Skip to main content Accessibility help
Political Parties in Africa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 53
  • Sebastian Elischer, Leuphana University Lüneberg, and German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This book examines the effects of ethnicity on party politics in sub-Saharan Africa. Sebastian Elischer analyzes political parties in Ghana, Kenya and Namibia in detail, and provides a preliminary analysis of parties in seven other countries including Tanzania, Botswana, Senegal, Zambia, Malawi, Burkina Faso and Benin. Elischer finds that five party types exist: the mono-ethnic, the ethnic alliance, the catch-all, the programmatic, and the personalistic party. He uses these party types to show that the African political landscape is considerably more diverse than conventionally assumed. Whereas ethnic parties dominate in some countries, non-ethnic parties have become the norm in others. This study also finds a correlation between a country's ethnic make-up and the salience of political ethnicity: countries with a core ethnic group are prone to form non-ethnic parties. In countries lacking a core ethnic group, ethnic parties constitute the norm.

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James. 2002. “An African Success Story: Botswana.” Department of Economics; Centre for Economic Policy Research, No. 3219.
Adams, James, Clark, Michael, Ezrow, Lawrence, and Glasgow, Garrett. 2006. “Are Niche Parties Fundamentally Different from Mainstream Parties? The Causes and the Electoral Consequences of Western European Parties’ Policy Shifts, 1976–1998.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (3): 513–529.
Adedeji, John. 2001. “The Legacy of J.J. Rawlings in Ghanaian Politics.” African Studies Quarterly 5 (2). .
Afrobarometer. 2009. “How Ghanaian Rate the Performance of the NPP Administration.” Afrobarometer Briefing Paper 49.
Afari-Gyan, Kwadwo. 1995. The Making of the Fourth Republican Constitution of Ghana. Friedrich Ebert Foundation.
Agyeman-Duah, Ivor. 2006. Between Faith and History. A Biography of John A. Kufuor. Chatham.
Ahluwalia, Davinder. 1996. Post-Colonialism and the Politics of Kenya. Nova Science Publishers.
Ajulu, Rok. 2002. “Politicized Ethnicity, Competitive Politics and Conflict in Kenya: A Historical Perspective.” African Studies 61 (2): 251–268.
Amenumey, D.E.K. 1989. The Ewe Unification Movement. A Political History. Ghana Universities Press.
Anderson, David. 2005. “Yours in Struggle for Majimbo: Nationalism and the Party Politics of Decolonization in Kenya, 1955 to 1964.” Journal of Contemporary History 40 (3): 547–564.
Angell, Harold. 1987. “Duverger, Epstein and the Problem of the Mass Party: The Case of the Parti Québécois.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 20 (2): 363–378.
Ansprenger, Franz. 1984. Die SWAPO: Profil einer afrikanischen Befreiungsbewegung. Mathias-Grünewald-Verlag.
Asante, Richard, and Gyimah-Boadi, Emmanuel. 2004. Ethnic Structure, Inequality and Governance of the Public Sector in Ghana. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
Apter, David. 1955. The Gold Coast in Transition. Princeton University Press.
Apter, David. 1972. Ghana in Transition. Princeton University Press.
Apter, David. 1986. Africa Repartitioned?Centre for Security and Conflict Studies.
Ahram, Ariel. 2011. “The Theory and Method of Comparative Area Studies.” Qualitative Research 11 (1): 69–90.
Arnold, Guy. 1974. Kenyatta and the Politics of Kenya. Dent and Sons.
Arter, David. 1999. “From Class Party to Catchall Party? The Adaptation of the Finnish Agrarian-Center Party.” Scandinavian Political Studies 22 (2): 157–180.
Austin, Dennis. 1961. “The Working Committee of the United Gold Coast Convention.” Journal of African History 2 (2): 273–297.
Austin, Dennis. 1963. “The Uncertain Frontier: Ghana-Togo.” Journal of Modern African Studies 1 (2): 139–145.
Austin, Dennis. 1964. Politics in Ghana 1946–1960. Oxford University Press.
Austin, Dennis. 1970. Elections in Ghana 1969. Indian Council for Africa.
Ayee, Richard. 1998. The 1996 General Elections and Democratic Consolidation in Ghana. University of Legon.
Ayee, Richard. 2008. “The Evolution of the New Patriotic Party.” South African Journal of International Affairs 15 (2): 185–214.
Ayensu, K.B., and Darkwa, S.N.. 1999. The Evolution of Parliament in Ghana. Sub-Saharan Publishers.
Badejo, Babafemi. 2006. Raila Odinga. An Enigma in Kenyan Politics. Yintab Books.
Bannon, Alicia, Miguel, Edward, and Posner, Daniel. 2004. “Sources of Ethnic Identification in Africa.” Afrobarometer Working Paper 44.
Barkan, Joel. 1995. “Elections in Agrarian Societies.” Journal of Democracy 6 (4): 106–116.
Bartolini, Stefano. 1999. “Collusion, Competition and Democracy.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 11 (4): 435–470.
Bartolini, Stefano. 2000. “Collusion, Competition and Democracy: Part II.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 12 (3): 33–65.
Basedau, Matthias. 2003. Erfolgsbedingungen von Demokratie im subsaharischen Afrika. Opladen.
Basedau, Matthias, Bogaards, Matthijs, Hartmann, Christof, and Niesen, Peter. 2007. “Ethnic Party Bans in Africa: A Research Agenda.” German Law Journal 6 (1): 617–634.
Basedau, Matthias, Erdmann, Gero, and Mehler, Andreas. 2007. Votes, Money and Violence. Political Parties in Sub-Saharan Africa. Elanders Gotab.
Basedau, Matthias, Köllner, Patrick. 2007. “Area Studies, Comparative Area Studies, and the Study of Politics: Context, Substance, and Methodological Challenges.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft 1 (1): 105–124.
Basedau, Matthias, and Stroh, Alexander. 2008. “Measuring Party Institutionalization in Developing Countries: A New Research Instrument Applied to 28 African Political Parties.” German Institute of Global and Area Studies Working Paper 69.
Basedau, Matthias. 2008. “Democracy and Elections in Africa by Staffan Lindberg.” Journal of Modern African Studies 46 (3): 518–519.
Basedau, Matthias and Stroh, Alexander. 2009. “Ethnicity and Party Systems in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa.” German Institute of Global and Area Studies Working Paper 100.
Basedau, Matthias, Erdmann, Gero, Lay, Jann, and Stroh, Alexander. 2011. “Ethnicity and Party Preference in sub-Saharan Africa.” Democratization 18 (2): 462–489.
Basedau, Matthias. 2011. “Managing Ethnic Conflict: The Menu of Institutional Engineering.” German Institute of Global and Area Studies Working Paper 171.
Basedau, Matthias and Stroh, Alexander. 2012. “How Ethnic Are African Parties Really? Evidence from Francophone Africa.” International Political Science Review 33 (1): 5–24.
Bates, Robert. 1981. Markets and States in Tropical Africa: The Political Basis of Agricultural Policies. University of California Press.
Bates, Robert. 2007. “Area Studies and Political Science: Rupture and Possible Synthesis.” Africa Today 44 (2): 123–131.
Bates, Robert. 1997. “Area Studies and the Discipline: A Useful Controversy?Political Science and Politics 30 (2): 166–169.
Battle, Martin, and Seely, Jennifer. 2007. It's All Relative: Competing Modes of Vote Choice in Benin. Afrobarometer Working Paper.
Battle, Martin, and Seely, Jennifer. 2010. “It's All Relative: Modelling Candidate Support in Benin.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 16 (1): 42–66.
Bayart, Jean-Francois. 1979. L’Etat au Cameroun. Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques.
Bayart, Jean-Francois. 1993. The State in Africa: The Politics of the Belly. Longman Group.
Baylies, Carolyn, and Szeffel, Morris. 1992. “The Fall and Rise of Multi-Party Politics in Zambia.” Review of African Political Economy 19 (54): 75–91.
Baynham, Simon. 1985a. “Divide et Impera: Civilian Control of the Military in Ghana's Second and Third Republics.” Journal of Modern African Studies 23 (4): 623–642.
Baynham, Simon. 1985b. “Civil-Military Relations in Ghana's Second Republic.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 4 (1/2): 71–88.
Becher, Anika and Basedau, Matthias. 2008. “Promoting Peace and Democracy Through Party Regulation? Ethnic Party Bans in Africa.” German Institute of Global and Area Studies Working Paper 66.
Beissinger, Mark, and Crawford, Young. 2002. Beyond State Crisis? Postcolonial Africa and Post-Soviet Eurasia in Comparative Perspective. Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
Bekker, Simon, Dodds, Martine, and Khosa, Meshak. 2001. Shifting African Identities. Human Sciences Research Council.
Bendix, Reinhard. 1964. Nation-Building and Citizenship: Studies of Our Changing Social Order. Wiley.
Bendix, Reinhard. 1987. Kings or People: Power and the Mandate to Rule. University of California Press.
Bennett, Andrew, and Elman, Colin. 2006. “Qualitative Research: Recent Developments in Case Study Method.” Annual Review of Political Science 9: 455–476.
Bennett, George, and Rosberg, Carl. 1961. The Kenyatta Election: Kenya 1960–1961. Oxford University Press.
Berg-Schlosser, Dirk. 1984. Tradition and Change in Kenya: A Comparative Analysis of Seven Major Ethnic Groups. Schönigh.
Berman, Bruce, Eyok, Dickson, and Kymlicka, Will. 2004. Ethnicity and Democracy in Africa. Oxford University Press.
Berman, Bruce, and Lonsdale, John. 1992. Unhappy Valley. Conflict in Kenya and Africa. Book One: State and Class. Currey.
Bienen, Henry. 1967. “What Does Political Development Mean in Africa?World Politics 20 (1): 128–141.
