Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Party Polarization in Congress
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 135
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The political parties in Congress are as polarized as they have been in 100 years. This book examines more than 30 years of congressional history to understand how it is that the Democrats and Republicans on Capitol Hill have become so divided. It finds that two steps were critical for this development. First, the respective parties' constituencies became more politically and ideologically aligned. Second, members ceded more power to their party leaders, who implemented procedures more frequently and with greater consequence. In fact, almost the entire rise in party polarization can be accounted for in the increasing frequency of and polarization on procedures used during the legislative process.

Reviews

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

Bibliography
Abramowitz, Alan, Alexander, Brad, and Gunning, Matthew. 2006. “Incumbency, Redistricting, and the Decline of Competition in U.S. House Elections.” Journal of Politics 68 (Feb.): 75–88.
Abramowitz, Alan, and Saunders, Kyle L.. 1998. “Ideological Realignment in the U.S. Electorate.” Journal of Politics 60 (Aug.): 634–52.
Aldrich, John H. 1995. Why Parties? The Origins and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Aldrich, John H., and Rohde, David W.. 2001. “The Logic of Conditional Party Government: Revisiting the Electoral Connection,” in Congress Reconsidered, 7th Edition, Dodd, Lawrence C. and Oppenheimer, Bruce I., eds. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
,American Political Science Association. 1950. “The Need for Greater Party Responsibility,” American Political Science Review 44:15–36.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Snyder, James M., and Stewart, Charles, III. 2001. “Candidate Positioning in US House Elections.” American Journal of Political Science 45 (Jan.): 136–59.
Arnold, R. Douglas. 1990. The Logic of Congressional Action. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Asher, Herbert B. 1973. “The Learning of Legislative Norms.” American Political Science Review 67 (Jun.): 499–513.
Asher, Herbert, B., and Weisberg, Herbert F.. 1978. “Voting Change in Congress: Some Dynamic Perspectives on an Evolutionary Process.” American Journal of Political Science 22 (May): 391–425.
Bailey, Stephen K. 1959. The Condition of Our National Political Parties. New York: Fund for the Republic.
Barone, Michael, with Cohen, Richard E.. 2005. The Almanac of American Politics. The National Journal, Washington, D.C.
Barone, Michael, Ujifusa, Grant, and Matthews, Douglas. 1972. The Almanac of American Politics. Boston: Gambit.
Bartels, Larry M. 1991. “Constituency Opinion and Congressional Policy Making: The Reagan Defense Build Up.” American Political Science Review 85 (Jun.): 457–74.
Binder, Sarah. 1997. Minority Rights, Majority Rule: Partisanship and the Development of Congress. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Binder, Sarah. 2004. “The Limits of Senatorial Courtesy.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 29 (Feb.): 5–22.
Binder, Sarah, and Smith, Steven S.. 1997. Politics or Principle? Filibustering in the United States Senate. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
Bishop, Bill. 2004. “A Steady Slide Toward a More Partisan Union.” Austin American-Statesman, May 30, A1 and A8.
Bond, Jon R., Kristin, Campbell, and Cottrill, James B.. 2001. “The Puzzle of Constituency Diversity Revisited: Conditional Effects of District Diversity on Competition in Congressional Elections.” Paper read at Annual Meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Atlanta.
Brady, David. 1978. “Critical Elections, Congressional Parties and Clusters of Policy Change.” British Journal of Political Science 8: 79–99.
Brady, David W. 1991. Critical Elections and Congressional Policy Making. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Brady, David, and Lynn, Naomi. 1973. “Switched-Seat Congressional Districts: Their Effect on Party Voting and Public Policy.” American Journal of Political Science 17 (Aug.): 528–43.
Brady, David, and Sinclair, Barbara. 1984. “Building Majorities for Policy Changes in the House of Representatives.” Journal of Politics 46 (Nov.): 1033–60.
Brady, David W., and Volden, Craig. 1998. Revolving Gridlock: Politics and Policy from Carter to Clinton. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Brady, David W., Cogan, John F., Gaines, Brian, and Rivers, R. Douglas. 1996. “The Perils of Presidential Support: How the Republicans Captured the House.” Political Behavior 18 (Dec.): 345–68.
