 4 (October 2007): 689–727.
Zwolinski, Matt. “Exploitation and Neglect.” San Diego: University of San Diego, Department of Philosophy, 2012.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.