Birnir, Johanna. 2007. Ethnicity and Electoral Politics. Cambridge University Press.
Bjornlund, Eric, Bratton, Michael, and Gibson, Clark. 1992. “Observing Multiparty Elections in Africa: Lessons from Zambia.” African Affairs 91: 405–431.
Blais, Andre. 2006. “What Affects Voter Turnout?Annual Review of Political Science 9: 111–125.
Bleck, Jaimee, and Nicolas van de Walle, Nicolas. 2010. Parties and Issues in Francophone West Africa. Towards a Theory of Non-Mobilization. Cornell University, Center for International Studies.
Blyth, Mark, and Katz, Richard. 2005. “From Catch-All Politics to Cartelization: The Political Economy of the Cartel Party.” West European Politics 28 (1): 33–62.
Boas, Morten. 2001. “Liberia and Sierra Leone – Dead Ringers? The Logic of Neopatrimonial Rule.” Third World Quarterly 22 (5): 697–723.
Bogaards, Matthijs. 2003. “Electoral Choices for Divided Societies: Multi-Ethnic Parties and Constituency Pooling in Africa.” Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 41 (3): 59–80.
Bogaards, Matthijs. 2004. “Counting Parties and Identifying Dominant Party Systems in Africa.” European Journal of Political Research 43 (2): 173–197.
Bogaards, Matthijs. 2005. Power-Sharing in South Africa: The African National Congress as a Consociational Party? In From Power-Sharing to Democracy: Post-Conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies, ed Toronto, Noel, 164–183. McGill University Press.
Bogaards, Matthijs. 2007. Electoral Systems, Party Systems, and Ethnicity in Africa. In Votes, Money and Violence. Political Parties and Elections in Africa, ed. Basedau, Matthias, Erdmann, Gero, and Mehler, Andreas, 168–193. Elanders Gotab.
Bogaards, Matthijs. 2009. “How to Classify Hybrid Regimes? Defective Democracy and Electoral Authoritarianism.” Democratization 16 (2): 399–423.
Bogaards, Matthijs, Basedau, Matthias, and Hartmann, Christof. 2010. “Ethnic Party Bans in Africa: An Introduction. Democratization 17 (4): 599–617.
Boix, Charles. 1998. Political Parties, Growth and Equality: Conservative and Social Democratic Economic Strategies in the World Economy. Cambridge University Press.
Boucek, Francoise. 2009. “Rethinking Factionalism. Typologies, Intra-Party Dynamics and Three Faces of Factionalism.” Party Politics 15 (4): 455–488.
Brancati, Dawn. 2009. Peace by Design: Managing Intrastate Conflict Through Decentralization. Oxford University Press.
Brancati, Dawn. 2008. “The Origins and Strength of Regional Parties.” British Journal of Political Science 38 (1): 135–159.
Branch, Daniel, Cheeseman, Nic, and Gardner, Leigh. 2010. Our Turn to East. LIT Verlag.
Bratton, Michael, and van de Walle, Nicholas. 1997. Democratic Experiments in Africa. Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge University Press.
Bratton, Michael, Bhavnani, Ravi, and Tse-Itsin, Chen. 2011. “Voting Intensions in Africa: Ethnic, Economic or Partisan.” Afrobarometer Working Paper.
Braumoeller, Bear, and Goertz, Gerry. 2000. “The Methodology of Necessary Conditions.” American Journal of Political Science 44 (4): 844–858.
Bremmer, Ian. 2006. The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall. Simon and Schuster.
Breusers, Mark, Nederlof, Suzanne, and van Rheenen, Teunis. 1998. “Conflict or Symbiosis? Disentangling Farmer-Herdsmen Relations: The Mossi and Fulbe of the Central Plateau, Burkina Faso.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 36 (3): 357–380.
Brown, David. 1980. “Borderline Politics in Ghana: The National Liberation Movement of Western Togoland.” Journal of Modern African Studies 18 (4): 575–609.
Brown, David. 1982. “Who Are the Tribalists? Social Pluralism and Political Ideology in Ghana.” African Affairs 82 (322): 37–69.
Brown, Stephen. 2009. “Donor Responses to the 2008 Kenyan Crisis: Finally Getting it Right?Journal of Contemporary African Studies 27 (3): 389–406.
Budge, Ian, Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, and Hofferberg, Richard. 1994. Parties, Policies and Democracy. Westview Press.
Budge, Ian, Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, Volkens, Andreas, Bara, Judith, and Tanenbaum, Eric. 2001. Mapping Policy Preferences. Oxford University Press.
Bunce, Valerie. 1995. “Should Transitologists Be Grounded?Slavic Review 54 (1): 111–127.
Burin, Frederic. 1969. Politics, Law and Social Change: Selected Essays on Otto Kirchheimer. Columbia University Press.
Burnell, Peter. 1995. “The Politics of Poverty and the Poverty of Politics in Zambia.” Third World Quarterly 16 (4): 675–690.
Burnell, Peter. 2001. “The Party System and Party Politics in Zambia: Continuities Past, Present and Future.” African Affairs 100: 239–263.
Burnell, Peter. 2002. “Zambia's 2001 Elections: The Tyranny of Small decisions, ‘Non-Decisions,’ and ‘Not-Decisions.’Third World Quarterly 23 (6): 1103–1120.
Burnell, Peter. 2007. Different, Functional and Dynamic? Reflections on Gero Erdmann's Party Research: Western European Bias and the “African Labyrinth.” In Votes, Money and Violence. Political Parties and Elections in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. Basedau, Matthias, Erdmann, Gero, and Mehler, Andreas, 65–82. Elanders Gotab.
Burnell, Peter, and Gerrits, Andre. 2010. “Promoting Party Politics in Emerging Democracies.” Democratization 17 (6): 1065–1084.
Brydon, Lynne. 1985. “Ghanaian Responses to the Nigerian Expulsion of 1983.” African Affairs 84 (337): 561–586.
Capoccia, Giovanni, and Kelemen, Daniel. 2007. “The Study of Critical Junctures. Theory, Narrative and Counterfactuals in Historical Institutionalism.” World Politics 59 (4): 341–369.
Caramani, Daniele. 2004. The Nationalization of Politics. The Formation of National Electorates and Party Systems in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press.
Carey, Sabine. 2002. “A Comparative Analysis of Political Parties in Kenya, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.” Democratization 9 (3): 53–71.
Carothers, Thomas. 2006. Confronting the Weakest Link. Aiding Political Parties in New Democracies. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Cartwright, John. 1983. Political Leadership in Africa. Croom Helm.
Caton, Matthias. 2007. Effective Party Assistance. Stronger Parties for Better Democracy. International IDEA.
Chabal, Patrick, and Daloz, Jean-Pascal. 1999. Africa Works. Disorder as Political Instrument. International African Institute.
Chabal, Patrick. 2005. “Area Studies and Comparative Politics: Africa in Context.” Africa Spectrum 40 (3): 471–484.
Chabal, Patrick, and Daloz, Jean-Pascal. 2006. Culture Troubles: Politics and the Interpretation of Meaning. UK: Hurst and Company.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2004. Why Ethnic Parties Succeed. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2005. “Ethnic Parties and Democratic Stability.” Perspectives on Politics 3 (2): 235–252.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2006. “What is Ethnicity and Does it Matter?Annual Review of Political Science 9: 397–424.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2011. “What is an Ethnic Party?Party Politics 18 (2): 151–169.
Chazan, Naomi. 1982. “Ethnicity and Politics in Ghana.” Political Science Quarterly 97 (3): 461–485.
Cheeseman, Nicholas, and Ford, Robert. 2007. “Ethnicity as Political Cleavage.” Afrobarometer Working Paper.
Cheeseman, Nicolas, and Hinfelaar, Marja. 2010. “Parties, Platforms, and Political Mobilization: The Zambian Presidential Elections of 2008.” African Affairs 109 (434): 51–76.
Chege, Michael. 1997. “The Social Science Area Studies Controversy from the Continental African Standpoint?Africa Today 44 (2): 133–142.
Chege, Michael. 2007. Political Parties in East Africa: Diversity in Political Party Systems. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Chhibber, Pradeep, and Torcal, Mariano. 1997. “Elite Strategy, Social Cleavages, and Party Systems in a New Democracy.” Comparative Political Studies 30 (1): 27–54.
Chhibber, Pradeep, and Kollman, Ken. 1998. “Party Aggregation and the Number of Parties in India and the United States.” American Political Science Review 92 (2): 329–342.
Chinsinga, Blessings. 2003. “Lack of Alternative Leadership in Democratic Malawi: Some Reflections Ahead of the 2004 General Elections.” Nordic Journal of African Studies 12 (1): 1–22.
Chisinga, Blessings. 2006. Voter Apathy in Malawi: A Critical Appraisal. Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy.
Cliffe, Lionnel. 1994. The Transition to Independence in Namibia. Lynne Rienner.
Coleman, James, and Rosberg, Carl. 1964. Political Parties and National Integration in Tropical Africa. University of California Press.
Collier, David, and Mahon, James. 1993. “Conceptual “Stretching” Revisited: Adapting Categories in Comparative Analysis.” American Political Science Review 87 (4): 845–855.
Collier, Paul, and Hoeffler, Anke. 1998. “On Economic Causes of Civil War.” Oxford Economic Papers 50 (4): 563–573.
Collier, Paul, Honohan, Patrick, and Moene, Karl. 2001. “Implications of Ethnic Diversity.” Economic Policy 16 (32): 129–166.
Collier, Paul, and Hoeffler, Anke. 2004. “Greed and Grievance in Civil War.” Oxford Economic Paper 56 (4): 563–595.
Collier, Ruth, and Collier, David. 1991. Shaping the Political Arena. Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement and Regime Dynamics in Latin America. Princeton University Press.
Cooper, Allan. 2001. Ovambo Politics in the Twentieth Century. University of America Press.
Coppedge, Michael. 1997. “A Classification of Latin American Political Parties.” Kellogg Institute Working Paper.
Cowan, L. 1969. “Ten Years of African Studies.” African Studies Bulletin 12 (1): 1–7.
Cowen, Michael, and Laakso, Liisa. 2002. Multi-Party Elections in Africa. Currey.
Cox, Thomas. 1976. Civil-Military Relations in Sierra Leone. A Case Study of African Soldiers in Politics. Harvard University Press.
Crabbe, V.C.R.A.C. 1975. The Electoral Commission. In Politicians and Soldiers in Ghana 1966–1972, ed. Austin, Dennis and Luckham, Robin, 140–163. Frank Class.
Croissant, Aurel. 2008. “Die Parteiensysteme neuer Demokratien in Ostasien: Merkmale, Typen und Institutionalisierungsgrad.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft 2 (1): 70–98.
Creevy, Lucy, Ngomo, Paul, and Vengroff, Richard. 2005. “Party Politics and Different Paths to Democratic Transitions: A Comparison of Benin and Senegal.” Party Politics 11 (4): 471–492.
Daadler, Hans. 2002. Parties: Denied, Dismissed, or Redundant? A Critique. In Political Parties. Old Concepts and New Challenges, ed. Gunther, Richard, Ramon-Montero, Jose, and Linz, Juan, 39–57. Oxford University Press.
Daddieh, Cyril, and Ellen Fair, Jo. 2002. Ethnicity and Recent Democratic Experiments in Africa. African Studies Association Press.
Dalton, Russell, Beck, Paul, and Flanagan, Scott. 1984. Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. In Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Realignment or Dealignment, eds. Dalton, Russell, Beck, Paul, and Flanagan, Scott, 47–71. Princeton University Press.
Danso-Boafo, Kwaku. 1996. The Political Biography of Dr. Kofi Abrefa Busia. Ghana University Press.
Davidson, Basil. 2007. Black Star: A View of the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah. James Currey.
Davis, Gavin. 2004. “Proportional Representation and Racial Campaigning in South Africa.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 10 (2): 297–324.
Decalo, Samuel. 1976. Coups and Army Rule in Africa. Studies in Military Style. Yale University Press.
Diamond, Larry. 2002. “Thinking about Hybrid Regimes.” Journal of Democracy 13 (2): 21–35.
Diamond, Larry, and Gunther, Richard. 2001. Types and Functions of Parties. In Political Parties and Democracy, ed. Diamond, Larry and Gunther, Richard, Richard, , 1–39. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Dion, Douglas. 1998. “Evidence and Inference in the Comparative Case Study.” Comparative Politics 30 (2): 127–145.
Dix, Holger. 1999. Parlamentswahlen in Benin. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.
Dix, Holger. 2007. Parlamentswahlen in Benin. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.
Dowd, Robert, and Driessen, Michael. 2008. “Ethnically Dominated Party Systems and the Quality of Democracy: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa.” Afrobaro-meter Working Paper.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. “An Economic Theory of Political Action in a Democracy.” Journal of Political Economy 65 (2): 135–150.
Dulani, Boniface, and Kees van Donge, Jan. 2004. A Decade of Legislative-Executive Squabble in Malawi, 1994–2004. In African Parliaments. Between Government and Governance, ed. Ma Mohammed Salih, 201–224. Palgrave Macmillan.
Duverger, Maurice. 1954. Political Parties. Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. London: Methuen.
Easterly, William, and Levine, Ross, Ross, . 1997. “Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 112 (4): 1203–1250.
Eifert, Ben, Miguel, Edwart, and Posner, Daniel. 2007. “Political Sources of Ethnic Identification in Africa.” Afrobarometer Working Paper.
Eifert, Ben, Miguel, Edward, and Posner, Daniel. 2010. “Political Competition and Ethnic Identification in Africa.” American Journal of Political Science 54 (2): 494–520.
EISA. 2005. EISA Regional Observer Mission. Namibia Presidential and National Assembly Elections 15–16 November 2005. South Africa: EISA.
EISA. 2007. EISA Observer Mission Report 2006. Zambia: EISA.
EISA. 2009. EISA Observation Mission Report. Malawi Presidential and Parliamentary Elections. Johannesburg: EISA.
EISA. 2002. Malawi: The Colonial Period (1891–1964). .
Elischer, Sebastian. 2012. “Measuring and Comparing Party Ideology in Nonindustrialized Societies: Taking Party Manifesto Research to Africa.” Democratization 19 (4): 642–667.
Elischer, Sebastian. 2008. “Do African Parties Contribute to Democracy? Some Findings from Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria.” Afrika Spectrum 43 (2): 175–201.
Ellis, Stephen. 2005. “How to Rebuild Africa.” Foreign Affairs 84 (5): 135–148.
Emminghaus, Christoph. 2003. Politische Parteien im Demokratisierungsprozess. Struktur und Funktion Afrikanische Parteiensysteme. Leske und Budrich.
Engel, Ulf. 2003. “Gedanken zur Afrikanistik. Zukunft und Zustand einer Regionalwissenschaft in Deutschland.” Afrika Spectrum 38 (1): 111–123.
Engels, Jan Niklas. 2005a. Parteien und Parteiensystems in Afrika. Bonn: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Engels, Jan Nikklas. 2005b. Benin vor den Wahlen. Kann der Primus der afrikanischen Demokratie einen legitimen Machtwechsel vollziehen? Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Enlow, James, and Hinich, Melvin. 1990. Advances in the Spatial Theory of Voting. Cambridge University Press.
Epstein, Leon. 1980. Political Parties in Western Democracies. Praeger.
Erdmann, Gero, and Simutanyi, Neo. 2006. “Factionalism in an African Party System: The case of Zambia.” Paper presented at the Seminar Series for the Research Group on ‘Issues in Democratization,’ Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen.
Erdmann, Gero. 2004. “Party Research: Western European Bias and the “African Labyrinth.” Democratization 11 (3): 63–87.
Erdmann, Gero. 2007a. Party Research: Western European Bias and the African Labyrinth. In Votes, Money and Violence. Political Parties and Elections in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. Basedau, Matthias, Erdmann, Gero and Mehler, Andreas, 34–65. Elanders Gotab,
Erdmann, Gero. 2007b. “Ethnicity, Voter Alignment and Political Party Affiliation–an African Case: Zambia.” German Institute of Global and Area Studies Working Paper 45.
Erdmann, Gero, and Engel, Ulf, Ulf. 2007. “Neopatrimonialism Reconsidered: Critical Review and Elaboration of an Elusive Concept.” Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 45 (1): 95–119.
Erdmann, Gero. 2010. “Political Party Assistance and Political Party Research: Towards a Closer Encounter?Democratization 17 (6): 1275–1296.
European Union. 2002. Kenya General Elections 27 December 2002. European Union.
Evans, Geoffrey, and Whitefield, Stephen. 1993. “Identifying the Bases of Party Competition in Europe.” British Journal of Political Science 23 (4): 521–548.
Ferree, Karen. 2010. “The Social Origins of Electoral Volatility in Africa.” British Journal of Political Science 40: 759–779.
Forestiere, Carolyn. 2009. “Kirchheimer Italian Style. Catch-All Parties or Catch-All Blocs.” Party Politics 15 (5): 573–591.
Fridy, Kevin. 2007. “The Elephant, Umbrella, and Quarrelling Cocks: Disaggregating Partisanship in Ghana's Fourth Republic.” African Affairs 106 (423): 281–305.
Fukui, Haruhiro. 1985. Political Parties of Asia and the Pacific. USA: Greenwood Press.
Galvan, Dennis. 2001. “Democracy without Ethnic Conflict.” Paper presented at the 94th Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association.
Geddes, Barbara. 2003. Paradigms and Sand Castles. Theory Building and Research Design in Comparative Politics. University of Michigan Press.
Geertzel, Cheery. 1970. The Politics of Independent Kenya. East African Publishing Hose.
Geingob, Hage. 2004. “State Formation in Namibia: Promoting Democracy and Good Governance.” PhD thesis. University of Leeds.
Geiss, Imanuel. 1974. The Pan-African Movement. Africana Publication.
Gerring, John. 1994. “A Chapter in the History of American Party Ideology: The Nineteenth-Century Democratic Party.” Polity 26 (4): 729–768.
Gerring, John. 2004. “What is a Case Study and What Is It Good For.” American Political Science Review 98 (2): 341–354.
Gerring, John. 2006. Case Study Research. Cambridge University Press.
Gerring, John. 2007. “Is There a Viable Crucial – Case Method?Comparative Political Studies 40 (3): 231–253.
Glickman, Harvey. 1963. “Introducing Political Africa.” Journal of Modern African Studies 1 (2): 229–236.
Gloppen, Siri, Kanyongolo, Edge, Khembo, Nixon, Petel, Nandini, Rakner, Lise, Svasand, Lars, Tostensen, Arne, and Bakken, Mette. 2006. The Institutional Context of the 2004 General Elections in Malawi. Christian Michelsen Institute.
Goerz, Gary. 2005. Social Science Concepts: A User's Guide. Princeton University Press.
Goldthorpe, John. 1997. “Current Issues in Comparative Macrosociology: A Debate on Methodological Issues.” Comparative Social Research 16 (1): 1–26.
Goldsworthy, David. 1973. “Ghana's Second Republic: A Post-Mortem.” African Affairs 72 (286): 8–25.
Goldsworthy, David. 1982. Tom Mboya: The Man Kenya Wanted to Forget. Heinemann.
Good, Kenneth. 1968. “Kenyatta and the Organization of KANU.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 2 (2): 115–136.
Graham, Loren, and Kantor, Jean-Michel. 2007. “‘Soft’ Area Studies versus ‘Hard’ Social Science: A False Opposition.” Slavic Review 66 (1): 1–19.
Grignon, Francois. 2001. Breaking the “Ngilu Wave”: The 1997 General Elections in the Meru and Embu Regions. In Out for the Count. The 1997 General Elections and Prospects for Democracy in Kenya, ed. Rutten, Marcel, Mazrui, Alamin and Grignon, Francois, Francois, , 315–347. Fountain Publishers, 315–347.
Grusky, David, and Kanbur, Ravi. 2006. Poverty and Inequality. Stanford University Press.
Gunther, Richard, Ramón, José, and Linz, Juan. 2002. Political Parties: Old Concepts and New Challenges. Oxford University Press
Gunther, Richard, and Diamond, Larry. 2003. “Species of Political Parties. A New Typology.” Party Politics 9 (2): 167–199.
Hagberg, Sten. 2002. “Enough is Enough: An Ethnographic Account of the Struggle against Impunity in Burkina Faso.” Journal of Modern African Studies 40 (2): 217–246.
Hale, Henry. 2000. “The Parade of Sovereignties: Testing Theories of Secession in the Soviet Setting.” British Journal of Political Science 30 (1): 31–56.
Hale, Henry. 2004. “Divided We Stand. Institutional Sources of Ethnofederal State Survival and Collapse.” World Politics 56 (2): 165–193.
Halpern, Manfred. 1966. “Politics in the Congo, Decolonization and Independence by Crawford Young.” American Political Science Review 60 (1): 118–119.
Hansen, Emmanuel, and Collins, Paul. 1980. “The Army, the State and the ‘Rawlings Revolution in Ghana.’” African Affairs 79 (314): 3–23.
Harmel, Robert, and Janda, Kenneth. 1994. “An Integrated Theory of Party Goals and Party Change.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 6 (3): 259–287.
Harneit-Sievers, Axel. 1984. SWAPO of Namibia. Hamburg: Institut für Afrika-Kunde.
Harneit-Sievers, Axel. 1990. Wahlen zur Verfassungsgebenden Versammlung 1989. Germany: Institut für Afrika-Kunde.
Harris, Peter, and Reilly, Ben. 1998. Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiations. Stockholm: International IDEA.
Harsch, Ernest. 1999. “Trop, c'est Trop. Civil Insurgence in Burkina Faso 1998–1999.” Review of African Political Economy 26 (8): 395–406.
Harsch, Ernest. 2009. “Urban Protest in Burkina Faso.” African Affairs 108 (431): 263–288.
Hartmann, Christof. 2010. “Senegal's Party System: The Limits of Formal Regulation.”Democratization 17 (4): 769–786.
Hasty, Jennifer. 2005. The Press and Political Culture in Ghana. Indiana University Press.
Haynes, Jeff. 1995. From Personalistic to Democratic Rule. In Democracy and Political Change in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. Wiseman, John, 91–115. Routledge.
Hepburn, Eve. 2009. “Re-conceptualizing Sub-state Mobilization.” Regional and Federal Studies 19 (4–5): 477–499.
Hepburn, Eve. 2011. “Citizens of the Region: Party Conceptions of Regional Citizenship and Immigrant Integration.” European Journal of Political Research 50 (4): 504–529.
Herbst, Jeffrey, and Mills, Greg. 2009. “There Is No Congo.” Foreign Policy, Web Exclusive.
Hettne, Björn. 1980. “Soldiers and Politics: The Case of Ghana.” Journal of Peace Research 17 (2): 173–193.
Hewitt, Christopher. 1977. “Majorities and Minorities: A Comparative Survey of Ethnic Violence.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 433 (1): 150–160.
Hilgers, Matthieu. 2010. “Evolution of Political Regime and Evolution of Popular Representation in Burkina Faso.” African Journal of Political Science and International Relations 49 (9): 350–359.
Hodgkin, Thomas. 1956. Nationalism in Tropical Africa. Fredrick Muller.
Hodgkin, Thomas. 1961. African Political Parties. An Introductory Guide. Penguin Books.
Hodler, Roland. 2006. “The curse of natural resources in fractionalized countries.” European Economic Review 50: 1367–1386.
Homlquist, Frank, and Ford, Michael. 1994. “Kenya: State and Society the First Year after the Election.” Africa Today 41 (4): 5–25.
Hopkins, A.G. 1978. “An Economic History of West Africa: A Further Comment.” African Economic History 6 (Autumn): 139–144.
Hopwood, Graham. 2007. Guide to Namibian Politics. National Institute for Democracy.
Hornsby, Charles. 2012. Kenya. A History Since Independence. I.B. Tauris.
Horowitz, Donald. 1991. A Democratic South Africa? Constitutional Engineering in a Divided Society. University of California Press.
Horowitz, Donald. 2000. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. University of California Press.
Hönnige, Christoph. 2007. Verfassunsgericht, Regierung und Opposition. Die vergleichende Analyse eines Spannunsdreiecks. Germany: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Howe, Russell. 1958. “Ghana: The First Year.” Phylon Quarterly 19 (3): 277–285.
Huber, John, and Inglehart, Ronald. 1995. “Expert Interpretations of Party Space and Party Locations in 42 Societies.” Party Politics 1 (1): 73–111.
Hulterström, Karolina. 2004. Ethnic Politics: Parties and Policies in Kenya and Zambia. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.
Hulterström, Karolina, Kamete, Yamin, and Melber, Henning. 2007. Political Opposition in African Countries: The Case of Kenya, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Nordic Africa Institute.
Human Rights Watch. 1993. Divide and Rule. State-Sponsored Ethnic Violence in Kenya. Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. 2007. Criminal Politics. Violence, Godfathers and Corruption in Nigeria. Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. 2008. Ballots to Bullets. Organized Political Violence and Kenya's Crisis of Governance. Human Rights Watch.
Hunter, Justine. 2008. Die Politik der Erinnerung und des Vergessens in Namibia: Umgang mit schweren Menschenrechtsverletzungen der Ära des bewaffneten Befreiungskampfes 1966 bis 1989. Peter Lang.
Hunter, Justine, and Sherbourne, Robin. 2004. On the Record: Political Party Representatives Challenged. Konrad Adenauer Foundation.
Huntington, Samuel. 1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. Yale University Press.
Ihonvbere, Julius. 1997. “From Despotism to Democracy: The Rise of Multiparty Politics in Malawi.” Third World Quarterly 18 (2): 225–247.
Ishiyama, John, and Breuning, Marijke. 1998. Ethnopolitics in the New Europe. Lynne Rienner.
Ishiyama, John. 1999. “Sickles into Roses: The Successor Parties and Democratic Consolidation in Post-Communist Politics.” Democratization 6 (4): 52–73.
Ishiyama, John, and Fox, Krystal. 2006. “What Affects the Strength of Partisan Identity in Sub-Saharan Africa?Politics & Policy 34 (4): 748–773.
Ishiyama, John. 2009. “Do Ethnic Parties Promote Ethnic Minority Conflict?Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 15 (1): 56–83.
Ishiyama, John, and Breuning, Marijke. 2011. “What's in a Name? Ethnic Party Identity and Democratic Development in Post-Communist Countries.” Party Politics 17 (2): 233–241.
Ishiyama, John. 2012. “Explaining Ethnic Bloc Voting in Africa.” Democratization 19 (4): 642–667.
Jackson, Robert, and Rosberg, Carl. 1982. Personal Rule in Black Africa. Prince Autocrat, Prophet, Tyrant. University of California Press.
Jeffries, Richard, and Thomas, Clare. 1993. “The Ghanaian Elections of 1992.” African Affairs 92 (369): 331–366.
John, Daniel. 1999. Voting for Democracy: Watershed Elections in Contemporary Anglophone Africa. Ashgate.
Jones, Mark, and Mainwaring, Scott. 2003. “The Nationalization of Parties and Party Systems.” Party Politics 9 (2): 139–166.
Jonyo, Fred. 2003. The Centrality of Ethnicity in Kenya's Political Transition. In The Politics of Transition in Kenya. From KANU to NARC, ed. Oyugi, Walter, Wanyande, Peter, Peter, and Ochiambo-Mbai, C., 155–179. Heinrich Böll Foundation.
Kabemba, Claude. 2004. Elections and Democracy in Zambia. South Africa: EISA.
Kadima, Denis, and Owuor, Felix. 2006. The National Rainbow Coalition. In The Politics of Party Coalitions in Africa, ed. Kadima, Denis, Denis, , 179–221. Konrad Adenauer Foundation.
Kagwanja, Peter. 2006. “Power to Uhuru: Youth Identity and Generational Politics in Kenya's 2002 Elections.” African Affairs 105 (418): 51–75.
Kala, A.S. 1979. Nationalism in Kenya before Independence. In Economic and Political Development of Kenya, ed. Mutalik-Desai, Priya, 93–112. Himalaya Publishing House.
Kalipeni, Ezekiel. 1997. “Regional Polarization in Voting Pattern: Malawi's 1994 Elections.” African Journal of Political Science 2 (1): 152–167.
Kandeh, Jimmy. 1992. “The Politicization of Ethnic Identities in Sierra Leone.” African Studies Review 35 (1): 81–99.
Kandeh, Jimmy. 2003. “Sierra Leone's Post-Conflict Elections of 2002.” Journal of Modern African Studies 41 (2): 189–216.
Kanyinga, Karuti. 2003. Limitations of Political Liberalization: Parties and Electoral Politics in Kenya, 1992–2002. In The Politics of Transition in Kenya. From KANU to NARC, ed. Oyugi, Walter, Wanyande, Peter, Peter, and Ochiambo-Mbai, C., C, 180–211. Heinrich Böll Foundation.
Kaplan, Robert. 1997. The end of the Earth: From Togo to Turkmenistan, from Iran to Cambodia. A Journey to the Frontier of Anarchy. Vintage.
Kariuki, Samuel. 2008. “‘We've been to hell and back…’: Can a Botched Land Reform Program Explain Kenya's Political Crisis? (1963–2008).” Journal of African Elections 7 (2): 135–172.
Karvonen, Lauri, and Kuhnle, Stein. 2001. Party Systems and Voter Alignments Revisited. Routledge.
Kasara, Kimali. 2011. “Separate and Suspicious: Local, Social and Political Context and Ethnic Tolerance in Kenya.” Afrobarometer Working Paper.
Kasfir, Nelson. 1976. The Shrinking Political Arena: Participation and Ethnicity in African Politics with a Case Study of Uganda. University of California Press.
Kaspin, Deborah. 1995. “The Politics of Ethnicity in Malawi's Democratic Transition.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 33: 595–620.
Katz, Richard. 2002. The Internal Life of Parties. In: Political Parties in the New Europe. Political and Analytical Challenges, ed. Kurth Luther, Richard and Müller-Rommel, Ferdinand, 87–118. Oxford University Press.
Katz, Richard, and Mair, Peter. 1992. A Data Handbook on Party Organizations in Western Democracies, 1960–1990. UK: Sage Publications.
Katz, Richard, and Mair, Peter. 1995. “Changing Models of Party Organization and Party Democracy. The Emergence of the Cartel Party.” Party Politics 1 (1): 5–28.
Katz, Richard, and Mair, Peter. 2009. “The Cartel Party Thesis: A Restatement.” Perspective on Politics 7 (4): 753–766.
Katzenstein, Peter. 2001. “Area and Regional Studies in the United States.” Political Science and Politics 34 (4): 789–791.
Keffer, Philip. 2010. “The Ethnicity Distraction? Political Credibility and Partisan Preferences in Africa.” Afrobarometer Working Paper.
Kenig, Maria. 1978. “The Shrinking Political Arena: Participation and Ethnicity in African Politics with a Case Study from Uganda by Nelson Kasfir.” Journal of the International African Institute 48 (4): 417–418.
Khapoya, Vincent. 1979. “The Politics of Succession in Africa: The Case of Kenya.” Africa Today 26 (3): 7–20.
Kilson, Martin. 1966. Political Change in a West African State: A Study in the Modernization Process in Sierra Leone. Harvard University Press.
Kilson, Martin. 1976. Cleavage Management in African Politics: The Ghana Case. In Cleavage Management in African Politics, ed. Kilson, Martin, 85–98. Harvard University Press, 85–98.
Kindiki, Kithure, and Ambani, Osogo. 2005. Selected Analyses of the 2004 Draft Constitution of Kenya. Claripress.
King, Gary, Keohane, Robert, and Verba, Sidney. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton University Press.
Kirchheimer, Otto. 1966. The Transformation of the Western European Party Systems. In Political Parties and Political Developmen, ed. LaPalombara, Joseph and Weiner, Myron, 177–201. Princeton University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 1993. “Social Movements, Political Parties, and Democratic Theory.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 528 (1): 13–29.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 1994. The Transformation of European Social Democracy. Cambridge University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 2000. “Linkages Between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Polities.” Comparative Political Studies 33 (6–7): 845–879.
Kitschelt, Herbert, Hawkins, Kirk, Luna, Juan, Rosas, Guillermo, and Zechmeister, Elizabeth. 2010. Latin American Party Systems. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, Volkens, Andrea, Bara, Judith, Budge, Ian, McDonald, Michael. 2006. Mapping Policy Preferences II. Oxford University Press.
Koole, Ruud. 1996. “Cadre, Catch-All or Cartel? A Comment on the Notion of the Cartel Party.” Party Politics 2 (4): 507–523.
Kopecky, Petr. 1995. “Developing Party Organizations in East Central Europe.” Party Politics 1 (4): 515–534.
Köllner, Patrick, Basedau, Matthias, and Erdmann, Gero. 2006. Innerparteiliche Machtgruppen. Faktionalismus im internationalem Vergleich. Campus.
Krouwel, A.P.M. 1999. “The Catch-All Party in Western Europe 1945–1990. A Study in Arrested Development.” PhD thesis. Free University of Amsterdam.
Krouwel, A.P.M. 2003. “Otto Kirchheimer and the Catch-All Party.” West European Politics 26 (2): 23–40.
Kuenzi, Michelle, and Lambright, Gina. 2007. “Voter Turnout in Africa's Multiparty Democracies.” Comparative Political Studies 40 (6): 665–690.
Kumar, Krishna. 2004. International Political Party Assistance. An Overview and Analysis. Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael.’
Kwang Johnson, Nancy. 2004. “Senegalese into Frenchman or Peasants into Senegalese?: The Politics of Language, Culture and Assimilation: A Colonial and Post-Independence Critique (Senegal).” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Montreal, Quebec.
Kyle, Keith. 1999. The Politics of the Independence of Kenya. Macmillan.
Laakso, Markku, and Taagepera, Rein. 1979. “‘Effective’ Number of Parties: A Measure with Application to West Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 12 (1): 3–27.
Lambert, Michael. 1998. “Violence and the War of Word: Ethnicity v. Nationalism in the Casamance.” Africa 68 (4): 585–602.
Larmer, Miles, and Fraser, Alastair. 2007. “Of Cabbages and King Cobra: Populist Politics and Zambia's 2006 Elections.” African Affairs 106 (425): 611–637.
Lauth, Hans-Joachim. 2000. “Informal Institutions and Democracy.” Democratization 7 (4): 21–50.
Lauth, Hans-Joachim, Pickel, Gert, and Welzel, Christian. 2000. Demokratiemessung. Konzepte und Befunde im Internationalen Vergleich. Opladen.
Lawson, Letitia. 1999. “External Democracy Promotion in Africa: Another False Start?Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 37 (1): 1–30.
Le Bas, Adrienne. 2011. From Protest to Parties: Party-Building and Democratization in Africa. Oxford University Press.
Le Beau, Debie. 2005. “Multiparty Democracy and Elections in Namibia.” Journal of African Elections 4 (1): 1–26.
Lekorwe, Mogopodi. 2005. Organisation of Political Parties. In 40 Years of Democracy in Botswana: 1965–2005, ed. Maudeni, Zibani, 122–146. Mmegi Publishing House.
Lemarchand, Rene. 1972. “Political Clientelism and Ethnicity in Tropical Africa: Competing Solidarities in Nation-Building.” American Political Science Review 66 (1): 68–90.
Lemarchand, Rene. 2007. “Consociationalism and Power Sharing in Africa: Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.” African Affairs 106 (422): 1–20.
Lentz, Carola and Nugent, Paul. 2000. Ethnicity in Ghana: The Limits of Invention. Macmillan.
Levitzky, Steven, and Way, Lucan. 2002. “The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism.” Journal of Democracy 13 (2): 51–65.
Lewis, Peter. 2011. “Nigeria Votes: More Openness, More Conflict.” Journal of Democracy 22 (4): 60–74.
Lewis-Beck, Michael. 2008. The American Voter Revisited. University of Michigan Press.
Collin, Leys, and Saul, John. 1994. “Liberation without Democracy? The SWAPO Crisis of 1976.” Journal of Southern African Studies 20 (1): 123–147.
Leys, Colin, Saul, Paul, and Brown, Susan. 1995. Namibia's Liberation Struggle. The Two-Edged Sword. James Currey.
Lieberson, Stanley. 1991. “Small N's and Big Conclusions: An Examination of the Reasoning in Comparative Studies Based on a Small Number of Cases.” Social Forces 70 (2): 307–320.
Lijphart, Arend. 1971. “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method.” American Political Science Review 65 (3): 682–693.
Lijphart, Arend, and Grofman, Bernard. 1984. Choosing an Electoral System: Issues and Alternatives. Praeger.
Lijphart, Arend. 1991. “Constitutional Choices for New Democracies.” Journal of Democracy 2 (1): 72–84.
Lijphart, Arend. 1999. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. Yale University Press.
Lindeke, William, Wanzala, Winnie, and Tonchi, Victor. 1992. “Namibia's Election Revisited.” South African Journal of Political Studies 19 (2): 121–138.
Lindberg, Staffan, and Morrison, Minion. 2008. “Are African Voters Really Ethnic or Clientelistic? Survey Evidence from Ghana.” Political Science Quarterly 123 (1): 95–122.
Lindberg, Staffan. 2007. “Institutionalization of Party Systems? Stability and Fluidity Among Legislative Parties in Africa's Democracies.” Government and Opposition 42 (2): 215–241.
Lindberg, Staffan. 2006. Democracy and Elections in Africa. John Hopkins University Press.
Lipset, Seymour, and Rokkan, Stein. 1967. Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross National Perspectives. Free Press.
Lipset, Seymour. 2001a. Cleavages, Parties and Democracy. In Party Systems and Voter Alignments Revisited, ed. Karvonen, Lauri and Kuhnle, Stein, 2–8. Routledge.
Lipset, Seymour. 2001b. The Americanization of the European Left. In Political Parties and Democracy, ed. Diamond, Larry and Gunther, Richard, 52–66. The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 52–66.
Lister, Gwen. 1981. “Political Parties and Tribal Groups in Namibia.” Paper Prepared for a Seminar on Namibia held by the Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.
Loade, Augustin, and Carlos, Santiso. 2002. Landmark Elections in Burkina Faso. International IDEA.
Lodge, Tom. 1999. “The Namibian Elections of 1999.” Democratization 8 (2): 191–230.
Lofchie, Michael. 1985. Zanzibar: Background to Revolution. Princeton University Press.
Lonsdale, John. 2005. “African Studies, Europe & Africa.” Afrika Spectrum 40 (3): 377–402.
Lotshwao, Kebapetse. 2011. “The Weakness of Opposition Parties in Botswana: A Justification for More Internal-Party Democracy in the Dominant Botswana Democratic Party (BDP).” African Journal of Political Science and International Relations 5 (2): 103–111.
Lötzer, Klaus. 2003. Benin: Parlamentswahlen vom 30.03.2003. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.
Luckham, Robin. 1994. “The Military, Militarization and Democratization in Africa: A Survey of Literature and Issues.” African Studies Review 37 (2): 13–75.
Lush, David. 1993. Last Steps to Uhuru. New Namibia Books.
Lustick, Ian. 1996. “History, Historiography, and Political Science: Multiple Historical Records and the Problem of Selection Bias.” American Political Science Review 90 (3): 605–618.
Lynch, Gabrielle. 2006. “The Fruits of Perception: ‘Ethnic Politics’ and the Case of Kenya's Constitutional Referendum.” African Studies 65 (2): 233–270.
Lynch, Gabrielle. 2007. “Kenyan Politics and the Ethnic Factor: The Case of the Kalenjin.” PhD thesis. Oxford University.
Lynch, Gabrielle. 2008. “Courting the Kalenjin: The Failure of Dynasticism and the Strength of the ODM Wave in Kenya's Rift Valley Province.” African Affairs 107 (429): 541–568.
MacIvor, Heather. 1996. “Do Canadian Political Parties Form a Cartel?Canadian Journal of Political Science 29 (2): 317–333.
McCain, James. 1975. “Ideology in Africa: Some Perceptual Types.” African Studies Review 18 (1): 67–87.
Mahoney, James. 1999. “Nominal, Ordinal and Narrative Appraisal in Macrocausal Analysis.” American Journal of Sociology 104 (4): 1154–1196.
Mahoney, James. 2000. “Strategies of Causal Inference in Small-N Analysis.” Sociological Methods and Research 28 (4): 387–424.
Mahoney, James. 2001. “Path-Dependent Explanations of Regime Change: Central America in Comparative Perspective.” Studies in Comparative International Development 36 (1): 111–141.
Mahoney, James, and Rueschemeyer, James. 2003. Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott, and Scully, Timothy. 1995. Party Systems in Latin America. Stanford University Press.
Mair, Peter. 2005. “Democracy Beyond Parties.” CSD Working Paper.
Mair, Peter, Müller, Wolfgang, and Plasser, Fritz. 2004. Political Parties and Electoral Change: Party Reponses to Electoral Markets. SAGE.
Mair, Peter, and van Biezen, Ingrid. 2001. “Party Membership in Twenty European Democracies: 1880–2000.” Party Politics 7 (5): 5–21.
Mair, Stefan. 1994. Kenias Weg in die Mehrparteiendemokratie: Von Uhuru über Harambee und Nyago erneut zu Uhuru. Germany: Nomos.
Makgala, Christian John. 2005. “The Relationship between Kenneth Koma and the Botswana Democratic Party 1965–2003.” African Affairs 104 (415): 303–323.
Mann, Michael. 2005. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press.
Manning, Carrie. 2008. The Making of Democrats. Palgrave Macmillan.
Markowski, Radoslaw. 1997. “Political Parties and Ideological Space in East Central Europe.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 30 (3): 221–254.
Maroleng, Chris. 2004. “Malawi General Election 2004: Democracy in the Firing Line.” African Security Review 13 (2): 77–81.
Massetti, Emmanuel. 2009. “Explaining Regionalist Party Positioning in a Multi-dimensional Ideological Space: A Framework for Analysis.” Regional & Federal Studies 19 (4–5): 501–531.
Maundeni, Zibani. 2005. Succession to High Office: Tswana Culture and Modern Botswana Politics. In 40 Years of Democracy in Botswana: 1965–2005, ed. Maudeni, Zibani, 80–93. Mmegi Publishing House.
Maupeu, Harvé, Katumanga, Musambati, and Mitullah, Katumange. 2005. The Moi Succession: The 2002 Elections in Kenya. Transafrica Press.
Meguid, Bonnie. 2005. “Competition Between Unequals: The Role of Mainstream Party Strategy in Niche Party Success.” American Political Science Review 99 (3): 347–359.
Melber, Henning. 2003. “From Controlled Change to Changed Control.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 21 (2): 267–284.
Merkel, Wolfgang. 2003. Defekte Demokratien. Band 1: Theorie. Leskeund Budrich.
Merkl, Peter. 1967. “Political Cleavages and Party Systems.” World Politics 21 (3): 469–485.
Michels, Robert. 1949. Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy. Free Press.
Miller, Warren. 1996. The New American Voter. Harvard University Press.
Mmuya, Maximilian and Amon, Chaligha. 1994. Political Parties and Democracy in Tanzania. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Mmuya, Maximilian. 1998. Tanzania: Political Reform in Eclipse. Crises and Cleavages in Political Parties. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Moegenburg, Ilka. 2002. Die Parteienlandschaft im Senegal. Tragfähige Grundlage der Demokratisierung. LIT Verlag.
Mokopakgosi, Brian, and Molomo, Mpho. 2000. “Democracy in the Face of Weak Opposition in Botswana.” Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies 14 (1): 3–21.
Momba, Jotham. 2005. Political Parties and the Quest for Democratic Consolidation in Zambia. EISA.
Monsch, Grian-Andrea. 2008. Der Klient und sein Patron – oder warum man nie in Burkina Faso wählen geht. Center for Comparative and International Studies.
Moore, Barrington. 1967. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Beacon Press.
Morgenthau, Ruth Schachter. 1961. Political Parties in West Africa. Clarendon Press.
Morgenthau, Ruth Schachter. 1964. Political Parties in Frenchspeaking West Africa. Oxford University Press.
Moroff, Anika. 2010. “Party Bans in Africa – An Empirical Overview.” Democratization 17 (4): 618–641.
Moroff, Anika. 2010. “An Effective Measure of Institutional Engineering? Ethnic Party Bans in Africa.” Democratization 17 (4): 666–686.
Morrison, Lesa. 2007. “The Nature of Decline: Distinguishing Myth from Reality in the Case of the Luo of Kenya.” Journal of Modern African Studies 45 (1): 117–142.
Morrison, Minion. 2004. “Political Parties in Ghana through Four Republics. A Path to Democratic Consolidation.” Comparative Politics 36 (4): 421–442.
Morrison, Minion, and Jaw, Hong. 2006. “Ghana's Political Parties. How Ethno-Regional Variations Sustain the National Two-Party System.” Journal of Modern African Studies 44 (4): 623–647.
Mudde, Cas, and Mair, Peter. 1998. “The Party Family and Its Study.” Annual Review of Political Science 1: 211–229.
Müller, Wolfgang, and Strom, Kaare. 1999. Policy, Office or Votes? How Political Parties in Western Europe Make Hard Decisions. Cambridge University Press.
Munck, Gerardo. 1998. “Canons of Research Design in Qualitative Analysis.” Studies in Comparative International Development 33 (3): 18–45.
Munck, Gerardo, and Snyder, Richard. 2007. “Debating the Direction of Comparative Politics.” Comparative Political Studies 40 (1): 5–31.
Mutua, Makau. 2008. Kenya's Quest for Democracy. Lynne Rienner.
National Democratic Institute. 2003. Working to Strengthen and Expand Democracy Worldwide. National Democratic Institute.
National Development Party. 1997. Towards a Better Kenya. National Development Party.
Neumann, Sigmund. 1954. “Towards a Theory of Political Parties.” World Politics 6 (4): 549–563.
Neumann, Sigmund. 1955. Modern Political Parties. University of Chicago Press.
New Patriotic Party. 1998. Constitution of the New Patriotic Party. New Patriotic Party.
Newman, Saul. 1996. Ethnoregional Conflict in Democracies: Mostly Ballots, Rarely Bullets. Greenwood Press.
Ninsin, Kwame. 1987. “Ghanaian Politics after 1981: Revolution of Evolution?Canadian Journal of African Studies 21 (1): 17–38.
Norris, Pippa, and Mattes, Robert. 2003. Does Ethnicity Determine Support for the Governing Party?Cape Town: Center for Social Science Research University of Cape Town.
Norris, Pippa. 2005. Building Political Parties: Reforming Legal Regulations and Internal Rules. International IDEA.
Nugent, Paul. 1995. Big Men, Small Boys and Politics in Ghana: Power Ideology and the Burden of History, 1982–1994. Pinter.
Nugent, Paul. 1999. “Living in the Past: Urban, Rural and Ethnic Themes in the 1992 and 1996 Elections in Ghana.” Journal of Modern African Studies 37 (2): 287–319.
Nugent, Paul. 2001. “Winners, Losers and Also Rans: Money, Moral Authority and Voting Patterns in the Ghana 2000 Elections.” African Affairs 100 (400): 405–428.
Nujoma, Sam. 2001. Where Others Wavered. The Autobiography of Sam Nujoma. UK: Panaf.
Nyang'oro, Julius. 2004. Ethnic Structure, Inequality and Governance of the Public Sector in Tanzania. UNRISD.
Obeng-Odoom, Franklin. 2009. “Transforming Third World Cities Through Good Urban Governance: Fresh Evidence.” Theoretical and Empirical Researchers in Urban Management 1 (10): 46–62.
Olodo, Kochikpa, and Sossou, Damaso. 2008. Militantisme et l'identification Ethnique au Bénin. In Les Fontionnement des Partis Politiques au Bénin, ed. Niklas Engels, Jan, Stroh, Alexander and Wantchékon, Léonard, 109–122. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Oloka-Onyango, Joseph and Nassali, Maria. 2003. Constitutionalism and Political Stability in Zanzibar. The Search for a New Vision. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Omolo, Ken. 2002. “Political Ethnicity in the Democratization Process in Kenya.” African Studies 61 (2): 209–221.
Oquaye, Mike. 2004. Politics in Ghana, 1982–1992: Rawlings, Revolution and Populist Democracy. Tornado Publications.
Osei-Hwedie, Bertha. 1998. “The Role of Ethnicity in Multi-Party Politics in Malawi and Zambia.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 16 (2): 227–247.
Osei, Anja. 2010. “Party-Voter Linkage in Ghana and Senegal.” PhD thesis. University of Leipzig.
Osei-Hwedie, Bertha. 1998. “The Role of Ethnicity in Multi-Party Politics in Malawi and Zambia.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 16 (2): 227–247.
Osei-Hwedie, Bertha. 2001. “The Political Opposition in Botswana: The Politics of Factionalism and Fragmentation.” Transformation 45: 57–77.
Otayek, René. 1992. “The Democratic ‘Rectification’ of Burkina Faso.” Journal of Comunist Studies 8 (2): 83–104.
Ott, Martin, Kings, Phiri, and Patel, Nandini. 2000. Malawi's Second Democratic Elections. Kachere.
Oyugi, Walter. 1997. “Ethnicity in the Electoral Process: The 1992 General Elections in Kenya.” African Journal of Political Science 2 (1): 41–69.
Palmberg, Mai. 1999. National Identity and Democracy in Africa. Human Sciences Research Council.
Peil, Margaret. 1974. “Ghana's Aliens.” International Migration Review 8 (3): 367–381.
Pelizzo, Ricardo. 2006. The Cartel Party and the Rise of the New Extreme Right. Singapore: Research Collection School of Social Sciences.
Peters, Ralph-Michael. 1998. “Die Präsidentschafts- und Parlamentswahlen in Kenia 1997.” Focus Afrika 10.
Pierson, Paul. 2004. Politics in Time. History, Institutions and Social Analysis. Princeton University Press.
Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. 2002. “Financing Politics: A Global View.” Journal of Democracy 13 (4): 69–86.
Posner, Daniel. 2003. “The Colonial Origins and Ethnic Cleavages: The Case of Linguistic Division in Zambia.” Comparative Politics 35 (2): 127–146.
Posner, Daniel. 2004. “The Political Salience of Cultural Difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas are Allies in Zambia and Adversaries in Malawi.” American Political Science Review 98 (4): 529–545.
Posner, Daniel. 2005. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. Cambridge University Press.
Puhle, Hans-Jürgen. 2002. Still the Age of Catch-allism? Volksparteien and Parteienstaat in Crisis and Re-equilibration. In Political Parties. Old Concepts and New Challenges, ed. Gunther, Richard, Ramon-Montero, Jose and Linz, Juan, 58–83. Oxford University Press, 58–83.
Price, Robert. 1973. “The Pattern of Ethnicity in Ghana.” Journal of Modern African Studies 11 (3): 470–475.
Protsyk, Olek, and Wilson, Andrew. 2003. “Centre Politics in Russia and Ukraine.” Party Politics 9 (6): 703–727.
Przeworski, Adam, and Teune, Henry. 1982. The Logic of Comparative Social Inquiry. Kriegler.
Przeworski, Adam. 1991. Democracy and the Market. Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge University Press.
Pütz, Joachim, von Egidy, Heidi, and Caplan, Oerii. 1990. Political Who's Who of Namibia. Magnus Company.
Qurban, Mitra, and Jan-Niklas, Engels. 2007. Der Sieg der Kauri-Muscheln. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Rabushka, Alvin, and Kenneth, Shepsle. 2009. Politics in Plural Societies: A Theory of Democratic Instability. Pearson and Longmen.
Rakner, Lise. 2003. Political and Economic Liberalization in Zambia 1991–2001. The Nordic Africa Institute.
Rakner, Lise, and Lars, Svasand. 2004. “From Dominant to Competitive Party System. The Zambian Experience 1991–2001.” Party Politics 10 (1): 49–68.
Randall, Vicky. 2001. Party Systems and Voter Alignments in the New Democracies of the Third World. In Party Systems and Voter Alignments Revisited, ed. Karvonen, Lauri and Kuhnle, Stein, 244–265. Routledge.
Randall, Vicky, and Svasand, Lars. 2002. “The Contribution of Parties to Democracy and Democratic Consolidation.” Democratization 9 (3): 1–10.
Randall, Vicky. 2007. “Political Parties and Democratic Developmental States.” Development Policy Review 25 (5): 633–652.
Rathbone, Richard. 1973. “Businessmen in Politics: Party Struggles in Ghana 1949–1957.” Journal of Development Studies 9 (3): 391–401.
Reilly, Ben, and Reynolds, Andrew. 1999. Electoral Systems and Conflict in Divided Societies. National Academy Press.
Reilly, Ben. 2001. Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management. Cambridge University Press.
Reilly, Ben. 2006. Democracy and Diversity: Political Engineering in the Asia-Pacific. Oxford University Press.
Reilly, Ben. 2007. “Electoral Systems and Party Systems in East Asia.” Journal of East Asian Studies 7: 185–201.
Reilly, Ben. 2008. “Electoral Systems and Party Systems in Asia.” Journal of East Asian Studies 7 (2): 185–202.
Reiter, Howard. 2004, “Factional Persistence Within Parties in the United States.” Party Politics 10 (3): 251–271.
Reith, Stefan. 2010. Tanzania After the Parliamentary and Presidential Elections. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.
Republic du Benin. 2002. Troisieme Recensement General De La Population et de L’Habilitation. Institut National de la Statistique et de L’Analyse Economique.
Republic of Kenya. 1989. Kenya Population Census 1989. Government Publication.
Republic of Kenya. 2008. Geographic Dimensions of Well-Being in Kenya. Who and Where are the Poor. A Constituency Profile. Government Publication.
Republic of Namibia. 2008. A Review of Poverty and Inequality in Namibia. Central Bureau of Statistics.
Reynolds, Andrew. 2011. Designing Democracy in a Dangerous World. Oxford University Press.
Reynolds, Andrew. 1999. Electoral Systems and Democratization in South Africa. Oxford University Press.
Reynolds, Andrew. 1995. “Constitutional Engineering in Southern Africa.” Journal of Democracy 6 (2): 86–99.
Riker, William. 1967. “The Two-Party System and Duverger's Law: An Essay on the History of Political Science.” American Political Science Review 76 (4): 753–766.
Robinson, James, and Parsons, Neil. 2006. “State Formation and Governance in Botswana.” Journal of African Economics 15 (1): 100–140.
Rokkan, Stein. 1970. Citizens, Elections, Parties: Approaches to the Comparative Study of the Process of Development. Universitetsforlaget.
Roper, Steven. 1995. “The Romanian Party System and the Catch-All Party Phenomenon.” East European Quarterly 28 (4): 519–532.
Rose, Richard, and Derek, Urwin. 1974. Regional Differentiation and Political Unity in Western Nations. Sage.
Rotberg, Robert. 1966a. “Modern African Studies: Problems and Prospects.” World Politics 18 (3): 565–578.
Rotberg, Robert. 1966b. “African Nationalism: Concept or Confusion.” Journal of Modern African Studies 4 (1): 33–46.
Rotberg, Robert. 2002. “The New Nature of Nation-State Failure.” Washington Quarterly 25 (3): 85–96.
Rudolph, Joseph. 2006. Politics and Ethnicity: A Comparative Study. Palgrave Macmillian.
Rutten, Marcel, Mazuri, Ali, and Grignon, Francois. 2001. Out for the Count: The 1997 General Elections and Prospects for Democracy in Kenya. Fountain.
Sachsenröder, Wolfgang, and Ulrike, Frings. 1998. Political Party Systems and Democratic Development in East and Southeast Asia. Ashgate.
Salih, Mohamed. 2003. African Political Parties. Evolution, Institutionalization and Governance. Pluto Press.
Sandbrook, Richard. 1975. The Development of an African Working Class: Studies in Class Formation and Action. University of Toronto Press.
Sanger, Clyde, and John, Nottingham. 1964. “The Kenya General Election of 1963.” Journal of Modern African Studies 2 (1): 1–40.
Santiso, Carlos, and Augustin, Loada. 2003. “Explaining the unexpected: electoral reform and democratic governance in Burkina Faso.” Journal of Modern African Studies 41 (3): 395–419.
Sartori, Giovanni. 1970. “Concept Misformation in Comparative Politics.” American Political Science Review 64 (4): 1033–1053.
Sartori, Giovanni. 1984. Social Science Concepts. A Systematic Analysis. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Sartori, Giovanni. 2005a. Parties and Party Systems. A Framework for Analysis. ECPR Press.
Sartori, Giovanni. 2005b. “Party Types, Organization and Functions.” West European Politics 28 (1): 5–32.
Scarritt, James, and Mozaffar, Shaheen. 1999. “The Specification of Ethnic Cleavages and Ethnopolitical Groups for the Analysis of Democratic Competition in Contemporary Africa.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 5 (1): 82–117.
Scarritt, James. 2006. “The Strategic Choice of Multiethnic Parties in Zambia's Dominant and Personalist Party System.” Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 44 (2): 234–256.
Scarrow, Susan. 2007. “Political Finance in Comparative Perspective.” Annual Review of Political Science 10: 193–210.
Schattenschneider, Elmer. 1942. Party Government. American Government in Action.
Schatzberg, Michael. 1987. The Political Economy of Kenya. Praeger.
Schedler, Andreas. 2002. “The Menu of Manipulation.” Journal of Democracy 13 (2): 36–49.
Schmitter, Philippe, and Karl, Terry. 1994. “The Conceptual Travels of Transitologists and Consolidologists: How Far to the East Should They Attempt to Go?Slavic Review 53 (1): 173–185.
Schmitter, Philippe. 2001. Parties Are not What They Once Were. In Political Parties and Democracy, ed. Diamond, Larry and Gunther, Richard, 67–89. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Schraeder, Peter. 2000. Teaching African Politics and Society: A Mosaic in Transformation. St. Martin's Press.
Schröder, Günter. 1998. The Multi-Party Elections in Kenya, 29 December 1997: A Preliminary Assessment. National Council of Churches in Kenya.
Schubert, Gunter, and Tetzlaff, Rainer. 1995. Blockierte Demokratie in der dritten Welt. Germany: Opladen.
Seawright, Jason, and Gerring, John. 2008. “Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research: A Menu of Qualitative and Quantitative Options.” Political Research Quarterly 61 (2): 294–308.
Seiler, DL. 1980. Partis et Familles Politiques. Paris: Press Université de France.
Selolwane, Onalenna Doo. 2002. “Monopoly Politikos: How Botswana's Opposition Parties Helped Sustain One-Party Dominance.” African Sociological Review 6 (1): 68–90.
Selolwane, Onalenna Doo. 2004. Ethnic Structure, Inequality and Governance of the Public Sector in Botswana. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
Shayo, Rose. 2005. Parties and Political Development in Tanzania. EISA.
Sklar, Richard. 1963. Nigerian Political Parties: Power in an Emergent African Country. Princeton University Press.
Simons, Claudia, and Zanker, Franzisca. 2012. “Finding the Cases that Fit: Methodological Challenges in Peace Research.” German Institute of Global and Area Studies Working Paper 189.
Skocpol, Theda. 1979. States and Social Revolutions. A Comparative Analysis of France Russia and China. Cambridge University Press.
Smith, Jennifer. 2009. “Campaigning and the Catch-All Party: The Process of Party Transformation in Britain.” Party Politics 15 (5): 555–572.
Smith, Gordon. 1989. “A System Perspective on Party System Change.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 1 (3): 349–363.
Soudriette, Richard, and Ellis, Andrew. 2006. “Electoral Systems Today. A Global Snapshot.” Journal of Democracy 17 (2): 78–88.
Stavenhagen, Rodolfo. 1996. Ethnic Conflicts and the Nation-State. St Martin's Press.
Stockton, Hans. 2001. “Political Parties, Party Systems and Democracy in East Asia.” Comparative Political Studies 34 (1): 94–119.
Stroh, Alexander and Babette, Never. 2008a. “Kaurimuschel statt Chamäleon: Dritter demokratischer Präsidentenwechsel in Benin.” Afrika Focus 8.
Stroh, Alexander. 2008b. Dynamiques et Constantes du Systѐme de Partis Béninois. In Le Fonctionnement des Partis Politiques au Bénin, ed. Engels, Jan-Niklas, Stroh, Alexander and Wantchekon, Leonard, 53–79. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung: 53–79.
Stroh, Alexander. 2009. “The Power of Proximity: Strategic Decisions in African Party Politics.” German Institute of Global and Area Studies Working Paper.
Stroh, Alexander. 2010. “The Power of Proximity: A Concept of Political Party Startegies Applied to Burkina Faso.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 28 (1): 1–29.
Stroh, Alexander. 2011. “Erfolgsbedingungen afrikanischer Parteien. Burkina Faso und Benin im Vergleich.” PhD thesis. University of Hamburg.
Stroschein, Sherrill. 2011. “Demography in Ethnic Party Fragmentation: Hungarian Local Voting in Romania.” Party Politics 17 (2): 189–204.
Subudubudu, David, and Molutsi, Patrick. 2009. Leaders, Elites and Coalitions in the Development of Botswana. University of Botswana.
Sutton, Francis. 1956. “Political Parties in French-Speaking West Africa.” Journal of Modern African Studies 3 (2): 299–301.
Swatuk, Larry. 1999. “Botswana: The Opposition Implodes.” Southern Africa Report 14 (3): 27–30.
Tamarkin, M. 1979. “From Kenyatta to Moi – The Anatomy of a Peaceful Transition of Power.” Africa Today 26 (3): 21–37.
Temelli, Sinan. 1999. Demokratisierung im subsaharischen Afrika: Formen und Faktoren einer politischen Landkarte. LIT.
Tetzlaff, Rainer. 2002. Die Staaten Afrikas zwischen demokratischer Konsolidierung und Staatenzerfall. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.
Teubert-Seiwert, Bärbel. 1987. Parteipolitik in Kenia 1960–1969. Peter Lang.
Thiven, Reddy. 2005. “The Congress Party Model: South Africa's African National Congress (ANC) and India's Indian National Congress (INC) as Dominant Parties.” African and Asian Studies 4 (3): 271–300.
Throup, David. 1987. Economic and Social Origins of the Mau Mau. James Currey.
Throup, David, and Hornsby, Charles. 1992. “Multi-Party Elections in Kenya.” Paper presented at the African Studies Associational Biennial Conference, September 8–10, 1992.
Throup, David, and Hornsby, Charles. 1998. Multi-Party Politics in Kenya. Ohio University Press.
Tilly, Charles. 1975. The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton University Press.
Tötemeyer, Gerhard, Wehmhoerner, Arnold, and Weiland, Heribert. 1996. Elections in Namibia. Gamsberg Macmillan.
Tötemeyer, Gerhard. 2004. The Politics of Namibia. From Bantustan to the Positioning of Ethnicity in a Unitary State. Republic of Namibia.
Toka, Gabor. 1997. “Political Parties and Democratic Consolidation in East Central Europe.” University of Strathclyde, Studies in Public Policy Number 279.
Treydte, Klaus-Peter, Coulibaly-Seck, Nanténe, and Kanté, Saliou. 2005. Politische Parteien und Parteiensysteme im Senegal. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
United Nations Development Program. 2001. Kenya National Human Development Report 2001. Kenya: United Nations.
United Nations Development Program. 2006. Kenya National Human Development Report 2006. Kenya: United Nations.
United Nations Development Program. 2007. Ghana Human Development Report. Ghana: United Nations.
Van Biezen, Ingrid. 2003. “The Place of Parties in Contemporary Democracies.” West European Politics 26 (3): 171–184.
Van Biezen, Ingrid. 2004. “How Political Parties Shape Democracy.” CSD Working Paper.
Van Biezen, Ingrid. 2005. “On the Theory and Practice of Party Formation and Adaptation in New Democracies.” European Journal of Political Research 44 (1): 147–174.
Van Cott, Donna. 2005. From Movements to Parties in Latin America. The Evolution of Ethnic Politics. Cambridge University Press.
Van de Walle, Nicholas. 2002. “Africa's Range of Regimes.” Journal of Democracy 13 (2): 66–79.
Van de Walle, Nicholas. 2003. “Presidentialism and Clientelism in Africa's Emergent Party Systems.” Journal of Modern African Studies 41 (2): 297–321.
Van Donge, Jan Kees. 1995. “Kamuzu's Legacy: The Democratization of Malawi: Or Searching for the Rules of the Game in African Politics.” African Affairs 94 (375): 227–257.
Van Rooy, Gert, Roberts, Benjamin, Schier, Christa, Schwartz, Jannie, and Levine, Sebastian. 2006. “Income Poverty and Inequality.” Multi-Disciplinary and Consultant Centre Discussion Paper 1.
Voizey, Guy. 1994. “The Other Parties in Namibia: The Dynamics of SWAPO's Political Rivals.” Master thesis. Oxford University.
Wandiba, Simiyu. 1996. Masinde Muliro: A Biography. East African Educational Publications.
Ware, Alan. 2005. Political Parties and Party Systems. Oxford University Press.
Wattenberg, Martin. 1998. The Decline of American Political Parties 1952–1996. Harvard University Press.
Webb, Paul, and White, Stephen. 2007. Party Politics in New Democracies. Oxford University Press.
Weber, Max. 1978. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Society. University of California Press.
Weissenbach, Kristina. 2010. “Political Party Assistance: The German ‘Stiftungen’ in sub-Saharan Africa.” Democratization 17 (6): 1225–1249.
Whitfield, Lindsay. 2008. “‘Change for a Better Ghana’: Party Competition, Institutionalization and Alternation in Ghana's 2008 Elections.” African Affairs 108 (433): 621–641.
Wibbels, Erik. 2007. “No Method to the Comparative Politics Method.” Comparative Political Studies 40 (1): 37–44.
Widner, Jennifer. 1992. The Rise of a Party-State in Kenya. USA: University of California Press.
Widner, Jennifer. 1994. Economic Change and Political Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Wilmsen, Edwin, and Vossen, Rainer. 1990. “Labour, Language and Power in the Construction of Ethnicity in Botswana.” Critique of Anthropology 10 (1): 7–37.
Wisemann, John. 1990. Democracy in Black Africa: Survival and Revival. Paragon House Publishers.
Wisemann, John. 1996. The New Struggle for Democracy in Africa. Aveburg.
Wollinetz, Steven. 1979. “The Transformation of Western European Party System Revisited.” West European Politics 2 (1): 4–28.
Wollinetz, Steven. 2002. Beyond the Catch-All Party: Approaches to the Study of Parties and Party Organization in Contemporary Democracies. In Political Parties. Old Concepts and New Challenges, ed. Gunther, Richard, Montero, Jose, and Linz, Juan, 136–166. Oxford University Press.
World Bank. 2002. World Bank Group in Low-Income Countries Under Stress (LICUS): A Task Force Report. World Bank.
Wrong, Michela. 2009. It's Our Turn to Eat. The Story of a Kenyan Whistle Blower. Fourth Estate.
Young, Crawford. 1965. Politics in the Congo: Decolonization and Independence. Princeton University Press.
Young, Crawford. 1982. Ideology and Development in Africa. Yale University Press.
Young, Daniel. 2009. “Support You Can Count On? Ethnicity, Partisanship, and Retrospective Voting in Africa.” Afrobarometer Working Paper.
Zielinski, Jakub. 2002. “Translating Social Cleavages into Party Systems: The Significance of New Democracies.” World Politics 54 (2): 184–211.
Zollberg, Aristide. 1964. One-Party Government in the Ivory-Coast. Princeton University Press.