Brewer, Mark D., Mariani, Mack D., and Stonecash, Jeffrey M.. 2002. “Northern Democrats and Party Polarization in the U.S. House.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 27 (Aug.): 423–44.
Broder, David. 1972. The Party's Over: The Failure of Politics in America. New York: Harper and Row.
Broder, David. 2001. “Unnoticed Redistricting to Change Politics for Decade.” The Bay City Times, October 21, p. 9A.
Burnham, Walter. 1970. Critical Elections and the Mainspring of American Politics. New York: W.W. Norton.
Burns, James MacGregor. 1963. The Deadlock of Democracy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Burstein, Paul. 1978. “A New Method for Measuring Legislative Content and Change.” Sociological Methods and Research 6:337–65.
Burstein, Paul. 1980. “Attitudinal Demographic and Electoral Components of Legislative Change: Senate Voting on Civil Rights.” Sociology and Social Research 64:221–35.
Cain, Bruce, Ferejohn, John, and Fiorina, Morris. 1987. The Personal Vote: Constituency Service and Electoral Independence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Carson, Jamie, Crespin, Michael H., Finocchiaro, Charles J., and Rohde, David W.. 2007. “Redistricting and Party Polarization in the U.S. House of Representatives.” American Politics Research 35 (Nov.): 878–904.
Clapp, Charles. 1963. The Congressman: His Work As He Sees It. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
Clausen, Aage R. 1973. How Congressmen Decide: A Policy Focus. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Coleman, John J. 1997. “The Decline and Resurgence of Congressional Party Conflict.” Journal of Politics 59 (Feb.): 165–84.
Collie, Melissa P., and Mason, John Lyman. 2000. “The Electoral Connection Between Party and Constituency Reconsidered: Evidence from the U.S. House of Representatives, 1972–1994,” in Brady, David W., Cogan, John F., and Fiorina, Morris P., eds. Continuity and Change in House Elections. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Combs, Jerald A. 1970. The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the Founding Fathers. Berkeley: The University of California Press.
Congressional Districts in the 1990s: A Portrait of America. 1993. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Converse, Philip. 1964. “The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics,” in Ideology and Discontent, Apter, David, ed. New York: Free Press.
Cook, Charlie. May 3, 2003. “The Senate and House are a Study in Contrasts,” National Journal 35 (18): 1406.
Cooper, Joseph, and Brady, David W.. 1981. “Institutional Context and Leadership Style: The House from Cannon to Rayburn.” American Political Science Review 75 (June): 411–25.
Cox, Gary W., and Katz, Jonathan N.. 2002. Elbridge Gerry's Salamander: The Electoral Consequences of the Reapportionment Revolution. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cox, Gary W., and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1993. Legislative Leviathan: Party Government in the House. Berkeley: The University of California Press.
Cox, Gary W., and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 2005. Setting the Agenda: Responsible Party Government in the U.S. House of Representatives. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cox, Gary W., and Poole, Keith T.. 2002. “On Measuring Partisanship in Roll-Call Voting: The U.S. House of Representatives, 1877–1999.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (July): 477–89.
Davidson, Roger H., Oleszek, Walter J., and Lee, Frances E.. 2008. Congress and Its Members, 11th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
Hartog, Chris, and Monroe, Nathan W.. 2008. “Agenda Influence and Tabling Motions in the U.S. Senate” in Roberts, Jason R. and Rohde, David W., eds., Why Not Parties? Party Effects in the U.S. Senate. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Denzau, Arthur, Riker, William, and Shepsle, Kenneth. 1985. “Farquharson and Fenno: Sophisticated Voting and Home Style.” American Political Science Review 79 (Dec.): 1117–34.
DiMaggio, Paul, Evans, John, and Bryson, Bethany. 1996. “Have Americans' Social Attitudes Become More Polarized?American Journal of Sociology 102 (Nov.): 690–755.
