Abdullah, Halimah. 2009a. “Bunning Raises Less Money than Mongiardo in First Quarter.” Lexington Herald-Leader, April 16.
Abdullah, Halimah. 2009b. “Bunning Raises Less than Half of Grayson's Haul.” Lexington Herald-Leader, July 16.
Abdullah, Halimah. 2009c. “Grayson: Bunning Blessed Plan to Test Senate Waters – But Incumbent Shows No Sign He's Leaving.” Lexington Herald, May 2.
Abramson, Paul R., Aldrich, John H., and Rohde, David W.. 1987. “Progressive Ambition among United States Senators: 1972–1988.” Journal of Politics 49(1):3–35.
Aldrich, John H. 1995. Why Parties?: The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Alvarez, R. Michael, Canon, David T., and Sellers, Patrick. 1995. “The Impact of Primaries on General Election Outcomes in the U.S. House and Senate.” California Institute of Technology Working Paper.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, de Figueiredo, John M., and Snyder, James M.. 2003. “Why Is There So Little Money in U.S. Politics?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 17(1):105–30.
Ansolabehere, Stephen and Iyengar, Shanto. 1994. “Of Horseshoes and Horse Races: Experimental Studies of the Impact of Poll Results on Electoral Behavior.” Political Communication 11(4):413–30.
Associated Press. 2005. “Vermont Lt. Gov. Dubie Drops Senate Exploratory Bid, Says He'll Seek Re-Election.” Associated Press, October 26.
Associated Press. 2010. “Sen. Candidate Says White House Discussed 3 Jobs.” CBS News, June 2.
Associated Press. 2012. “Mourdock Talks Rape, Pregnancy, and God's Plan.” Associated Press, October 23.
Associated Press. 2016. “The Latest: Top Indiana Lawmakers Backing Holcomb Selection.” Associated Press, February 9.
Auster, Elizabeth. 2005a. “Do We Have a Blue-Talker for a Red State?” Plain Dealer, December 18, H1.
Auster, Elizabeth. 2005b. “Primary Challenge to Brown Excites, Irks Democrats.” Plain Dealer, December 12, A1.
Auster, Elizabeth and Koff, Stephen. 2005. “Iraq-Vet Democrat Hackett Plans to Challenge DeWine Avon's Rep. Brown Weighing Race, Too.” Plain Dealer, October 4, A7.
Bade, Rachel and Bresnahan, John. 2016. “Trump Will Meet with Rank-and-File Republicans before FBI Director Comey Testifies about Why He Decided against Charges for Clinton.” Politico, July 7.
Bafumi, Joseph and Herron, Michael C.. 2010. “Leapfrog Representation and Extremism: A Study of American Voters and Their Members in Congress.” American Political Science Review 104(3):519–42.
Baker, Peter. 2010a. “White House's Role in Primaries Spurs Sharp Debate.” New York Times, June 4.
Baker, Peter. 2010b. “White House Confirms Discussing Jobs with Candidate.” New York Times, June 3, 4–6.
Banta, Megan. 2016. “Poll Released by Democrats Shows Bayh Leading Young.” Herald-Times, July 19.
Barber, Michael J. 2016. “Ideological Donors, Contribution Limits, and the Polarization of American Legislatures.” Journal of Politics 78(1):296–310.
Barton, Albert Olaus. 1922. La Follette's Winning of Wisconsin (1894–1904). Des Moines: Homestead Company.
Bawn, Kathleen et al. 2012. “A Theory of Political Parties: Groups, Policy Demands and Nominations in American Politics.” Perspectives on Politics 10(3):571–97.
Bawn, Kathleen et al. 2014. “Parties on the Ground: A Preliminary Report on Open Seat House Nominations in 2014.” Meetings of the American Political Science Association.
Bawn, Kathleen et al. 2015. “Social Choice and Coordination Problems in Open House Primaries.” Meetings of the American Political Science Association.
Beck, Nathaniel and Katz, Jonathan N.. 1995. “What to Do (and Not to Do) with Time-Series Cross-Section Data.” American Political Science Review 89(3):634–47.
Beck, Nathaniel, Katz, Jonathan N., and Tucker, Richard. 1998. “Taking Time Seriously: Time-Series-Cross-Section Analysis with a Binary Dependent Variable.” American Journal of Political Science 42(4):1260–88.
Bennett, Lanetra. 2015. “Neal Dunn Announces Candidacy for Florida Congressional District 2.” WCTV, August 10.
Bernstein, Robert A. 1977. “Divisive Primaries Do Hurt: U.S. Senate Races, 1956–1972.” American Political Science Review 71(2):540–45.
Black, Eric. 2005. “Kennedy Is Off and Running.” Star Tribune, February 12.
Bleich, Erik and Pekkanen, Robert. 2013. “How to Report Interview Data.” Pp. 84–105 in Interview Research in Political Science, edited by Mosley, Layna. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Boatright, Robert G. 2014. Getting Primaried: The Changing Politics of Congressional Primary Challenges. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Bonica, Adam. 2014. “Mapping the Ideological Marketplace.” American Journal of Political Science 58(2):367–86.
Born, Richard. 1981. “The Influence of House Primary Election Divisiveness on General Election Margins, 1962–76.” Journal of Politics 43(3):640–61.
Borreca, Richard. 2010. “Case Bows Out – The Candidate Terminates His Run for Congress, Leaving Hanabusa as the Democrats Top Pick.” Honolulu Star-Bulletin, May 31.
Borreca, Richard. 2011. “Case Just Can't Seem to Get a Break from Fellow Dems.” Honolulu Star-Advertiser, August 5.
Bowser, Jennie Drage, Storey, Tim, Underhill, Wendy, and Frederick, Susan. 2011. The Canvass: States and Election Reform. Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures.
Brace, Paul. 1984. “Progressive Ambition in the House: A Probabilistic Approach.” Journal of Politics 46(2):556–71.
Brady, David W., Han, Hahrie C., and Pope, Jeremy C.. 2007. “Primary Elections and Candidate Ideology: Out of Step with the Primary Electorate?” Legislative Studies Quarterly 32(1):79–105.
Brammer, Jack. 2009a. “SurveyUSA: Grayson and Mongiardo Lead in U.S. Senate Primaries.” Lexington Herald-Leader, August 18.
Brammer, Jack. 2009b. “Williams Won't Run for U.S. Senate; Predicts Bunning Will Stay in.” Lexington Herald-Leader, June 15.
Brammer, Jack. 2010. “Paul Thumps Grayson; Conway Edges Mongiardo.” Lexington Herald-Leader, May 19.
Broockman, David E. 2014. “Mobilizing Candidates: Political Actors Strategically Shape the Candidate Pool with Personal Appeals.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 1(2):104–19.
Broockman, David E., Carnes, Nicholas, Crowder-Meyer, Melody, and Skovron, Christopher. 2016. “Having Their Cake and Eating It, Too: (Why) Local Party Leaders Prefer Nominating Extreme Candidates.” Stanford University Working Paper.
Brown, Adam R. 2013. “Does Money Buy Votes? The Case of Self-Financed Gubernatorial Candidates.” Political Behavior 35(1):21–41.
Brunell, Thomas L. 2005. “The Relationship between Political Parties and Interest Groups: Explaining Patterns of PAC Contributions to Candidates for Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 58(4):681–88.
Budd, Lawrence. 2005. “Hackett Hopes Duty in Iraq Gives Him Edge in Contest – Democrat Seeks Seat That Was Held by Rob Portman.” Dayton Daily News, July 25, B4.
Burke, Edmund. 1770. Thoughts on the Causes of the Present Discontents. London: J.Dodsley.
Burnham, Walter Dean. 1970. Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics. New York: W.W. Norton and Company Inc.
Butler, Daniel M. and Dynes, Adam M.. 2016. “How Politicians Discount the Opinions of Constituents with Whom They Disagree.” American Journal of Political Science 60(4):975–89.
Butler, Daniel M. and Preece, Jessica Robinson. 2016. “Recruitment and Perceptions of Gender Bias in Party Leader Support.” Political Research Quarterly 69(4):842–51.
BuzzFeed. 2012. “Audio Exclusive: In 1996 Phone Call, Gingrich Sought To Ease Out Wisconsin Challenger.” BuzzFeed Politics, January 26.
Campbell, James E. 2010. “The Seats in Trouble Forecast of the 2010 Elections to the U.S. House.” PS: Political Science & Politics 43(4):627–30.
Campbell, James E., Alford, John R., and Henry, Keith. 1984. “Television Markets and Congressional Elections.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 9(4):665–78.
Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip E., Miller, Warren E., and Stokes, Donald E.. 1960. The American Voter. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Canon, David T. 1990. Actors, Athletes, and Astronauts: Political Amateurs in the United States Congress. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Canon, David T. 1993. “Sacrificial Lambs or Strategic Politicians? Political Amateurs in US House Elections.” American Journal of Political Science 37(4):1119–141.
Cantor, Eric, Ryan, Paul, and McCarthy, Kevin. 2010. Young Guns: A New Generation of Conservative Leaders. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Cassata, Donna. 2014. “Tea Party Ready for Fight with GOP Establishment.” Associated Press, March 1.
Cataluna, Lee. 2010. “Case Out for Now, but Far From Pau.” Honolulu Advertiser, June 1.
Chancellor, Carl. 2006. “Hackett Ends Bid for Seat in Senate – Letter Says Iraq Veteran Reluctantly Drops Out after Requests by Party Leaders.” Akron Beacon Journal, February 15, B1.
Cillizza, Chris and Blake, Aaron. 2012. “Why Dick Lugar Lost.” Washington Post, May 9.
Clarke, Peter and Evans, Susan H.. 1983. Covering Campaigns: Journalism in Congressional Elections. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Cohen, Marty, Karol, David, Noel, Hans, and Zaller, John. 2008. The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations Before and After Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cohen, Marty, Karol, David, Noel, Hans, and Zaller, John. 2016. “Party Versus Faction in the Reformed Presidential Nominating System.” PS: Political Science & Politics 43(4):701–8.
Collins, Michael. 2005a. “Hackett in Talks with Dean.” Cincinnati Post, September 10, A10.
Collins, Michael. 2005b. “This Man Keeps His Word.” Cincinnati Post, November 12, A12.
Confessore, Nicholas and Yourish, Karen. 2016. “$2 Billion Worth of Free Media for Donald Trump.” New York Times, March 17, A3.
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report. 1992. “Tsongas Suspends Campaign.” Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, March 21, 749.
Converse, Philip E. 1964. “The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics.” Pp. 206–61 in Ideology and Its Discontents, edited by Apter, David E.. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.
Courier Journal. 2010. “Bunning's Fitness.” Courier Journal, October 10.
Crippes, Christinia. 2015. “Vernon Secures Another Congressional Endorsement.” Waterloo Courier, June 25.
Cross, Al. 2009. “Fancy Farm Picnic Can Be a Minefield for Front-Runners.” Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, August 11, A9.
Currinder, Marian L. 2009. Money in the House: Campaign Funds and Congressional Party Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Daily Kos. 2005. “Paul Hackett, Daily Kos & The New Republic.” Daily Kos, August 4.
Dao, James. 2005. “A Veteran of Iraq, Running in Ohio, Is Harsh on Bush.” New York Times, July 22, A1.
DePledge, Derrick. 2009. “Case Sets His Sights on Returning to Congress.” Honolulu Advertiser, March 29.
DePledge, Derrick. 2010a. “Case Stuns with Withdrawal from Hawaii Congressional Primary.” Honolulu Advertiser, May 31.
DePledge, Derrick. 2010b. “Hannemann, Abercrombie Sum It Up.” Honolulu Advertiser, May 30.
DePledge, Derrick. 2012. “Hirono Beats Case.” Honolulu Star-Advertiser, August 12.
Desmarais, Bruce A., La Raja, Raymond J., and Kowal, Michael S.. 2015. “The Fates of Challengers in U.S. House Elections: The Role of Extended Party Networks in Supporting Candidates and Shaping Electoral Outcomes.” American Journal of Political Science 59(1):194–211.
Diaz, Kevin. 2005. “Gutknecht Says He Won't Play ‘Kingmaker’ for Kennedy.” Star Tribune, March 5, 1B.
Diaz, Kevin and Doyle, Pat. 2010. “Dayton Has a Record of Going It Alone: The Former U.S. Senator Has Always Been Liberal, but Not Always Predictable.” Star Tribune, October 18.
Djupe, Paul A. and Peterson, David A. M.. 2002. “The Impact of Negative Campaigning: Evidence from the 1998 Senatorial Primaries.” Political Research Quarterly 55(4):845–60.
Dominguez, Casey B. K. 2005. Before the Primary: Party Participation in Congressional Nominating Processes. Ph.D Dissertation, Berkeley, CA: University of California.
Dominguez, Casey B. K. 2011. “Does the Party Matter? Endorsements in Congressional Primaries.” Political Research Quarterly 64(3):534–44.
Dowdle, Andrew J., Limbocker, Scott, Yang, Song, Sebold, Karen, and Stewart, Patrick A.. 2013. “Why Contested Primaries May Not Be Divisive Primaries.” Pp. 1–15 in The Invisible Hands of Political Parties in Presidential Elections, edited by Dowdle, Andrew J., Limbocker, Scott, Yan, Song, Sebold, Karen, and Stewart, Patrick A.. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.
Doyle, Pat. 2008. “Ciresi in Parting: Choose Wisely – The DFLer Leaves the U.S. Senate Race, Saying the Real Opponent Is GOP Incumbent Coleman.” Star Tribune, March 11.
Dwyre, Diana, Heberlig, Eric S., Kolodny, Robin, and Larson, Bruce. 2006. “Committees and Candidates: National Party Finance after BCRA.” Pp. 95–112 in The State of the Parties, edited by Green, John C. and Coffey, Daniel. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Dwyre, Diana and Kolodny, Robin. 2003. “The Committee Shuffle: Major Party Spending in Congressional Elections.” Pp. 115–31 in The State of the Parties, edited by Green, John C. and Farmer, Richard. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Dynes, Adam M., Hassell, Hans J. G., and Miles, Matthew R.. 2016. “Personality Traits, Candidate Emergence, and Political Ambition: How Personality Affects Who Represents Us.” Meetings of the American Political Science Association.
Ellis, Ronnie. 2009. “Prominent Republicans Named to Grayson's Finance Committee.” Sentinel Echo, May 28, 5747.
Ensley, Michael J. 2012. “Incumbent Positioning, Ideological Heterogeneity and Mobilization in U.S. House Elections.” Public Choice 151(1–2):43–61.
Ezra, Marni. 1996. The Benefits and Burdens of Congressional Primary Elections. Washington, DC: American University Press.
Fahrenthold, David A. 2016. “Nev. Candidate Says Reid Urged Him to Quit, Because ‘A Muslim Cannot Win This Race.’” Washington Post, March 29.
Farber, Dan. 2010. “Christine O'Donnell TV Ad: ‘I'm Not a Witch … I'm You.’” CBS News, October 5.
Farhi, Paul. 2004. “Bunning's Wild Pitches Tighten Kentucky Senate Race.” Washington Post, October 15.
Fenno, Richard F. 1978. Home Style: House Members in Their Districts. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
Fiorina, Morris P. 1977. “The Case of the Vanishing Marginals: The Bureaucracy Did It.” American Political Science Review 71(1):177–81.
Fiorina, Morris P. and Abrams, Samuel J.. 2009. Disconnect: The Breakdown of Representation in American Politics. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
La Follette, Robert. 1898. Primary Elections for the Nomination of All Candidates by Australian Ballot Address Delivered Before. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan (March 12).
La Follette, Robert. 1913. La Follette's Autobiography: A Personal Narrative of Political Experiences. Madison, WI: Robert M. La Follette Company.
Forliti, Amy. 2005. “Grams Drops Out of 2006 Senate Race: Former Senator Says He'll Back GOP Nominee.” Pioneer Press, April 25.
Fort Wayne, News-Sentinal. 2015. “‘Tea Party-Backed Rival’ Would Not Just Go Along: How Has that ‘Republican Establishment’ Been Working Out for You?” Fort Wayne News-Sentinal, October 16, 6A.
Fox, Richard L. and Lawless, Jennifer L.. 2010. “If Only They'd Ask: Gender, Recruitment, and Political Ambition.” Journal of Politics 72(2):310–26.
Fraga, Bernard L. and Hassell, Hans J. G.. 2017. “Are Minority Candidates Penalized by Party Politics?” Meetings of the American Political Science Association.
Francisco, Brian. 2015. “Senate Candidates Raise Funds Far from Home.” Journal Gazette (Fort Wayne, IN), October 31, 1A.
Francisco, Brian. 2016. “2 Left in GOP Senate Race – Holcomb Quits; Could Be Next Lieutenant Governor.” Journal Gazette (Fort Wayne, IN), February 9, 1C.
Fritze, John. 2010. “Giuliani Backs Grayson in Kentucky GOP Primary.” USA Today, April 19.
Frommer, Frederic J. 2006. “Gutknecht Contemplates Life After Congress.” Post Bulletin, December 9.
Galderisi, Peter F., Ezra, Marni, and Lyons, Michael. 1982. “Is the Direct Primary a Threat to Party Maintenance? The Divisive Primary Revisited, Again.” Meetings of the Midwest Political Science Association.
Garrett, R. Sam. 2014. Increased Campaign Contribution Limits in the FY2015 Omnibus Appropriations Law: Frequently Asked Questions, R43825. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service 7–5700.
Gilbert, Christopher P. 1995. “Christians and Quistians in Minnesota.” PS: Political Science & Politics 28(1):20–23.
Goldmacher, Shane. 2013. “Why Would Anyone Ever Want to Run for Congress?” The Atlantic, April 19.
Goodliffe, Jay and Magleby, David B.. 2001. “Campaign Finance in U.S. House Primary and General Elections.” Pp. 62–76 in Congressional Primaries and the Politics of Representation, edited by Galderisi, Peter, Ezra, Marni, and Lyons, Michael. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
Gram, David. 2005. “Dubie Seeks Donations for Possible Senate Bid.” Times Argus, August 23.
Grant, David. 2012. “If GOP Misfires on Bid for Senate Takeover, Is Tea Party to Blame.” Christian Science Monitor, November 6.
Greenfield, Daniel. 2015. “Move to the Right to Win Minority Votes.” Frontpage Mag, October 23.
Grossmann, Matt and Dominguez, Casey B. K.. 2009. “Party Coalitions and Interest Group Networks.” American Politics Research 37(5):767–800.
Grossmann, Matt and Hopkins, David A.. 2015. “Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats: The Asymmetry of American Party Politics.” Perspectives on Politics 13(1):119–39.
Grossmann, Matt and Hopkins, David A.. 2016. Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. New York: Oxford University Press.
Grow, Doug. 2011. “Mark Dayton's Turnaround: How Can a ‘Failing’ Senator Seem to Have the Makings of a Star Governor.” MinnPost, April 25.
Gullan, Harold I. 2012. Toomey's Triumph: Inside a Key Senate Campaign. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Hacker, Andrew. 1965. “Does a ‘Divisive’ Primary Harm a Candidate's Election Chances.” American Political Science Review 59(1):105–10.
Hagen, Lisa. 2017. “Dems Crowd Primaries to Challenge GOP Reps.” The Hill, May 26, 4–7.
Hall, Andrew B. 2015. “What Happens When Extremists Win Primaries?” American Political Science Review 109(1):1–46.
Hammer, David. 2005. “Hackett Sticks to Bid for Senate.” Cincinnati Post, December 6, A1.
Hammer, David. 2006. “Dems to Hackett: Run for House.” Cincinnati Post, February 13, A2.
Harvey, Anna and Mukherjee, Bumba. 2006. “Electoral Institutions and the Evolution of Partisan Conventions, 1880–1940.” American Politics Research 34(3):368–98.
Hasen, Richard L. 2008. “Political Equality, the Internet, and Campaign Finance Regulation.” The Forum 6(1):Article 7.
Hassell, Hans J. G. 2007. “Managing Conflict: The Preliminary Phases of the 2006 Minnesota Senate Race.” Meetings of the Midwest Political Science Association.
Hassell, Hans J. G. 2012. “The Party's Primary: The Influence of the Party Hill Committees in Primary Elections for the House and Senate.” San Diego, CA: University of California.
Hassell, Hans J. G. 2016. “Party Control of Party Primaries: Party Influence in Nominations for the U.S. Senate.” Journal of Politics 78(1):75–87.
Hassell, Hans J. G. and Marn, Nicholas. 2015. “Message Bias: Campaign Strategy As Seen Through TV, Mail, Print, and Electronic Communications.” Meetings of the Midwest Political Science Association.
Hassell, Hans J. G. and Oeltjenbruns, Kelly R.. 2016. “When to Attack: The Trajectory of Congressional Campaign Negativity.” American Politics Research 44(2):222–46.
Haynes, John Earl. 1984. Dubious Alliance: The Making of Minnesota's DFL Party. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Heersink, Boris. 2016. “Party Brands and the Democratic and Republican National Committees.” Meetings of the American Political Science Association.
Hennings, Valerie M. and Urbatsch, R.. 2016. “Gender, Partisanship, and Candidate-Selection Mechanisms.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 16(3):290–312.
Herrnson, Paul S. 1986. “Do Parties Make a Difference? The Role of Party Organizations in Congressional Elections.” Journal of Politics 48(3):589–615.
Herrnson, Paul S. 1988. Party Campaigning in the 1980s. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Herrnson, Paul S. 2005. “National Party Organizations at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Centruy.” Pp. 47–78 in The Parties Respond: Changes in American Parties and Campaigns, edited by Sandy Maisel, L.. Cambridge: Westview Press.
Herrnson, Paul S. 2009. “The Roles of Party Organizations, Party-Connected Committees, and Party Allies in Elections.” Journal of Politics 71(4):1207–24.
Herrnson, Paul S. and Gimpel, James G.. 1995. “District Conditions and Primary Divisiveness in Congressional Elections.” Political Research Quarterly 48(1):117–34.
Hershey, William. 2005. “Candidates Stake Positions for 'o6 Elections – Hackett May Seek U.S. Senate Seat.” Dayton Daily News, September 20, B2.
Hicks, Raymond and Tingley, Dustin. 2011. “Causal Mediation Analysis.” The Stata Journal 11(4):609–15.
Hill, Seth J. 2015. “Two-Step To Win: Balancing Representation of Primary and General Electorates in Congress.” Meetings of the Midwest Political Science Association.
Hill, Seth J. and Tausanovitch, Chris. 2015. “A Disconnect in Representation? Comparison of Trends in Congressional and Public Polarization.” Journal of Politics 77(4):1058–75.
Hinckley, Katherine A. and Green, John C.. 1996. “Fund-Raising in Presidential Nomination Campaigns: The Primary Lessons of 1988.” Political Research Quarterly 49(4):693–718.
Hirano, Shigeo, Snyder, James M., Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Mark Hansen, John. 2010. “Primary Elections and Partisan Polarization in the US Congress.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 5(2):169–91.
Hofstadter, Richard. 1955. The Age of Reform. New York: Vintage Books.
Hofstadter, Richard. 1969. The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780–1840. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Homans, Charles. 2005. “Grams Runs Against Odds His Profile Is Low, His Party Unsupportive.” Pioneer Press, March 28, B1.
Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 2010. “Case Pulls Out of Congressional Race.” May 30.
Horstman, Barry M. 2005. “A Race of a Different Sort – Iraq War Veteran Makes Run for Rob Portman's Seat Interesting.” Cincinnati Post, July 30, A1.
Hotakainen, Rob, Smith, Dane, and Sand, Paul. 2005. “Filling Dayton's Seat – Senate Race: The Ins, Outs, Maybes – Grams Will Run; Franken Won't; Kennedy Readies.” Star Tribune, February 11.
Howey, Brian. 2015a. “Howey: A Fascinating U.S. Senate Race Is Setting Up.” News and Tribune, May.
Howey, Brian. 2015b. “If Sen. Coats Doesn't Run, Who Does?” Hendricks County Flyer, January 22.
Howey, Brian. 2016. “Holcomb In, Ellspermann Out, in Indianapolis Drama.” Elkhart Truth, February 13, A4.
Imai, Kosuke, Keele, Luke, and Tingley, Dustin. 2010. “A General Approach to Causal Mediation Analysis.” Psychological Methods 15(4):309–34.
Imai, Kosuke, Keele, Luke, Tingley, Dustin, and Yamamoto, Teppei. 2011. “Unpacking the Black Box of Causality: Learning About Causal Mechanisms from Experimental and Observational Studies.” American Political Science Review 105(4):765–89.
Iowa Starting, Line. 2015. “Shocker: Ravi Patel Withdraws from 1st District Race.” Iowa Starting Line, June 23.
Iyengar, Shanto and Kinder, Donald R.. 1987. News That Matters. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Jacobson, Gary C. 1978. “The Effects of Campaign Spending in Congressional Elections.” American Political Science Review 72(2):469–91.
Jacobson, Gary C. 1980. Money in Congressional Elections. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Jacobson, Gary C. 1989. “Strategic Politicians and the Dynamics of U.S. House Elections, 1946–86.” American Political Science Review 83(3):773–93.
Jacobson, Gary C. 2010. “A Collective Dilemma Solved: The Distribution of Party Campaign Resources in the 2006 and 2008 Congressional Elections.” Election Law Journal 9(4):46–49.
Jacobson, Gary C. and Kernell, Samuel. 1981. Strategy and Choice in Congressional Elections. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Jewell, Malcolm E. and Morehouse, Sarah M.. 2001. Political Parties and Elections in American States. 4th ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Jewitt, Caitlin E. and Treul, Sarah A.. 2014. “Competitive Primaries and Party Division in Congressional Elections.” Electoral Studies 35:140–49.
Johnson, Dennis W. 2007. No Place of Amateurs: How Political Consultants Are Reshaping American Democracy. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Johnson, Donald Bruce and Gibson, James R.. 1974. “The Divisive Primary Revisited: Party Activists in Iowa.” American Political Science Review 68(1):67–77.
Johnson, Gregg B., Petersheim, Meredith-Joy, and Wasson, Jesse T.. 2010. “Divisive Primaries and Incumbent General Election Performance: Prospects and Costs in U.S. House Races.” American Politics Research 38(5):931–55.
Joseph, Cameron. 2015. “Chief of Staff Launches Senate Bid for Coats's Seat.” The Hill, March 26.
Kaplan, Rebecca. 2014. “Why Outgoing Presidents Stay Off the Campaign Trail.” CBS News, November 24.
Karon, Tony. 2001. “How Jim Jeffords Changed the World.” Time, May 29.
Kazee, Thomas A. and Thornberry, Mary C.. 1990. “Where's the Party? Congressional Candidate Recruitment and American Party Organizations.” Western Political Quarterly 43(1):61–80.
Kenney, Patrick J. and Rice, Tom W.. 1984. “The Effect of Primary Divisiveness in Gubernatorial and Senatorial Elections.” Journal of Politics 46(3):904–15.
Kenney, Patrick J. and Rice, Tom W.. 1987. “The Relationship between Divisive Primaries and General Election Outcomes.” American Journal of Political Science 31(1):31–44.
Key, V. O. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press.
Key, V. O. 1964. Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups. New York: Crowell.
Koger, Gregory, Masket, Seth E., and Noel, Hans. 2009. “Cooperative Party Factions in American Politics.” American Politics Research 38(1):33–53.
Kolodny, Robin. 1998. Pursuing Majorities: Congressional Campaign Committees in American Politics. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Kolodny, Robin and Dulio, David A.. 2003. “Political Party Adaptation in US Congressional Campaigns: Why Political Parties Use Coordinated Expenditures to Hire Political Consultants.” Party Politics 9(6):729–46.
Kolodny, Robin and Logan, Angela. 1998. “Political Consultants and the Extension of Party Goals.” PS: Political Science & Politics 31(2):155–9.
Kousser, Thad, Lucas, Scott, Masket, Seth E., and McGhee, Eric. 2015. “Kingmakers or Cheerleaders? Party Power and the Causal Effects of Endorsements.” Political Research Quarterly 68(3):443–56.
Krawzak, Paul M. 2006. “Ryan, Brown Consider Challenging DeWine for His Senate Seat.” The Repository, July 26.
Laffey, Steve. 2007. Primary Mistake: How the Washington Establishment Lost Everything in 2006 (and Sabotaged My Senatorial Campaign). New York: Sentinel.
Lasswell, Harold D. 1948. Power and Personality. New York: Norton.
Lawrence, Eric, Donovan, Todd, and Bowler, Shaun. 2011. “The Adoption of Direct Primaries in the United States.” Party Politics 19(1):3–18.
Lazarus, Jeffrey. 2005. “Unintended Consequences: Anticipation of General Election Outcomes and Primary Election Divisiveness.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 30(3):435–61.
Lewis, David. 1969. Convention: A Philosophical Study. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lillis, Mike. 2011. “Issa Says He Won't Investigate White House Job Offer to Rep. Sestak.” The Hill, January 2.
Lindenberger, Michael A. 2009. “How Mitch McConnell Ended Jim Bunning's Career.” Time Magazine, July.
Lopez, Patricia. 2006a. “Is Wetterling About to Leave Senate Race? – The DFL Candidate Has Scheduled a News Conference Today Amid Speculation That She Will Be Ending Her Campaign.” Star Tribune, January 20.
Lopez, Patricia. 2006b. “Senate Race Puts State in Spotlight; Minnesota's Contest Has Defined Itself Quickly, a Sign of Intense National Interest.” Star Tribune, February 12, 1A.
Los Angeles Herald. 1908. “Great Welcome Is Given Heney.” Los Angeles Herald, May 3, 3–4.
Lublin, David Ian. 1994. “Quality, Not Quantity: Strategic Politicians in U.S. Senate Elections, 1952–1990.” Journal of Politics 56(1):228–41.
Lynch, Julia F. 2013. “Aligning Sampling Strategies with Analytical Goals.” Pp. 31–44 in Interview Research in Political Science. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Maestas, Cherie D., Fulton, Sarah, Maisel, L. Sandy, and Stone, Walter J.. 2006. “When to Risk It? Institutions, Ambitions, and the Decision to Run for the U.S. House.” American Political Science Review 100(2):195–208.
Maestas, Cherie D., Maisel, L. Sandy, and Stone, Walter J.. 2005. “National Party Efforts to Recruit State Legislators to Run for the U.S. House.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 30(2):277–300.
Maisel, L. Sandy. 1982. From Obscurity to Oblivion: Running in the Congressional Primary. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press.
Maisel, L. Sandy and Stone, Walter J.. 1997. “Determinants of Candidate Emergence in U. S. House Elections: An Exploratory Study.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 22(1):79–96.
Mann, Thomas E. and Ornstein, Norman J.. 2012. It's Even Worse Than It Looks: How the American Constitutional System Collided with the New Politics of Extremism. New York: Basic Books.
Martin, Jonathan. 2010. “DCCC to Highlight ‘Palin's Primaries’.” Politico, February, 23.
Marx, Claude R. 2004. “Parke Targets Sanders, Then Pulls the Ad.” Times Argus, October 30.
Masket, Seth E. 2009. No Middle Ground: How Informal Party Organizations Control Nominations and Polarize Legislatures. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Masket, Seth E. 2011. “The Circus That Wasn't: The Republican Party's Quest for Order in California's 2003 Gubernatorial Recall Election.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 11(2):123–47.
Masket, Seth E. 2016. The Inevitable Party: Why Attempts to Kill the Party System Fail and How They Weaken Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Masket, Seth E., Heaney, Michael T., Miller, Joanne M., and Strolovich, Dara Z.. 2012. “Polarized Networks: The Organizational Affiliations of National Party Convention Delegates.” American Behavioral Scientist 56(12):1654–76.
Matthews, Donald R. 1984. “Legislative Recruitment and Legislative Careers.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 9(4):547–85.
Mayhew, David R. 1974. Congress: The Electoral Connection. 1st ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
McCallum, Laura. 2000. “Senate Candidate Profile: Mike Ciresi.” Minnesota Public Radio, August 14.
McCarty, Nolan M., Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 2006. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
McCarty, Nolan M., Rodden, Jonathan, Shor, Boris, Tausanovitch, Chris, and Warshaw, Christopher. 2014. “Geography, Uncertainty, and Polarization.” Meetings of the European Political Science Association.
Medvic, Stephen K. 2001. Political Consultants in U.S. Congressional Elections. Ohio State University Press.
Menefee-Libey, David. 2000. The Triumph of Campaign-Centered Politics. New York: Chatham House Publishers.
Merriam, Charles E. 1923. “Nominating Systems.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 106(1):1–10.
Merriam, Charles E. and Overacker, Louise. 1928. Primary Elections. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Miller, Sean J. 2010. “Ed Case Ends His Campaign for Hawaii House Seat.” The Hill, May 30.
Miller, Penny M., Jewell, Malcolm E., and Sigelman, Lee. 1988. “Divisive Primaries and Party Activists: Kentucky, 1979 and 1983.” Journal of Politics 50(2):459–70.
Morehouse, Sarah M. 1990. “Money versus Party Effort: Nominating for Governor.” American Journal of Political Science 34(3):706–24.
Mosley, Layna. 2013. “Just Talk to People? Interviews in Contemporary Political Science.” Pp. 1–28 in Interview Research in Political Science, edited by Mosley, Layna. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Musgrave, Beth. 2009. “Grayson Signing Up Influential Republicans.” Lexington Herald-Leader, May 22, C2.
Mutz, Diana C. 1995. “Effects of Horse-Race Coverage on Campaign Coffers: Strategic Contributing in Presidential Primaries.” Journal of Politics 57(4):1015–42.
National Public Radio. 2002. “Sen. Paul Wellstone, 1944–2002.” NPR, October 25.
Nesmith, Bruce. 1995. “Rosy Scenario: The Republican-White Evangelical Alliance Holds in Iowa.” PS: Political Science & Politics 28(1):18–20.
Neustadt, Richard. 1960. Presidential Power. New York: Macmillan.
New York Times. 2005. “Senator Mark Dayton Will Not Run for Re-Election.” New York Times, February 9.
Niedzwiadek, Nick. 2016. “Appellate Court Cancels Special GOP Primary in 3rd Congressional District.” Politico, September 14.
Nielson, Lindsay and Visalvanich, Neil. 2015. “Primaries and Candidates: Examining the Influence of Primary Electorates on Candidate Ideology.” Political Science Research and Methods 5(2):397–408.
Niven, David. 2006. “Throwing Your Hat Out of the Ring: Negative Recruitment and the Gender Imbalance in State Legislative Candidacy.” Politics & Gender 2(4):473–89.
Noel, Hans. 2013. Political Ideologies and Political Parties in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Noel, Hans. 2016. “Sanders Needs Open Primaries Because He's Not Winning Democrats.” Vox, April 25.
Norrander, Barbara. 2000. “The End Game in Post-Reform Presidential Nominations.” Journal of Politics 62(4):999–1013.
Norrander, Barbara. 2006. “The Attrition Game: Initial Resources, Initial Contests and the Exit of Candidates during the US Presidential Primary Season.” British Journal of Political Science 36(3):487–507.
Norris, George W. 1923. “Why I Believe in the Direct Primary.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 106(1):22–30.
Nyhan, Brendan and Montgomery, Jacob M.. 2015. “Connecting the Candidates: Consultant Networks and the Diffusion of Campaign Strategy in American Congressional Elections.” American Journal of Political Science 59(2):292–308.
O'Brien, Robert M. 2007. “A Caution Regarding Rules of Thumb for Variance Inflation Factors.” Quality and Quantity 41(5):673–90.
O'Keefe, Ed. 2016. “This Is the Last Stand for the ‘Never Trump’ Movement. Here's What Might Happen.” Washington Post, July 13.
Obeidallah, Dean. 2016. “Harry Reid Tells Muslim Congressional Candidate: Get Out of the Race.” The Daily Beast, April 5.
Osowski, Zach. 2016. “‘An Orderly Transition’ – Pence Selects Eric Holcomb as His Next Running Mate.” Courier & Press, February 10, 1A.
Pang, Gordon Y. K. 2010. “Democrats Shift Focus to Primary.” Honolulu Advertiser, May 23.
Parker, Chris. 2005. “Shepard, Dubie Test State GOP Waters.” Bennington Banner, September 17.
Pathé, Simone. 2015a. “Colorado Candidate ‘Immediately Serious' with $1M Loan.” Roll Call, July 20.
Pathé, Simone. 2015b. “Democrats Land Mike Coffman Challenger in Colorado.” Roll Call, July 7.
Pathé, Simone. 2016. “Democrats Land Reid Recruit in Competitive Nevada District.” Roll Call, January 26.
Peoples, Steve. 2016. “Many Experienced GOP Strategists Unwilling to Work for Trump.” PBS Newshour, June 25.
Pershing, Ben and Cillizza, Chris. 2009. “Under Pressure to Retire, Bunning Announces Plans to Quit Senate.” Washington Post, July 28.
Persily, Nathaniel. 2015. “Stronger Parties as a Solution to Polarization.” Pp. 123–36 in Solutions to Political Polarization in America, edited by Persily, Nathanial. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Phillip, E. L. 1909. “The Revolution of the Primary Under Leadership of La Follette.” Milwaukee Sentinal, October 10.
Piereson, James E. and Smith, Terry B.. 1975. “Primary Divisiveness and General Election Success: A Re-Examination.” Journal of Politics 37(2):555–62.
Pore, Robert. 2007. “Immigrant Issues to Go Before Senate Next Week – Hagel Says Congress Must Act Quickly; Nelson Contends That Border Must Be Secured First.” Grand Island Independent, May 11.
Porter, Louis. 2005a. “Dubie Off to School for Senate Candidates.” Times Argus, June 3.
Porter, Louis. 2005b. “Dubie Opts Out of U.S. Senate Race.” Times Argus, October 27.
Preece, Jessica Robinson and Stoddard, Olga. 2015. “Does the Message Matter? A Field Experiment on Political Party Recruitment.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 2(1):26–35.
Prewitt, Kenneth. 1970. “Political Ambitions, Volunteerism, and Electoral Accountability.” American Political Science Review 64(1):5–17.
Provance, Jim. 2005. “Sherrod Brown's Advocates Saddened Polls Can't Convince Him to Seek Senate.” The Blade, August 19, A3.
Quinn, Francis X. 2000. “Unopposed Green Party Candidate Loses Race with Zero Votes.” Bangor Daily News, July 14.
La Raja, Raymond J. 2008. Small Change: Money, Political Parties, and Campaign Finance Reform. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
La Raja, Raymond J. and Schaffner, Brian F.. 2015. Campaign Finance and Political Polarization: When Purists Prevail. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
La Raja, Raymond J. and Wiltse, David L.. 2011. “Don't Blame Donors for Ideological Polarization of Political Parties: Ideological Change and Stability Among Political Contributors, 1972-2008.” American Politics Research 40(3):501–30.
Raju, Manu. 2012. “Richard Mourdock Under Fire for Rape Remarks.” Politico, October 23.
Rakove, Milton. 1975. Don't Make No Waves, Don't Back No Losers: An Insider's Account of the Daley Machine. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Ranney, Austin. 1975. Curing the Mischiefs of Faction: Party Reform in America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Reeve, Elspeth. 2012. “Meet Chuck Hagel, Your ‘Likely’ New Secretary of Defense.” The Wire, December 12.
Reuters. 2006. “Democrats Lose House Race in Ohio, But Celebrate the Margin.” New York Times, August 3, A1.
Reyes, B. J. 2010. “Djou Wins U.S. House Seat – The GOP Trumpets a Victory on Obama's Home Turf, While Dems Promise to Regroup.” Honolulu Star-Bulletin, May 23.
Riley, Brendan. 2009. “Congressman Hedges on Senate Bid.” Associated Press, April 17.
Riskind, Jonathan and Bell, Tom. 2012. “Under Pressure, Michaud Skips Race for Senate.” Press Herald, March 1.
Rohde, David W. 1979. “Risk-Bearing and Progressive Ambition: The Case of Members of the United States House of Representatives.” American Journal of Political Science 23(1):1–26.
Rose, Alex. 2010. “Sestak, White House Still Mum on Alleged Job Offer.” Delaware County Daily Times, May 25.
Rozell, Mark J. 1995. God at the Grass Roots: The Christian Right in the 1994 Elections. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Rudin, Ken. 2010. “Hawaii's Abercrombie to Resign House Seat Next Month to Focus on Gov Race.” NPR, January 5.
Salisbury, Bill and Ragsdale, Jim. 2001. “Pawlenty Abandons Senate Run: Cheney Asks Him to Defer to Coleman; He'll Ponder Options.” Pioneer Press, April 19, 1A.
Schantz, Harvey L. 1980. “Contested and Uncontested Primaries for the U. S. House.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 5(4):545–62.
Schelling, Thomas C. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schlesinger, Joseph A. 1966. Ambition and Politics: Political Careers in the United States. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
Schlesinger, Joseph A. 1991. Political Parties and the Winning of Office. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Schumer, Charles E. 2014. “End Partisan Primaries, Save America.” New York Times, July 21, A21.
Sclar, Jason, Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander, Skocpol, Theda, and Williamson, Vanessa. 2016. “Donor Consortia on the Left and Right: Comparing the Membership, Activities, and Impact of the Democracy Alliance and Koch Seminars.” Meetings of the Midwest Political Science Association.
Scott, Janny. 2007. “Different Paths From Vietnam to War in Iraq.” New York Times, March 18, A1.
Seligman, Lester G. 1961. “Political Recruitment and Party Structure: A Case Study.” American Political Science Review 55(1):77–86.
Seligman, Lester G., King, Michael R., Kim, Chong Lim, and Smith, Roland E.. 1974. Patterns of Recruitment: A State Chooses Its Lawmakers. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally College Publishing Company.
Sewell, Dan. 2005a. “Iraq War Vet to Face Brown in Senate Bid – ‘Citizen Legislator,’ 7-Term Congressman Compete to Unseat Republican DeWine.” Akron Beacon Journal, October 25, B1.
Sewell, Dan. 2005b. “Losing Ohio Congressional Candidate Still Drawing National Attention.” Associated Press, August 29.
Sewell, Dan. 2005c. “The Loser's a Winner – ‘Media-Genic’ Hackett Being Hailed for Future Offices.” Cincinnati Post, August 27, A1.
Sharon, Susan. 2016. “Joe Baldacci Drops Out of Congressional Race.” Maine Public Radio, February 5.
Shaw, Charley. 2005. “MN's GOP Faithful Should Embrace New Leader, Blogger Urges.” Legal Ledger, June 16.
Shear, Michael D. and Rosenberg, Matthew. 2016. “Released Emails Suggest the D.N.C. Derided the Sanders Campaign.” New York Times, July 22, A10.
Shepherd, Michael. 2014. “Democrats Push for Cain vs. Poliquin 2016 Rematch in Maine's 2nd District.” Kennebec Journal, November 14.
Sherry, Allison. 2010. “Buck Defeats Norton in Bruising GOP Primary for Senate Seat.” Denver Post, August 10, A1.
Shraine, Brendan. 2011. “Ed Makes Case for Senate.” West Hawaii Today, August 24.
Simpson, Kevin, Booth, Michael, and Sherry, Allison. 2010. “Bennet Wins in Senate Race.” Denver Post, November 2, A1.
Sinclair, Betsy. 2012. The Social Citizen. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Skinner, Richard M., Masket, Seth E., and Dulio, David A.. 2013. “527 Committees, Formal Parties, and the Political Party Network.” The Forum 11(2):137–56.
Skocpol, Theda. 2016. “When Wealthy Contributors Join Forces: New Research on Donor Consortia in U.S. Politics.” Ford Foundation Conference.
Slodysko, Brian. 2015a. “GOP Campaigns to Succeed Sen. Coats Report Fundraising.” Associated Press, October 14.
Slodysko, Brian. 2015b. “Republican Field Appears Set in Race for Open US Senate Seat.” Associated Press, September 15.
Slodysko, Brian. 2016. “Ex-Indiana GOP Chairman Holcomb Drop US Senate Campaign.” Associated Press, February 8.
Smith, Dane. 2001a. “Cheney Advises Pawlenty Not to Run for Senate; Majority Leader Bows to Request from White House.” Star Tribune, April 19, 1A.
Smith, Dane. 2001b. “Pawlenty Dons Running Shoes for Governor's Race – The House Majority Leader Has One Chief Rival so Far for the GOP Endorsement.” Star Tribune, September 6, 1B.
Smith, Dane. 2005. “GOP's Ron Eibensteiner Faces Challenge to Lead – Some in Party Say His Tenure Has Been a Failure.” Star Tribune, June 8, 1A.
Smith, Dane. 2006. “Will Summer Tiffs Hurt the DFL in This Fall's Elections? – A Bout of Infighting and Party Dissension Has Beset the DFL, Giving Great Glee to Political Foes.” Star Tribune, July 13.
Sniderman, Paul M. and Tomz, Michael. 2005. “Brand Names and the Organization of Mass Belief Systems.” Stanford University Working Paper.
Squire, Peverill. 1992. “Challenger Quality and Voting Behavior in U.S. Senate Elections.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 17(2):247–63.
Stamper, John. 2009. “Grayson: ‘Some People in College Tried Pot. I Tried Clinton.’” Lexington Herald-Leader, August 1.
Stassen-Berger, Rachel E. 2005a. “Kennedy First Out of Gate to Chase U.S. Senate Seat – High-Profile Republicans Are Backing Congressman.” Pioneer Press, February 12.
Stassen-Berger, Rachel E. 2005b. “Minnesota Politics – Gutknecht Will Seek Re-Election.” Pioneer Press, March 5, B3.
Stassen-Berger, Rachel E. 2006a. “Ciresi Won't Run for Senate – He Cites Frustration with Inertia in D.C.” Pioneer Press, February 9, B5.
Stassen-Berger, Rachel E. 2006b. “Wetterling Jumps Back in the Race – This Time for U.S. House, Again.” Pioneer Press, February 4.
Stassen-Berger, Rachel E. and Salisbury, Bill. 2005. “Kennedy Gets Nod From Pawlenty – McCollum Won't Run for Open Senate Seat.” Pioneer Press, March 8.
Steen, Jennifer A. 2006. Self-Financed Candidates in Congressional Elections. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Steinhauer, Jennifer. 2015. “Through It All, Pelosi Keeps House Democrats Moving in One Direction.” The New York Times, March 6.
von Sternberg, Bob. 2002. “Minnesota's Second District – GOP's Kline Defeats Four-Term Rep. Luther – The Third Time Was the Charm for John Kline, Whose Victory over Bill Luther Marks the First Time in 20 Years That Minnesota's Eight-Member House Delegation Does Not Have a Democratic Majority.” Star Tribune, November 6, 20A.
Strassel, Kimberly. 2010. “WSJ: A Case of Hanabusa.” Hawaii Reporter, June 4.
Sulkin, Tracy. 2009. “Campaign Appeals and Legislative Action.” Journal of Politics 71(3):1093.
Sur, Peter. 2011. “Case, Inouye Cleared the Air.” Hawaii Tribune-Herald, April 12.
SurveyUSA. 2006. SurveyUSA News Poll #9977. Clifton, NJ: SurveyUSA.
Tankersley, Jim. 2005a. “Brown's Jump into Senate Race Makes It a 3-Way Contest – Hackett's Run Still On, Aide Says.” The Blade, October 7, A1.
Tankersley, Jim. 2005b. “Brown Plans to Challenge DeWine for Senate Seat.” The Blade, October 6, A1.
Tankersley, Jim. 2005c. “Hackett Agrees to Challenge DeWine – U.S. Rep. Sherrod Brown Is Reconsidering His Decision Not to Run.” The Blade, October 4, A3.
Tankersley, Jim. 2005d. “Will DeWine Be Challenged? – $10M Campaign Frightens Off Opponents.” The Blade, August 21, B1.
The Blade. 2005. “Sherrod Brown's Timidity.” The Blade, August 21, B6.
Theilmann, John and Wilhite, Allen. 1986. “Differences in Campaign Funds: A Racial Explanation.” The Review of Black Political Economy 15(1):45–58.
Thompson, Jake. 2007. “Closer to Joining the Fray – President Says Johanns Would Be Great Senator – Bush Sends His Ag Chief Home, Where He Likely Faces a Costly Primary.” World-Herald, September 20.
Time. 2006. “Mark Dayton: The Blunderer.” Time, May.
Times Argus. 2005. “Dubie's Prospects.” Times Argus, September 26.
Tsai, Michael. 2009. “Hanabusa Enters Race for Congress.” Honolulu Advertiser, October 1.
Tully, Matthew. 2014. “Tully: Dan Coats Weighing Another Term in Senate.” Indianapolis Star, March 4.
Tysver, Robynn. 2007a. “Bruning Says Choice to End Bid Was His – The Attorney General Says He Acted to Avoid a Divisive Primary Against Mike Johanns, Not Because of GOP Pressure.” World-Herald, November 21, 1A.
Tysver, Robynn. 2007b. “Daub Give His Support to Johanns – Omaha's Ex-Mayor Leaves the Senate Race and Says He May Seek Office Again.” World-Herald, September 28, 1A.
Tysver, Robynn. 2007c. “Daub Says He'll Raise Funds for Senate Bid.” World-Herald, May 15.
Tysver, Robynn. 2015. “Citing Military and Foreign Policy as Priorities, Retired Brig. Gen. Don Bacon Announces Bid for Congress.” World-Herald, March 25.
Tysver, Robynn and Reed, Leslie. 2007. “Bruning Expected to End Bid for Senate – Fearing an Ugly Primary Battle, GOP Officials Are Said to Have Pressued the Attorney General Not to Challenge Mike Johanns.” World-Herald, November 21, 1A.
Urbina, Ian. 2006. “Popular Ohio Democrat Drops Out of Race, and Perhaps Politics.” New York Times, February 14.
Visalvanich, Neil, Schnakenberg, Keith E., and Hassell, Hans J. G.. 2017. “Race, Representation, and Campaign Finance Networks: The Effect of Party Support on Minority Candidates.” Meetings of the Midwest Political Science Association.
Walton, Don. 2007a. “Bruning Poll Shows Lead over Hagel.” Lincoln Journal Star, April 24, B1.
Walton, Don. 2007b. “Daub Might Challenge Hagel: Ex-Omaha Mayor Now Raising Funds for a Possible Senate Bid.” Lincoln Journal Star, B2.
Walton, Don. 2007c. “Don't Make Too Much of GOP Poll.” Lincoln Journal Star, October 1.
Walton, Don. 2007d. “Kerrey, Johanns Stir Follows Hagel's Exit.” Lincoln Journal Star, September 9.
Ware, Alan. 2002. The American Direct Primary. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weiner, Rachel. 2013. “Karl Rove's New ‘Conservative Victory Project’ Earns Conservative Ire.” Washington Post, February 4.
White, William Allen. 1910. The Old Order Changeth: A View of American Democracy. New York: Macmillan.
Whitlock, Craig. 2012. “Vietnam Scars Shape Hagel's Outlook.” Washington Post, December 20.
Zdechlik, Mark. 2006. “DFLers Set To Endorse Klobuchar For Senate.” Minnesota Public Radio, June 8.
Zeleny, Jeff. 2013. “Top Donors to Republicans Seek More Say in Senate Races.” New York Times, February 3, A1.
Zimmerman, Malia. 2006. “Bucking the Old Boys – Ed Case Says Chance 'Em, Makes a Run for Congress Despite Threats from Some of Hawaii's Most Senior Politicians.” Hawaii Reporter, January 20.