Skip to main content
Place Matters
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Gill, Charlotte Wooditch, Alese and Weisburd, David 2017. Testing the “Law of Crime Concentration at Place” in a Suburban Setting: Implications for Research and Practice. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,


Book description

Over the last two decades, there has been increased interest in the distribution of crime and other antisocial behavior at lower levels of geography. The focus on micro geography and its contribution to the understanding and prevention of crime has been called the 'criminology of place'. It pushes scholars to examine small geographic areas within cities, often as small as addresses or street segments, for their contribution to crime. Here, the authors describe what is known about crime and place, providing the most up-to-date and comprehensive review available. Place Matters shows that the study of criminology of place should be a central focus of criminology in the twenty-first century. It creates a tremendous opportunity for advancing our understanding of crime, and for addressing it. The book brings together eighteen top scholars in criminology and place to provide comprehensive research expanding across different themes.


‘Any serious criminologist needs to be thoroughly conversant with this outstanding book. Written by a team of leading scholars, it offers a criminology for the twenty-first century by showing that place is central to explaining and controlling crime.'

Ron Clarke - Rutgers University, New Jersey

‘At a time when the criminological imagination is often blunted by an allegiance to increasingly dated theories, a focus on place promises to illuminate fresh ways of thinking about crime and novel avenues for empirical investigation. More importantly, a place perspective offers one of the few hopes for criminologists to contribute to the daunting challenge of reducing crime and saving lives. Indeed, Place Matters should become a standard course text – a volume used to enrich how the next generation of scholars and practitioners understands crime and its prevention.'

Francis T. Cullen - University of Cincinnati

‘A brilliant and timely book … The authors cover the state of the art and future research for place-based research in an easily digestible form. Place Matters will, no doubt, become an instant classic and should be required reading for students and scholars in criminology.'

Martin A. Andresen - Simon Fraser University, British Columbia

‘Place Matters … provides an orienting overview of the last three-plus decades of research and theory on spatial crime dynamics and patterns, argues forcefully for placing such work squarely in the spotlight of mainstream criminological theory, and challenges the next generation of scholars to use the crime concentration constant as an organizing guidepost for further theoretical, practical, and policy advancement … The volume is certain to inspire widespread discussion and reflection on the past, present and future of the field.'

R. B. Taylor - Temple University, Philadelphia

‘Place Matters is a thought-provoking and essential read for everyone interested in the role of micro-environments in crime causation and prevention.'

Per-Olof H. Wikström, FBA - University of Cambridge

'The book … does not stint on theory, drawing for example on the pioneering sociologist Durkheim, and raises some discomforting questions for all of us.'

Mark Rowe Source: Professional Security Magazine Online (

'In Place Matters: Criminology for the Twenty-First Century, 18 leading criminologists have teamed to produce an accessible, tightly written account of this extraordinarily important insight. The book is a great contribution to the literature, and deserves to be carefully studied and widely read. … If scholars and law enforcement follow this research through to its natural conclusion, the results can be transformative. At the theoretical level, the research can bridge opportunity and social disorganization theories, which have hitherto provided radically different explanations for crime.'

Joseph Margulies Source: Criminal Law and Criminal Justice Books (

'… an up-to-date and authoritative review of findings concerning the role of place in crime …'

Source: Journal of Criminal Justice Education

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. Agnew (2013). “When criminal coping is likely: An extension of general strain theory.” Deviant Behavior, 34(8), 653–670.

R.L. Akers (1992). “Linking sociology and its specialties: The case of criminology.” Social Forces, 71(1), 1–16.

T.A. Akers , and M.M. Lanier (2009). “‘Epidemiological criminology’: Coming full circle.” American Journal of Public Health, 99(3), 397–402.

J. Albrecht (2007). Key concepts and techniques in GIS. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

F.H. Allport (1934) “The J curve hypothesis of conforming behavior.” Journal of Social Psychology, 5(2), 141–182.

I. Altman , and M. Chemers (1980). Culture and environment. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

M.A. Andresen , and N. Malleson (2011). “Testing the stability of crime patterns: Implications for theory and policy.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(1), 58–82.

M.E. Archibald (2008). “Exploring the reciprocal effects of substance abuse treatment provision and area substance abuse.” In D. Richardson and Y. Thomas (eds.), Geography and drug addiction (pp. 263–278). New York: Springer.

D.I. Ashby , B.L. Irving , and P.A. Longley (2007). “Police reform and the new public management paradigm: matching technology to the rhetoric.” Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 25(2), 159–175.

D.B. Audretsch , and M. Keilbach (2008). “Resolving the knowledge paradox: Knowledge-spillover entrepreneurship and economic growth.” Research Policy, 37(10), 1697–1705.

R.L. Axtell (2001). “Zipf distribution of U.S. firm sizes.” Science, 293(5536), 1818–1820.

P. Bak (1996). How nature works: The science of self-organized criticality. New York: Springer.

M. Batty , J. DeSyllas , and E. Duxbury (2003). “The discrete dynamics of small-scale spatial events: Agent-based models of mobility in carnivals and street parades.” International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 17(7), 673–697.

K. Beardsley , E.D. Wish , D.B. Fitzelle , K. O'Grady , and A.M. Arria (2003). “Distance traveled to outpatient drug treatment and client retention.” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 25(4), 279–285.

G.S. Becker (1968). “Crime and punishment: An economic approach.” Journal of Political Economy, 76(2), 169–217.

G.S. Becker (1993). “Nobel lecture: The economic way of looking at behavior.” Journal of Political Economy, 101(3), 385–409.

P. Beirne (1987). “Between classicism and positivism: Crime and penality in the writings of Gabriel Tarde.” Criminology, 25(4), 785–820.

P.E. Bellair (1997). “Social interaction and community crime: Examining the importance of neighbor networks.” Criminology, 35(4), 677–704.

M.L. Benson , T.D. Madensen , and J.E. Eck (2009). “White-collar crime from an opportunity perspective.” In S. Simpson and D. Weisburd (eds.), The criminology of white-collar crime (pp. 175–193). New York: Springer.

W. Bernasco (2008). “Them again? Same-offender involvement in repeat and near repeat burglaries.” European Journal of Criminology, 5(4), 411–431.

W. Bernasco , and R. Block (2011). “Robberies in Chicago: A block-level analysis of the influence of crime generators, crime attractors, and offender anchor points.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(1), 33–57.

W. Bernasco , R. Block , and S. Ruiter (2013). “Go where the money is: Modeling street robbers’ location choices.” Journal of Economic Geography, 13(1), 119–143.

W Bernasco , G.J.N. Bruinsma , L.J.R. Pauwels , and F.M. Weerman (2013). “Adolescent delinquency and diversity in behavior settings.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 46(3), 357–378.

W. Bernasco , S. Ruiter , G.J.N. Bruinsma , L. Pauwels , and F. Weerman (2013). “Situational causes of offending: A fixed effect analysis of the space-time-budget data.” Criminology, 51(4), 895–926.

G. Bichler , A. Malm , and J. Enriquez (2014). “Magnetic facilities: Identifying the convergence settings of juvenile delinquents.” Crime and Delinquency, 60(7), 971–998.

D. Birks , M. Townsley , and A. Stewart (2012). “Generative explanations of crime: Using simulation to test criminological theory.” Criminology, 50(1), 221–254.

D.A. Black , and K. Park (2012). “Some problems with place-based crime policies.” Criminology and Public Policy, 11(2), 327–334.

A.A.J. Blokland , and P.N. Nieuwbeerta (2010). “Life course criminology.” In S.G. Shohan , P. Knepper , and M. Kett (eds.), International handbook of criminology (pp. 51–93). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

A. Blumstein , and J. Cohen (1973). “A theory of the stability of punishment.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 64(2), 198–207.

A. Blumstein , and S. Moitra (1979). “An analysis of the time series of the imprisonment rate in the states of the United States: A further test of the stability of punishment hypothesis.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 70(3), 376–390.

A. Blumstein , J. Cohen , and D.P. Farrington (1988). “Longitudinal and criminal career research: Further clarifications.” Criminology, 26(1), 57–74.

A. Blumstein , J. Cohen , and D. Nagin (1976). “The dynamics of a homeostatic punishment process.” The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 67(3), 317–334.

J.S. Boggs , and N.M. Rantisi (2003). “The ‘relational turn’ in economic geography.” The Journal of Economic Geography, 3(2), 109–116.

A. Bottoms (2009). “Disorder, order and control signals.” British Journal of Sociology, 60(1), 49–55.

K.J. Bowers (2014). “Risky facilities: Crime radiators or crime absorbers? A comparison of internal and external levels of theft.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 30(3), 389–414.

K.J. Bowers , S.D. Johnson , and K. Pease (2004). “Prospective hot-spotting the future of crime mapping?British Journal of Criminology, 44(5), 641–658.

K. Bowers , S. Johnson , R.T. Guerette , L. Summers , and S. Poynton (2011). “Spatial displacement and diffusion of benefits among geographically focused policing interventions.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(3), 347–374.

A.A. Braga (2001). “The effects of hot spots policing on crime.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 578, 104–125.

A.A. Braga (2005). “Hot spots policing and crime prevention: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1(3), 317–342.

A.A. Braga , and B.J. Bond (2008). “Policing crime and disorder hot spots: A randomized controlled trial.” Criminology, 46, 577–608.

A.A. Braga , and R.V. Clarke (2014). “Explaining high-risk concentrations of crime in the city: Social disorganization, crime opportunities, and important next steps.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 51(4), 480–498.

A.A. Braga , and D. Weisburd (2010). Policing problem places: Crime hot spots and effective prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.

A.A. Braga , and D.L. Weisburd (2012). “The effects of focused deterrence strategies on crime a systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical evidence.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 49(3), 323–358.

A.A. Braga , D.M. Hureau , and A.A. Papachristos (2011a). “An ex-post-facto evaluation framework for place-based police interventions.” Evaluation Review, 35(6), 592–626.

A.A. Braga , D.M. Hureau , and A.V. Papachristos (2011b). “The relevance of micro places to citywide robbery trends: A longitudinal analysis of robbery incidents at street corners and block faces in Boston.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(1), 7–32.

A.A. Braga , A.V. Papachristos , and D.M. Hureau (2014). “The effects of hot spots policing on crime: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.” Justice Quarterly, 31(4), 633–663.

A.A. Braga , A.V. Papachristos , and D.M. Hureau (2010). “The concentration and stability of gun violence at microplaces in Boston, 1980–2008.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(1), 33–53.

A.A. Braga , D.L. Weisburd , E.J. Waring , L.G. Mazerolle , W. Spelman , and F. Gajewski (1999). “Problem-oriented policing in violent crime places: A randomized controlled experiment.” Criminology, 37(3), 541–580.

A.A. Braga , B.C. Welsh , and C. Schnell (2015). “Can policing disorder reduce crime? A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52(4), 567–588.

C.C. Branas , R.A. Cheney , J.M. MacDonald , V.W. Tam , T.D. Jackson , and T.R. Ten Have (2011). “A difference-in-differences analysis of health, safety, and greening vacant urban space.” American Journal of Epidemiology, 174(11), 1296–1306.

C.C. Branas , D. Culhane , T.S. Richmond , and D.J. Wiebe (2008). “Novel linkage of individual and geographic data to study firearm violence.” Homicide Studies, 12(3), 298–320.

C.C. Branas , M.R. Elliott , T.S. Richmond , D.P. Culhane , and D.J. Wiebe (2009). “Alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and the risk of being assaulted with a gun.” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 33(5), 906–915.

P.J. Brantingham , and F.L. Faust (1976). “A conceptual model of crime prevention.” Crime and Delinquency, 22(3), 284–296.

P.J. Brantingham , and G. Tita (2008). “Offender mobility and crime pattern formation from first principles.” In L. Liu and J. Eck (eds.), Artificial crime analysis systems: Using computer simulations and geographic information systems (pp. 193–208). Hershey, PA: Idea Press.

P.J. Brantingham , D.A. Dyreson , and P.L. Brantingham (1976). “Crime seen through a cone of resolution.” American Behavioral Scientist, 20(2), 261–273.

P.L. Brantingham , and P.J. Brantingham (1975). “Residential burglary and urban form.” Urban Studies, 12(3), 104–125.

P.L. Brantingham , and P.J. Brantingham (1993b). “Nodes, paths, and edges: Considerations on the complexity of crime and the physical environment.” Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13(1), 3–28.

P.L. Brantingham , and P.J. Brantingham (1995). “Criminality of place: Crime generators and crime attractors.” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 3(3), 5–26.

P.L. Brantingham , P.J. Brantingham , M. Vajihollahi , and K. Wuschke (2009). “Crime analysis at multiple scales of aggregation: A topological approach.” In D. Weisburd , W. Bernasco , and G.J.N. Bruinsma (eds.), Putting crime in its place: Units of analysis in geographic criminology (pp. 87–122). New York: Springer.

H. Brody , M.R. Rip , P. Vinten-Johansen , N. Paneth , and S. Rachman (2000). “Map-making and myth-making in Broad Street: The London cholera epidemic, 1854.” The Lancet, 356(9223), 64–68.

M. Buerger , and L.G. Mazerolle (1998). “Third-party policing: A theoretical analysis of an emerging trend.” Justice Quarterly, 15(2), 301–328.

R.J. Bursik (1988). “Social disorganization and theories of crime and delinquency: Problems and prospects.” Criminology, 26(4), 519–552.

R.J. Bursik (2000). “The systemic theory of neighborhood crime rates.” In S.S. Simpson (ed.), Of crime and criminality: The use of theory in everyday life (pp. 87–103). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

R.J. Bursik Jr., and J. Webb (1982). “Community change and patterns of delinquency.” American Journal of Sociology, 88(1), 24–42.

J. Byrne (1989). “Reintegrating the concept of community into community-based corrections.” Crime and Delinquency, 35(3), 471–499.

J. Byrne (2008). “The social ecology of community corrections: Understanding the link between individual and community change.” Criminology and Public Policy, 7(2), 263–274.

J.M. Byrne , and R.J. Sampson (1986). “Key issues in the social ecology of crime.” In J.M. Byrne and R.J. Sampson (eds.), The social ecology of crime (pp. 1–22). New York: Springer.

J.M. Caplan , L.W. Kennedy , and J. Miller (2011). “Risk terrain modeling: Brokering criminological theory and GIS methods for crime forecasting.” Justice Quarterly, 28(2), 360–381.

J.M. Caplan , L.W. Kennedy , and G. Petrossian (2011). “Police-monitored CCTV cameras in Newark, NJ: A quasi-experimental test of crime deterrence.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(3), 255–274.

S. Chermak , E.F. McGarrell , and A. Weiss (2001). “Citizens’ perceptions of aggressive traffic enforcement strategies.” Justice Quarterly, 18(2), 365–391.

R.V. Clarke , and G. Bichler-Robertson (1998). “Place managers, slumlords and crime in low rent apartment buildings.” Security Journal, 11(1), 11–19.

R.A. Cloward (1959). “Illegitimate means, anomie, and deviant behavior.” American Sociological Review, 24(2), 164–176.

J. Cohen , W. Gorr , and P. Singh (2003). “Estimating intervention effects in varying risk settings: Do police raids reduce illegal drug dealing at nuisance bars?Criminology, 41(2), 257–292.

L.E. Cohen , and M. Felson (1979). “Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach.” American Sociological Review, 44(4), 588–608.

S. Coleman (2002). “A test for the effect of conformity on crime rates using voter turnout.” The Sociological Quarterly, 43(2), 257–276.

M. Cope , and S. Elwood (eds.). (2009). Qualitative GIS: A mixed methods approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

D.B Cornish , and R.V. Clarke (eds.). (1986). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer.

N. Corsaro , and E.F. McGarrell (2009). “Testing a promising homicide reduction strategy: Re-assessing the impact of the Indianapolis ‘pulling levers’ intervention.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 5(1), 63–82.

N. Corsaro , R.K. Brunson , and E.F. McGarrell (2013). “Problem-oriented policing and open-air drug markets: Examining the Rockford pulling levers deterrence strategy.” Crime and Delinquency, 59(7), 1085–1107.

J.W. Crampton (2001). “Maps as social construction: Power, communication, and visualization.” Progress in Human Geography, 25(2), 235–252.

J.W. Crampton , M. Graham , A. Poorthuis , T. Shelton , M. Stephens , M.W. Wilson , and M. Zook (2013). “Beyond the geotag: Situating ‘big data’ and leveraging the potential of the geoweb.” Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 40(2), 130–139.

F.T. Cullen (1988). “Were Cloward and Ohlin strain theorists? Delinquency and opportunity revisited.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25(3), 214–241.

F.T. Cullen (2010). “Cloward, Richard A.: The theory of illegitimate means.” In F.T. Cullen and P. Wilcox (eds.), Encyclopedia of criminological theory (pp. 167–170). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

F.T. Cullen (2011). “Beyond adolescence-limited criminology: Choosing our future. The American Society of Criminology 2010 Sutherland Address.” Criminology, 49(2), 287–330.

A.S. Curman , M.A. Andresen , and P.J. Brantingham (2015). “Crime and place: A longitudinal examination of street segment patterns in Vancouver, BC.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31(1), 127–147.

M.R. Curry (1997). “The digital individual and the private realm.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 87(4), 681–699.

H. Dalton (1920). “The measurement of the inequality of incomes.” The Economic Journal, 30(119), 348–361.

J.R. Davis , and E. Tunks (1990–1991). “Environments and addiction: A proposed taxonomy.” The International Journal of the Addictions, 25(S7–S8), 805–826.

G. DeAngelo (2012). “Making space for crime: A spatial analysis of criminal competition.” Regional Science and Urban Economics, 42(1–2), 42–51.

D.C. Duffala (1976). “Convenience stores, armed robbery, and physical environmental features.” American Behavioral Scientist, 20(2), 227–246.

E. Durkheim (1893 [1984]). The division of labour in society. New York: Free Press.

S.N. Durlauf , and D.S. Nagin (2011). “Imprisonment and crime.” Criminology and Public Policy, 10(1), 13–54.

J.E. Eck (1993a). Alternative futures for policing. In D. Weisburd and C. Uchida (eds.), Police innovation and control of the police (pp. 59–79). New York: Springer.

J.E. Eck (1995). “Examining routine activity theory: A review of two books.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4), 783–797.

J.E. Eck , and E.B. Eck (2012). “Crime place and pollution: Expanding crime reduction options through a regulatory approach.” Criminology and Public Policy, 11(2), 281–316.

P. Ekblom (1995). “Less crime, by design.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 539, 114–129.

G.H. Elder (1998). “The life course as developmental theory.” Child Development, 69(1), 1–12.

P. Elliott , and D. Wartenberg (2004). “Spatial epidemiology: Current approaches and future challenges.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(9), 998–1006.

S. Elwood (2009). “Multiple representations, significations, and epistemologies in community-based GIS.” In M. Cope and S. Elwood (eds.), Qualitative GIS: A mixed methods approach (pp. 57–74). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

J.M. Epstein (2002). “Modeling civil violence: An agent-based computational approach.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(Suppl. 3), 7243–7250.

G. Farrell , A. Tseloni J. Mailley , and N. Tilley (2011). “The crime drop and the security hypothesis.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(2), 147–175.

D.P. Farrington , and A. Petrosino (2001). “The Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 578, 35–49.

M.M. Feeley , and J. Simon (1992). “The new penology: Notes on the emerging strategy of corrections and its implications.” Criminology, 30(4), 449–474.

M. Felson (1986) “Linking criminal choices, routine activities, informal control, and criminal outcomes.” In D.B. Cornish and R.V. Clarke (eds.), The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending (pp. 119–128). New York: Springer.

M. Felson (1987). “Routine activities and crime prevention in the developing metropolis.” Criminology, 25(4), 911–932.

A.S. Fotheringham (1985). “Spatial competition and agglomeration in urban modelling.” Environment and Planning A, 17(2), 213–230.

P.D. Friedmann , S.C. Lemon , and M.D. Stein (2001). “Transportation and retention in outpatient drug treatment programs.” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 21(2), 97–103.

J.R. Friedrichs , and J.R. Blasius (2003). “Social norms in distressed neighbourhoods: Testing the Wilson hypothesis.” Housing Studies, 18(6), 807–826.

N. Fyfe (1991). “The police, space and society: The geography of policing.” Progress in Human Geography, 15(3), 249–267.

T. Gabor (1981). “The crime displacement hypothesis: An empirical examination.” Crime and Delinquency, 27(3), 390–404.

J. Gau , and R.K. Brunson (2010). “Procedural justice and order maintenance policing: A study of inner-city young men's perceptions of police legitimacy.” Justice Quarterly, 27(2), 255–279.

A. Gelman , J. Fagan , and A. Kiss (2007). “An analysis of the New York City Police Department's ‘stop-and-frisk’ policy in the context of claims of racial bias.” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 102(479), 813–823.

A. Getis , and J.M. Getis (1968). “Retail store spatial affinities.” Urban Studies, 5(3), 317–332.

R. Gifford (2007). “Environmental psychology and sustainable development: Expansion, maturation, and challenges.” Journal of Social Issues, 63(1), 199–212.

J.A. Gilboy (1997). “Implications of ‘third-party’ involvement in enforcement: The INS, illegal travelers, and international airlines.” Law and Society Review, 31(3), 505–530.

J. Glyde (1856). “Localities of crime in Suffolk.” Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 19(2), 102–106.

M.F. Goodchild (2009). “What problem? Spatial autocorrelation and Geographic Information Science.” Geographical Analysis, 41(4), 411–417.

M.R. Gottfredson , and T. Hirschi (1995). “National crime control policies.” Society, 32(2), 30–36.

R. Grannis (1998). “The importance of trivial streets: Residential streets and residential segregation.” American Journal of Sociology, 103(6), 1530–1564.

L. Green (1995). “Cleaning up drug hot spots in Oakland, California: The displacement and diffusion effects.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4), 737–754.

E.R. Groff (2007a). “Simulation for theory testing and experimentation: An example using routine activity theory and street robbery.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 23(2), 75–103.

E.R. Groff (2007b). “Situating simulation to model human spatio-temporal interactions: An example using crime events.” Transactions in GIS, 11(4), 507–530.

E.R. Groff (2011). “Exploring ‘near’: Characterizing the spatial extent of drinking place influence on crime.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 44(2), 156–179.

E.R. Groff , and N. LaVigne (2001). Mapping an opportunity surface of residential burglary. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(3), 257–278.

E.R. Groff , J.H. Ratcliffe , C.P. Haberman , E.T. Sorg , N.M. Joyce , and R.B. Taylor (2015). “Does what police do at hot spots matter? The Philadelphia policing tactics experiment.” Criminology, 53(1), 23–53.

E.R. Groff , D. Weisburd , and N. Morris (2009). “Where the action is at places: Examining spatio-temporal patterns of juvenile crime at places using trajectory analysis and GIS.” In D. Weisburd , W. Bernasco , and G.J.N. Bruinsma (eds.), Putting crime in its place: Units of analysis in spatial crime research (pp. 61–86). New York: Springer.

E.R. Groff , D. Weisburd , and S.M. Yang (2010). Is it important to examine crime trends at a local “micro” level?: A longitudinal analysis of street to street variability in crime trajectories. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(1), 7–32.

T.H. Grubesic , and E.A. Mack (2008). “Spatio-temporal interaction of urban crime.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 24(3), 285–306.

R.T. Guerette , and K.J. Bowers (2009). “Assessing the extent of crime displacement and diffusion of benefits: A review of situational crime prevention evaluations.” Criminology, 47(4), 1331–1368.

J.Y. Guo , and C.R. Bhat (2007). “Operationalizing the concept of neighborhood: Application to residential location choice analysis.” Journal of Transport Geography, 15(1), 31–45.

Y. Harada , and T. Shimada (2006). “Examining the impact of the precision of address geocoding on estimated density of crime locations.” Computers and Geosciences, 32(8), 1096–1107.

M. Hardey (2007). “The city in the age of web 2.0: A new synergistic relationship between place and people.” Information, Communication and Society, 10(6), 867–884.

M.D. Hayward , T.P. Miles , E.M. Crimmins , and Y. Yang (2000). “The significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the racial gap in chronic health conditions.” American Sociological Review, 65(6), 910–930.

L.G. Hill , K. Maucione , and B.K. Hood (2007). “A focused approach to assessing program fidelity.” Prevention Science, 8(1), 25–34.

J.R. Hipp (2007). “Block, tract, and levels of aggregation: Neighborhood structure and crime and disorder as a case in point.” American Sociological Review, 72(5), 659–680.

J.R. Hipp , and A. Boessen (2013). “Egohoods as waves washing across the city: A new measure of ‘neighborhoods.’Criminology, 51(2), 287–327.

J.R. Hipp , J. Jannetta , R. Shah , and S. Turner (2009). “Parolees’ physical closeness to health service providers: A study of California parolees.” Health and Place, 15(3), 679–688.

J.R. Hipp , J. Petersilia , and S. Turner (2010). “Parolee recidivism in California: The effect of neighborhood context and social service agency characteristics.” Criminology, 48(4), 947–979.

T. Hirschi (1993). “Review: Administrative criminology.” Contemporary Sociology, 22(3), 348–350.

A.J. Hunter (1979). “The urban neighborhood: Its analytical and social contexts.” Urban Affairs Quarterly, 14(3), 267–288.

M. Innes (2004). “Signal crimes and signal disorders: notes on deviance as communicative action.” The British Journal of Sociology, 55(3), 335–355.

S.D. Johnson (2010). “A brief history of the analysis of crime concentration.” European Journal of Applied Mathematics, 21(4–5), 349–370.

S.D. Johnson (2008). “Repeat burglary victimisation: A tale of two theories.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 4(3), 215–240.

S.D. Johnson , and K.J. Bowers (2004a). “The burglary as a clue to the future: The beginnings of prospective hot-spotting.” European Journal of Criminology, 1(2), 237–255.

S.D. Johnson , and K.J. Bowers (2004b). “The stability of space-time clusters of burglary.” British Journal of Criminology, 44(1), 55–65.

S.D. Johnson , and K.J. Bowers (2010). “Permeability and burglary risk: Are cul-de-sacs safer?Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(1), 89–111.

S.D. Johnson , W. Bernasco , K.J. Bowers , H. Elffers , J. Ratcliffe , G. Rengert , and M. Townsley (2007). “Space‐time patterns of risk: A cross national assessment of residential burglary victimization.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 23(3), 201–219.

S.D. Johnson , K.J. Bowers , and A.F.G. Hirschfield (1997). “New insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of repeat victimisation.” British Journal of Criminology, 37(2), 224–241.

S.D. Johnson , L. Summers , and K. Pease (2009). “Offender as forager? A direct test of the boost account of victimization.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25(2), 181–200.

L.T. Johnson , R.B. Taylor , and J.H. Ratcliffe (2013). “Need drugs, will travel? The distances to crime of illegal drug buyers.” Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(3), 178–187.

B.S. Jorgensen , and R.C. Stedman (2006). “A comparative analysis of predictors of sense of place dimensions: Attachment to, dependence on, and identification with lakeshore properties.” Journal of Environmental Management, 79(3), 316–327.

P.M. Kautt , and D.W. Roncek (2007). “Schools as criminal ‘hot spots’ primary, secondary, and beyond.” Criminal Justice Review, 32(4), 339–357.

R. Kearns , and G. Moon (2002). “From medical to health geography: Novelty, place and theory after a decade of change.” Progress in Human Geography, 26(5), 605–625.

R.A. Kearns , and A.E. Joseph (1993). “Space in its place: Developing the link in medical geography.” Social Science and Medicine, 37(6), 711–717.

L.W. Kennedy , J.M. Caplan , and E. Piza (2011). “Risk clusters, hot spots, and spatial intelligence: Risk terrain modeling as an algorithm for police resource allocation strategies.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 27(3), 339–362.

J. Kent , M. Leitner , and A. Curtis (2006). “Evaluating the usefulness of functional distance measures when calibrating journey-to-crime distance decay functions.” Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 30(2), 181–200.

M. Kleiman , and R. Young (1995). “The factors of production in retail drug dealing.” Urban Affairs Review, 30(5), 730–748.

L. Knigge , and M. Cope (2006). “Grounded visualization: Integrating the analysis of qualitative and quantitative data through grounded theory and visualization.” Environment and Planning A, 38(11), 2021–2037.

P.N. Koch , T.W. Simpson , J.K. Allen , and F. Mistree (1999). “Statistical approximations for multidisciplinary design optimization: The problem of size.” Journal of Aircraft, 36(1), 275–286.

C.S. Koper (1995). “Just enough police presence: Reducing crime and disorderly behavior by optimizing patrol time in crime hot spots.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4), 649–672.

C.S. Koper (2014). “Assessing the practice of hot spots policing survey results from a national convenience sample of local police agencies.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(2), 123–146.

N. Krieger , J.T. Chen , P.D. Waterman , M.-J. Soobader , S.V. Subramanian , and R. Carson (2002). “Geocoding and monitoring of U.S. socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and cancer incidence: Does the choice of area-based measure and geographic level matter? The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project.” American Journal of Epidemiology, 156(5), 471–482.

C.E. Kubrin , and E.A. Stewart (2006). “Predicting who reoffends: The neglected role of neighborhood context in recidivism studies.” Criminology, 44(1), 171–204.

M.-P. Kwan (2012). “How GIS can help address the uncertain geographic context problem in social science research.” Annals of GIS, 18(4), 245–255.

J.H. Laub (2004). “Life course of criminology in the United States: The American Society of Criminology 2003 Presidential Address.” Criminology, 42(1), 1–26.

B.A. Lawton , R.B. Taylor , and A.J. Luongo (2005). “Police officers on drug corners in Philadelphia, drug crime, and violent crime: Intended, diffusion, and displacement impacts.” Justice Quarterly, 22(4), 427–451.

J. L. LeBeau (1987). “The methods and measures of centrography and the spatial dynamics of rape.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3(2), 125–141.

S.D. Levitt , and S.A. Venkatesh (2000). “An economic analysis of a drug-selling gang's finances.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(3), 755–789.

S. Lipovetsky (2009). “Pareto 80/20 law: Derivation via random partitioning.” International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 40(2), 271–277.

M.O. Lorenz (1905). “Methods for measuring the concentration of wealth.” Publications of the American Statistical Association, 9(70), 209–219.

S. Low , and I. Altman (1992). “Place attachment: A conceptual inquiry.” In S. Low and A. Irwin (eds.), Place attachment (pp. 1–12). New York: Plenum.

C. Lum , C. Koper , and C.W. Telep (2011). “The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(1), 3–26.

T.D. Madensen , and J.E. Eck (2008). “Violence in bars: Exploring the impact of place manager decision-making.” Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 10(2), 111–125.

M. Maguire (2000). “Policing by risks and targets: Some dimensions and implications of intelligence-led crime control.” Policing and Society: An International Journal, 9(4), 315–336.

E.R. Maguire , and S.D. Mastrofski (2000). “Patterns of community policing in the United States.” Police Quarterly, 3(1), 4–45.

M.D. Maltz (2009). “Waves, particles, and crime.” In D. Weisburd , W. Bernasco , and G. Bruinsma (eds.), Putting crime in its place: Units of analysis in geographic criminology (pp. 123–142). New York: Springer.

R. Martin , and P. Sunley (2003). “Deconstructing clusters: Chaotic concept or policy panacea?Journal of Economic Geography, 3(1), 5–35.

M. Mason , I. Cheung , and L. Walker (2004). “Substance use, social networks and the geography of urban adolescents.” Substance Use and Misuse, 39(10–12), 1751–1777.

M. Mattson , and G. Rengert (1995). “Danger, distance, and desirability.” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 3(3), 70–78.

K.O. May (1952). “A set of independent necessary and sufficient conditions for simple majority decision.” Econometrica, 20(4), 680–685.

L.G. Mazerolle , and J. Ransley (2006). Third party policing. New York: Cambridge University Press.

L.G. Mazerolle , C. Kadleck , and J. Roehl (1998). “Controlling drug and disorder problems: The role of place managers.” Criminology, 36(2), 371–404.

L.G. Mazerolle , J.F. Price , and J. Roehl (2000). “Civil remedies and drug control: A randomized field trial in Oakland, California.” Evaluation Review, 24(2), 212–241.

E.J. McCann (2002). “The cultural politics of local economic development: Meaning-making, place-making, and the urban policy process.” Geoforum, 33(3), 385–398.

D.W. McMillan , and D.M. Chavis (1986). “Sense of community: A definition and theory.” Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6–23.

D. Mears , X. Wang , C. Hay , and W. Bales (2008). “Social ecology and recidivism: Implications for prisoner reentry.” Criminology, 46(2), 301–340.

F.C. Mencken , and C. Barnett (1999). “Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter and spatial autocorrelation in mid-South counties.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15(4), 407–422.

C. Merzel , and J. D'Afflitti (2003). “Reconsidering community-based health promotion: Promise, performance, and potential.” American Journal of Public Health, 93(4), 557–574.

G.S. Mesch , and O. Manor (1998). “Social ties, environmental perception, and local attachment.” Environment and Behavior, 30(4), 504–519.

S.F. Messner , L. Anselin , R.D. Baller , D.F. Hawkins , G. Deane , and S.E. Tolnay (1999). “The spatial patterning of county homicide rates: An application of exploratory spatial data analysis.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15(4), 423–450.

T.D. Miethe (1991). “Citizen based crime control activity and victimization risks: An examination of displacement and free rider effects.” Criminology, 29(3), 419–440.

T.D. Miethe , M.C. Stafford , and J.S. Long (1987). “Social differentiation in criminal victimization: A test of routine activities/lifestyle theories.” American Sociological Review, 52(2), 184–194.

T.E. Moffitt (1993). “Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy.” Psychological Review, 100(4), 674–701.

G.O. Mohler , M.B. Short , P.J. Brantingham , F.P. Schoenberg , and G.E. Tita (2011). “Self-exciting point process modeling of crime.” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 106(493), 100–108.

G.T. Moore (1979). “Knowing about environmental knowing: The current state of theory and research on environmental cognition.” Environment and Behavior, 11(1), 33–70.

J.D. Morenoff , R.J. Sampson , and S.W. Raudenbush (2001). “Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and the spatial dynamics of urban violence.” Criminology, 39(3), 517–558.

D.S. Nagin (1999). “Analyzing developmental trajectories: A semiparametric, group-based approach.” Psychological Methods, 4(2), 139–157.

D.S. Nagin , and G. Pogarsky (2001). “Integrating celerity, impulsivity, and extralegal sanction threats into a model of general deterrence: Theory and evidence.” Criminology, 39(4), 865–892.

D.C. North (1990). Institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

D. Oberwittler , and P.H. Wikström (2009). “Why small is better: Advancing the study of the role of behavioral contexts in crime causation.” In D. Weisburd , G. Bruinsma , and W. Bernasco (eds.), Putting crime in its place: Units of analysis in geographic criminology (pp. 35–59). New York: Springer.

H.G. Overman (2004). “Can we learn anything from economic geography proper?Journal of Economic Geography, 4(5), 501–516.

R. Pain , R. MacFarlane , K. Turner , and S. Gill (2006). “When, where, if, and but: Qualifying GIS and the effect of streetlighting on crime and fear.” Environment and Planning A, 38(11), 2055–2074.

M. Pavlovskaya (2009). “Non-quantitative GIS.” In M. Cope and S. Elwood (eds.), Qualitative GIS: A mixed methods approach (pp. 13–37). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

M.E. Pavlovskaya (2006). “Theorizing with GIS: A tool for critical geographies?Environment and Planning A, 38(11), 2003–2020.

A. Petrosino , R. Boruch , H. Soydan , L. Duggan , and J. Sanchez-Meca (2001). “Meeting the challenge of evidence-based policy: The Campbell Collaboration.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 578, 14–34.

A.R. Piquero , D.P. Farrington , and A. Blumstein (2007). Key issues in criminal career research: New analyses of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

J.H. Ratcliffe (2004a). “Geocoding crime and a first estimate of a minimum acceptable hit rate.” International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 18(1), 61–72.

J.H. Ratcliffe (2004b). “The hotspot matrix: A framework for the spatio-temporal targeting of crime reduction.” Police Practice and Research, 5(1), 5–23.

J.H. Ratcliffe (2006). “A temporal constraint theory to explain opportunity-based spatial offending patterns.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43(3), 261–291.

J.H. Ratcliffe (2012). “The spatial extent of criminogenic places: A changepoint regression of violence around bars.” Geographical Analysis, 44(4), 302–320.

J.H. Ratcliffe , and C. Breen (2011). “Crime diffusion and displacement: Measuring the side effects of police operations.” Professional Geographer, 63(2), 230–243.

J.H. Ratcliffe , and M.J. McCullagh (1998). “Aoristic crime analysis.” International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 12(7), 751–764.

J.H. Ratcliffe , and M.J. McCullagh (1999). “Hotbeds of crime and the search for spatial accuracy.” Geographical Systems, 1(4), 385–398.

J.H. Ratcliffe , and G.F. Rengert (2008). “Near repeat patterns in Philadelphia shootings.” Security Journal, 21(1–2), 58–76.

J.H. Ratcliffe , T. Taniguchi , and R.B. Taylor (2009). “The crime reduction effects of public CCTV cameras: A multi-method spatial approach.” Justice Quarterly, 26(4), 746–770.

J.H. Ratcliffe , T. Taniguchi , E.R. Groff , and J.D. Wood (2011). “The Philadelphia foot patrol experiment: A randomized controlled trial of police patrol effectiveness in violent crime hotspots.” Criminology, 49(3), 795–831.

A.J. Reiss Jr. (1981). “Towards a revitalization of theory and research on victimization by crime.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72(2), 704–713.

A.J. Reiss Jr., and D.P. Farrington (1991). “Advancing knowledge about co-offending: Results from a prospective longitudinal survey of London males.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82(2), 360–395.

G.F. Rengert , and B. Lockwood (2009). “Geographic units of analysis and the analysis of crime.” In D. Weisburd , W. Bernasco , and G.J.N. Bruinsma (eds.), Putting crime in its place: Units of analysis in geographic criminology (pp. 109–122). New York: Springer.

T. Reppetto (1976). “Crime prevention and the displacement phenomenon.” Crime and Delinquency, 22(2), 166–177.

D.M. Reynald (2010). “Guardians on guardianship: Factors affecting the willingness to supervise, ability to detect potential offenders, and willingness to intervene.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 47(3), 358–390.

D.M. Reynald (2011). “Factors associated with guardianship of places: Assessing the relative importance of the spatio-physical and sociodemographic contexts in generating opportunities for capable guardianship.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(1), 110–142.

K.J. Rice , and W.R. Smith (2002). “Socioecological models of automotive theft: Integrating routine activity and social disorganization approaches.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39(3), 304–336.

W.S. Robinson (1950). “Ecological correlations and the behavior of individuals.” American Sociological Review, 15(3), 351–357.

D.W. Roncek , and R. Bell (1981). “Bars, blocks and crimes.” Journal of Environmental Systems, 11(1), 36–47.

D.W. Roncek , and D. Faggiani (1985). “High schools and crime: A replication.” Sociological Quarterly, 26(4), 491–505.

D.W. Roncek , and P. Mair (1991). “Bars, blocks and crimes revisited: Linking the theory of routine activities to the empiricism of hot spots.” Criminology, 29(4), 725–753.

D.K. Rossmo (1999). Geographic profiling. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

R.J. Sampson (1993). “Linking time and place: Dynamic contextualism and the future of criminological inquiry.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30(4), 426–444.

R.J. Sampson (2008). “Moving to inequality: Neighborhood effects and experiments meet social structure.” American Journal of Sociology, 114(1), 189–231.

R.J. Sampson (2012). Great American city: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

R.J. Sampson , and W.B. Groves (1989). “Community structure and crime: Testing social-disorganization theory.” American Journal of Sociology, 94(4), 774–802.

R.J. Sampson , and J.H. Laub (2003). “Life course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70.” Criminology, 41(3), 555–592.

R.J. Sampson , and S.W. Raudenbush (1999). “Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods.” American Journal of Sociology, 105(3), 603–651.

R.J. Sampson , S.W. Raudenbush , and F. Earls (1997). “Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy.” Science, 277(5328), 918–924.

R.J. Sampson , J.D. Morenoff , and T. Gannon-Rowley (2002). “Assessing ‘neighborhood effects’: Social processes and new directions in research.” Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 443–478.

S. Schmitt , C. Phibbs , and J. Piette (2003). “The influence of distance on utilization of outpatient mental health aftercare following inpatient substance abuse treatment.” Addiction Behavior, 28(6), 1183–1192.

J. Shaw (1995). “Community policing against guns: Public opinion of the Kansas City Gun Experiment.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4), 695–710.

L.W. Sherman (2007). “The power few: Experimental criminology and the reduction of harm.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 3(4), 299–321.

L.W. Sherman , and D. Rogan (1995a). “Deterrent effects of police raids on crack houses: A randomized controlled experiment.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4), 755–782.

L.W. Sherman , and D. Rogan (1995b). “Effects of gun seizures on gun violence: ‘Hot spots’ patrol in Kansas City.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4), 673–694.

L.W. Sherman , P. Gartin , and M.E. Buerger (1989). “Hot spots of predatory crime: Routine activities and the criminology of place.” Criminology, 27(1), 27–55.

L. Sherman , D.P. Farrington , B. Welsh , and D.L. MacKenzie (2002). Evidence-based crime prevention. New York: Routledge.

E.H. Simpson (1949). “Measurement of diversity.” Nature, 163, 688.

V. Spicer , A.A. Reid , J. Ginther , H. Seifi , and V. Dabbaghian (2012). “Bars on blocks: A cellular automata model of crime and liquor licensed establishment density.” Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems, 36(5), 412–422.

P.K.B. Jean (2007). Pockets of crime: Broken windows, collective efficacy, and the criminal point of view. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

G. Stahler , S. Mazzella , J. Mennis , S. Chakravorty , G. Rengert , and R. Spiga (2007). “The effect of individual, program, and neighborhood variables on continuity of treatment among dually diagnosed individuals.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 87(1), 54–62.

R.C. Stedman (2002). “Toward a social psychology of place: Predicting behavior from place-based cognitions, attitude, and identity.” Environment and Behavior, 34(5), 561–581.

A. Stevens , and P. Coupe (1978). “Distortions in judged spatial relations.” Cognitive Psychology, 10(4), 422–437.

D. Stokols (1983). “Editor's introduction: Theoretical directions of environment and behavior research.” Environment and Behavior, 15(3), 259–272.

T.A. Taniguchi , J.H. Ratcliffe , and R.B. Taylor (2011). “Gang set space, drug markets, and crime around drug corners in Camden.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(3), 327–363.

T.A. Taniguchi , G.F. Rengert , and E.S. McCord (2009). “Where size matters: Agglomeration economies of illegal drug markets in Philadelphia.” Justice Quarterly, 26(4), 670–694.

F.S. Taxman (2008). “No illusions: Offender and organizational change in Maryland's Proactive Community Supervision efforts.” Criminology and Public Policy, 7(2), 275–302.

B. Taylor , C.S. Koper , and D.J. Woods (2011). “A randomized controlled trial of different policing strategies at hot spots of violent crime.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(2), 149–181.

R.B. Taylor (1997). “Social order and disorder of street blocks and neighborhoods: Ecology, microecology, and the systemic model of social disorganization.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 34(1), 113–155.

R.B. Taylor , S.D. Gottfredson , and S. Brower (1984). “Block crime and fear: Defensible space, local social ties, and territorial functioning.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21(4), 303–331.

C.W. Telep , and D. Weisburd (2012). “What is known about the effectiveness of police practices in reducing crime and disorder?Police Quarterly, 15(4), 331–357.

C.W. Telep , R.J. Mitchell , and D. Weisburd (2014). “How much time should the police spend at crime hot spots?: Answers from a police agency directed randomized field trial in Sacramento, California.” Justice Quarterly, 31(5), 905–933.

C.W. Telep , D. Weisburd , C.E. Gill , D. Teichman , and Z. Vitter (2014). “Displacement of crime and diffusion of crime control benefits in large-scale geographic areas: A systematic review.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(4), 515–548.

C.Y. Thompson , and B. Fisher (1996). “Predicting household victimization utilizing a multi-level routine activity approach.” Journal of Crime and Justice, 19(2), 49–66.

M.S. Tillyer , and J.E. Eck (2011). “Getting a handle on crime: A further extension of routine activities theory.” Security Journal, 24(2), 179–193.

G.E. Tita , T.L. Petras , and R.T. Greenbaum (2006). “Crime and residential choice: A neighborhood level analysis of the impact of crime on housing prices.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 22(4), 299–317.

W.R. Tobler (1970). “A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region.” Economic Geography, 46, 234–240.

M. Townsley (2009). “Spatial autocorrelation and impacts on criminology.” Geographical Analysis, 41(4), 452–461.

M. Townsley , R. Homel , and J. Chaseling (2000). “Repeat burglary victimization: Spatial and temporal patterns.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 33(1), 37–63.

M. Townsley , R. Homel , and J. Chaseling (2003). “Infectious burglaries: A test of the near repeat hypothesis.” British Journal of Criminology, 43(3), 615–633

C.C. Trowbridge (1913). “On fundamental methods of orientation and ‘imaginary maps.’Science, 38(990), 888–896.

H.V.Z. Tunstall , M. Shaw , and D. Dorling (2004). “Places and health.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58(1), 6–10.

B. Tversky (1993). “Cognitive maps, cognitive collages, and spatial mental models.” In A.U. Frank and I. Campari (eds.), Spatial information theory a theoretical basis for GIS (pp. 14–24). New York: Springer.

T.R. Tyler (2004). “Enhancing police legitimacy.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 593, 84–99.

D.G. Unger , and A. Wandersman (1983). “Neighboring and its role in block organizations: An exploratory report.” American Journal of Community Psychology, 11(3), 291–300.

B.M. Veysey , and S.F. Messner (1999). “Further testing of social disorganization theory: An elaboration of Sampson and Groves's ‘Community structure and crime.’Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36(2), 156–174.

A.L. Warburton , and J.P. Shepherd (2006). “Tackling alcohol related violence in city centres: Effect of emergency medicine and police intervention.” Emergency Medicine Journal, 23(1), 12–17.

D. Weisburd (2015a). “The law of crime concentrations and the criminology of place.” Criminology, 53(2), 133–157.

D. Weisburd (2015b). “Small worlds of crime and criminal justice interventions: Discovering crime hot spots.” In M. Maltz and S. Rice (eds.), Envisioning criminology: Researchers on research as a process of discovery (pp. 261–267). New York: Springer.

D. Weisburd , and S. Amram (2014). “The law of concentrations of crime at place: The case of Tel Aviv-Jaffa.” Police Practice and Research, 15(2), 101–114.

D. Weisburd , and J.E. Eck (2004). “What can the police do to reduce crime, disorder, and fear?Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 593, 42–65.

D. Weisburd , and L. Green (1995b). “Policing drug hot spots: The Jersey City drug market analysis experiment.” Justice Quarterly, 12(4), 711–735.

D. Weisburd , and C. Lum (2005). “The diffusion of computerized crime mapping in policing: Linking research and practice.” Police Practice and Research, 6(5), 419–434.

D. Weisburd , and L.G. Mazerolle (2000). “Crime and disorder in drug hot spots: Implications for theory and practice in policing.” Police Quarterly, 3(3), 331–349.

D. Weisburd , and C.W. Telep (2014). “Hot spots policing: What we know and what we need to know.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(2), 200–220.

D. Weisburd , W. Bernasco , and G.J.N. Bruinsma (eds.). (2009). Putting crime in its place: Units of analysis in geographic criminology. New York: Springer.

D. Weisburd , G.J.N. Bruinsma , and W. Bernasco (2009). “Units of analysis in geographic criminology: Historical development, critical issues, and open questions.” In D. Weisburd , W. Bernasco , and G.J.N. Bruinsma (eds.), Putting crime in its place: Units of analysis in geographic criminology (pp. 3–31). New York: Springer.

D. Weisburd , S. Bushway , C. Lum , and S.-M. Yang (2004). “Trajectories of crime at places: A longitudinal study of street segments in the city of Seattle.” Criminology, 42(2), 283–321.

D. Weisburd , E.R. Groff , and S.-M. Yang (2012). The criminology of place: Street segments and our understanding of the crime problem. New York: Oxford University Press.

D. Weisburd , E.R. Groff , G. Jones , B. Cave , K. Amendola , and R. Emison (2014). “Understanding and controlling hot spots of crime: The importance of formal and informal social controls.” Prevention Science, 15(1), 31–43.

D. Weisburd , J.C. Hinkle , C. Famega , and J. Ready (2011). “The possible ‘backfire’ effects of hot spots policing: An experimental assessment of impacts on legitimacy, fear and collective efficacy.” Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(4), 297–320.

D. Weisburd , N.A. Morris , and E.R. Groff (2009). “Hot spots of juvenile crime: A longitudinal study of arrest incidents at street segments in Seattle, Washington.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25(4), 443–467.

D. Weisburd , C.W. Telep , and B.A. Lawton (2014). “Could innovations in policing have contributed to the New York city crime drop even in a period of declining police strength? The case of stop, question and frisk as a hot spots policing strategy.” Justice Quarterly, 31(1), 129–153.

D. Weisburd , L.A. Wyckoff , J. Ready , J.E. Eck , J.C. Hinkle , and F. Gajewski (2006). “Does crime just move around the corner? A controlled study of spatial displacement and diffusion of crime control benefits.” Criminology, 44(3), 549–592.

B.C. Welsh , A.A. Braga , and C.J. Sullivan (2014). “Serious youth violence and innovative prevention: On the emerging link between public health and criminology.” Justice Quarterly, 31(3), 500–523.

P.-O.H. Wikström (2010). “Explaining crime as moral actions.” In S. Hitlin and S. Vaisey (eds.), Handbook of the sociology of morality (pp. 211–240). New York: Springer.

P.-O.H. Wikström , V. Ceccato , B. Hardie , and K. Treiber (2010). “Activity fields and the dynamics of crime.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(1), 55–87.

P. Wilcox , and J.E. Eck (2011). “Criminology of the unpopular: Implications for policy aimed at payday lending facilities.” Criminology and Public Policy, 10(2), 473–482.

P. Wilcox , N. Quisenberry , D.T. Cabrera , and S. Jones (2004). “Busy places and broken windows? Toward defining the role of physical structure and process in community crime models.” The Sociological Quarterly, 45(2), 185–207.

D.B. Wilson (2001). “Meta-analytic methods for criminology.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 578, 71–89.

C.E.A. Winslow (1920). “The untilled fields of public health.” Science, 51(1306), 23–33.

A. Wooditch , B. Lawton , and F.S. Taxman (2013). “The geography of drug abuse epidemiology among probationers in Baltimore.” Journal of Drug Issues, 43(2), 231–249.

R. Wortley (2001). “A classification of techniques for controlling situational precipitators of crime.” Security Journal, 14(4), 63–82.

I.H. Yen , and G.A. Kaplan (1999). “Neighborhood social environment and risk of death: Multilevel evidence from the Alameda County study.” American Journal of Epidemiology, 149(10), 898–907.

L. Zhu , D.M. Gorman , and S. Horel (2004). “Alcohol outlet density and violence: A geospatial analysis.” Alcohol and Alcoholism, 39(4), 369–375.

F.E. Zimring (2006). The great American crime decline. New York: Oxford University Press.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 430 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 863 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.