Dion, Douglas. 1997. Turning the Legislative Thumbscrews: Minority Rights and Procedural Change in Legislative Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Duncan, Philip D., Lawrence, Christine C.. 1997. Politics in America 1998: The 105th Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Edwards, George C. III, and Barrett, Andrew. 2000. “Presidential Agenda Setting in Congress,” in Polarized Politics: Congress and the President in a Partisan Era, Bond, Jon R. and Fleisher, Richard, eds. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Edwards III, George C., Barrett, Andrew, and Peake, Jeffrey. 1997. “The Legislative Impact of Divided Government.” American Journal of Political Science 41:545–63.
Edwards, Mickey. 2003. “The American Congress.” Unpublished manuscript.
Erikson, Robert S., MacKuen, Michael B., and Stimson, James A.. 2002. The Macro Polity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Evans, C. Lawrence, and Oleszek, Walter J.. 1997. Congress Under Fire: Reform Politics and the Republican Majority. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Evans, C. Lawrence, and Oleszek, Walter J.. 2001. “Message Politics and Senate Procedure,” in Campbell, Colton C. and Rae, Nicol C., eds., The Contentious Senate: Partisanship, Ideology, and the Myth of Cool Judgment. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Farquharson, Robin. 1969. Theory of Voting. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Fenno, Richard F. 1966. The Power of the Purse: Appropriations Politics in Congress. Boston: Little Brown.
Ferejohn, John. 1977. “On the Decline of Competition in Congressional Elections.” American Political Science Review 71 (Mar.): 166–76.
Fiorina, Morris P. 2006. Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America. 2nd ed. New York: Pearson Longman.
Fiorina, Morris P. 1977. “The Case of the Vanishing Marginals: The Bureaucracy Did It.” American Political Science Review 71 (Mar.): 177–81.
Fleisher, Richard, and Bond, Jon R.. 2000. “Partisanship and the President's Quest for Votes on the Floor of Congress,” in Bond, Jon R. and Fleisher, Richard, eds. Polarized Politics: Congress and the President in a Partisan Era. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Fleisher, Richard, Bond, R.. 2004. “The Shrinking Middle in Congress,” British Journal of Politics 34: 429–51.
Frank, Thomas. 2004. What's the Matter with Kansas? How Conservatives Won the Heart of America. New York: A Metropolitan/Owl Book.
Froman, Lewis A., and Ripley, Randall B.. 1965. “Conditions for Party Leadership: The Case of the House Democrats.” American Political Science Review 59 (Mar.): 52–63.
Galston, William A., and Kamarck, Elaine C.. October 2005. “The Politics of Polarization.” The Third Way Middle Class Project.
Gilmour, John B. 1995. Strategic Disagreement: Stalemate in American Politics. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Gilmour, John B., and Rothstein, Paul. 1994. “Term Limitation in a Dynamic Model of Partisan Balance.” American Journal of Political Science 38:770–96.
Gimpel, James, A., and Schuknecht, Jason E.. 2003. Patchwork Nation: Sectionalism and Political Change in American Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Ginsberg, Benjamin. 1973. “Critical Elections and the Substance of Party Conflict: 1844–1968.” Midwest Journal of Political Science 16:603–25.
Ginsberg, Benjamin. 1976. “Elections and Public Policy.” American Political Science Review 70 (Mar.): 41–9.
Giroux, Gregory L. 2001. “Remaps' Clear Trend: Incumbent Protection.” CQ Weekly, November 3, pp. 2627–32.
Giroux, Gregory L. 2005. “A Line in the Suburban Sand.” CQ Weekly, June 27, p. 1714.
Green, John C., and Herrnson, Paul S.. 2002. “Party Development in the Twentieth Century: Laying the Foundation for Responsible Party Government,” in Green, John C. and Herrnson, Paul S., eds., Responsible Partisanship? The Evolution of American Political Parties Since 1950. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Groseclose, Timothy, and McCarty, Nolan. 2001. “The Politics of Blame: Bargaining Before an Audience.” American Journal of Political Science 45 (Mar.): 100–19.
Hacker, Jacob S., and Pierson, Paul. 2005. Off Center: The Republican Revolution and the Erosion of American Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Herrera, Richard. 1992. “The Understanding of Ideological Labels by Political Elites: A Research Note.” Western Political Quarterly 45 (December): 1021–35.
Herrera, Richard, and Shafer, Karen. 2003. “The Influence of Party on the Legislative Process: Constituents are Key.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association.
Hetherington, Marc J. 2001. “Resurgent Mass Partisanship: The Role of Elite Polarization.” American Political Science Review 95 (Sept.): 619–31.
Hetherington, Marc J. 2005. Why Trust Matters: Declining Political Trust and the Demise of American Liberalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hibbing, John R., and Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth. 1995. Congress as Public Enemy: Public Attitudes Toward American Political Institutions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hibbing, John R., and Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth. 2002. Stealth Democracy: Americans' Beliefs about How Government Should Work. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Highton, Benjamin, and Michael, S. Rocca 2005. “Beyond the Roll-Call Arena: The Determinants of Position Taking in Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 58 (June): 303–16.
Hirsch, Sam. 2003. “The United States of Unrepresentatives: What Went Wrong in the Latest Round of Congressional Redistricting.” Election Law Journal 2 (Nov.): 179–216.
Jackley, John. 1992. Hill Rats: Blowing the Lid Off Congress. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, Inc.
Jacobson, Gary C. 1987. “Running Scared: Elections and Congressional Politics in the 1980s,” in McCubbins, Mathew D. and Sullivan, Terry, eds. Congress: Structure and Policy, pp. xx. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jacobson, Gary C. 2000. “Party Polarization in National Politics: The Electoral Connection,” in Bond, Jon R. and Fleisher, Richard, eds. Polarized Politics: Congress and the President in a Partisan Era. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
Jacobson, Gary C. 2004. The Politics of Congressional Elections. 6th ed. New York: Pearson Longman.
Jenkins, Jeffery A., Crespin, Michael H., and Carson, Jamie L.. 2005. “Parties as Procedural Coalitions in Congress: An Examination of Differing Career Tracks.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 30 (Aug.): 365–390.
Jones, Charles. 1974. “Speculative Augmentation in Federal Air Pollution Policy-Making.” Journal of Politics 36 (May): 438–64.
Jones, Charles O. 1968. “Joseph G. Cannon and Howard W. Smith: An Essay on the Limits of Leadership in the House of Representatives.” Journal of Politics 39 (Aug.): 617–46.
Kessler, Daniel, and Krehbiel, Keith. 1996. “Dynamics of Cosponsorship.” American Political Science Review 90 (Sept.): 555–66.
Key, V.O. 1961. Public Opinion and American Democracy. New York: Knopf.
Anthony, King. 1997. Running Scared: Why America's Politicians Campaign Too Much and Govern Too Little. Glencoe, IL: Free Press Publishers.
Kingdon, John W. 1989. Congressmen's Voting Decisions. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Koger, Gregory. 2003. “Position Taking and Cosponsorship in the U.S. House.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 28 (May): 225–46.
Krehbiel, Keith. 1995. “Cosponsors and Wafflers from A to Z.” American Journal of Political Science 39 (Nov.): 906–23.
Krehbiel, Keith. 1998. Pivotal Politics: A Theory of U.S. Lawmaking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Krehbiel, Keith, and Meirowitz, Adam. 2002. “Minority Rights and Majority Power: Theoretical Consequences of the Motion to Recommit.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 37 (May): 191–217.
Krehbiel, Keith, and Woon, Jonathan. 2005. “Selection Criteria for Roll Call Votes.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association.
Krehbiel, Keith, Meirowitz, Adam, and Woon, Jonathan. 2005. “Testing of Theories of Lawmaking,” in Austen-Smith, David and Duggan, John, eds., Essays in Honor of Jeffrey S. Banks, pp. 249–68. Berlin: Springer.
Krutz, Glen S. 2005. “Issues and Institutions: ‘Winnowing’ in the U.S. Congress.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (April): 313–24.
Layman, Geoffrey C., and Carsey, Thomas M.. 2002. “Party Polarization and ‘Conflict Extension’ in the American Electorate.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (October): 786–802.
Layman, Geoffrey C., Carsey, Thomas M., and Horowitz, Juliana Menasce. 2006. “Party Polarization in American Politics: Characteristics, Causes, and Consequences.” Annual Review of Political Science 9 (June): 83–110.
Lee, Frances. 2008. “Agreeing to Disagree: Agenda Content and Senate Partisanship, 1981–2004.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 32 (May): 199-222.
Mann, Thomas E., and Ornstein, Norman J.. 2006. The Broken Branch: How Congress Is Failing America and How to Get It Back on Track. New York: Oxford University Press.
Matthews, Donald. 1960. U.S. Senators and Their World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Mayhew, David R. 1991. Divided We Govern: Party Control, Lawmaking, and Investigations, 1946–1990. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.
Mayhew, David R. 2005. Divided We Govern: Party Control, Lawmaking, and Investigations, 1946–2002, 2nd ed. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.
McCarty, Nolan, Poole, Keith, and Rosenthal, Howard. 2006. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
McClosky, Herbert, Hoffman, Paul J., and O'Hara, Rosemary. 1960. “Issue Conflict and Consensus Among Party Leaders and Followers.” American Political Science Review 54: 406–427.
Miller, Warren E., and Stokes, Donald E.. 1963. “Constituency Influence in Congress.” American Political Science Review 57: 45–56.
Miller, Warren E., and Jennings, M. Kent. 1986. Parties in Transition: A Longitudinal Study of Party Elites and Party Supporters. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Ornstein, Norman J. 2002. “Why Close Races Ruin Politics.” New York Times, November 4, p. 23.
Oppenheimer, Bruce I. 2005. “Deep Red and Blue Congressional Districts” in Dodd, Lawrence C. and Oppenheimer, Bruce I., eds., Congress Reconsidered, 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
Pearson, Kathryn. 2005. “Party Discipline in the Contemporary Congress: Rewarding Loyalty in Theory and in Practice.” Ph.D. diss. University of California at Berkeley.
Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 1984. “The Polarization of American Politics.” Journal of Politics 46 (Nov.): 1061–79.
Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 1997. Congress: A Political-Economic History of Roll Call Voting. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rae, Nicol C., and Campbell, Colton C.. 2001. “Party Politics and Ideology in the Contemporary Senate” in Campbell, Colton C. and Rae, Nicol C., eds., The Contentious Senate: Partisanship, Ideology, and the Myth of Cool Judgment. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Ranney, Austin. 1951. “Toward a More Responsible Two-Party System: A Commentary.” American Political Science Review 44 (June): 488–99.
Ranney, Austin, and Kendall, Willmoore. 1956. Democracy and the American Party System. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Riker, William H. 1986. The Art of Political Manipulation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Roberts, Jason M., and Smith, Steven S.. 2003. “Procedural Contexts, Party Strategy, and Conditional Party Voting in the U.S. House of Representatives, 1971–2000.” American Journal of Political Science 47 (Apr.): 305–17.
Rohde, David W. 1991. Parties and Leaders in the Postreform House. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Rohde, David W., and Aldrich, John H.. 2001. “The Logic of Conditional Party Government: Revisiting the Electoral Connection,” in Dodd, Lawrence C. and Oppenheimer, Bruce I., eds., Congress Reconsidered, 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
Rothenberg, Stuart. 2002. “Redistricting Shortfall May Not Cost GOP House Majority.” Roll Call, October 21, p. A-6.
Rothenberg, Stuart. 2001. “Sparing Incumbents Won't Improve Tone on Capitol Hill.” Roll Call, November 29, p. 6.
Schickler, Eric. 2001. Disjointed Pluralism: Institutional Innovation and the Development of the U.S. Congress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Schickler, Eric, McGhee, Eric, and Sides, John. 2003. “Remaking the House and Senate: Personal Power, Ideology, and the 1970s Reforms.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 28 (Aug.): 297–332.
