Skip to main content
The Politics of African-American Education
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Nunnally, Shayla C. 2018. (Re)Defining the black body in the era of Black Lives Matter: the politics of blackness, old and new. Politics, Groups, and Identities, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 138.

    Meier, Kenneth J 2018. Theoretical Frontiers in Representative Bureaucracy: New Directions for Research. Perspectives on Public Management and Governance,


Book description

Based on the 1,800 largest school districts in the United States over a decade, The Politics of African-American Education documents the status of African-American education and the major role that partisanship plays. The book brings together the most comprehensive database on minority education to date that centers around three arguments. First, partisanship permeates African-American education; it affects who is elected to the school board, the racial composition of school administrators and teachers, and the access of African-American students to quality education. Second, African-American representation matters. The effectiveness of African-American representation, however, is enhanced in Democratic districts while representation in Republican districts has little influence. Third, political structures matter, but they are not determinative. Two different structures - election rules and the independent school district - create the rules of the game in US education politics and policy but do not limit others from using those rules to change the outcome.


'The deep and broad impact of political party context on local education outcomes for racial minorities, which Meier and Rutherford carefully delineate and document, is striking. This well-crafted and provocative study deserves close attention from scholars, policy makers, and, indeed, all who care about American democracy.'

Rodney Hero - University of California, Berkeley

'Looking at the politics of African American education through the analytical lens of partisanship is not only insightful, it is path breaking. Meier and Rutherford enrich our understanding magnificently by going back to the basics of political science. How we organize our collective interests through party affiliation produces clear winners and losers in the classroom.'

Luis Ricardo Fraga - Co-Director, Institute for Latino Studies & Arthur Foundation, University of Notre Dame

'Americans traditionally have preferred to think or pretend that race and partisanship both are barred at the schoolhouse door. Employing a range of data, Meier and Rutherford show that’s not the case and, indeed, that race and partisanship interact to influence education of African American children in interesting and important ways.'

Jeffrey R. Henig - Columbia University, Co-author of The Color of School Reform.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education, 396 U.S. 19 (1969).
Allen v. State Bd. of Elections, 393 U.S. 544, 89 S. Ct. 817, 22 L. Ed. 2d 1 (1969).
Almy, Sarah, and Theokas, Christina. 2010. Not Prepared for Class: High-Poverty Schools Continue to Have Fewer In-Field Teachers. Washington, DC: The Education Trust.
Alston v. School Board of City of Norfolk, 112 F.2d 992 (4th Cir. 1940).
Alvarez v. Board of Trustees of the Lemon Grove School District, Superior Court of the State of California, County of San Diego, Petition for Writ of Mandate, No. 66625 (1931).
American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force. 2008. “Are Zero Tolerance Policies Effective in the Schools? An Evidentiary Review and Recommendations.” American Psychologist 63(9): 852–862.
Anderson, James D. 1988. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Andrews, Rhys, Ashworth, Rachel, and Meier, Kenneth J.. 2014. “Representative Bureaucracy and Fire Service Performance.” International Public Management Journal 17(1): 1–24.
Anzia, Sarah F. 2011. “Election Timing and the Electoral Influence of Interest Groups.” Journal of Politics 73(2): 412–427.
Arnwine, Barbara, and Johnson-Blanco, Marcia. 2013. Voting Rights at a Crossroads: The Supreme Court Decision in Shelby Is the Latest Challenge in the “Unfinished March” to Full Black Access to the Ballot. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
Arrington, Theodore, and Watts, Thomas Gill. 1991. “The Election of Blacks to School Boards in North Carolina.” Western Political Science Quarterly 44(4): 1099–1105.
Artiles, Alfredo J., and Trent, Stanley C.. 1994. “Overrepresentation of Minority Students in Special Education a Continuing Debate.” The Journal of Special Education 27(4): 410–437.
Atkins, Danielle N., and Wilkins, Vicky M.. 2013. “Going Beyond Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic: The Effects of Teacher Representation on Teen Pregnancy Rates.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 23(4): 771–790.
Aud, Susan, Hussar, William, Planty, Michael, Snyder, Thomas, Blanco, Kevin, Fox, Mary Ann, Frohlich, Lauren, Kemp, Jana, and Drake, Lauren. 2010. The Condition of Education 2010. NCES 2010–028. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.
AVID. 2015. “AVID College Readiness System: An Overview.”
Carr, Baker v., 369 U.S. 186, 82 S. Ct. 691, 7 L. Ed. 2d 663 (1962).
Baldez, Lisa. 2006. “The Pros and Cons of Gender Quota Laws: What Happens When You Kick Men Out and Let Women In?” Politics and Gender 2(1): 102–109.
Bandeira de Mello, Victor. 2011. Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto the NAEP Scales: Variation and Change in State Standards for Reading and Mathematics, 2005–2009. NCES 2011–458. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.
Banducci, Susan A., Donovan, Todd, and Karp, Jeffrey A.. 2004. “Minority Representation, Empowerment, and Participation.” Journal of Politics 66(2): 534–556.
Baretto, Matt A., Marks, Mara A., and Woods, Nathan D.. 2007. “Homeownership: Southern California's New Political Fault Line?” Urban Affairs Review 42(3): 315–341.
Bascia, Nina. 1994. Unions in Teachers’ Professional Lives. New York: Teachers College Press.
Bear, George. 2010. “Discipline: Effective School Practices.” National Association of School Psychologists. Available at Accessed March 10, 2015.
Behr, Joshua G. 2004. Race, Ethnicity and the Politics of City Redistricting. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Gebhart, Belton v., 87 A. 2d 862 (1952).
Berkman, Michael, and Plutzer, Eric. 2010. Evolution, Creationism, and the Battle to Control America's Classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Berkshire, Jennifer. 2015. “‘Reform’ Makes Broken New Orleans Schools Worse.” Salon. Available at Accessed November 10, 2015.
Berliner, David C., and Biddle, Bruce J.. 1995. The Manufactured Crisis: Myths, Fraud, and the Attack on America's Public Schools. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
Berry, Christopher R., and West, Martin R.. 2010. “Growing Pains: The School Consolidation Movement and Student Outcomes.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 26(1): 1–29.
Berube, Maurice R., and Gittell, Marilyn. 1969 Confrontation at Ocean Hill-Brownsville: The New York School Strikes of 1968. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Bidwell, Allie. 2014. “The Politics of the Common Core.” U.S. News and World Report. Available at Accessed May 23, 2015.
Birnie, W. W. 1927. “Education of the Negro in Charleston, South Carolina, Prior to the Civil War.” Journal of Negro History 12(1): 13–21.
Blackman, Lee L., and Luschei, Erich R.. 1999. “Voting Rights Legislation.” In Local Government Election Practices: A Handbook for Public Officials and Citizens, Kemp, R. L. (ed.). Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company.
Blad, Evie. 2014. “Discipline Debates Turn to Broad Terms Like ‘Defiance.’” Education Week. Available at Accessed May 15, 2015.
Bloom, Molly. 2013. “2012–13 Ohio School District Report Cards.” StateImpact. Available at Accessed March 22, 2015.
Board of Ed. of Oklahoma City Public Schools v. Dowell, 498 U.S. 237, 111 S. Ct. 630, 112 L. Ed. 2d 715 (1991).
Bohte, John, and Meier, Kenneth J.. 2000. “Goal Displacement: Assessing the Motivation for Organizational Cheating.” Public Administration Review 60(2): 173–182.
Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954).
Boreman, Geoffrey D., and Rachuna, Laura T.. 2001. Academic Success among Poor and Minority Students: An Analysis of Competing Models of School Effects. Washington, DC: ERIC.
Boser, Ulrich, and Hanna, Robert. 2014. In Quest to Improve Schools, Have Teachers Been Stripped of Their Autonomy? Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.
Bowen, Ezra. 1988. “Education: Getting Tough.” Time. Available at,9171,966577,00.html. Accessed April 12, 2015.
Bratton, Kathleen A., and Haynie, Kerry L.. 1999. “Agenda Setting and Legislative Success in State Legislatures: The Effects of Gender and Race.” Journal of Politics 61(3): 658–679.
Brehm, John, and Gates, Scott. 1997. Working, Shirking, and Sabotage. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Brief for 553 Social Scientists as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondents, Parents Involved and Meredith, 127 S. Ct. 2738 (2006) (Nos. 05-908, 05-915).
Briggs v. Elliott, 342 U.S. 350 (1952).
Broockman, David E. 2013. “Black Politicians Are More Intrinsically Motivated to Advance Blacks’ Interests: A Field Experiment Manipulating Political Incentives.” American Journal of Political Science 57(3): 521–536.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 98 F. Supp. 797 (D. Kan. 1951).
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Brown, Emma. 2015. “Katrina Swept Away New Orleans’ School System, Ushering New Era.” Washington Post. Available at Accessed November 10, 2015.
Brown-Dean, Khalilah, Zoltan, Hajnal, Rivers, Christina, and White, Ismail. 2015. 50 Years of The Voting Rights Act: The State of Race in Politics. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies.
Browning, Rufus P., Marshall, Dale Rogers, and Tabb, David H.. 1984. Protest Is Not Enough: The Struggle of Blacks and Hispanics for Equality in Urban Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bulah v. Gebhart, 87 A. 2d 862 (1952).
Bullock, Charles S., III, and Lamb, Charles M.. 1984. Implementation of Civil Rights Policy. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Bullock, Charles S., Bullock, Charles S., III, and MacManus, Susan A.. 1993. “Testing Assumptions of the Totality of the Circumstances Test: An Analysis of the Impact of Structures on Black Descriptive Representation.” American Politics Quarterly 21(3): 290–306.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2008. “Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey.” U.S. Department of Labor. Available at Accessed February 22, 2015.
Bushaw, William J., and Calderon, Valerie J.. 2014. “Try It Again, Uncle Sam: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Towards the Public Schools.” PDK International. Available at Accessed September 28, 2015.
California Department of Education. 2014. “A Parent's Guide to the SARC.” Available at Accessed April 12, 2015.
California Department of Education. 2015. “The Public School Accountability Act of 1999—CalEdFacts.” Available at Accessed April 12, 2015.
Cameron, Charles, Epstein, David, and O'Halloran, Sharyn. 1996. “Do Majority-Minority Districts Maximize Substantive Black Representation in Congress?” American Political Science Review 90(4): 794–812.
Canon, David T. 1999. Race, Redistricting, and Representation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Casellas, Jason. 2011. Latino Representation in State Houses and Congress. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Center on Education Policy. 2012. Accountability Issues to Watch under NCLB Waivers. Washington, DC: George Washington University.
Childress, Sarah. 2013. “After Shelby, Voting-Law Changes Come One Town at a Time.” PBS Frontline. Available at Accessed February 18. 2015.
Christle, Christine A., Kristine, Jolivette, and Nelson, C. Michael. 2005. “Breaking the School to Prison Pipeline: Identifying School Risk and Protective Factors for Youth Delinquency.” Exceptionality 13(2): 69–88.
Clewell, Beatriz, and Villegas, Ana. 1998. “Diversifying the Teaching Force to Improve Urban Schools: Meeting the Challenge.” Education and Urban Society 31(1): 3–17
Clotfelter, Charles. 2004. After Brown: The Rise and Retreat of School Desegregation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Clotfelter, Charles T., Ladd, Helen F., and Vigdor, Jacob L.. 2007. “Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement: Longitudinal Analysis with Student Fixed Effects.” Economics of Education Review 26(6): 673–682.
Cochran-Smith, Marilyn. 2000. “Blind vision: Unlearning racism in teacher education.” Harvard Educational Review 70(2): 157–190.
Cole, Leonard A. 1974. “Electing Blacks to Municipal Office: Structural and Social Determinants.” Urban Affairs Review 10(1): 17–39.
Coleman v. Franklin Parish School Bd., 702 F.2d 74 (5th Cir. 1983).
Coleman, James S., Campbell, Ernest Q., Hobson, Carol J., McPartland, James, Mood, Alexander M., Weinfeld, Frederick D., and York, Robert L.. 1966. Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Statistics.
Collins, William J., and Margo, Robert A.. 2006. “Historical Perspectives on Racial Differences in Schooling in the United States.” In Handbook of the Economics of Education, Hanshek, E. A. and Welch, F. (eds.). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.
Condron, Dennis J., Tope, Daniel, Steidl, Christina R., and Freeman, Kendralin J.. 2013. “Racial Segregation and the Black/White Achievement Gap, 1992 to 2009.” The Sociological Quarterly 54(1): 130–157.
Cooper, Lisa A., and Powe, Neil R.. 2004. Disparities in Patient Experiences, Health Care Processes, and Outcomes: The Role of Patient-Provider Racial, Ethnic, and Language Concordance. New York: Commonwealth Fund.
Cox, Gary. 1997. Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World's Electoral Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crisp, Brian F., Betul, Demirkaya, and Millian, Courtney. 2014. “The Informal Paths to Office on Descriptive, Symbolic, and Substantive Representation: Maori in the New Zealand Parliament.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC.
Cruse, Keith L., and Twing, Jon S.. 2000. “The History of Statewide Achievement Testing in Texas.” Applied Measurement in Education 13(4): 327–331.
Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County, State of Georgia, 175 U.S. 545 (1899).
Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2007. “Race, Inequality and Educational Accountability: The Irony of ‘No Child Left Behind.’” Race Ethnicity and Education 10(3): 245–260.
Davidson, Chandler. 1979. “At-Large Elections and Minority Representation.” Social Science Quarterly 60(2): 336–338.
Davidson, Chandler, and Grofman, Bernard. 1994. Quiet Revolution in the South: The Impact of the Voting Rights Act 1965–1990. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Davidson, Chandler, and Korbel, George. 1981. “At-Large Elections and Minority-Group Representation: A Re-examination of Historical and Contemporary Evidence.” Journal of Politics 43(4): 982–1005.
Davis, Belinda Creel, Livermore, Michelle, and Younghee, Lim. 2011. “The Extended Reach of Minority Political Power: The Interaction of Descriptive Representation, Managerial Networking, and Race.” Journal of Politics 73(2): 494–507.
Davis v. County School Board, 103 F. Supp. 337 (E.D. Va. 1952).
Davis, Vicki. 2011. “The Greatest Teacher Incentive: The Freedom to Teach.” Washington Post. Available at Accessed October 1, 2015.
Dee, Thomas S. 2001. Teachers, Race and Student Achievement in a Randomized Experiment. Cambridge, MA: NBER Working Paper.
Dee, Thomas S. 2004. “Teachers, Race, and Student Achievement in a Randomized Experiment.” Review of Economics and Statistics 86(1): 195–210.
Dee, Thomas S. 2005. “A Teacher Like Me: Does Race, Ethnicity, or Gender Matter?” American Economic Review 95(2): 158–165.
Democratic National Convention. 2012. Moving American Forward: 2012 Democratic National Platform. Available at Accessed April 23, 2015.
DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Proctor, Bernadette D., and Smith, Jessica C.. 2013. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2012. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.
Denbo, Sheryl. 2002. “Why Can't We Close the Achievement Gap?” In Improving Schools for African American Children: A Reader for Educational Leaders, Denbo, S. and Beaulieu, L. (eds.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
DiMaggio, Paul, Evans, John, and Bryson, Bethany. 1996. “Have American's Social Attitudes Become More Polarized?” American Journal of Sociology 102(3):690–755.
Dixon v. Alabama State Board of Education, 294 F.2d 150 (5th Cir., 1961)
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper.
Dounay, Jennifer. 2006. “Advanced Placement Policies – All State Profiles.” Education Commission of the States. Available at Accessed March 24, 2015.
Druckman, James N., Peterson, Erik, and Slothuus, Rune. 2013. “How Elite Partisan Polarization Affects Public Opinion Formation.” American Political Science Review 107(1): 57–79.
Duke, Daniel. 1989. “School Organization, Learning, and Student Behavior.” In Strategies to Reduce Student Misbehavior, Moles, O. C. (ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Durbin, James, and Watson, Geoffrey S.. 1951. “Testing for Serial Correlation in Least Squares Regression II.” Biometrika 28(1–2): 159–177.
Dye, Thomas R. (ed.). 1969. American Public Policy: Documents and Essays. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Edelstein, Fritz. 2006. Mayoral Leadership and Involvement in Education: An Action Guide for Success. Washington, DC: US Conference of Mayors.
Editorial Projects in Education. 2008. “Diplomas Count 2008: School to College: Can State P-16 Councils Ease the Transition?Education Week, 27(40).
Editorial Projects in Education Research Center. 2011. “Issues A–Z: Achievement Gap.” Education Week. Available at Accessed January 14, 2015.
Education Data Partnership. 2014. “Understanding California's Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program. Available at Accessed March 27, 2015.
Education Trust West. 2010. “Access Denied: 2009 API Rankings Reveal Unequal Access in California's Best Schools.” Available at Accessed March 27, 2015.
Egalite, Anna J., Kisida, Brian, and Winters, Marcus A.. 2015. “Representation in the Classroom: The Effect of Own-Race Teachers on Student Achievement.” Economics of Education Review 45(1): 44–52.
Eisinger, Peter K. 1980. The Politics of Displacement. New York: Academic Press.
Eisinger, Peter K. 1982. “Black Employment in Municipal Jobs: The Impact of Black Political Power.” American Political Science Review 76(2): 380–392.
Eitle, Tamela McNulty. 2002. “Special Education or Racial Segregation: Understanding Variation in the Representation of Black Students in Educable Mentally Handicapped Programs.” The Sociological Quarterly 43(4): 575–605.
Engstrom, Richard, and McDonald, Michael. 1981. “The Election of Blacks to City Councils: Clarifying the Impact of Electoral Arrangements on the Seats/Population Relationship.” American Political Science Review 75(2): 344–354.
Engstrom, Richard, and McDonald, Michael. 1982. “The Underrepresentation of Blacks on City Councils: Comparing the Structural and Socioeconomic Explanations for South/Non-South Differences.” Journal of Politics 44(4): 1088–1105.
Engstrom, Richard, and McDonald, Michael. 1986. “The Effect of At-Large Versus District Elections on Racial Representation in U.S. Municipalities.” In Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences, Grofman, B. and Lijphart, A. (eds.). New York: Agathon Press.
Engstrom, Richard, and McDonald, Michael. 1997. “The Election of Blacks to Southern City Councils: The Dominant Impact of Electoral Arrangements.” In Blacks in Southern Politics, Moreland, L., Steed, R., and Baker, T. (eds.). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
Epps, Edgar G. 1995. “Race, Class, and Educational Opportunity: Trends in the Sociology of Education.” Sociological Forum 10(4): 593–608.
Epstein, David, and O'Halloran, Sharyn. 1999. “Measuring the Electoral and Policy Impact of Majority-Minority Voting Districts.” American Journal of Political Science 43(2): 367–395.
Eulau, Heinz, and Karps, Paul D.. 1977. “The Puzzle of Representation: Specifying Components of Responsiveness.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 2(3): 233–254.
EvansJr., Arthur S., and Giles, Micheal W.. 1986. “Effects of Percent Black on Blacks’ Perceptions of Relative Power and Social Distance.” Journal of Black Studies 17(1): 3–14.
Evans, Tony. 2012. Professional Discretion in Welfare Services: Beyond Street-Level Bureaucracy. London: Ashgate Publishing.
Evans, William N., Murray, Shelia E., and Schwab, Robert M.. 1997. “Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses after Serrano.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 16(1): 10–31.
Eyler, Janet, Cook, Valerie J., and Ward, Leslie E.. 1983. “Resegregation: Segregation within Desegregated Schools.” In The Consequences of School Desegregation, Rossell, C. H. and Hawley, W. D. (eds.). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Feagin, Joe R., and Booher Feagin, Clairece. 1978. Discrimination American Style: Institutional Racism and Sexism. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Ferguson, Ann Arnett. 2001. Bad Boys: Public Schools in the Making of Black Masculinity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Ferriss, Susan. 2012. “School Discipline Debate Reignited by New Los Angeles Data.” The Center for Public Integrity. Available at Accessed April 5, 2015.
Findley, Warren G., and Bryan, Miriam M.. 1971. Ability Grouping: 1970-Status, Impact, and Alternatives. Washington, DC: Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Education.
Finn, Chester E. 2003. “Who Needs School Boards?” Education Gadfly 3(37). Available at Accessed February 17, 2015.
Finn, Chester E., and Keegan, Lisa Graham. 2004. “Lost at Sea: Time to Jettison One of the Chief Obstacles to Reform: The Local School Board.” Education Next 4(3): 14.
Flannery, Mary Ellen. 2013. “Local Politics: Why You Should Pay Attention to School Board Races This Fall.” Education Votes. Available at Accessed February 2, 2015.
Florida Center for Instructional Technology. 2015. “Sunshine State Standards.” Available at Accessed April 3, 2015.
Florida Department of Education. 2015. “K–12 Student Assessment.” Available at Accessed April 3, 2015.
Florida Education Association. 2015. “Senate Bill 736: How Will It Affect Me?” Available at Accessed April 3, 2015.
Foster, Michele. 1997. Black Teachers on Teaching. New York: New Press.
Foundation for Florida's Future. 2015. “Florida Formula for Student Achievement: School Grades Q and A.” Available at Accessed April 3, 2015.
Fraga, Luis R. 1988. “Domination through Democratic Means: Nonpartisan Slating Groups in City Electoral Politics.” Urban Affairs Quarterly 23(4): 528–555.
Fraga, Luis R., and Elis, Roy. 2009. “Interests and Representation: Ethnic Advocacy on California School Boards.” Teachers College Record 111(3): 659–682.
Frankenberg, Erica, Chungmei, Lee, and Orfield, Gary. 2003. A Multiracial Society with Segregated Schools: Are We Losing the Dream? Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University.
Freeman v. Pitts, 503 U.S. 467, 112 S. Ct. 1430, 118 L. Ed. 2d 108 (1992).
Frey, William H. 2013. “Minority Turnout Determined the 2012 Election.” Washington, DC: Brookings Institute. Available at Accessed March 15, 2015.
Gade, Daniel M., and Wilkins, Vicky M.. 2013. “Where Did You Serve? Veteran Identity, Representative Bureaucracy, and Vocational Rehabilitation.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 23(2): 267–288.
Gaddis, S. Michael, and Lauen, Douglas Lee. 2014. “School Accountability and the Black–White Test Score Gap.” Social Science Research 44 (March): 15–31.
Georgia State Conference of Branches of NAACP v. Georgia, 775 F2d 1403, 1417 (11th Cir., 1985).
Gerber, Elisabeth R., and Hopkins, Daniel J.. 2011. “When Mayors Matter: Estimating the Impact of Mayoral Partisanship on City Policy.” American Journal of Political Science 55(2): 326–339.
Glicksman, Robert L., and Levy, Richard E.. 2008. “Collective Action Perspective on Ceiling Preemption by Federal Environmental Regulation: The Case of Global Climate Change.” Northwestern University Law Review 102(2): 579–648.
Goldstein, Harvey. 2004. “International Comparisons of Student Attainment: Some Issues Arising from the PISA Study.” Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice 11(3): 319–330.
Goodnow, Frank J. 1906. Politics and Administration: A Study in Government. New York: Russell and Russell.
Gordon, Rebecca, Piana, Libero Della, and Keleher, Terry. 2000. Facing the Consequences: An Examination of Racial Discrimination in U.S. Public Schools. New York: Ford Foundation.
Graham, Sandra, and Lowery, Brian S.. 2004. “Priming Unconscious Racial Stereotypes about Adolescent Offenders.” Law and Human Behavior 28(5): 483–504.
Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, 391 U.S. 390 (1968).
Green, Paul. 2004. “The Paradox of the Promised Unfulfilled: Brown v. Board of Education and the Continued Pursuit of Excellence in Education.” Journal of Negro Education 73(3): 268–284.
Gregory, Anne, Skiba, Russell J., and Noguera, Pedro A.. 2010. “The Achievement Gap and the Discipline Gap Two Sides of the Same Coin?” Educational Researcher 39(1): 59–68.
Grissom, Jason A., and Redding, Christopher. 2015. “Discretion and Disproportionality: Explaining the Underrepresentation of High-Achieving Students of Color in Gifted Programs.” Working paper.
Grissom, Jason A., Kern, Emily C., and Rodriguez, Luis A.. 2015. “The ‘Representative Bureaucracy’ in Education: Educator Workforce Diversity, Policy Outputs, and Outcomes for Disadvantaged Students.” Educational Researcher 44(3): 185–192.
Grose, Christian R. 2005. “Disentangling Constituency and Legislator Effects in Legislative Representation: Black Legislators or Black Districts?” Social Science Quarterly 86(2): 427–443.
Grose, Christian R. 2011. Congress in Black and White. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grose, Christian R., Maurice, Mangum, and Martin, Christopher. 2007. “Race, Political Empowerment, and Constituency Service: Descriptive Representation and the Hiring of African-American Congressional Staff.” Polity 39(4): 449–478.
Guinier, Lani. 1991. “The Triumph of Tokenism: The Voting Rights Act and the Theory of Black Electoral Success.” Michigan Law Review 89(5): 1077–1154.
Guinier, Lani 2004. “From Racial Liberalism to Racial Literacy: Brown v. Board of Education and the Interest-Divergence Dilemma.” The Journal of American History 91(1): 92–118.
Gutmann, Amy, and Ben-Porath, Sigal. 1987. Democratic Education. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Hajnal, Zoltan. 2001. “White Residents, Black Incumbents and a Declining Racial Divide.” American Political Science Review 95(3): 603–617.
Hajnal, Zoltan L., and Lee, Taeku. 2011. Why Americans Don't Join the Party: Race, Immigration, and the Failure (of Political Parties) to Engage the Electorate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hansen, Amy, and Urycki, Mark. 2013. “Ohio Standardized Testing 101.” StateImpact. Available at Accessed April 8, 2015.
Hanushek, Eric A. 1996. “School Resources and Student Performance.” In Does Money Matter? Burtless, G. (ed.). Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.
Harry, Beth, and Klingner, Janette K.. 2014. Why Are So Many Minority Students in Special Education? Understanding Race and Disability in Schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
Hart, Ray, Casserly, Michael, Uzzell, Renata, Palacios, Moses, Corcoran, Amanda, and Spurgeon, Liz. 2015. Student Testing in American's Great City Schools: An Inventory and Preliminary Analysis. Washington, DC: Council of the Great City Schools.
Hawkins v. Coleman, 376 F. Supp. 1330 (N.D. Tex. 1974).
Hays, Samuel P. 1964. “The Politics of Reform in Municipal Government in the Progressive Era.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 55(4): 157–169.
Hedges, Larry V., Laine, Richard D., and Greenwald, Rob. 1994. “An Exchange: Part I: Does Money Matter? A Meta-Analysis of Studies of the Effects of Differential School Inputs on Student Outcomes.” Educational Researcher 23(3): 5–14.
Henig, Jeffrey R., Hula, Richard C., Orr, Marion, and Pedescleaux, Desiree S.. 1999. The Color of School Reform: Race, Politics and the Challenge of Urban Education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Heller, Kirby A., Holtzman, Wayne H., and Messick, Samuel. 1982. Placing Children in Special Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Hicklin, Alisa, and Meier, Kenneth J.. 2008. “Race, Structure, and State Governments: The Politics of Higher Education Diversity.” Journal of Politics 70(3): 851–860.
Hindera, John J. 1993. “Representative Bureaucracy: Further Evidence of Active Representation in the EEOC District Offices.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 3(4): 415–429.
Hobson v. Hansen, 269 F. Supp. 401 (D.C. 1967).
Howell, William (ed.). 2005. Besieged: School Boards and the Future of Education Politics. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Iannaccone, Laurence. 1975. Education Policy Systems: A Study Guide for Educational Administrators. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Nova University.
Jaschik, Scott. 2015a. “ACT Scores Are Flat.” Inside Higher Ed. Available at Accessed September 28, 2015.
Jaschik, Scott 2015b. “SAT Scores Drop.” Inside Higher Ed. Available at Accessed September 28, 2015.
Jencks, Christopher and Meredith, Phillips. 1998. “The Black-White Test Scope Gap: Why It Persists and What Can Be Done.” The Brookings Review 16(2): 24-27.
Jencks, Christoper, and Phillips, Meredith. (eds.). 2011. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Johnson, Keith V., and Watson, Elwood. 2004. “The W. E. B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington Debate: Effects upon African American Roles in Engineering and Engineering Technology.” Journal of Technology Studies 30(4): 65–70.
Jones-Correa, Michael, and Waismel-Manor, Israel. 2007. “Verifying Implementation of Language Provisions on the Voting Rights Act.” In Voting Rights Act Reauthorization of 2006: Perspectives on Democracy, Participation, and Power, Henderson, A. (ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jordan, Reed. 2014. “Millions of Black Students Attend Public Schools That Are Highly Segregated by Race and by Income.” Urban Institute. Available at Accessed September 28, 2015.
Karnig, Albert K. 1976. “Black Representation on City Councils: The Impact of District Elections and Socioeconomic Factors.” Urban Affairs Review 12(2): 223–42.
Karnig, Albert K. 1980. Black Representation and Urban Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Karnig, Albert K., and Welch, Susan. 1982. “Electoral Structure and Black Representation on City Councils.” Social Science Quarterly 63(1): 99–114.
Katznelson, Ira. 1981. City Trenches: Urban Politics and the Patterning of Class in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Keiser, Lael R., Wilkins, Vicky M., Meier, Kenneth J., and Holland, Catherine A.. 2002. “Lipstick and Logarithms: Gender, Institutional Context, and Representative Bureaucracy.” American Political Science Review 96(3): 553–564.
Keller, Edmund J. 1978. “The Impact of Black Mayors on Urban Policy.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 439(1): 40–52.
Kenworthy, Lane, and Malami, Melissa. 1999. “Gender Inequality in Political Representation: A Worldwide Comparative Analysis.” Social Forces 78(1): 235–269.
Kerr, Brinck, and Mladenka, Kenneth R.. 1994. “Does Politics Matter? A Time-Series Analysis of Minority Employment Patterns.” American Journal of Political Science 38(4): 918–943.
Kiefer, Heather Mason. 2003. “Equal-Opportunity Education: Is It Out There?” Gallup. Available at Accessed February 10, 2015.
King, Sabrina H. 1993. “The Limited Presence of African-American Teachers.” Review of Educational Research 63(2): 115–149.
Kini, Tara. 2005. “Sharing the Vote: Noncitizen Voting Rights in Local School Board Elections.” California Law Review 93(1): 271–321.
Kluger, Richard. 2011. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality. New York: Vintage Books.
Knight, Jack. 1992. Institutions and Social Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Knott, Jack H., and Miller, Gary J.. 2008. “When Ambition Checks Ambition: Bureaucratic Trustees and the Separation of Powers.” The American Review of Public Administration 38(4): 387–411.
Kozol, Jonathan. 1991. Savage Inequalities: Children in America's schools. New York: Crown Publishing.
Krause, George, and Meier, Kenneth J. (eds.). 2005. Politics, Policy, and Organizations: Frontiers in the Scientific Study of Bureaucracy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Krogstad, Jens Manuel, and Fry, Richard. 2014. “Department of Education Projects Public Schools Will Be ‘Majority-Minority’ This Fall.” Pew Research Center Fact Tank. Available at Accessed January 13, 2015.
Krook, Mona Lena. 2006. “Reforming Representation: The Diffusion of Candidate Gender Quotas Worldwide.” Politics and Gender 2(3): 303–328.
Kunovich, Sheri, and Paxton, Pamela. 2005. “Pathways to Power: The Role of Political Parties in Women's National Political Representation.” American Journal of Sociology 111(2): 505–552.
Labaree, David F. 1992. The Making of an American High School: The Credentials Market and the Central High School of Philadelphia, 1838–1939. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ladson-Billings, Gloria. 2006. “From the Achievement Gap to the Education Debt: Understanding Achievement in U.S. schools.” Educational Researcher 35(7): 3–12.
Larkin, Joe. 1979. “School Desegregation and Student Suspension: A Look at One School System.” Education and Urban Society 11(4):485–495.
Lasswell, Harold D. 1950. Politics: Who Gets What, When, How. New York: P. Smith.
Layman, Geoffrey C., Carsey, Thomas M., and Horowitz, Juliana Menasce. 2006. “Party Polarization in American Politics: Characteristics, Causes, and Consequences.” Annual Review of Political Science 9(June): 83–110.
Leal, David, Martinez-Ebers, Valerie, and Meier, Kenneth J.. 2004. “The Politics of Latino Education: The Biases of At-Large Elections.” Journal of Politics 66(4): 1224–1244
Leamon, Eileen J., and Bucelato, Jason. 2013. Federal Elections 2012: Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives. Washington, DC: Federal Election Commission.
Lee, Bill Lann. 2006. “Voting Rights Act: Evidence of Continued Need.” Testimony before the House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, March 8.
Levin, Andrew, Lin, Chien-Fu, and Chia-Shang, James Chu. 2002. “Unit Root Tests in Panel Data: Asymptotic and Finite-Sample Properties.” Journal of Econometrics 108(1): 1–24.
Lipsky, Michael. 1993. “Street-Level Bureaucracy: An Introduction.” In The Policy Process: A Reader, Hill, M. (ed.). New York: Pearson Education.
Lipsky, Michael 2010. Street-Level Bureaucracy, 30th Anniversary Ed.: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Losen, Daniel. 2011. Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice. Los Angeles: UCLA Civil Rights Project.
Losen, Daniel J., and Martinez, Tia Elena. 2013. Out of School and Off Track: The Overuse of Suspensions in American Middle and High Schools. Los Angeles: UCLA Civil Rights Project.
Losen, Daniel J., Hodson, Cheri, Keith, Michael A. II, Morrison, Katrina, and Belway, Shakti. 2015. Are We Closing the School Discipline Gap? Los Angeles: UCLA Civil Rights Project.
Lowery, David, and Gray, Virginia. 1993. “The Density of State Interest Group Systems.” Journal of Politics 55(1): 191–206.
Lublin, David. 1997. The Paradox of Representation: Racial Gerrymandering and Minority Interests in Congress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lublin, David 1999. “Racial Redistricting and African-American Representation: A Critique of ‘Do Majority-Minority Districts Maximize Substantive Black Representation in Congress?’” American Political Science Review 93(1): 183–187.
Lublin, David, and Voss, D. Stephen. 2000. “Racial Redistricting and Realignment in Southern State Legislatures.” American Journal of Political Science 44(4): 792–810.
MacManus, Susan A. 1978. “City Council Election Procedures and Minority Representation: Are They Related?” Social Science Quarterly 59(1): 153–161.
MacManus, Susan A. 1979. “‘At-Large Elections and Minority Representation’: An Adversarial Critique.” Social Science Quarterly 60(2): 338–340.
Manna, Paul. 2006. School's In: Federalism and the National Education Agenda. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Manna, Paul 2008. Federal Aid to Elementary and Secondary Education: Premises, Effects, and Major Lessons Learned. Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy.
Mansbridge, Jane. 1999. “Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent ‘Yes.’” Journal of Politics 61(3): 628–657.
Marchbanks, Miner P., III, Blake, Jamilia J., Smith, Danielle, Seibert, Allison, Carmichael, Dottie, Booth, Eric A., and Fabelo, Tony. 2014. “More Than a Drop in the Bucket: The Social and Economic Costs of Dropouts and Grade Retentions Associated with Exclusionary Discipline.” Journal of Applied Research on Children 5(2), Article 17. Available at Accessed March 4, 2015.
Margo, Robert A. 1990. Race and Schooling in the South, 1880–1950: An Economic History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Marschall, Melissa J., and Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.. 2006. “The Pomp of Power: Black Mayoralties in Urban America.” Social Science Quarterly 87(4): 828–850.
Marschall, Melissa J., and Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.. 2007. “Substantive Symbols: The Attitudinal Dimension of Black Political Incorporation in Local Government.” American Journal of Political Science 51(1): 17–33.
Marschall, Melissa J., and Rutherford, Amanda. 2015. “Voting Rights for Whom? Examining the Effects of the Voting Rights Act on Latino Political Incorporation.” American Journal of Political Science forthcoming.
Marschall, Melissa, Ruhil, Anirudh V. S., and Shah, Paru. 2010. “The New Racial Calculus: Electoral Institutions and Black Representation in Local Legislatures.” American Journal of Political Science 54(1): 107–124.
Marzano, Robert J., Waters, Timothy, and McNulty, Brian A.. 2005. School Leadership That Works: From Research to Results. Washington, DC: ERIC.
May, Peter, and Winter, Soren. 2000. “Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement: Patterns in Danish Agro-Environmental Inspection.” Law and Policy 22(2): 143–173.
Mazmanian, Daniel A., and Sabatier, Paul A.. 1983. Implementation and Public Policy. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.
McDaniel, Eric L. 2008. Politics in the Pews: The Political Mobilization of Black Churches. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
McDermott, Kathryn A. 2011. High-Stakes Reform: The Politics of Educational Accountability. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
McGuinn, Patrick J. 2006. No Child Left Behind and the Transformation of Federal Education Policy, 1965–2005. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
McGuinn, Patrick J. 2012. “Stimulating Reform: Race to the Top, Competitive Grants and the Obama Education Agenda.” Educational Policy 26(1): 136–159.
McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 339 US 637 (1950).
McNeal v. Tate County School District, 508 F.2d 1017 (5th Cir. 1975).
Meier, Kenneth J., and Bohte, John. 2006. Politics and the Bureaucracy: Policymaking in the Fourth Branch of Government. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Meier, Kenneth J., and England, Robert E.. 1984 “Black Representation and Educational Policy: Are They Related?” American Political Science Review 78(2): 392–403.
Meier, Kenneth J., and Molina, Angel L. Jr. 2015. “A Substantive Seat at the Table? Election Systems and Policy Responsiveness in Latino Education Policy.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, CA.
Meier, Kenneth J., and Nicholson-Crotty, Jill. 2006. “Gender, Representative Bureaucracy, and Law Enforcement: The Case of Sexual Assault.” Public Administration Review 66(6): 850–860.
Meier, Kenneth J., and O'Toole, Laurence J.. 2006. “Political Control Versus Bureaucratic Values: Reframing the Debate.” Public Administration Review 66(2): 177–192.
Meier, Kenneth J., and Rutherford, Amanda. 2014. “Partisanship, Structure, and Representation: The Puzzle of African American Education Politics.” American Political Science Review 108(2): 265–280.
Meier, Kenneth J., and Stewart, Joseph Jr. 1991. The Politics of Hispanic Education. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Meier, Kenneth J., and Stewart, Joseph 1992. “The Impact of Representative Bureaucracies: Educational Systems and Public Policies.” The American Review of Public Administration 22(3): 157–171.
Meier, Kenneth J., O'Toole, Laurence J., and Nicholson-Crotty, Sean. 2004. “Multilevel Governance and Organizational Performance: Investigating the Political-Bureaucratic Labyrinth.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 23(1): 31–47.
Meier, Kenneth J., Stewart, Joseph, and England, Robert E.. 1989. Race, Class, and Education: The Politics of Second-Generation Discrimination. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Meier, Kenneth J., Eller, Warren S., Wrinkle, Robert D., and Polinard, J. L.. 2001. “Zen and the Art of Policy Analysis.” Journal of Politics 63(2): 616–629.
Meier, Kenneth J., Eric Gonzalez, Juenke, Wrinkle, Robert D., and Polinard, J. L.. 2005. “Structural Choices and Representational Biases: The Post-Election Color of Representation.” American Journal of Political Science 49(4): 758–769.
Mendez v. Westminster School District, 64 F. Supp. 544 (S.D. Cal. 1946).
Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 548 U.S. 938 (2006).
Merl, Jean. 2013. “Voting Rights Act Leading California Cities to Dump At-Large Elections.” Los Angeles Times. Available at,0,295413.story#axzz2iTEfuZ5X. Accessed February 26, 2015.
Middleton, James. 2012. “Spare the Rod.” History Today 62(11). Available at Accessed January 21, 2015.
Minta, Michael D. 2011. Oversight: Representing the Interests of Blacks and Latinos in Congress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Missouri v. Jenkins, 515 U.S. 70, 115 S. Ct. 2038, 132 L. Ed. 2d 63 (1995).
Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, 305 U.S. 337 (1938).
Mitchell, Douglas E. 1990. “Education Politics for the New Century: Past Issues and Future Directions.” In Education Politics for the New Century, Mitchell, D. E. and Goertz, M. E. (eds.). London: Falmer Press.
Mladenka, Kenneth R. 1989. “Blacks and Hispanics in Urban Politics.” American Political Science Review 83(1): 165–191.
Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U.S. 55, 100 S. Ct. 1490, 64 L. Ed. 2d 47 (1980).
Moe, Terry M. 1985. “Control and Feedback in Economic Regulation: The Case of the NLRB.” American Political Science Review 79(4): 1094–1116.
Moe, Terry M.. 1989. “The Politics of Bureaucratic Structure.” In Can the Government Govern? Chubb, J. E. and Peterson, P. E. (eds.). Washington, DC: Brookings.
Moe, Terry M.. 2009. “Collective Bargaining and the Performance of the Public Schools.” American Journal of Political Science 53(1): 156–174.
Moncrief, Gary F., and Thompson, Joel A.. 1992. “Electoral Structure and State Legislative Representation: A Research Note.” Journal of Politics 54(1): 246–256.
Montgomery v. Starkville Municipal Separate School Dist., 665 F Supp. 487 (N.D. Miss. 1987).
Morris, Edward W. 2005. “‘Tuck in That Shirt!’ Race, Class, Gender, and Discipline in an Urban School.” Sociological Perspectives 48(1): 25–48.
Mossberger, Karen, Tolbert, Caroline J., and McNeal, Ramona S.. 2008. Digital Citizenship: The Internet, Society, and Participation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Mosteller, Frederick. 1995. “The Tennessee Study of Class Size in the Early School Grades.” The Future of Children 5(2): 113–127.
Mulkey, Lynn M., Catsambia, Sophia, Steelman, Lal Carr, and Crain, Robert L.. 2005. “The Long-Term Effect of Ability Grouping in Mathematics: A National Investigation.” Social Psychology of Education 8(2): 137–177.
Munguia, Hayley. 2015. “Test Scores Don't Tell Us Everything about New Orleans School Reform.” Five Thirty Eight. Available at Accessed November 10, 2015.
Murray v. Pearson, 169 Md. 478, 182 A. 590 (1936).
NAACP. 2009. “NAACP: 100 Years of History.” Available at Accessed on February 19, 2015.
NAEP. 2014. “State Profiles.” Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Available at Accessed June 1, 2015.
National Center for Education Statistics. 2011. Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto the NAEP Scales. NCES 2011–458. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
National Center for Education Statistics. 2014. Public High School Four-Year On-Time Graduation Rates and Event Dropout Rates: Schools Years 2010–11 and 2011–12. Available at Accessed September 27, 2015.
National Center for Education Statistics. 2015. Education Expenditures by Country. Available at Accessed May 31, 2015.
Nettles, Michael T., Scatton, Linda H., Steinberg, Jonathan H., and Tyler, Linda L.. 2011. Performance and Passing Rate Differences of African American and White Prospective Teachers on Praxis Examinations. Washington, DC: Educational Testing Service.
Nicholson-Crotty, Jill, Grissom, Jason A., and Nicholson-Crotty, Sean. 2011. “Bureaucratic Representation, Distributional Equity, and Democratic Values in the Administration of Public Programs.” Journal of Politics 73(2): 582–596.
Nnazor, Reginald, Sloan, Jo, and Higgins, Patricia. 2004. “Historically Black Colleges and Universities and the Challenge of Teacher Licensure Tests.” Western Journal of Black Studies 28(4): 449–452.
Norman, Obed, Ault, Charles R., Bentz, Bonnie, and Meskimen, Lloyd. 2001. “The Black–White ‘Achievement Gap’ as a Perennial Challenge of Urban Science Education: A Sociocultural and Historical Overview with Implications for Research and Practice.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 38(10): 1101–1114.
Norris, Pippa. 1985. “Women's Legislative Participation in Western Europe.” Western European Politics 8(4): 90–101.
Norris, Pippa. 2004. Electoral Engineering: Voting Rules and Political Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Oakes, Jeannie. 1985. Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
O'Connor, John. 2014. “Your Essential Guide to the Common Core.” StateImpact. Available at Accessed March 3, 2015.
Ogbu, John. 1994. “Racial Stratification and Education in the United States: Why Inequality Persists.” Teachers College Record 96(2): 264–298.
Ohio Department of Education. 1998. “Proficiency Testing in Ohio – A Summary.” Available at Accessed April 25, 2015.
Oliver, J. Eric, and Mendelberg, Tali. 2000. “Reconsidering the Environmental Determinants of White Racial Attitudes.” American Journal of Political Science 44(3): 574–589.
Opfer, V. Darleen. 2005. “Personalization of Interest Groups and The Resulting Policy Nonsense: The Cobb County School Board's Evolution Debate.” In The Politics of Leadership: Superintendents and School Boards in Changing Times, Petersen, G. J. and Fusarelli, L. D. (eds.). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Orfield, Gary, and Lee, Chungmei. 2005. Why Segregation Matters: Poverty and Educational Inequality. Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University.
Orfield, Gary, and Yun, John T.. 1999. Resegregation in American Schools. Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University.
Orr, Marion. 1999. Black Social Capital: The Politics of School Reform in Baltimore, 1986–1998. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.
Ouazad, Amine. 2014. “Assessed by a Teacher Like Me: Race and Teacher Assessments.” Education 9(3): 334–372.
Parenti, Michael. 1967. “Ethnic Politics and the Persistence of Ethnic Identification.” American Political Science Review 61(3): 717–726.
Parents Involved in Community School. v. Seattle School, 127 S. Ct. 2738, 551 U.S. 701, 168 L. Ed. 2d 508 (2007).
Parker by Parker v. Trinity High School, 823 F. Supp. 511 (N.D. Ill. 1993).
Parker, Frank. 1990. Black Votes Count. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Passel, Jeffrey S., Livingston, Gretchen, and Cohn, D'Vera. 2012. “Explaining Why Minority Births Now Outnumber White Births.” Pew Research Center. Available at Accessed November 18, 2014.
Paxton, Pamela. 1997. “Women in National Legislatures: A Cross-National Analysis.” Social Science Research 26(4): 442–464.
Petersen, George J., and Fusarelli, Lance Darin (eds.). 2005. The Politics of Leadership: Superintendents and School Boards in Changing Times. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing
Peterson, Paul E. 2006. “The A+ Plan.” In Reforming Education in Florida: A Study Prepared by the Koret Task Force on K–12 Education, Peterson, P. E. (ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
Pew Research Center. 2012. Trends in American Values: 1987–2012: Partisan Polarization Surges in Bush, Obama Years. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
Pew Research Center. 2014. Polarization of the American Public: How Increasing Ideological Uniformity and Partisan Antipathy Affect Politics, Compromise and Everyday Life. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
Pitkin, Hanna. 1967. The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Pitts, David W. 2005. “Diversity, Representation, and Performance: Evidence about Race and Ethnicity in Public Organizations.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 15(4): 615–631.
Pitts, David W.. 2007. “Representative Bureaucracy, Ethnicity, and Public Schools: Examining the Link between Representation and Performance.” Administration and Society 39(4): 497–526.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896).
Polinard, J. L., Wrinkle, Robert D., Longoria, Tomas, and Binder, Norman. 1994. Electoral Structure and Urban Policy: The Impact on Mexican American Communities. New York: M. E. Sharpe.
Porter-Magee, Kathleen. 2011. The Common Core and the Future of Student Assessment in Ohio. Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute.
Portz, John, Stein, Lana, and Jones, Robin R.. 1999. City Schools and City Politics. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Prais, Sig J. 2003. “Cautions on OECD's Recent Educational Survey (PISA).” Oxford Review of Education 29(2): 139–163.
Preuhs, Robert R. 2006. “The Conditional Effects of Minority Representation: Black Legislators and Policy Influence in the American States.” Journal of Politics 68(3): 585–599.
Program for International Student Assessment. 2012. PISA 2012: What Students Know and Can Do. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Quarles v. Oxford Municipal Separate School District, 868 F. 2d 750 (5th Cir. 1989).
Reckhow, Sarah, Henig, Jeffrey, Jacobsen, Rebecca, and Alter, Jamie. 2015. “Outsiders with Deep Pockets: The Nationalization of Local School Board Elections.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Redd, Kenneth E. 1998. “Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Making a Comeback.” New Directions for Higher Education 102(Summer): 33–43.
Redford, Emmette S. 1969. Democracy in the Administrative State. New York: Oxford University Press.
Reese, William J. 2002. Power and the Promise of School Reform: Grassroots Movements during the Progressive Era. New York: Teachers College Press.
Republican National Convention. 2012. 2012 Republican Platform: We Believe in America. Available at Accessed May 14, 2015.
Reynolds, Andrew. 1999. “Women in the Legislatures and Executives of the World: Knocking at the Highest Glass Ceiling.” World Politics 51(4): 547–572.
Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533, 84 S. Ct. 1362, 12 L. Ed. 2d 506 (1964).
Riccucci, Norma M., Van Ryzin, Gregg G., and Lavena, Cecilia F.. 2014. “Representative Bureaucracy in Policing: Does It Increase Perceived Legitimacy?Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 24(3): 537–551.
Rich, Wilbur C. 1996. Black Mayors and School Politics. New York: Garland Publishing.
Ridley, C. et al., v. State of Georgia et al. (Dublin City School District (2004).
Roberts v. City of Boston, 59 Mass. (5 Cush.) 198 (1850).
Robinson, Theodore P., and England, Robert E.. 1981. “Black Representation and Central City School Boards Revised.” Social Science Quarterly 62(3): 495–502.
Robinson, Theodore P., England, Robert E., and Meier, Kenneth J.. 1985. “Black Resources and Black School Board Representation.” Social Science Quarterly 66(4): 976–982.
Roch, Christine H., and Pitts, David W.. 2012. “Differing Effects of Representative Bureaucracy in Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools.” American Review of Public Administration 42(3): 282–302.
Roch, Christine H., Pitts, David W., and Navarro, Ignacio. 2010. “Representative Bureaucracy and Policy Tools: Ethnicity, Student Discipline, and Representation in Public Schools.” Administration and Society 42(1): 38–65.
Rocha, Rene R. 2007. “Black-Brown Coalitions in Local School Board Elections.” Political Research Quarterly 60(2): 315–327.
Rocha, Rene R., and Hawes, Daniel P.. 2009. “Racial Diversity, Representative Bureaucracy, and Equity in Multiracial School Districts.” Social Science Quarterly 90(2): 326–344.
Rosenburg, Gerald N. 2008. The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring about Social Change? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Rourke, Francis E. 1976. Bureaucracy, Politics, and Public Policy. 2d ed. Boston: Little Brown.
Rouse, Stella. 2013. Latinos in the Legislative Process: Interests and Influence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rowan, Brian, Chiang, Fang-Shen, and Miller, Robert J.. 1997. “Using Research on Employees’ Performance to Study the Effects of Teachers on Students’ Achievement.” Sociology of Education 70(4): 256–284.
Rule, Wilma. 1987. “Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women's Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies.” Western Political Quarterly 40(3): 477–498.
Rumberger, Russell W. 2001. Why Students Drop out of School and What Can Be Done. Los Angeles: UCLA Civil Rights Project.
Rutherford, Amanda. 2014. “Organizational Turnaround and Educational Performance: The Impact of Performance-Based Monitoring Analysis Systems.” American Review of Public Administration 44(4): 440–458.
Sacerdote, Bruce. 2012. “When the Saints Go Marching Out: Long-Term Outcomes for Student Evacuees from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 4(1): 109–135.
Sacks, Ariel. 2015. “Decoding the Common Core: A Teacher's Perspective.” Education Week. Available at Accessed October 30, 2015.
Saltzstein, Grace Hall. 1989. “Black Mayors and Police Policies.” Journal of Politics 51(3): 525–544.
Sanchez, Melissa. 2014. “To Boost Teacher Diversity, State Scraps Limits on Basic Skills Test-Taking.” Catalyst Chicago. Available at Accessed January 18, 2015.
Sass, Tim R., and Mehay, Stephen L.. 1995. “The Voting Rights Act, District Elections, and the Success of Black Candidates in Municipal Elections.” Journal of Law and Economics 38(2): 367–92
Sass, Tim R., and Mehay, Stephen L.. 2003. “Minority Representation, Election Method, and Policy Influence.” Economics and Politics 15(3): 323–339.
Sass, Tim R., and Pittman Jr, Bobby J.. 2000. “The Changing Impact of Electoral Structure on Black Representation in the South, 1970–1996.” Public Choice 104(3–4): 369–388.
Schneider, Jack. 2008. “Escape from Los Angeles: White Flight from Los Angeles and Its Schools, 1960–1980.” Journal of Urban History 34(6): 995–1012.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A., and Mishler, William. 2005. “An Integrated Model of Women's Representation.” Journal of Politics 67(2): 407–428.
Scribner, Jay D., and Layton, Donald H.. 1995. The Study of Educational Politics: The 1994 Commemorative Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association 1969–1994. New York: Routledge.
Selden, Sally Coleman. 1997. The Promise of Representative Bureaucracy. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Shah, Paru R., Marschall, Melissa J., and Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.. 2013. “Are We There Yet? The Voting Rights Act and Black Representation on City Councils, 1981–2006.” Journal of Politics 74(4): 993–1008.
Shelby County, Ala. v. Holder, 133 S. Ct. 2612, 570 U.S. 2, 186 L. Ed. 2d 651 (2013).
Shotts, Kenneth. W. 2003a. “Does Racial Redistricting Cause Conservative Policy Outcomes? Policy Preferences of Southern Representatives in the 1980s and 1990s.” Journal of Politics 65(1): 216–226.
Shotts, Kenneth W.. 2003b. “Racial Redistricting's Alleged Perverse Effects: Theory, Data and ‘Reality.’” Journal of Politics 65(1): 237–244.
Sigelman, Carol K., Sigelman, Lee, Walkosz, Barbara J., and Nitz, Michael. 1995. “Black Candidates, White Voters: Understanding Racial Bias in Political Perceptions.” American Journal of Political Science 39(1): 243–265.
Sigelman, Lee, and Welch, Susan. 1993. “The Contact Hypothesis Revisited: Black-White Interaction and Positive Racial Attitudes.” Social Forces 17(3): 781–795.
Skiba, Russell J., Peterson, Reece L., and Williams, Tara. 1997. “Office Referral and Suspension: Disciplinary Intervention in Middle Schools.” Education and Treatment of Children 20(3): 295–315.
Skiba, Russell J., Michael, Robert S., Nardo, Abra Carroll, and Peterson, Reece L.. 2002. “The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportion in School Punishment.” The Urban Review 34(4): 317–342.
Smith, J. Douglas. 2002. Managing White Supremacy: Race, Politics, and Citizenship in Jim Crow Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Smith, Kevin B. 2003. The Ideology of Education: The Commonwealth, the Market, and America's Schools.Albany: State University of New York Press.
Smith, Morgan. 2011. “In Texas’ Schools Perry Shuns Federal Influence.” Texas Tribune. Available at Accessed May 1, 2015.
Smith, Stephen Samuel. 2004. Boom for Whom? Education, Desegregation, and Development in Charlotte. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Smith, Stephen Samuel, Kedrowski, Karen M., and Ellis, Joseph M.. 2004. “Electoral Structures, Venue Selection, and the (New?) Politics of School Desegregation.” Perspectives on Politics 2(4): 795–801.
Smith-Evans, Leticia, and Skiba, Russell. 2014. “Race Debate Should Include School Discipline: Colum.” USA Today. Available at Accessed January 8, 2015.
Snyder, Thomas D. 1993. 120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Snyder, Thomas D., and Dillow, Sally A.. 2012. Digest of Education Statistics 2011. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Sowa, Jessica E., and Selden, Sally Coleman. 2003. “Administrative Discretion and Active Representation: An Expansion of the Theory of Representative Bureaucracy.” Public Administration Review 63(6): 700–710.
Spring, Joel. 1994. The American School 1642–1993. New York: McGraw Hill.
Stedman, Lawrence C. 1994. “The Sandia Report and U.S. Achievement: An Assessment.” The Journal of Educational Research 87(3): 133–146.
Steele, Claude M. 1997. “A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance.” American Psychologist 52(6): 613–629.
Stewart, Joseph, England, Robert, and Meier, Kenneth. 1989. “Black Representation in Urban School Districts: From School Board to Office to Classroom.” Western Political Quarterly 42(2): 287–305.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2013. “Equal Opportunity, Our National Myth.” The New York Times. Available at Accessed February 10, 2015.
Stone, Donald H. 1993. “Crime and Punishment in Public Schools: An Empirical Study of Disciplinary Proceedings.” American Journal of Trial Advocacy 17(2): 351–398.
Stover, Del. 2012. “Politics and School Board Races.” American School Board Journal. Available at Accessed January 23, 2015.
Strauss, Valerie. 2013. “Arne Duncan: ‘White Suburban Moms’ Upset that Common Core Shows Their Kids Aren't ‘Brilliant.’” The Washington Post. Available at Accessed March 23, 2015.
Swain, Carol M. 1993. Black Faces and Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sweatt v. Painter, 339 US 629, 634 (1950).
Tasby v. Estes, 572 F.2d 1010 (5th Cir. 1978).
Tate, Katherine. 2014. Concordance: Black Lawmaking in the U.S. Congress from Carter to Obama. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Taylor, Quintard. 1999. In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West 1528–1990. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.
Texas Education Agency. 2012. “Frequently Asked Questions about the Academic Excellent Indicator System.” Available at Accessed May 1, 2015.
Texas Education Agency. 2015. “STAAR Resources.” Available at Accessed May 1, 2015.
Theobald, Nick A. 2007. “Muestreme el Dinero: Assessing the Linkage between Latino School Superintendents and English-Language Learner Program Resources.” In Latino Politics: Identity, Mobilization and Representation, Espino, R., Leal, D. L. and Meier, K. J. (eds.). Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
Thernstrom, Abigail, and Thernstrom, Stephan. 2003. No Excuses: Closing the Racial Gap in Learning. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Thornburg v. Gingles, 478 U.S. 30, 106 S. Ct. 2752, 92 L. Ed. 2d 25 (1986).
Thorton, Clarence H., and Trent, William T.. 1988. “School Desegregation and Suspension in East Baton Rouge Parish: A Preliminary Report.” The Journal of Negro Education 57(4):482–501.
Tindall, George Brown. 1952. South Carolina Negroes, 1877–1900. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
Trounstine, Jessica. 2010. “Representation and Accountability in Cities.” Annual Review of Political Science 13(June): 407–423.
Trounstine, Jessica, and Valdini, Melody E.. 2008. “The Context Matters: The Effects of Single Member versus At-Large Districts on City Council Diversity.” American Journal of Political Science 52(3): 554–569.
Tucker, James. 2009. The Battle over Bilingual Voters. New York: Ashgate.
Tyack, David B. 1974. The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tyack, David B. 1991. “Public School Reform: Policy Talk and Institutional Practice.” American Journal of Education 100(1): 1–19.
Tyson, Karolyn. 2003. “Notes from the Back of the Room: Problems and Paradoxes in the Schooling of Young Black Students.” Sociology of Education 76(4): 326–343.
United States v. Gadsden County School District, 572 F. 2d 1049 (1978).
United States v. Tunica County School District, 421 F. 2d. 1236 (1970).
United States & Coleman v. Midland Independent School District (W.D. Tex.)
United States v. Yonkers Board of Education, 984 F. Supp 687, 123 Ed. Law Rep 544 (1997) (S.D.N.Y.).
US Census. 2010. “2010 Census Data.” Available at Accessed January 14, 2015.
US Congress. 1956. Congressional Record, 84th Cong., 2d sess., 1956, 102, pt. 4: 4515–16
US Department of Education. 2009. “Race to the Top Program Executive Summary.” Available at Accessed April 20, 2015.
US Department of Education. 2013. “States Granted Waivers from No Child Left Behind Allowed to Reapply for Renewal for 2014 and 2015 School Years.” Available at Accessed April 20, 2015.
US Department of Education. 2014. “Table 05.20: Enrollment in Educational Institutions, by Level and Control of Institution, Enrollment Level, and Attendance Status and Sex of Student: Selected Years, Fall 1990 through Fall 2023.” National Center for Education. Available at Accessed April 20, 2015.
Valenzuela, Angela. 2002. “High-Stakes Testing and US-Mexican Youth in Texas: The Case for Multiple Compensatory Criteria in Assessment.” Harvard Journal of Hispanic Policy 14: 97–116.
Valenzuela, Angela (ed.). 2005. Leaving Children Behind: How “Texas-style” Accountability Fails Latino Youth. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Vavrus, Frances, and Cole, Kim Marie. 2002. “‘I Didn't Do Nothin’’: The Discursive Construction of School Suspension.” The Urban Review 34(2): 87–111.
Walker, Vanessa. 2005. “Organized Resistance and Black Educators’ Quest for School Equality, 1878–1938.” The Teachers College Record 107(3): 355–388.
Warshaw, Christopher, and Rodden, Jonathan. 2012. “How Should We Measure District-Level Public Opinion on Individual Issues?Journal of Politics 74 (2): 203–219.
Waterman, Richard W., and Meier, Kenneth J.. 1998. “Principal-Agent Models: An Expansion?Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 8(2): 173–202.
Watkins-Hayes, Celeste. 2011. “Race, Respect, and Red Tape: Inside the Black Box of Racially Representative Bureaucracies.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 21(Suppl. 2): i233–i251.
Weber, Max. 2009. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. New York: Routledge.
Weinberg, Meyer. 1977. A Chance to Learn: The History of Race and Education in the United States. London: Cambridge University Press.
Welch, Susan. 1990. “The Impact of At-Large Elections on the Representation of Blacks and Hispanics.” Journal of Politics 52(4): 1050–1076.
Wenglinsky, Harold. 1997. “How Money Matters: The Effect of School District Spending on Academic Achievement.” Sociology of Education 70(3): 221–237.
White v. Regester, 412 U.S. 755, 93 S. Ct. 2332, 37 L. Ed. 2d 314 (1973).
Wiebe, Robert H. 1962. Businessmen and Reform: A Study of the Progressive Movement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wiebe, Robert H. 1967. The Search for Order, 1877–1920. New York: Macmillan.
Wiliam, Dylan. 2010. “Standardized Testing and School Accountability.” Educational Psychologist 45(2): 107–122.
Wilkins, Vicky M., and Keiser, Lael R.. 2006. “Linking Passive and Active Representation by Gender: The Case of Child Support Agencies.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 16(1): 87–102.
Wilkins, Vicky M., and Williams, Brian N.. 2008. “Black or Blue: Racial Profiling and Representative Bureaucracy.” Public Administration Review 68(4): 654–664.
Williams, Simon, and Laurits, James D.. 1954. “Scientists and Education.” In Public Education under Criticism, Scott, C. W. and Hills, C. M. (eds.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wilson, Franklin D. 1985. “The Impact of School Desegregation Programs on White Public Enrollment, 1968–1976.” Sociology of Education 58(3): 137–153.
Wilson, Woodrow. 1887. “The Study of Administration.” Political Science Quarterly 2(2): 197–222.
Wiltz, Teresa. 2012. “Educators Alarmed: Black, Latino High School Students Perform at Level of 30 Years Ago.” America's Wire. Available at Accessed September 28, 2015.
Wirt, Frederick M., and Kirst, Michael W.. 1997. The Political Dynamics of American Education. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing Corporation.
Witte, John. 2000. The Market Approach to Education: An Analysis of America's First Voucher Program. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wolfinger, Raymond E. 1965. “The Development and Persistence of Ethnic Voting.” American Political Science Review 59(4): 896–908.
Wolfinger, Raymond E. 1980. Who Votes? New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Wong, Kenneth K. 1999. Funding Public Schools: Politics and Policies. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Woods v. Wright, 334 F. 2d 369 (1964).
Wooldridge, Jeffrey M. 2003. “Cluster-Sample Methods in Applied Econometrics.” The American Economic Review 93(2): 133–138.
Yell, Mitchell L., Katsiyannas, Antonis, and Shiner, James G.. 2006. “The No Child Left Behind Act, Adequate Yearly Progress, and Students with Disabilities.” Teaching Exceptional Children 38(4): 32.
Zhu, Ling, and Walker, Meredith B.L.. 2013. “‘Too Much Too Young’: Race, Descriptive Representation, and Heterogeneous Policy Responses in the Case of Teenage Childbearing.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 1(4): 528–546.
Zimmer v. McKeithen, 485 F.2d 1297 (5th Cir. 1973).


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed