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Proportionality and the Rule of Law
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    Poscher, Ralf 2016. Tendencies in Public Civil Security Law. European Journal for Security Research, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 59.

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To speak of human rights in the twenty-first century is to speak of proportionality. Proportionality has been received into the constitutional doctrine of courts in continental Europe, the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, Israel, South Africa, and the United States, as well as the jurisprudence of treaty-based legal systems such as the European Convention on Human Rights. Proportionality provides a common analytical framework for resolving the great moral and political questions confronting political communities. But behind the singular appeal to proportionality lurks a range of different understandings. This volume brings together many of the world's leading constitutional theorists - proponents and critics of proportionality - to debate the merits of proportionality, the nature of rights, the practice of judicial review, and moral and legal reasoning. Their essays provide important new perspectives on this leading doctrine in human rights law.

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Aileen McHarg , “Reconciling Human Rights and the Public Interest: Conceptual Problems and Doctrinal Uncertainty in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights,” (1999) 62 M.L.R. 671

Basak Cali , “Balancing Human Rights? Methodological Problems with Weights, Scales and Proportions,” (2007) 29 Hum. Rts. Q. 251

Robert Alexy , “On Balancing and Subsumption: A Structural Comparison,” (2003) 16 Ratio Juris 433

Virgílio Afonso da Silva , “Comparing the Incommensurable: Constitutional Principles, Balancing and Rational Decision,” (2011) 31 O.J.L.S. 273

N.W. Barber , “The Limited Modesty of Subsidiarity,” (2005) 11 Eur. L. J. 308

J.T. Mangan , “An Historical Analysis of the Principle of Double Effect,” (1949) 10 Theological Stud. 41

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David Enoch , “Intending, Foreseeing, and the State,” 13 Legal Theory 69 (2007)

Dieter Grimm makes essentially the same point in his “Proportionality in Canadian and German Constitutional Jurisprudence,” (2007) 57 U.T.L.J. 383

Two Conceptions of Positive Liberty: Towards an Autonomy-based Theory of Constitutional Rights,” (2009) 29 O.J.L.S. 757

Charles-Maxime Panaccio , “In Defence of Two-Step Balancing and Proportionality in Rights Adjudication,” (2011) 24 Can. J. L. & Jur. 109

Frederick Schauer , “Can Rights be Abused?” (1981) 31 The Philosophical Quarterly 225

Aharon Barak , “Proportionality and Principled Balancing,” (2010) 4 Law & Ethics of Human Rights 1

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Lawrence B. Solum , “On the Indeterminacy Crisis: Critiquing Critical Dogma,” 54 U. Chi. L. Rev. 462 at 473 (1987)

Moshe Cohen-Eliya and Iddo Porat , “Proportionality and the Culture of Justification,” 59 Am. J. Comp. L. 463 at 483 (2011)

Mattias Kumm , “The Idea of Socratic Contestation and the Right to Justification: The Point of Rights-Based Proportionality Review,” (2010) 4 Law & Ethics of Human Rights 141

Stephen R. Perry , “Judicial Obligation, Precedent and the Common Law,” (1987) 7 O.J.L.S. 215

Bradley W. Miller , “Justification and Rights Limitations” in Grant Huscroft (ed.), Expounding the Constitution (2008) 93

Douglas E. Edlin (ed.), Common Law Theory (2007) 185

T.R.S. Allan , “Legislative Supremacy and Legislative Intention: Interpretation, Meaning, and Authority,” (2004) 63 C.L.J. 685

T.R.S. Allan , “Constitutional Justice and the Concept of Law,” in Grant Huscroft (ed.), Expounding the Constitution (2008) 219

T.R.S. Allan , “The Constitutional Foundations of Judicial Review: Conceptual Conundrum or Interpretative Inquiry?” (2002) 61 C.L.J. 87

Julian Rivers , “Proportionality and Variable Intensity of Review,” (2006) 65 C.L.J. 174

Kenneth F. Ledford , “Formalizing the Rule of Law in Prussia: The Supreme Administrative Law Court, 1876–1914,” (2004) 37 Central European History 203

T.R.S. Allan , “Human Rights and Judicial Review: A Critique of ‘Due Deference,’” (2006) 65 C. L.J. 671

Thomas Poole , “The Reformation of English Administrative Law,” (2009) 68 C.L.J. 142

Nicholas Gibson , “Faith in the Courts: Religious Dress and Human Rights,” (2007) 66 C.L.J. 657

Sheldon Leader , “Freedoms and Futures: Personal Priorities, Institutional Demands and Freedom of Religion,” (2007) 70 M.L.R. 713 at 716.

Alison L. Young , “In Defence of Due Deference,” (2009) 72 M.L.R. 554 at 569–570

T. Alexander Aleinikoff , “Constitutional Law in the Age of Balancing,” 96 Yale L.J. 943 (1987)

Grégoire Webber , “Proportionality, Balancing, and the Cult of Constitutional Rights Scholarship,” (2010) 23 Can. J. Law & Jur. 179

Moshe Cohen-Eliya and Iddo Porat , “American Balancing and German Proportionality: The Historical Origins,” (2010) 8 Int'l. J. Const. L. 263

Jeremy Waldron , “Pildes on Dworkin's Theory of Rights,” 29 J. Legal Stud. 301 (2000)

Richard H. Pildes , “Dworkin's Two Conceptions of Rights,” 29 J. Legal Stud. 309 (2000)

Richard H. Pildes , “Why Rights Are Not Trumps: Social Meanings, Expressive Harms, and Constitutionalism,” 27 J. Legal Stud. 725 (1998)

Adam Tomkins , “The Role of Courts in the Political Constitution,” (2010) 60 U.T.L.J. 1

James Boyd White , “Law as Rhetoric, Rhetoric as Law: The Arts of Cultural and Communal Life,” (1985) 52 U. Chicago L. Rev. 684

H.L.A. Hart , “Bentham and the Demystification of the Law,” (1973) 36 M.L.R. 2

Mark Antaki , “The Turn to Imagination in Legal Theory: The Re-Enchantment of the World?” (2012) 23 Law and Critique 1.

Marianne Constable , “Genealogy and Jurisprudence: Nietzsche, Nihilism, and the Social Scientification of Law,” (1994) 19 Law & Soc. Inquiry 551

Richard A. Posner , “Constitutional Law from a Pragmatic Perspective,” (2005) 55 U.T.L.J. 299

Robert Alexy , “Constitutional Rights, Balancing, and Rationality,” (2003) 16 Ratio Juris. 131

Paul W. Kahn , “Comparative Constitutionalism in a New Key,” (2002–2003) 101 Michigan L. Rev. 2677

Paul-Erik Veel , “Incommensurability, Proportionality, and Rational Legal Decision-Making,” (2010) 4 Law & Ethics of Human Rights 177 at 180

Objectivity and Truth: You'd Better Believe It,” (1996) 25 Philosophy & Public Affairs 87

Morris J Fish , “An Eye for an Eye: Proportionality as a Moral Principle of Punishment,” (2008) 28 O.J.L.S. 57

Robert Alexy , “The Construction of Constitutional Rights,” (2010) 4 Law & Ethics of Human Rights 20 at 32

John Finnis , “Retribution: Punishment's Formative Aim,” 44 Am. J. Juris. 91 (1999)

Jeremy Waldron , “The Core of the Case Judicial Review,” (2006) 115 Yale L.J. 1346

W. Miller , “Morals Laws in an Age of Rights: Hart and Devlin at the Supreme Court of Canada,” 55 Am. J. Juris. 79 (2010)

Miller , “Review of W.J. Waluchow, A Common Law Theory of Judicial Review” (2007) 52 Am. J. Juris. 297

Giovanni Sartor , “Doing Justice to Rights and Values: Teleological Reasoning and Proportionality,” (2010) 18 Artificial Intelligence Law 175

Chaim Gans , “Mandatory Rules and Exclusionary Reasons,” (1986) 15 Philosophia 373.

Iddo Porat , “On the Jehovah Witnesses Cases, Balancing Tests, Indirect Infringement of Rights and Multiculturalism: A Proposed Model for Three Kinds of Multicultural Claims,” (2007) 1 Law and Ethics of Human Rights 429

Roscoe Pound , “A Survey of Social Interests,” 57 Harv. L. Rev. 1 at 4 (1943)

Two Concepts of Interests: Some Reflections on the Supreme Court's Balancing Test,” 76 Harv. L. Rev. 755 at 722 (1963)

Elena Kagan , “Private Speech, Public Purpose: The Role of Governmental Motive in First Amendment Doctrine,” 63 U. Chi. L. Rev. 413 at 415 (1996)

Robert Post , “Recuperating First Amendment Doctrine,” 47 Stan. L. Rev. 1249 at 1256 (1995)

Jed Rubenfeld , “The First Amendment's Purpose,” 53 Stan. L. Rev. 767 (2001)

Donald H. Regan , “The Supreme Court and State Protectionism: Making Sense of the Dormant Commerce Clause,” 84 Mich. L. Rev. 1091 (1986)

Harlan F. Stone , “The Common Law in the United States,” 50 Harv. L. Rev. 4 at 23 (1936)

Laurent B. Frantz , “The First Amendment in the Balance71 Yale L.J. 1424 (1962)


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