Shepsle, Kenneth A. 1989. “The Changing Textbook Congress,” in Can the Government Govern?Chubb, John E. and Peterson, Paul E., eds. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Shepsle, Kenneth A., and Weingast, Barry R.. 1987. “The Institutional Foundations of Committee Power.” American Political Science Review 81 (Mar.): 85–104.
Shipan, Charles R., and Lowry, William R.. 2001. “Environmental Policy and Party Divergence in Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 54 (Jun.): 245–63.
Sinclair, Barbara. 1977. “Party Realignment and the Transformation of the Political Agenda: The House of Representatives, 1925–1938.” American Political Science Review 71 (Sept.): 940–53.
Sinclair, Barbara. 1982. Congressional Realignment1925–1978. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Sinclair, Barbara. 2000. Unorthodox Lawmaking: New Legislative Processes in the U.S. Congress, 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
Sinclair, Barbara. 2006. Party Wars: Polarization and the Politics of National Policy Making. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Smith, Steven S. 1989. Call to Order: Floor Politics in the House and Senate. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
Snyder, James M. 1992. “Artificial Extremism in Interest Group Ratings.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 17 (Aug.): 319–45.
Stonecash, Jeffrey M., Brewer, Mark D., and Mariani, Mark D.. 2003. Diverging Parties: Social Change, Realignment, and Party Polarization. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Sundquist, James. 1988. “Needed: A Political Theory for the New Era of Coalition Government in the United States.” Political Science Quarterly 103: 613–35.
Talbert, Jeffery C., and Potoski, Matthew. 2002. “Setting the Legislative Agenda: The Dimensional Structure of Bill Cosponsoring and Floor Voting.” Journal of Politics 64 (Aug.): 864–91.
Theriault, Sean M. 2004. “Public Pressure and Punishment in the Politics of Congressional Pay Raises.” American Politics Research 32 (Jul.): 444–64.
Theriault, Sean M. 2005. The Power of the People: Congressional Competition, Public Attention, and Voter Retribution. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
Theriault, Sean M. 2006. “Party Polarization in the U.S. Congress: Member Replacement and Member Adaptation.” Party Politics 12 (4): 483–503.
Thorson, Gregory R. 1998. “Divided Government and the Passage of Partisan Legislation, 1947–1990.” Political Research Quarterly 51 (Sept.): 751–64.
Tufte, Edward R. 1973. “The Relationship Between Seats and Votes in Two-Party Systems.” American Political Science Review 67 (Jun.): 540–54.
Turner, Julius. 1951. “Responsible Parties: A Dissent from the Floor.” American Political Science Revew 45:143–52.
Turner, Julius, and Edward, Schneier 1970. Party and Constituency: Pressures on Congress. Rev. ed. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Press.
Houweling, Paul P. 2003. “Legislators' Personal Policy Preferences and Partisan Legislative Organization.” Ph.D. diss., Harvard University.
Weingast, Barry R. 1992. “Fighting Fire with Fire,” in The Post-Reform Congress, Davidson, Roger H., ed. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Wildavsky, Aaron. 1965. “The Goldwater Phenomenon: Jurists, Politicians, and the Future of the Two-Party System.” Review of Politics 27 (July):386–413.
Wilson, James Q. 1962. The Amateur Democrat. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, Rick K., and Young, Cheryl D.. 1997. “Cosponsorship in the U.S. Congress.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 22:25–44.
Wilson, Woodrow. 1956 (originally published in 1885). Congressional Government: A Study in American Politics. New York: Meridian Books.
Wilkerson, John. 1991. The Evolution of Strategy: A Case Study of Congressional Pay Raises. Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester.
Wlezien, Christopher. 1995. “The Public as Thermostat: Dynamics of Preferences for Spending.” American Journal of Political Science 39 (Nov.): 981–1000.
Zone, Rob. 2002. “Why So Many Races Lack One Thing: Competition.” The Seattle Times, October 13, p. A1.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed