Following the referencing style used in several Cambridge University Press books on the Middle East and North Africa, the surnames of many Arabic authors in the bibliography ignore the definitive article ‘al-’. For example, ‘al-Hassan, 1996’ can be found under surnames beginning with ‘H’ or ‘al-Kibsi et al, 2015’ can be located under surnames beginning with ‘K’.
Abdalla I. 1996. ‘Attitudes towards women in the Arabian Gulf region’, Women in Management Review, 11(1): 29–39.
Abdulrahman A., Saif N. Ahmed and Abdulla S. 2009. ‘A comparative analysis of the beliefs that Emiratis have towards the evolving nature of business leadership in the UAE’, Final-year Capstone Dissertation, College of Business Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai.
al-Abed I. 2007. United Arab Emirates Yearbook 2007. Dubai: Trident Press.
Abouzied R. 2008. ‘Emirati women an economic force’, The National (Business Section), 14 May.
Acemoglu D. and Robinson J. 2012. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty. New York: Random House.
Agence France Presse 2003. ‘Panel pins rape scandal on top brass’, The Australian, 24 September.
Agtmael A. 2007. The Emerging Markets Century. New York: Free Press.
Aguirre D., Hoteit L. and Sabbagh K. 2013. ‘How to keep the promise of the third billion: a new index of countries links their future prosperity to raising the status of women’, Strategy+Business, 15 October, accessed 8 July 2013 from www.strategy-business.com/article/00137?gko=5d83b.
Ahmad S. 2012. ‘Micro, small and medium sized enterprises development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: problems and constraints’, World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 8(4): 217–232.
Ahmad S. 2011a. ‘Evidence of the characteristics of women entrepreneurs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 3(2): 123–143.
Ahmad S. 2011b. ‘Business women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: characteristics, growth patterns and progression in a regional context’, Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 30(7): 610–614.
Ahmed L. 2011. A Quiet Revolution? The Veil’s Resurgence from the Middle East to America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ahmed N. 2016. ‘Oil on the skids: is the kingdom’s oil wealth running out?’ New Internationalist, March: 22–23.
Aleklett K., Hook M., Jakobsson K., Lardelli M., Snoden S. and Soderburgh B. 2010. ‘The peak of the oil age: analysing the world oil production scenario in World Energy Outlook 2008’, Energy Policy, 38(3): 1398–1414.
Algar H. 2002. Wahhabism: A Critical Essay. New York: Islamic Publications International.
Ali A. 2004. Islamic Perspectives on Management and Organization. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Ali A. 1992. ‘Islamic work ethic in Arabia’, Journal of Psychology, 126(5): 507–520.
Ali A. H. 2015. Heretic: Why Islam Needs a Reformation Now. New York: Harper Collins.
Ali A. H. 2010. From Islam to America: A Personal Journey through the Clash of Civilisations. New York: Free Press.
Ali A. H. 2007. Infidel: My Life. New York: Free Press.
al-Ali J. 2008. ‘Emiratisation: drawing UAE nationals into their surging economy’, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 28(9–10): 365–379.
al-Ali N. 2000. Secularism, Gender and the State in the Middle East: The Egyptian Women’s Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Alsanea R. 2008. The Girls of Riyadh. London: Penguin Books.
AME Info 2005. ‘Raja al-Gurg encourages Arab women to realize their full potential’, AME Info, accessed 3 December 2007 from www.ameinfo.com/69312.html. Arab News 2014a. ‘Kingdom records highest Twitter penetration’, Arab News, 17 November, accessed 5 March 2015 from www.arabnews.com/news/478691. Arab News 2014c. ‘1.7 million firms out of Nitaqat purview’, Arab News, 3 February, accessed 5 March 2015 from www.arabnews.com/news/519811.
al-Ardhi M. 2015. ‘Present accomplishments will drive future success of Oman’, Times of Oman, 23 May.
al-Arkoubi K. 2008. Spiritual Leadership and Identity in Moroccan Business: An Ethnographic Study of Yanna Holding. Doctoral dissertation, New Mexico State University, 2008.
Armstrong K. 2000. Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library.
Ashcraft C. and Blithe S. 2009. Women in IT: The Facts. Boulder, CO: National Center for Women and Information Technology.
Attas S. (ed.) 1996. Islam and the Challenge of Modernity: Historical and Contemporary Contexts. Kuala Lumpur: International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilisation.
Avent R. 2016. The Wealth of Humans: Work and Its Absence in the Twenty-Fist Century. London: Allen Lane.
Aycan Z. 2008. ‘Cross-cultural perspectives to work-family conflict’, in Korabik K. and Lero D. (eds.) Handbook of Work-Family Conflict, pp. 359–371. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aycan Z., Ayman R., Bardoel A., Desai T., Drach-Zahavy A., Hammer L., Huang T., Korabik K., Lero D., Mawardi A., Poelmans S., Rajadhyaksha U., Shafiro M. and Somech A. 2004. ‘Work-family conflict in cultural context: a ten-country investigation’, Paper presented at the Nineteenth Annual Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, Chicago, April.
Bachelard M. and Crawford B. 2004. ‘Jobs at Kodak in digital danger’, The Weekend Australian (Business Section), 26 January.
Badran M. 2009. Feminism in Islam: Secular and Religious Convergences. Oxford: One World Publications.
Baird V. 2016. ‘Our friends: why is the West still cosying up to an ever more repressive Saudi Arabia?’ New Internationalist, March: 10–14.
Barrett C. 2014. ‘Gender quotas feel coercive but appear to work’, Financial Times: The Inclusive Workplace, 15 May: 2–3.
al-Barwani T. 2011. ‘Women, education and the redefinition of empowerment and change in a traditional society’, in Sadiqi F. and Ennaji M. (eds.) Women in the Middle East and North Africa: Agents of Changes, pp. 215–231.
Beblawi H. 1990. ‘The rentier state in the Arab world’, in Beblawi H. and Giacomo L. (eds.) The Arab State, London: Routledge, pp. 85–98.
Beinhocker E. 2007. The Origin of Wealth: Evolution, Complexity and the Radical Remaking of Economics. London: Random House.
Bellah R. 2011. Religion in Human Evolution: From the Palaeolithic to the Axial Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Belwal S., Belwal R. and al-Saidi F. 2014. ‘Characteristics, motivations and challenges of women entrepreneurs in Oman’s Al-Dhahira region’, Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, 10(2): 135–151.
Bennet J. and Ellison J. 2010. ‘Women will rule the world: men were the main victims of the recession. The recovery will be female’, Newsweek, 12 July: 38–42.
Bennoune K. 2013. Your Fatwa Does Not Apply Here: Untold Stories from the Fight against Muslim Fundamentalism. New York: W. W. Norton.
Berger P. and Luckmann J. 1967. The Social Construction of Reality. London: Allen Lane.
Binham C. 2014. ‘Legal laggards begin to master diversity briefs. Law firms: elite cadre double promotion of women but still has a long way to go’, Financial Times: The Inclusive Workplace, 15 May: 4–5.
Bitar Z. 2010. ‘Empowering women in the UAE: government is committed to investing in their skills to boost country’s growth’, Gulf News (Business Section), 23 August.
Bohnet I. 2015. What Works: Gender Equality by Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Broadbent L. 2012. ‘Targeting rape in the US military’, Guardian Weekly, 13 January: 26–27.
Brulliard K. 2012. ‘After the Arab spring, the struggle continues on a university campus’, Guardian Weekly, 19 October.
Bryan R. 2001. ‘A man’s world: women are breaking down traditional male bastions’, The Australian, 7 June.
Bugliosi V. 2008. The Prosecution of George W. Bush for Murder. Cambridge, MA: Vanguard Press.
Burgot F. 2003. Face to Face with Political Islam. London: Taurus.
Burlingham B. 2005. Small Giants: Companies That Choose to Be Great Instead of Big. New York: Portfolio.
Carlson D., Whitten D. and Kacmar M. 2006. ‘What men think they know about executive women’, Harvard Business Review, September: 28.
Casella N. 2001. ‘Women in fight to reach top roles’, The Sunday Times (Western Australia), 11 July.
CEO Middle East 2015. ‘Top 100: the world’s most powerful Arabic women’, CEO Middle East, March: 16–61 and 78–79.
CEO Middle East 2011. ‘Interview with Fatima al-Jaber’, CEO Middle East, February: 20–27.
Clothier M. 2010. ‘Motorcycles: Harley shows its feminine side’, Bloomberg Businessweek, 4–10 October.
Cohoon J. and Aspray W. (eds.) 2007. The State of Social Science Research on Gender and IT Entrepreneurship: A Summary of Research Literature on Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Information Technology Field. National Center for Women and Technology, Entrepreneurial Report Series.
Cohoon J. and Aspray W. (eds.) 2006. Women and Information Technology: Research on Underrepresentation. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
Cole J. 2014. The New Arabs: How the Millennial Generation Is Changing the Middle East. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Coleman I. 2010. Paradise Beneath Her Feet: How Women Are Transforming the Middle East. New York: Random House.
Collins J. 2001. Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others Don’t. New York: Harper Business.
Corporate Leadership Council 2004. Driving Employee Performance and Engagement through Retention: A Quantitative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Employee Engagement Strategies. Washington, DC: Corporate Executive Board.
Crabtree J. and Allam A. 2014. ‘Tata unveils first all-female outsourcing centre in Saudi Arabia, Financial Times, 1 April: 7.
al-Dabbagh M. 2009. ‘The context for intergroup leadership: women’s groups in Saudi Arabia’, in Pittinsky T. (ed.) Crossing the Divide: Intergroup Leadership in a World of Difference, pp. 171–186. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Danish A. and Smith H. 2012. ‘Female entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia: opportunities and challenges’, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 4(3): 216–235.
Davidson C. 2009. ‘Abu Dhabi’s new economy: oil, investment and domestic development’, Middle East Policy, 16(2): 59–79.
Davidson C. 2005. The United Arab Emirates: A Study in Survival. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Dawkins R. 2006. The God Delusion. New York: Houghton-Mifflin Company.
De Cremer E. and Harrison R. 2015. ‘Women on boards – to quota or not to quota? That’s the question’, Muscat Daily (Business Section), 25 May.
Dechant K. and al-Lamky A. 2005. ‘Towards an understanding of Arab women entrepreneurs in Bahrain and Oman’, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 10(2): 123–140.
Diamond J. 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive. London: Allen Lane.
Diamond J. 1998. Guns, Germs and Steel: A Short History of Everybody for the last 13,000 Years. London: Random House.
Dilevko J. and Harris R. 1997. ‘Information technology and social relations: portrayals of gender roles in high-tech product advertisement’, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 44(8): 718–727.
Diner D. 2009. Lost in the Sacred: Why the Muslim World Stood Still. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Donaghy R. 2001. The Future of Work-Life Balance, Economic and Social Research Council. Swindon, UK: Economic and Social Research Council.
Dorfman P. and House R. 2004. ‘Cultural influences on organisational leadership: literature review, theoretical rationale and GLOBE project goals’, in R. House, P. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. Dorfman and V. Gupta Culture, Leadership and Organisations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, pp. 51–73.
Drago R. 2007. Striking a Balance: Work, Family, Life. Boston, MA: Dollars and Sense.
Dubai Women Establishment 2015. ‘UAE women statistics’, Dubai Women Establishment, accessed 10 December 2015 from www.dwe.gov.ae/stat.aspx.
Dubai Women Establishment 2009. Arab Women: Leadership Outlook 2009–2011. Dubai: Dubai Women Establishment.
Dubai Women Establishment 2008a. ‘Dubai Women Establishment launches National Corporate Child Care Project’, Dubai Women Establishment, accessed 28 November 2008 from www.dwe.gov.ae/press08_06_08.aspx. Dubai Women Establishment 2008b. ‘Female Emirati Employees in Dubai for the year 2008’, Dubai Women’s Establishment, accessed 28 November 2008, from www.dwe.gov.ae/women_dubai_06.aspx. Dubai Women Establishment 2008c. ‘Message from Sheikha Manal’, Dubai Women Establishment, accessed 28 November 2008 from www.dwe.gov.ae/index.aspx. Dubai Women Establishment 2008d. ‘Reasons behind UAE women’s reluctance to participate in activating the country’s strategy’, Dubai Women Establishment, accessed 28 November 2008 from www.dwe.gov.ae/countrys_strategy.aspx.
Dzhambazova B. 2012. ‘Gender gap shrinking on UK firms’ boards’, International Herald and Tribune (Business Section), 2 July.
Ebrahim S., Khamis A., Abdulsamad H. and Mohammed N. 2008. ‘The development of female business leadership in the United Arab Emirates’, Final-year Capstone Dissertation, the College of Business Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai.
Elamin A. and Omair K. 2010. ‘Males’ attitudes towards working females in Saudi Arabia’, Personnel Review, 39(6): 746–766.
Eltahawy M. 2015. Headscarves and Hymens: Why the Middle East Needs a Sexual Revolution. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.
Embassy of the United Arab Emirates 2015. ‘Women in the UAE’, Embassy of the United Arab Emirates, Washington, DC, accessed 10 October 2015 from www.uae-embassy.org/uae/women-uae.
Ennis C. 2015. ‘ Between trend and necessity: top-down entrepreneurship promotion in Oman and Qatar’, The Muslim World, 105(1): 116–138.
Erogul M. and McCrohan D. 2008. ‘Preliminary investigation of Emirati women entrepreneurs in the UAE’, African Journal of Business Management, 2(10): October: 177–185.
Erogul M. and McCrohan D. 2007a. ‘Do socio-cultural factors affect female entrepreneurship in the UAE?’ Proceedings of the Cultures and Context Conference, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, September: 13–15.
Erogul M. and McCrohan D. 2007b. ‘Socio-cultural factors inhibiting female entrepreneurship in the United Arab Emirates’, Working Paper, College of Business Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai.
Fadl K. 2005. The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. New York: Harper-Collins.
Fakhro M. 1990. Women at Work in the Gulf. London: Kegan Paul International.
Farquhar M. 2015. ‘Saudi petrodollars, spiritual capital and the Islamic University of Medina: A Wahhabi missionary project in transnational perspective’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 47(4): 701–721.
Fatany S. 2011b. ‘Itjihad deserves new consideration’, Arab News, 6 November.
Fatany S. 2007a. ‘Saudi Arabia forum on the role of women suggests that empowerment is the key to future economic prosperity’, Arab News, 24 July.
Ferris T. 2010. The Science of Liberty: Democracy, Reason and the Laws of Nature. New York: Harper Collins.
Fleishman J. 2011. ‘Arabs look to restore hope and reclaim dignity’, Gulf News, 1 March.
Foley S. 2010. The Arab Gulf States: Beyond Oil and Islam. London: Lynne Reiner.
2013. ‘Saudi stimuli: from IT to interiors and energy to education, Saudi self-starters are forces for inspiration in a kingdom full of potential’, Forbes Middle East, December: 44–54.
Forster N. 2017. ‘Why are there no world-class universities in the Middle East and North Africa?’ Journal of Further and Higher Education, 41(6), accepted for publication.
Forster N. 2000. Managing Staff on International Assignments: A Strategic Guide. London: Financial Times and Prentice-Hall.
Forster N. 1999. ‘A case study of women academics’ views on equal opportunities, career prospects and work-family conflicts in a British University’, Women in Management Review, 15(7): 33–46.
Forster N., Ibrahim N. and Ebrahim A. 2014. ‘An exploratory study of work-life balance and work-family conflicts in the United Arab Emirates’, Skyline Business Journal, 9(1): 34–42.
Forster N. and al-Marzouqi A. 2011. ‘An exploratory study of the under-representation of Emirati women in the United Arab Emirates’ information technology sector’, Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 30(7): 544–562.
Foust-Cummings H., Sabattini L. and Carter N. 2008. Women in Technology: Maximizing Talent, Minimizing Barriers. New York: Catalyst.
Fox C. 2006. ‘Advances continue at an interminably slow pace’, Australian Financial Review, 12 December.
Francke L. 2001. Ground Zero: The Gender Wars in the Military. London: Simon and Schuster.
Fukuyama F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.
Gallant M. and Pounder J. 2008. ‘The employment of female nationals in the United Arab Emirates: an analysis of opportunities and barriers’, Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 1(1): 26–33.
Gambles R., Lewis S. and Rapoport R. 2006. The Myth of Work-Life Balance. London: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Garran R. 2001a. ‘I am woman – show me war’, The Weekend Australian, 9–10 June.
Garran R. 2001b. ‘Tough enough to kill?’ The Australian, 23 November.
Gelfand M. and Knight A. 2003. ‘Cross-cultural perspectives on work-family conflict’, in Poelmans S. (ed.) Work and Family: An International Research Perspective , pp. 401–415.
Gladwell M. 2006. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. London: Penguin Books.
Gorney C. 2016. ‘The changing face of Saudi women’, National Geographic, February: 110–133.
Goveas S. and Aslam N. 2011. ‘The role and contributions of women in the Sultanate of Oman’, International Journal of Business and Management, 6(3): 232–238.
Gray J. 2015. ‘The age of diversity: global trends demand that leaders build inclusive cultures and exploit group intelligence’, Boss (Australian Financial Review), June: 7–9.
Gray J. 2011. Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth? Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century. London: Profile Books.
Greenspan A. 2000. ‘Removing barriers to women essential for economic growth’, The Australian (Business Section), 28 July.
Groom B. 2009. ‘Too few UK women ready to be directors: report finds lack of experienced candidates’, Gulf News (Business Section), 27 May.
Groysberg B. and Connolly K. 2013. ‘Great leaders who make the mix work: twenty-four CEOs on creating diverse and inclusive organisations’, Harvard Business Review, September: 69–76.
Haidar E. 2015. Raif Badawi: The Voice of Freedom. My Husband, Our Story. London: Little, Brown.
Halpern D. and Cheung F. 2008. Women at the Top: Powerful Leaders Tell Us How to Combine Work and Family. UK: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Hamel G. 2011. ‘First, let’s fire all the managers. Morning Star, a leading food processor, demonstrates how to create an organisation that combines managerial discipline and market-centric flexibility without bosses, titles or promotions’, Harvard Business Review, December: 49–60.
Handy C. 1996. Beyond Certainty. London: Arrow Books.
Harrison L. 2006. The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics Can Change a Culture and Save It from Itself. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harrison L. and Huntington S. (eds.) 2000. Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. New York: Basic Books.
al-Hashemi S., Khan G., al-Abri S., Rajasekar J., Shamsudin F., al-Habsi N. and Barwani N. 2013. ‘Undergraduate program specialisation proposal’, Department of Management, College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.
Hawley D. 1971. The Trucial States. New York: Twayne Publishers.
Haykel B. 2015. ‘Afterword’, in B. Haykel, T. Hegghamer and S. Lacroix (eds.) Saudi Arabia in Transition: Insights on Political, Economic and Religious Change, pp. 332–336.
Haykel B., Hegghamer T. and Lacroix S. (eds.) 2015. Saudi Arabia in Transition: Insights on Political, Economic and Religious Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Heard-Bey F. 2005. From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Dubai: Motivate.
Hegghamer T. 2010. ‘“Classical” and “global” jihadism in Saudi Arabia’, in B. Haykel, T. Hegghamer and S. Lacroix (eds.) Saudi Arabia in Transition: Insights on Political, Economic and Religious Change, pp. 207–230.
Heritage Foundation 2016. ‘2016 index of economic freedom’, Heritage Foundation, Washington, DC, accessed 24 February 2016 from www.heritage.org/index/ranking.
Hertog S. 2015. ‘National cohesion and the political economy of regions in post-World War II Saudi Arabia’, in B. Haykel, T. Hegghamer and S. Lacroix (eds.) Saudi Arabia in Transition: Insights on Political, Economic and Religious Change, pp. 97–124.
Hertog S. 2010a. ‘The sociology of the Gulf rentier systems: societies of intermediaries’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 52(2): 282–318.
Hertog S. 2010b. Princes, Brokers and Bureaucrats: Oil and the State in Saudi Arabia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hewlett S., Buck-Luce C., Servon L., Sherbin L., Shiller P. and Sosnovich E. 2008a. The Athena Factor: Reversing the Brain Drain in Science, Engineering and Technology. New York: Centre for Work-Life Policy.
Hewlett S., Jackson M., Sherbin L., Sosnovich E. and Sumberg K. 2008b. The Under-Leveraged Talent Pool: Women Technologists on Wall Street. New York: Center for Work-Life Policy.
Hewlett S., Marshall M. and Sherbin L. 2013. ‘How diversity can drive innovation’, Harvard Business Review, December: 22–31.
Hewlett S. and Rashid R. 2010. ‘The battle for female talent in emerging markets’, Harvard Business Review, May: 101–106.
Hill A. 2011. ‘The top 50 women in world business’, Financial Times Magazine, 8–9 January: 6–30.
Hitchens C. 2007. God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything. New York: Warner Books.
Hitti P. 2002. A History of the Arabs. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hofstede G. 2001. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organisations across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hofstede G. 1984. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Holland T. 2012. In the Shadow of the Sword: The Birth of Islam and the Rise of the Global Arab Empire. New York: Random House.
Hourani A. 1991. A History of the Arab Peoples. London: Faber and Faber.
House R., Hanges P., Javidan M., Dorfman P. and Gupta V. 2004. Culture, Leadership and Organisations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Huntington S. 2011. The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of the World Order. London: Simon & Schuster.
Hussain T. and Khalil A. 2013. ‘Environmental and sustainable development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: current status and future trends’, Journal of Sustainable Development, 6 (12): 14–30.
Husserl E. 1931. Ideas: A General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology. New York: Humanities Press.
Hvidt M. 2013. ‘Economic diversification in GCC countries: past record and future trends’, The London School of Economics Kuwait Program on Development, Globalisation and Governance in the Gulf States, Research Paper No. 27, accessed 9 October 2015 from www.lse.ac.uk/LSEKP.
Hycner R. 1985. ‘Some guidelines for the phenomenological analysis of interview data’, Human Studies, 8(3): 279–303.
Ibarra H., Ely R. and Kolb D. 2013. ‘Women rising: the unseen barriers’, Harvard Business Review, September: 62–66.
Ibrahim N. and Ebrahim A. 2011. ‘Emirati women’s perceptions of work-family conflicts in the United Arab Emirates’, Final-year Capstone Dissertation, College of Business Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai.
Inter-Parliamentary Union 2016. ‘Women in national parliaments 2015’, Inter-Parliamentary Union, accessed 3 February 2016 from www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm. International Federation for Human Rights 2010. ‘Women’s rights in the United Arab Emirates’, Note submitted to the Fourth Session of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women on the Occasion of its First Examination of the UAE, accessed 12 October 2012 from www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/UAE_summaryreport_for_CEDAW.pdf/.
Janzen J. 1986. Nomads in the Sultanate of Oman: Tradition and Development in Dhofar. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Javidan M., Dorfman P., du Luque M. and House R. 2006. ‘In the eye of the beholder: cross-cultural lessons in leadership from Project GLOBE’, Academy of Management Perspectives, 20(1): 67–90.
Jennings J. and Brush C. 2013. ‘Research on women entrepreneurs: challenges to (and from) the broader entrepreneurship literature?’, Academy of Management Annals, 7(1): 663–715.
Jenson J. and Rose C. 2003. ‘Women@work: listening to gendered relations of power in teachers’ talk about new technologies’, Gender and Education, 15(2): 169–181.
Jiffry F. 2014. ‘Unemployment rate among Saudi women reaches 34%’, Arab News, 23 April, accessed 8 December 2014 from www.arabnews.com/news/560096.
Jones J. and Ridout N. 2015. A History of Modern Oman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Joplin J., Shaffer M., Francesco A. and Lau T. 2003. ‘The macro environment and work-family conflict: development of a cross-cultural comparative framework’, International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 3(2): 305–328.
Kargwell S. 2012. ‘A comparative study on gender and entrepreneurship development: still a male’s world within UAE cultural context’, International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(6): 44–55.
Katz M. 2004. ‘Assessing the political stability of Oman’, Middle East Review of International Affairs, 8(4): 1–10.
Katzenbach J. 2000. Peak Performance: Aligning the Hearts and Minds of Your Employees. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Kaufmann E. 2010. Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth? Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century. London: Profile Books.
Kelly S. and Breslin J. (eds.) 2014. Women’s Rights in the Middle East: Progress Amidst Resistance. New York: Freedom House.
Kepel G. 2004. The War for Muslim Minds. London: Faber and Faber.
Khalil A. 2011. ‘Protesters are beaten at women’s rights rallies’, The Guardian Weekly, 9 March.
al-Khalili J. 2012. Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science. London: Penguin Books.
Khan Z. 2009. The Female Commodity. Dubai: Gulf Business.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Economy and Planning 2015. ‘Objectives of the tenth development plan’, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Economy and Planning, accessed 11 May 2016 from www.mep.gov.sa/en/knowledge-resources/. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Economy and Planning 2010. ‘Objectives of the ninth development plan’, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Economy and Planning, accessed 22 December 2011 from www.mep.gov.sa/en/knowledge-resources/. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Economy and Planning 2005. ‘Objectives of the eighth development plan’, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Economy and Planning, accessed 3 March 2011 from www.mep.gov.sa/en/knowledge-resources/.
Kock C. and Upitis R. 1996. ‘Is computer time equal for girls? Potential internet inequities’, in the Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of the Internet Society. Reston, VA: The Internet Society.
Korabik K., Lero D. and Ayman R. 2003. ‘A multi-level approach to cross-cultural work-family research: a micro- and macro-perspective’, International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 3(3): 289–303.
Kotler P. and Lee N. 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing the Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Kotter J. and Cohen D. 2002. The Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organisations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Kouzes J. and Posner B. 2008 (fourth edition). The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Krane J. 2009. City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Kvale S. 1983. ‘The qualitative research interview: a phenomenological and hermeneutical mode of understanding’, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 14(1): 171–196.
Lacey R. 2009. Inside the Kingdom: Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. London: Penguin Books.
Lacey R. 2001. The Kingdom: Arabia and the House of Saud. London: Penguin Books.
al-Lamki A. 2007. ‘Feminizing leadership in Arab societies: the perspectives of Omani female leaders’, Women in Management Review, 22(1): 49–67.
Leighton A. 2007. On Leadership: Practical Wisdom from the People Who Know. London: Random House.
Leonard D. and Strauss S. 1999. ‘Putting your company’s whole brain to work’, in Harvard Business Review on Breakthrough Thinking, pp. 57–85. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Lewis S. 2010. Towards New Conceptions of Work-Life Balance. London: Routledge.
Lewis S., Gambles R. and Rapoport R. 2007. ‘The constraints of a work-balance approach: an international perspective’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(3): 360–373.
Limbert M. 2010. In the Time of Oil: Piety, Memory and Social Life in an Omani Town. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Lupart J. and Cannon E. 2002. ‘Computers and career choices: gender differences in grades seven and ten students’, Gender, Technology and Development, 6(2): 233–248.
Lyons J. 2010. The House of Wisdom: How the Arabs Transformed Western Civilisation. London: Bloomsbury.
Macfarquhar N. 2009. The Media Relations Department of Hezbollah Wishes You a Happy Birthday: Unexpected Encounters in the Changing Middle East. New York: Perseus Books.
Maddison S. 1999. ‘Right to fight is front line of feminism’, The Weekend Australian, 9–10 July.
Madichie N. and Gallant M. 2012. ‘Broken silence: a commentary on women’s entrepreneurship in the United Arab Emirates’, Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 13(2): 81–92.
Mahajan V. 2012. The Arab World Unbound: Tapping into the Power of 350 Million Consumers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Maiden M. 2016. ‘BHP boss turns up the gender diversity dial’, The Sydney Morning Herald (Business Day), 9–10 January.
Manne R. 2016. ‘The mind of Islamic State: an ideology of savagery’, The Monthly, June: 25–39.
Manning M. and Haddock P. 1995. Leadership Skills for Women. Menlo Park, CA: Crisp Publications.
Martel L. 2002. High Performers: How the Best Companies Find Them and Keep Them. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Maslow A. 1954. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper.
Maslow A. 1943. ‘A theory of human motivation’, Psychological Review, 50(3): 370–396.
Masood E. 2009. Science and Islam: A History. New York: Icon.
Mattioli D. 2012. 'Kodak's sale of patents faces hurdles’, The Wall Street Journal, 11 June.
Mazawi A. 2005. ‘The academic profession in a rentier state: the professoriate in Saudi Arabia’, Minerva, 43(3): 221–244.
McCrohan D., Erogul M., Vellinga N. and Tong Q. 2009. ‘National global entrepreneurship monitor report for the United Arab Emirates’, GEM Consortium and the College of Business Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai.
McElhaney K. 2008. Just Good Business: A Strategic Guide to Aligning Corporate Social Responsibility and Brand. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
McElwee G. and al-Riyami R. 2003. ‘Women entrepreneurs in Oman: some barriers to success’, Career Development International, 8(7): 595–612.
McGirt E. 2016. ‘Leading while black: an inside look at what’s keeping black men out of the executive suite’, Fortune, 1 February: 47–53.
MENA-OECD Investment Program 2011. ‘Note on the establishment of national task forces’, The MENA-OECD Women’s Business Forum, accessed 16 October 2012 from www.oecd.org/mena/48778046.pdf. MENA-OECD Investment Program 2009. ‘2009 action plan on fostering women’s entrepreneurship and employment in the MENA region’, The MENA-OECD Investment Program, accessed 16 October 2012 from www.oecd.org/mena/investment/44092571.pdf.
Menoret P. 2014. Joyriding in Riyadh: Oil, Urbanism and Road Revolt in Saudi Arabia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Metcalfe B. 2006. ‘Exploring cultural dimensions of gender and management in the Middle East’, Thunderbird International Business Review, 48(1): 93–107.
Ministry of State for Federal National Council Affairs 2009. Women in the United Arab Emirates: A Portrait of Progress. Abu Dhabi: Ministry of State for Federal National Council Affairs.
Moghaddam V. 2013. Modernising Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East. Boulder Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Moore L. 2011. ‘Worldly leadership through local knowledge: discovering the voice of Emirati women business leaders’, in Turnbull S., Edwards G., Jepson D. and Simpson P. (eds.) Worldly Leadership: Alternative Wisdoms for A Complex World, pp.171–193. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Moore L. 2009. ‘Voices of women leaders in the UAE and Arab region: implications for leadership education and development’, in Dubai Women Establishment, Arab Women: Leadership Outlook 2009–2011, pp. 48–50.
Moore L. and Forster N. 2009. ‘An exploratory analysis of cross-cultural differences in sex-typing, gender self-attributes and the emergence of androgynous leadership traits’, Indian Journal of Management, 2(2): July–December: 4–15.
Morris I. 2011. Why the West Rules – for Now: The Patterns of History and What They Reveal about the Future. London: Profile Books.
Mostafa M. 2007. ‘Attitudes toward women managers who work in Egypt’, Women in Management Review, 18(2): 252–266.
Mostafa M. 2005. ‘Attitudes toward women managers in the United Arab Emirates’, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(6): 522–540.
Mouline N. 2015. ‘Enforcing and reinforcing the state’s Islam: the functioning of the Committee of Senior Scholars’, in B. Haykel, T. Hegghamer and S. Lacroix (eds.) Saudi Arabia in Transition: Insights on Political, Economic and Religious Change, pp. 48–70.
al-Munajjed M. 2010b. A History of Saudi Arabia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
al-Munajjed M. 1997. Women in Saudi Arabia Today. London: Macmillan.
Nagraj A. 2012. ‘Who’s the boss? GCC women rising up the ranks’, Gulf Business, 12 October: 45–46.
Nair M. 2011. ‘Gender no bar to business success: given the same support, women can start equally profitable ventures’, Gulf News (Business Section), 6 June.
Nasr J. 2009. The Status of Women under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation. Leiden: Brill.
Nasr J., Khoury N. and Azzam H. 2005. Women, Employment and Development in the Arab World. Berlin: Mouton.
New Internationalist 2016. ‘Saudi Arabia: the facts’, New Internationalist, March: 19.
Noland M., Moran T. and Kotschwar B. 2016. ‘Is gender diversity profitable? Evidence from a global survey’, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Working Paper Series, WP 16–3, accessed 22 March 2016 from www.piie.com/publications/wp/wp16-3.pdf. Omani Women’s Association 2016. ‘Omani women in Oman’, Omani Women’s Association, accessed 11 May 2016 from www.owam.net/.
O’Reilly C. and Pfeffer J. 2000. Hidden Value: How Great Companies Achieve Extraordinary Results with Ordinary People. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 2004. ‘Women’s entrepreneurship issues and policies’, Second OECD Conference of Ministers Responsible for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, Istanbul, Turkey, June, accessed 4 May 2008 from www.oecd.org/industry/smes/31919215.pdf.
Page S. 2007. The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools and Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Peacock L. 2013. ‘Reaching the top tier: new study says firms must cast net wider to maintain momentum on female executives’, The Sunday Telegraph (Business Section), 7 April.
Petroleum Institute 2016. ‘About PI: women in science and engineering’, The Petroleum Institute, Abu-Dhabi, accessed 27 April 2016 from www.pi.ac.ae/PI_ACA/arz/index.php.
Plummer P. 1983. Documents of Life. London: Allen and Unwin.
Poelmans S. (ed.) 2005. Work and Family: An International Research Perspective. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Powell H. 2009. ‘Women of duty: the number of applicants to the Abu Dhabi police has doubled after a recruitment drive started in October’, Gulf News Magazine, 19 December: 10–17.
Preis K. and MacCrohan D. 2006. ‘A study of entrepreneurship in the United Arab Emirates’, Mohammed Bin Rashid Establishment for Young Business Leaders and the College of Business Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai.
Private Eye 1996. ‘Weird world’, Private Eye, 25 October: 23 (reprint of an article originally published in Utusan Malaysia).
Rajab A. and Mahrizi Al 2013. ‘Rise in public expenditure to record levels is a major challenge facing the government’, Oman Newspaper (Economics Section), 27 November: 8–9.
al-Rasheed M. 2016. ‘Saudi activists: who are they and what do they want?’ New Internationalist, March, 16–18.
al-Rasheed M. 2015. ‘Caught between religion and state: women in Saudi Arabia’, in B. Haykel, T. Hegghamer and S. Lacroix (eds.) Saudi Arabia in Transition: Insights on Political, Economic and Religious Change, pp. 292–313.
al-Rasheed M. 2013. A Most Masculine State: Gender, Politics and Religion in Saudi Arabia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
al-Rasheed M. 2010 (second edition). A History of Saudi Arabia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Raval A. 2012. ‘New road for a macho brand: Harley-Davidson offers lessons in how traditionally masculine labels can appeal to women’, Financial Times (Business Life), 23 September.
Reilly B. 2010. ‘Liberal education in the Middle East’, in the Middle East Institute Higher Education and the Middle East: Serving the Knowledge – Based Economy, pp. 18–20.
Reporters Without Borders 2015a. ‘World press freedom index 2015: United Arab Emirates’, Reporters Without Borders, accessed 3 February 2016 from https://rsf.org/ranking. Reporters Without Borders 2015b. ‘World press freedom index 2015: Saudi Arabia’, Reporters without Borders, accessed 3 February 2016 from https://rsf.org/ranking. Reporters Without Borders 2015c. ‘World press freedom index 2015: Oman’, Reporters without Borders, accessed 3 February 2016 from https://rsf.org/ranking.
Rivlin P. 2009. Arab Economics in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
al-Riyami R., Warren L. and McElwee G. 2002. ‘Opportunities and challenges for Omani women entrepreneurs’, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 39(2): 133–144.
Roberts P. 2005. The End of Oil: The Decline of the Petroleum Economy and the Rise of a New Energy Order. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Robertson L. 2002. The Culture of Islam: Changing Aspects of Contemporary Muslim Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Rogan E. 2015. The Fall of the Ottomans: The Great War in the Middle East. New York: Basic Books.
Rosenzweig P. 2007. The Halo Effect … and the Eight Other Delusions That Deceive Managers. New York: Free Press.
Royal Society 2010. A New Golden Age? The Prospects for Science and Innovation in the Islamic World. London: The Royal Society.
Sadi M. and al-Ghazali B. 2012. ‘The dynamics of entrepreneurial motivation among women: a comparative study of business women in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain’, Asian Academy of Management Journal, 17(1): 97–113.
Sadiqi F. and Ennaji M. (eds.) 2010. Women in the Middle East and North Africa: Agents of Changes. New York: Routledge.
Saliba G. 2007. Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Salloum H. 2003. ‘Women in the United Arab Emirates’, Contemporary Review, 283(1651): 101–118.
Sandberg S. 2013. Lean In: Women, Work and the Will to Lead. New York: Alfred Knopf.
Sassoon J. 2004. Princess: The True Story of Life Inside Saudi Arabia’s Royal Family. London: Bantam Books.
Schlosser J. 2002. ‘Why women should rule the world’, Fortune, 28 October, 70–71.
Schutz A. 1966. Collected Papers: The Problems of Social Reality. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Schwartz E. 1976. ‘Entrepreneurship: a new female frontier’, Journal of Contemporary Business, 5(1): 47–76.
Segal A. 1996. ‘Why does the Muslim world lag in science?’ The Middle East Quarterly, June, 3(2): 61–70.
Sfakianakis J. 2014. ‘How can SME growth in the kingdom be unlocked?’ Arab News, 9 June, accessed 13 August 2014 from www.arabnews.com/news/583846.
Shallal M. 2011. ‘Job satisfaction among women in the United Arab Emirates’, Journal of International Women’s Studies, 12(3): 114–133.
Sidani Y. 2005. ‘Women, work and Islam in Arab societies’, Women in Management Review, 20(7): 498–512.
Simard C., Davies-Henderson A., Gilmartin S., Schiebinger L. and Whitney T. 2005. Climbing the Technical Ladder: Obstacles and Solutions for Mid-Level Women in Technology. Palo Alto, CA: Anita Borg Institute.
Simmons M. 2005. Twilight in the Desert: the Coming Saudi Oil Shock and the World Economy. London: John Wiley and Sons.
Simmons M. 1996. New Leadership for Women and Men: Building an Inclusive Organisation. Aldershot: Gower.
Simms B., Axworthy M. and Milton P. 2016. ‘Ending the new Thirty Years War. Why the real history of the Peace of Westphalia in 17th century Europe offers a model for bringing stability to the Middle East’, New Statesman, 22–28 January: 23–27.
Sinclair A. 1998. Doing Leadership Differently: Gender, Power and Sexuality in a Changing Business Culture. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
Sinclair A. and Wilson C. 2002. New Faces of Leadership. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
Skeet I. 1992. Oman: Politics and Development. London: Macmillan.
Skoko H., Wright N. and Santa R. 2010. ‘State of entrepreneurship activities in Saudi Arabia’, GEM Consortium, the Centennial Fund, the National Entrepreneurship Centre and the College of Business, Al Faisal University, Riyadh.
Smedley T. 2014. ‘The evidence is growing – there really is a business case for diversity’, Financial Times: The Inclusive Workplace, 15 May: 2–3.
Soffan L. 1980. The Women of the United Arab Emirates. New York: Harper and Row.
Sonbol A. 2009. ‘Religion and women’s rights’, in Dubai Women Establishment Arab Women: Leadership Outlook 2009–2011, pp. 95–96.
Stark R. 2014. How the West Won: The Neglected Story of the Triumph of Modernity. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books.
Steinhauer J. 2013. ‘Seven women on Senate panel step to the fore: on sexual assault issues they take lead on Senate Armed Services Committee’, International Herald and Tribune, 3 June.
Stewart C. 2002. ‘It’s Amanda’s world’, The Weekend Australian, 1–2 July.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 2016. ‘Military spending and arms procurement in the Middle East’, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, accessed 28 January 2016 from www.sipri.org/publications/test/trends/gulf.
Tainter J. 2006. The Collapse of Complex Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Talei R. 2010. ‘Oman’, in S. Kelly and J. Breslin (eds.) Women’s Rights in the Middle East: Progress Amidst Resistance, pp. 337–358.
Teerlink R. and Ozley L. 2000. More than a Motorcycle: The Leadership Journey at Harley-Davidson. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Telhami S. 2013. The World through Arab Eyes. New York: Basic Books.
The Economist 2016a. ‘Low and behold. Another year of low prices will create strains in the world economy’, The Economist, 2 January: 9–10.
The Economist 2016b. ‘The Saudi blueprint. The desert kingdom is striving to dominate the region and modernise its economy at the same time’, The Economist, 9 January: 7–8.
The Economist 2016c. ‘Young prince in a hurry. Muhammad bin Salman gambles on intervention abroad and radical economic change at home. But forget about democracy’, The Economist, 9 January: 16–18.
The Economist 2016d. ‘Saudi Aramco. Sale of the century?’ The Economist, 9 January: 18–19.
The Economist 2016e. ‘The Arab winter. Five years after a wave of uprisings, the Arab world is worse off than ever. But, its people understand their predicament better’, The Economist, 9 January: 9–10.
The Economist 2016f. ‘Saudi Arabia’s financial hub: castles in the air. If you build it they may not come’, The Economist, 9 February: 40.
The Economist 2016g. ‘Women in Saudi Arabia. One step forward, one step back’, The Economist, 12 March: 45.
The Economist 2016h. ‘A proper reckoning. Feminist economics deserves recognition as a distinct branch of the discipline’, The Economist, 12 March: 72.
The Economist 2016i. ‘Oil and the Gulf states: after the party’, The Economist, 26 March: 43–44.
The Economist 2016j. ‘The new oil order. An impetuous prince is rattling the Middle East, but may also bring bold reform’, The Economist, 23 April: 12.
The Economist 2016k. ‘Saudi Arabia’s post-oil future: bold promises from a young prince. But they will be hard to keep’, The Economist, 30 April: 40–41.
The Economist 2016l. ‘The war within. Europe and America made mistakes, but the misery of the Arab world is caused mainly by its own failures’, The Economist, 14 May: 9–10.
The Economist 2016m. ‘Special report: the Arab world’, The Economist, 14 May.
The Economist 2016n. ‘Innovation in the Arab world. From zero to not much more’, The Economist, 4 June: 42.
The Economist 2015a. ‘Political rights in the Gulf: creeping consultation. Gulf citizens are getting more chances to votes’, The Economist, 12 September: 48–49.
The Economist 2015b. ‘The other Arab spring. Entrepreneurs in the Arab world are leaping into action’, The Economist, 11 August: 58.
The Economist 2015c. ‘Beware of sandstorms. The Middle East is a reminder to business of globalisation’s limits’, The Economist, 20 June: 64.
The Economist 2015d. ‘Saudi Arabia’s gerontocracy: ail the king. Generational change looms’, The Economist, 10 January: 41.
The Economist 2015e. ‘Rise of the gulf: soaring ambition. Economic and political influence are shifting to the Gulf. Can it last?’ The Economist, 10 January: 42.
The Economist 2015f. ‘Tax in the Gulf: filling a hole. Oil-rich states need to find new ways to balance their budgets’, The Economist, 10 January: 61–62.
The Economist 2015g. ‘America’s Amazons. The law now makes women more or less equal in the armed forces. But, how much can they really do?’ The Economist, 16 May: 35–36.
The Economist 2014a. ‘The tragedy of the Arabs. A civilisation that used to lead the world is in ruins – and only the locals can rebuild it’, The Economist, 5 July: 9–10.
The Economist 2014b. ‘Tethered by history. The failures of the Arab spring were a long time in the making’, The Economist, 5 July: 21–23.
The Economist 2013a. ‘Special report: the Arab Spring’, The Economist, 13 July.
The Economist 2013b. ‘Islam and science. The road to renewal’, The Economist, 26 January: 50–51.
The Economist 2012. ‘Waving a big stick. Quotas for women on boards in the European Union are moving a little closer’, The Economist, 10 March: 65.
The Economist 2009. ‘A second life. Abu Dhabi rescues Dubai after all’, The Economist, 19 December: 119–120.
The Economist 2002. ‘Self-doomed to failure. An unsparing new report by Arab scholars explains why their region lags behind much of the world’, The Economist, 6 July: 24–26.
The Financial Forecast Centre 2015. ‘Crude oil price forecast 2015–2016’, The Financial Forecast Centre, accessed 8 February 2016 from www.forecasts.org/oil.htm.
The Koran 2003 (eleventh edition). Penguin Classics Series. London: Penguin Books.
The Week Oman 2014a. ‘Omani women play larger roles in public and private sectors’, The Week Oman, 13 March, Issue 572: 4.
The Week Oman 2014b. ‘Taste of sweet success: Etab al Zadjali has high hopes for Oman entrepreneurs’, The Week Oman, 13 March, Issue 572: 10.
The Work-Life Research Centre 2000. The Work-Life Manual: Gaining a Competitive Edge by Balancing the Demands of Employees’ Work and Home Lives. London: The Industrial Society.
Thomas D. 2004. ‘Diversity as Strategy’, Harvard Business Review, September: 98–108.
Tucker J. 2008. Women, Family and Gender in Islamic Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ulrichsen K. 2011. Insecure Gulf: The End of Certainty and the Transition to the Post-Oil Era. London: Hurst.
United Arab Emirates Government 2014. ‘Vision 2021’, Government of the United Arab Emirates, accessed 6 March 2015 from www.vision2021.ae/en. United Nations 2016. ‘United Nations human development report 2015: statistical tables’, United Nations, accessed 2 January 2016 from http://hdr.undp.org/en.
Vassiliev A. 1998. The History of Saudi Arabia. London: Saqi.
Vigen T. 2015. Spurious Correlations: Correlation Does Not Equal Causation. New York: Hachette Books.
Wadud A. 2006. Inside the Gender Jihad: Women’s Reform in Islam. Oxford: One World Publications.
Walker J. Butler S., Schulte-Peevers A. and Shearer I. 2010. Oman, UAE and the Arabian Peninsula. London: Lonely Planet Publications.
Walters T., Walters L. and Barwind J. 2010. ‘Tertiary education in the Arabian Gulf: a colossal wreck, remaining boundless and bare?’, in The Middle East Institute Higher Education and the Middle East: Serving the Knowledge – Based Economy, pp. 18–20.
Weber M. 1949. The Methodology of the Social Sciences. London: Allen and Unwin.
Wenar L. 2016. Blood Oil: Tyrants, Violence and the Rules That Run the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Weston M. 2008. Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammed to the Present. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
White B., Cox C. and Cooper C. 1994. Women’s Career Development: A Study of High Flyers. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wikan U. 1982. Behind the Veil in Arabia: Women in Oman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilson F. 1995. Organisational Behavior and Gender. London: McGraw-Hill.
Wittenburg-Cox A. and Maitland A. 2008. Why Women Mean Business: Understanding the Emergence of Our Next Economic Revolution. London: Jossey-Bass.
Wright R. 2009. The Evolution of God. London: Little, Brown and Company.
Yamani M. 2008. Polygamy and Law in Contemporary Saudi Arabia. Reading, UK: Ithaca.
Yang J. 2006. ‘Pepsi’s diversity push pays off’, Fortune, 4 September: 20.
Yang N. 2005. ‘Individualism-collectivism and work-family interface: a Sino-US comparison’, in S. Poelmans (ed.) Work and Family: An International Research Perspective, pp. 287–319.
Yaseen Z. 2013. ‘Women entrepreneurs: challenges and opportunities in the Arab world, UAE case’, Business and Entrepreneurship Journal, 2(1), 43–48.
Yousef D. 2010. ‘Industry ventures get low priority: high start-up costs and lack of technology limit Emirati participation’, Gulf News (Business Section), 14 July.
Zackowitz M. 2003. ‘Harley’s mid-life crisis’, National Geographic, August: 4–5.
Zakaria F. 2004. The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad. London: W. W. Norton and Company Ltd.
Zewail A. 2011. ‘A scientific revolution: the Arab Spring puts the Middle East in a position to become a scientific powerhouse, but it needs help from the west’, New Scientist, 23 April: 26.