Skip to main content
×
×
Home
Realism and Democracy
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Realism and Democracy
    • Online ISBN: 9781108234894
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108234894
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

America is turning away from support for democrats in Arab countries in favor of 'pragmatic' deals with tyrants to defeat violent Islamist extremism. For too many policymakers, Arab democracy is seen as a dangerous luxury. In Realism and Democracy, Elliott Abrams marshals four decades of experience as an American official and leading Middle East expert and shows that deals with tyrants will not work. Islamism is an idea that can only be defeated by a better idea: democracy. Through a careful analysis of America's record of democracy promotion in the region and beyond, from the Cold War to the Obama years, Abrams proves that repression helps Islamists beat democrats, while political openings offer moderates and liberals a chance. This book makes a powerful argument for an American foreign policy that combines practical politics and idealism and refuses to abandon those struggling for democracy and human rights in the Arab world.

Reviews

'Elliott Abrams has done the country another important service. This outstanding book reminds us that the enduring power of America is that, at our best, we see our interests as our values, and our values as our interests. Now more than ever, Americans and their leaders need to understand that support for human rights has been, and should remain, a key pillar of US foreign policy. This book could not be more timely or more significant.'

Senator John McCain - United States Congress

'Elliott Abrams gives us a brilliant review of the fight for freedom, showing with clarity what works and what does not. But even more, he highlights the possibilities for progress that may be gained from a determined, long-term strategy advocating democracy and human rights.'

The Honorable George P. Shultz - Hoover Institution, Stanford University

'A powerful and persuasive argument that realism as well as American ideals should lead us to support the struggle for freedom.'

Joseph Lieberman - former US Senator from Connecticut, Senior Counsel, Kasowitz, Benson, and Torres

'Since the 1980s, no US official has done more to advance the cause of democracy and human rights than Elliott Abrams. Here bringing his vast experience to bear on American policy in the Middle East, he makes a powerful, pragmatic case for promoting democratic reform in Egypt and other Arab autocracies. Sure to be controversial in the best sense - his arguments cannot be ignored.'

Robert Kagan - Senior Fellow, Brookings Institute, author of The World America Made

'America's greatest asset in world politics is its association with freedom. Elliott Abrams brings unique experience as an American official who understood the power of freedom - and realized that an American strategy to advance democracy advances American interests. Here he explains how men like Scoop Jackson, George Shultz, and Ronald Reagan worked to support liberty and democracy - and how to build on their legacy today, including in the Arab world. Every official in the State Department should be required to read this book.'

Natan Sharansky - Chairman of the Jewish Agency, human rights activist and former political prisoner in the Soviet Union

'(Abrams) has written a study of idealism vs. realism in American foreign policy from the Cold War through the end of the Obama years. The book is also, more specifically and more pointedly, a summary of the current debate over the proper role of democracy-building in US policy in the Middle East … Mr Trump should read.'

Source: The Wall Street Journal

'In the fascinating introduction to this book, Abrams traces his intellectual development and explores the roots of his worldview … Abrams forcefully rejects the argument that the so-called war on terror compels Washington to countenance Arab autocracies that join in the fight.'

Source: Foreign Affairs

'What makes especially edifying anything that Elliott Abrams writes on foreign policy - in addition to his insight, intellect, and wit - is that thanks to his Democrat-turned-Republican political pedigree, he has been involved in almost all of these fierce debates since the early 1970s … His account reflects an insider’s sensitivity, nuance, and appreciation of the human motivations that drove leaders at critical moments … Despite his career as a bare-knuckled activist, Abrams’ history of human rights and democracy in modern American foreign policy is rigorously analytical and passionately dispassionate: a true tour de force.'

Source: Mosaic Magazine

'Elliott Abrams makes a powerful argument.'

Source: Jewish Press

'Both a useful assessment of Arab Spring and what came next, and an insightful commentary on the nature of a world power and those who serve it.'

Source: Jerusalem Post

'A convincing case not only that democracy can succeed in Arab nations, but also that the United States has a crucial role to play in making that happen.'

Source: Atlanta Jewish Times

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
“The 1992 Campaign; Excerpts from Speech by Clinton on U.S. Role.” New York Times, October 2, 1992. www.nytimes.com/1992/10/02/us/the-1992-campaign-excerpts-from-speech-by-clinton-on-us-role.html.
“2015 Edelman Trust Barometer.” Edelman, January 15, 2016. www.slideshare.net/EdelmanInsights/2015-edelman-trust-barometer-global-results.
Abadie Alberto. “Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism.” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 10859, May 2006, http://www.nber.org/papers/w10859.pdf.
Abaza Khairi. Political Islam and Regime Survival in Egypt. Washington, DC: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2006. www.washingtoninstitute.org/html/pdf/PolicyFocus51.pdf.
Abramowitz Michael. “Olympics Notwithstanding, Trip Won't Be All Fun and Games.” Washington Post, August 8, 2008. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/03/AR2008080301785.html.
Abrams Elliott. “Is ‘Insulting the President’ or Converting to Christianity a Crime?” Pressure Points, January 23, 2013. http://blogs.cfr.org/abrams/2013/01/23/is-insulting-the-president-or-converting-to-christianity-a-crime/.
Abrams Elliott. “The Gringos Are with Us.” Commentary Magazine, April 2013.
Abrams Elliott. Security and Sacrifice: Isolation, Intervention, and American Foreign Policy. Indianapolis: Hudson Institute, 1995.
Abrams Elliott. “Sissi Is No Pinochet.” Washington Post, April 24, 2015, www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/hes-no-pinochet/2015/04/24/8c8d642e-e212–11e4–905f-cc896d379a32_story.html.
Abrams Elliott. Tested by Zion: The Bush Administration and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Acemoglu Daron, and Robinson James A.. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Crown Publishing, 2012.
Adesnik A. David, and Kim Sunhyuk. “South Korea: The Puzzle of Two Transitions.” In Transitions to Democracy: A Comparative Perspective, edited by Stoner Kathryn and McFaul Michael, 266289. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.
Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies. “The ACRPS Announces the Results of the 2012/2013 Arab Opinion Index.” June 13, 2013. Doha, Qatar.
Arabic Network for Human Rights Information. “The Crime of Insulting the President: A Crime of an Authoritarian Regime.” January 20, 2013. http://bit.ly/1NlEZrz.
Arango Tim. “Prospect of Instability Looms as Turkish Voters Deny Erdogan a Majority.” New York Times, June 8, 2015. www.nytimes.com/2015/06/09/world/europe/in-turkish-election-a-foe-recep-erdogan-could-not-beat-voter-fatigue.html?_r=0.
Bangura Abdul Karim. Stakes in Africa-United States Cooperation: Proposals for Equitable Partnership. New York: African Institution, 2007.
Barkan Joel D.U.S. Human Rights Policy and Democratization in Kenya.” In Implementing U.S. Human Rights Policy: Agendas, Policies, and Practices, edited by Liang-Fenton Debra, 5184. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2004.
Ben-Dor Gabriel. “Prospects of Democratization in the Arab World: Global Diffusion, Regional Demonstration, and Domestic Imperatives.” In Democratization in the Arab World: Vol. 1, Theoretical Perspectives, edited by Brynen Rex, Korany Bahgat, and Noble Paul, 307332. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1995.
Berke Matthew. “The Disputed Legacy of Reinhold Niebuhr.” First Things, November 1992. www.firstthings.com/article/1992/11/004-the-disputed-legacy-of-reinhold-niebuhr.
Bloomfield Lincoln. “From Ideology to Program to Policy: Tracking the Carter Human Rights Policy.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 2, (Autumn 1982): 112. www.jstor.org/stable/3323646?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
Boduszyński Mieczyslaw P., Fabbe Kristin, and Lamont Christopher. “After the Arab Spring: Are Secular Parties the Answer?” Journal of Democracy 26, no. 4 (2015): 125139. www.journalofdemocracy.org/article/after-arab-spring-are-secular-parties-answer.
Brands Hal. Making the Unipolar Moment. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2016.
Brooke Steven. The Muslim Brotherhood's Social Outreach after the Egyptian Coup. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2015. www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Egypt_Brooke-FINALE-2.pdf.
Brownlee Jason. Democracy Prevention: The Politics of the U.S.–Egyptian Alliance. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Brownlee Jason, Masoud Tarek, and Reynolds Andrew. The Arab Spring. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Brownlee Jason, Masoud Tarek, and Reynolds Andrew. “Tracking the ‘Arab Spring:’ Why the Modest Harvest?” Journal of Democracy 24, no. 4 (2013): 2944. www.journalofdemocracy.org/article/tracking-arab-spring-why-modest-harvest.
Buckley William F., Jr. “Human Rights and Foreign Policy: A Proposal.” Foreign Affairs 58 (Spring 1980). www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1980–03–01/human-rights-and-foreign-policy-proposal.
Burks Edward C. “Moynihan: How He Won His Senate Spurs.” New York Times, April 5, 1977. www.nytimes.com/1977/04/05/archives/moynihan-how-he-won-his-senate-spurs-initiation-of-senator-moynihan.html.4
Burwell Frances, Greenfield Danya, and Hawthorne Amy. A Transatlantic Approach to the Arab World. Washington, DC: Atlantic Council, 2015.
Bush George W. In discussion with the author, November 7, 2016. Transcript. Offices of President George W. Bush. Dallas.
Bush George W. “Address before a Joint Session of the Congress on the United States Response to the Terrorist Attacks of September 11.” September 20, 2001. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=64731&st=&st1=.
Bush George W. “President Bush Calls for New Palestinian Leadership.” June 24, 2002. Transcript. George W. Bush Presidential Library, National Archives. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/06/20020624–3.html.
Bush George W. “President George W. Bush Speaks at AEI’s Annual Dinner.” February 28, 2003. Transcript. American Enterprise Institute. www.aei.org/publication/president-george-w-bush-speaks-at-aeis-annual-dinner/.
Bush George W. “Remarks by President George W. Bush at the Twentieth Anniversary of the National Endowment for Democracy.” November 6, 2003. Transcript. National Endowment for Democracy. www.ned.org/remarks-by-president-george-w-bush-at-the-20th-anniversary/.
Bush George W. “State of the Union Address.” January 29, 2002. Transcript. George W. Bush Presidential Library, National Archives. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020129–11.html.
Bush George W. “State of the Union Address.” January 23, 2007. Transcript. George W. Bush Presidential Library, National Archives. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/01/20070123–2.html.
Bush George W. “State of the Union Address.” January 28, 2008. Transcript. George W. Bush Presidential Library, National Archives. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2008/01/20080128–13.html.
Bush Sarah. “Confront or Conform? Rethinking U.S. Democracy Assistance.” POMED Policy Brief (2013). http://pomed.org/pomed/new-pomed-policy-brief-confront-or-conform-rethinking-u-s-democracy-assistance/.
Bush Sarah. “Forms of International Pressure and the Middle East.” Project on Middle East Political Science, August 21, 2015. http://pomeps.org/2015/08/21/forms-of-international-pressure-and-the-middle-east/.
Bush Sarah. The Taming of Democracy Assistance: Why Democracy Promotion Does Not Confront Dictators. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Bush Sarah, and Jamal Amaney. “Anti-Americanism, Authoritarianism, and Attitudes about Women in Politics: Evidence from a Survey Experiment in Jordan.” Paper presented at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Middle East Studies Association, Washington, DC, December 2011.
Byman Daniel. “After the Hope of the Arab Spring, the Chill of an Arab Winter.” Washington Post, December 1, 2011. www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/after-the-hope-of-the-arab-spring-the-chill-of-an-arab-winter/2011/11/28/gIQABGqHIO_story.html.
Cammett Melani. “Development and Underdevelopment in the Middle East and North Africa.” In Oxford Handbook of Development, edited by Lancaster Carol and van de Walle Nicholas. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Cammett Melani, and Luong Pauline Jones. “Is There an ‘Islamist Political Advantage’?” Annual Review of Political Science 17 (2014): 187206. www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-polisci-071112–221207.
Carothers Thomas. Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1999.
Carothers Thomas. The Closing Space Challenge: How Are Funders Responding? Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2015. http://carnegieendowment.org/files/CP_258_Carothers_Closing_Space_Final.pdf.
Carothers Thomas. Critical Mission: Essays on Democracy Promotion. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2004.
Carothers Thomas. “Democracy Aid at 25: A Time to Choose,” Journal of Democracy 26, no. 1 (2015): 5973. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/565639/pdf.
Carothers Thomas. Democracy Policy under Obama: Revitalization or Retreat? Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2012. http://carnegieendowment.org/files/democracy_under_obama.pdf.
Carothers Thomas. “Is Gradualism Possible? Choosing a Strategy for Promoting Democracy in the Middle East.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Democracy and Rule of Law Project 39 (2003). http://carnegieendowment.org/files/wp39.pdf.
Carothers Thomas. “Why Is the United States Shortchanging Its Commitment to Democracy?” Washington Post, December 22, 2014. www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/falling-usaid-spending-shows-a-lack-of-commitment-to-fostering-democracy/2014/12/22/86b72d58–89f4–11e4-a085–34e9b9f09a58_story.html?wpisrc=nl_opin&wpmm=1.
Carothers Thomas, and Brechenmacher Saskia. Closing Space: Democracy and Human Rights Support under Fire. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2014. http://carnegieendowment.org/files/closing_space.pdf.
“Carter in Warsaw, Starting 9-Day Tour.” New York Times, December 30, 1977. www.nytimes.com/1977/12/30/archives/new-jersey-pages-carter-in-warsaw-starting-9day-tour-says-old.html.
Carter Jimmy. “Address at Commencement Exercises at University of Notre Dame.” May 22, 1977. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa-Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=7552.
Carter Jimmy. “Inaugural Address.” January 20, 1977. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=6575.
Carter Jimmy. “The President's News Conference.” June 13, 1977. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=7670.
Carter Jimmy. “The President's News Conference.” March 24, 1977. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=7229.
Carter Jimmy. “Visit of President Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, Remarks at the Welcoming Ceremony.” March 7, 1978. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=30462.
Carter Jimmy. “Visit of President Nicolae Ceausescu of Romania, Remarks at the Welcoming Ceremony.” April 12, 1978. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=30655.
Carter Jimmy, and Pahlavi Reza. “Tehran, Iran, Toasts of the President and the Shah at a State Dinner.” December 31, 1977. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=7080.
Cesari Jocelyne. The Awakening of Muslim Democracy: Religion, Modernity, and the State. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Chayes Sarah. How a Leftist Labor Union Helped Force Tunisia's Political Settlement. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2014. http://carnegieendowment.org/2014/03/27/how-leftist-labor-union-helped-force-tunisia-s-political-settlement.
Christian Shirley. Nicaragua: Revolution in the Family. New York: Random House, 1985.
“Clinton: Chinese Human Rights Can't Interfere with Other Crises.” CNN, February 21, 2009. www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/02/21/clinton.china.asia/?iref=nextin.
Clinton Hillary Rodham. “Remarks on Development in the 21st Century.” January 6, 2010. Transcript. U.S. Department of State. www.state.gov/secretary/20092013clinton/rm/2010/01/134838.htm.
CNN Wire Staff. “Muslim Brotherhood: ‘We Are Not Seeking Power.’” CNN, February 10, 2011. www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/02/09/egypt.muslim.brotherhood/.
Coleman Isobel, and Lawson-Remer Terra, eds. Pathways to Freedom: Political and Economic Lessons from Democratic Transitions. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 2013.
“Condi Rice Talks Freedom, War, Working for Bush.” Author Interviews. NPR, November 2, 2011. www.npr.org/2011/11/02/141931702/condi-rice-talks-freedom-war-working-for-bush.
Croft-Cusworth Catriona. “Indonesia's Election: Surprise Success for Islamic Parties.” The Interpreter, April 18, 2014. www.lowyinterpreter.org/post/2014/04/18/Indonesias-election-Surprise-success-for-Islamic-parties.aspx?COLLCC=3609281719&.
Cruickshank Paul. “Why Arab Spring Could Be al Qaeda's Fall.” CNN.com, February 21, 2011. www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/meast/02/21/arab.unrest.alqaeda.analysis/
Daalder Ivo. “Decision to Intervene: How the War in Bosnia Ended.” Brookings Institution, December 1, 1998. www.brookings.edu/articles/decision-to-intervene-how-the-war-in-bosnia-ended/.
Derian Patricia. “Secret Memorandum from Assistant Secretary of State Patricia Derian to Acting Secretary Warren Christopher.” June 18, 1979. In A Twilight Struggle: American Power and Nicaragua, 1977–1990 by Kagan Robert, 746. New York: Free Press, 1996.
Devarajan Shantayanan, et al.Inequality, Uprisings, and Conflict in the Arab World.” Middle East and North Africa Economic Monitor. Washington, DC: World Bank Group, October 2015. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/303441467992017147/pdf/99989-REVISED-Box_393220B-OUO-9-MEM-Fall-2015-FINAL-Oct-13–2015.pdf.
deYoung Karen. “Newly Declassified Papers Reveal U.S. Tensions regarding Argentina's ‘Dirty War.’” Washington Post, August 8, 2016. www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/newly-declassified-papers-reveal-us-tensions-regarding-argentinas-dirty-war/2016/08/08/4227fbee-5db1–11e6-af8e-54aa2e849447_story.html.
Diamond Larry. “From Activism to Democracy.” In Taking to the Streets: The Transformation of Arab Activism, edited by Khatib Lina and Lust Ellen, 322334. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.
Diamond Larry. The Spirit of Democracy: The Struggle to Build Free Societies throughout the World. New York: Holt Paperbacks, 2008.
Diamond Larry and Plattner Marc F. (eds.). Democratization and Authoritarianism in the Arab World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.
Dobson William J. The Dictator's Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy. New York: Doubleday, 2012.
Dunne Michele. “Caught in History's Crossroads.” Journal of Democracy 26, no. 4 (2015): 7579.
Dunne Michele. “Evaluating Egyptian Reform.” Carnegie Papers 66 (2006). http://carnegieendowment.org/files/CP66.Dunne.FINAL.pdf.
Dunne Michele, Hamzawy Amr, and Brown Nathan, “Egypt – Don't Give up on Democracy Promotion.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Policy Brief 52 (2007).
Dunne Michele and Kagan Robert. “Obama Needs to Support Egyptians as Well as Mubarak.” Washington Post, June 4, 2010. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/06/03/AR2010060303935.html
Editorial. “Mr. Reagan's Human Rights Conversion.” New York Times, December 10, 1988. www.nytimes.com/1988/12/10/opinion/mr-reagan-s-human-rights-conversion.html.
“Excerpts from Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig's News Conference.” New York Times, January 28, 1981. www.nytimes.com/1981/01/29/world/excerpts-from-haig-s-remarks-at-first-news-conference-as-secretary-of.html?pagewanted=all.
Farr Thomas F. World of Faith and Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Fayed Ammar. “Is the Crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood Pushing the Group toward Violence?” Brookings Institution, March 2016, www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2016/03/muslim-brotherhood-crackdown-violence-fayed.
Filali-Ansary Abdou. “The Languages of the Arab Revolutions.” Journal of Democracy 23, no. 2 (2012): 518. www.journalofdemocracy.org/sites/default/files/Filali-23–2.pdf.
Freer Courtney. The Rise of Pragmatic Islamism in Kuwait's Post-Arab Spring Opposition Movement. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, August 2015. www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Kuwait_Freer-FINALE.pdf.
Fukuyama Francis. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free Press, 1992.
Garfinkle Aram. “How to Think about the Middle East before the ‘Arab Spring’ – and After.” FootNotes (2013). www.fpri.org/articles/2013/11/how-think-about-middle-east-arab-spring-and-after
“George H. W. Bush: Foreign Affairs.” Miller Center, University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/president/biography/bush-foreign-affairs.
“George W. Bush’s Statement on the Middle East.” New York Times, April 2, 2002. www.nytimes.com/2002/04/04/international/bushs-statement-on-the-middle-east.html.
Gerges Fawaz A. The End of America's Moment? Obama and the Middle East. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
Ghalioun Burhan and Costopoulos Philip J.. “The Persistence of Arab Authoritarianism.” Journal of Democracy 15, no. 4 (2004): 126132. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/174001/pdf.
Ghannouchi Rachid. “Tunisia's New Political Order.” Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, DC, February 24, 2014. www.wilsoncenter.org/article/ghannouchi-tunisias-new-political-order.
Gleditsch Kristian Skrede and Ward Michael D.. “Diffusion and the International Context of Democratization.” International Organization 60.4 (2006): 911933.
Morris Gouverneur. The Diary and Letters of Gouverneur Morris: Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1888.
Grand Stephen R. Understanding Tahrir Square: What Transitions Elsewhere Can Teach Us about the Prospects for Arab Democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2014.
Guéhenno Jean-Marie. “The Arab Spring Is 2011, Not 1989.” New York Times, April 21, 2011. www.nytimes.com/2011/04/22/opinion/22iht-edguehenno22.html?_r=0.
Guest Iain. Behind the Disappearances: Argentina's Dirty War against Human Rights and the United Nations. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.
Hamid Shadi. Islamic Exceptionalism: How the Struggle Over Islam Is Reshaping the World. New York: Macmillan, 2016.
Hamid Shadi. “Political Party Development before and after the Arab Spring,” in Beyond the Arab Spring: The Evolving Ruling Bargain in the Middle East, edited by Kamrava Mehran, 131150. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Hamid Shadi. “The Rise of the Islamists.” Foreign Affairs 90, no. 3 (2011): 4047.
Hamid Shadi. Temptations of Power: Islamists and Illiberal Democracy in a New Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Hamid Shadi and Brooke Steven, “Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,” Policy Review, Hoover Institution, February and March 2010, www.hoover.org/research/promoting-democracy-stop-terror-revisited
Haring Melinda. “Can Washington Stop Doing Dumb Democracy Promotion, Please?” Foreign Policy, December 15, 2015. http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/12/15/can-washington-stop-doing-dumb-democracy-promotion-please-usaid/.
Hartmann Hauke. “US Human Rights Policy under Carter and Reagan, 1977–1981.” Human Rights Quarterly 23.2 (May 2001): 402430. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/13768.
Henderson Simon. “Fighting al-Qaeda: The Role of Yemen's President Saleh,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, January 7, 2010, www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/fighting-al-qaeda-the-role-of-yemens-president-saleh.
Henderson Simon. “Royal Rivalry: Bahrain's Ruling Family and the Island's Political Crisis.” Policywatch 2198. Washington Institute for Near East Policy, January 24, 2014.
Hertzke Alan D. Freeing God's Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.
Hof Frederic C.A Bad Defense for a Mistaken Policy.” Syria Source. Atlantic Council, August 29, 2016. www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/syriasource/a-bad-defense-for-a-mistaken-policy.
Huntington Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2007.
Ibrahim Saad Eddin. “Toward Muslim Democracies.” Journal of Democracy 18 (2007): 513.
Inbar Efraim. “The European Peace Offensive.” Israel Hayom, June 1, 2015, www.israelhayom.com/site/newsletter_opinion.php?id=12739.
Inglehart Ronald and Welzel Christian. “Changing Mass Priorities: The Link between Modernization and Democracy.” Perspectives on Politics 8, no. 2 (2010): 551567. www.jstor.org/stable/25698618.
Inglehart Ronald and Welzel Christian. “Islam in a Changing Middle East: Islamist Social Services.” Project on Middle East Political Science 9 (2014). http://pomeps.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/POMEPS_Studies_9_SocialServices_web.pdf.
Jacoby Tamar. “The Reagan Turnaround on Human Rights.” Foreign Affairs 64 (Summer 1986): 10651086. www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1986–06–01/reagan-turnaround-human-rights.
Jamal Amaney and Tessler Mark. “Measuring Support for Democracy in the Arab World and across the Globe,” Arab Barometer, arabbarometer.org/sites/default/files/files/measuringsupport.pdf.
Johnsen Gregory. “The Election Yemen Was Supposed to Have.” Middle East Research and Information Project, October 3, 2006, www.merip.org/mero/mero100306.
Kagan Robert. “The Weight of Geopolitics,” Journal of Democracy 26, no. 1 (2015): 2131. www.journalofdemocracy.org/article/weight-geopolitics.
Kagan Robert and Dunne Michele. “U.S. Needs to Show Egypt Some Tough Love.” Washington Post, February 20, 2013. www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/time-to-get-tough-with-egypt-and-morsi/2013/02/20/7e1343c6–7aba-11e2–82e8–61a46c2cde3d_print.html.
Kagan Robert and Dunne Michele. “Why Egypt has to be the U.S. Priority in the Middle East.” Washington Post, March 7, 2011. www.brookings.edu/opinions/why-egypt-has-to-be-the-u-s-priority-in-the-middle-east/.
Kagan Robert and Kristol William, eds. Present Dangers: Crisis and Opportunity in American Foreign and Defense Policy. San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2000.
Kaufman Robert G. Henry M. Jackson: A Life in Politics. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000.
Kedourie Elie. Democracy and Arab Political Culture. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1994.
Kennedy John F. “Address at a White House Reception for Members of Congress and for the Diplomatic Corps of the Latin American Republics.” March 13, 1961. Transcript. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. www.jfklibrary.org/Research/Research-Aids/JFK-Speeches/Latin-American-Diplomats-Washington-DC_19610313.aspx.
Kennedy John F. “Address on the first Anniversary of the Alliance for Progress.” March 13, 1962. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=9100.
Khatib Lina and Lust Ellen, eds. Taking to the Streets: The Transformation of Arab Activism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.
Kirkpatrick Jeane J. “Dictatorships and Double Standards, Commentary, November 1, 1979. www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/dictatorships-double-standards
Kirkpatrick Jeane J.Human Rights and Foreign Policy.” In Human Rights and American Foreign Policy, edited by Baumann Fred E., 15. Gambier: Kenyon College, 1982.
Korany Bahgat, Brynen Rex, and Noble Paul, eds. Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Vol. 2, Comparative Experiences. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998.
Korey William. “The Struggle over Jackson-Mills-Vanik.” American Jewish Yearbook 75 (1974–19755): 82. www.bjpa.org/Publications/downloadFile.cfm?FileID=20308.
Kornbluh Peter and Schlotterbeck Marian. “How U.S. President Reagan Broke with Chile's Pinochet.” Santiago Times, November 30, 2010. www.santiagotimes.cl/2010/11/30/how-us-president-reagan-broke-with-chiles-pinochet/.
Kristol Irving. “In Search of Our National Interest.” Wall Street Journal, June 7, 1990. http://search.proquest.com/hnpwallstreetjournal/docview/135463649/FDBAB5EC80204B8EPQ/1?accountid=10986.
Kristol Irving. “Moral Dilemmas' in Foreign Policy.” Wall Street Journal, February 28, 1980. http://search.proquest.com/hnpwallstreetjournal/docview/134428824/B92EDC12A92841CFPQ/1?accountid=10986.
Kristol Irving. “Toward a Moral Foreign Policy.” Wall Street Journal, November 15, 1983. http://search.proquest.com/hnpwallstreetjournal/docview/134793803/5D26C45BA614B39PQ/1?accountid=10986.
Kristol William and Kagan Robert. “Toward a Neo-Reaganite Foreign Policy.” Foreign Affairs 75, (July/August 1996): 1832. www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1996–07–01/toward-neo-reaganite-foreign-policy.
Krueger Alan B. and Maleckova Jitka. “Seeking the Roots of Terrorism.” Chronicle of Higher Education (2003).
Kubba Laith. “Institutions Make the Difference.” Journal of Democracy 19, no. 3 (2008): 3742. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/241796.
Lakoff Sanford A.The Reality of Muslim Exceptionalism.” Journal of Democracy 15, no. 4 (2004): 133139. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/174004/pdf.
Langhor Vickie. “Labor Movements or Organizations,” in The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East, edited by Lynch Marc, 180181. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.
Latimer Matt. “When Bush Caved to Egypt.” Daily Beast, January 30, 2011. www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/01/30/president-bush-pulled-his-punches-on-egypts-mubarak-too.html.
Levitsky Steven and Way Lucan. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Levitsky Steven and Way Lucan. “International Linkage and Democratization.” Journal of Democracy 16, no. 3 (2005): 2034. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/185273.
Lewis Bernard. “Democracy and the Enemies of Freedom.” Wall Street Journal, December 22, 2003. www.wsj.com/articles/SB107205654377356100.
Lewis Bernard. “Free at Last: The Arab World in the Twenty-First Century.” Foreign Affairs 88, no. 2 (2009): 8687. www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/middle-east/2009–03–01/free-last.
Liang-Fenton Debra, ed. Implementing U.S. Human Rights Policy: Agendas, Policies, and Practices. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2004.
Lipset Seymour Martin. “The Social Requisites of Democracy Revisited.” American Sociological Review 59 (1994): 122. www.jstor.org/stable/2096130.
Lipset Seymour Martin. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy.” American Political Science Review 53, no. 1 (1959): 69105. www.jstor.org/stable/1951731.
Lowenthal Abraham F. and Bitar Sergio.Getting to Democracy.” Foreign Affairs 95, no. 1 (2016): 134144. www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2015–12–14/getting-democracy.
Lust Ellen. “Missing the Third Wave: Islam, Institutions, and Democracy in the Middle East.” Studies in Comparative International Development 46, no. 2 (2011): 163190. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12116–011–9086-z.
Lyman Princeton N.Mandela's Legacy at Home and Abroad.” Journal of Democracy 25, no. 2 (2014): 2134. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/542443.
Lynch Marc, ed. The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.
Lynch Marc, “Media, Old and New.” In The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East, edited by Lynch Marc, 93. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.
Magen Amichai. “On Political Order and the ‘Arab Spring.’Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 6, no. 1 (2012): 921. www.ict.org.il/UserFiles/ICTWPS%20-%20Amichai%20Magen%20-%201.pdf.
Marks Monica. “A Response to Sayida Ounissi's ‘Ennahda from Within: Islamists or Muslim Democrats.’” In Rethinking Political Islam. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, June 1, 2016. www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2015/07/rethinking-political-islam/reaction-essays/monicamarks_re2sayidaounissi3.pdf
Marks Monica. “Tunisia's Ennahda: Rethinking Islamism in the Context of ISIS and the Egyptian Coup.” Brookings Institution, August 2015. www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Tunisia_Marks-FINALE-5.pdf.
Masoud Tarek. “Has the Door Closed on Arab Democracy?” Journal of Democracy 26, no. 1 (2015): 7487. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/565640/pdf.
Masoud Tarek. “Islamist Parties and Democracy: Are they Democrats? Does it Matter?” Journal of Democracy 19, no. 3 (2008): 1924. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/241790/pdf.
Masoud Tarek. “Why Do Islamists Provide Services, and What Do Those Services Do?” Project on Middle East Political Science 9. http://pomeps.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/POMEPS_Studies_9_SocialServices_web.pdf.
McCormick Ty. “Unmade in the USA.” Foreign Policy, February 25, 2015. http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/02/25/unmade-in-the-usa-south-sudan-bush-obama/.
McFaul Michael and Fukuyama Francis, “Should Democracy Be Promoted or Demoted?” Washington Quarterly 31, no. 1 (2008), 2345.
McGovern George. “Address Accepting the Presidential Nomination of the Democratic National Convention.” July 14, 1972. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=25967.
Mecham Quinn. “Islamist Movements.” In The Arab Uprisings Explained, edited by Lynch Marc, 201217. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.
Memorandum of Conversation. “Cabinet Meeting.” February 21, 1974. National Security Adviser's Memoranda of Conversations, 1973–1977. Box 3. Gerald R. Ford Library. http://fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/document/memcons/1552663.pdf.
Memorandum of Conversation. “Cabinet Meeting: Briefing on Middle East.” March 8, 1974. National Security Adviser's Memoranda of Conversations, 1973–1977. Box 3. Gerald R. Ford Library. http://fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/document/0314/1552668.pdf.
Morley Morris and McGillion Chris. Reagan and Pinochet: The Struggle over US Policy toward Chile. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Morris Anne Cary, ed. The Diary and Letters of Gouverneur Morris: Minister of the United States to France; Member of the Constitutional Convention, etc. vol. I. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1888.
Moynihan Daniel P. “The United States in Opposition.” Commentary, March 1975. www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/the-united-states-in-opposition/.
Muasher Marwan. The Second Arab Awakening and the Battle for Pluralism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014.
Nagourney Adam. “In Tapes, Nixon Rails against Jews and Blacks.” New York Times, December 10, 2010. www.nytimes.com/2010/12/11/us/politics/11nixon.html?_r=0.
Nathan Andrew. “China since Tiananmen: Authoritarian Impermanence.” Journal of Democracy 20, no. 3 (2009): 3740. www.journalofdemocracy.org/sites/default/files/Nathan-20–3.pdf.
Neuman Scott. “Clinton Aides Weighed Fallout of Calling Rwanda Killing ‘Genocide.’” National Public Radio, August 31, 2016. www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2014/06/06/319563918/clinton-aides-mulled-fallout-of-calling-rwanda-killing-genocide.
Newhouse John. War and Peace in the Nuclear Age. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989.
O'Connell Jamie. “Common Interests, Closer Allies: How Democracy in Arab States Can Benefit the West.” Stanford Journal of International Law 48, no. 2 (2012): 341404. www.law.berkeley.edu/php-programs/faculty/facultyPubsPDF.php?facID=5697&pubID=6.
“October 28, 1980 Debate Transcript.” October 28, 1980. Transcript. Commission on Presidential Debates. www.debates.org/index.php?page=october-28–1980-debate-transcript.
“October 21, 1984 Debate Transcript.” October 21, 1984. Transcript. Commission on Presidential Debates. www.debates.org/index.php?page=october-21–1984-debate-transcript.
“October 11, 2000 Presidential Debate.” October 11, 2000. Transcript. Commission on Presidential Debates. www.debates.org/index.php?page=october-11–2000-debate-transcript.
Office of the Inspector General. Audit of USAID/Egypt's Democracy and Governance Activities. Audit Report No. 6–263–10–001-P, October 27, 2009. Washington, DC: OIG.
Ounissi Sayida. “Ennahda from Within: Islamists or ‘Muslim Democrats?’” In Rethinking Political Islam. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, February 2016. www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2016/03/ennahda-islamists-muslim-democrats-ounissi.
Patel David Siddartha. “The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: Jordanian Islamist Responses to the Arab Spring.” Brookings Institution, August 2015. www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Jordan_Patel-FINALE.pdf.
Ottaway Marina. “Democracy and Constituencies in the Arab World.” Carnegie Papers, Middle East Series, no. 48 (July 2004).
Perkovich George. “Soviet Jewry and American Foreign Policy.” World Policy Journal 5 (Summer 1988): 458. www.jstor.org/stable/40209090.
Pevehouse Jon C.Democracy from the Outside-In? International Organizations and Democratization.” International Organization 56, no. 3 (2002): 515549. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/14326.
Pinto-Duschinsky Michael. “Foreign Political Aid: The German Political Foundations and their US Counterparts.” International Affairs 67, no. 1 (January 1991): 3363.
Pipes Daniel. “Distinguishing between Islam and Islamism.” June 30, 1998. www.danielpipes.org/954/distinguishing-between-islam-and-islamism.
Poindexter John M.Memorandum for John M. Poindexter from Jacqueline Tillman, NSC Meeting on Chile.” November 18, 1986. Cited in Reagan and Pinochet: The Struggle over US Policy toward Chile by Morley Morris and McGillion Chris, 194. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
“President Bush Attends World Economic Forum.” May 18, 2008. Transcript. George W. Bush Presidential Library, National Archives. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2008/05/20080518–6.html.
“President Bush Delivers Remarks in Prague.” Washington Post, June 5, 2007. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/05/AR2007060500647.html.
“President Bush Discusses Freedom in Iraq and Middle East.” Office of the Press Secretary. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/11/20031106–2.html.
“President Bush Meets with President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt.” January 16, 2008. Transcript. George W. Bush Presidential Library, National Archives. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2008/01/20080116–2.html.
“President Bush Visits Prague, Czech Republic, Discusses Freedom.” June 5, 2007. Transcript. George W. Bush Presidential Library, National Archives. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/06/20070605–8.html.
Presidential Directive NSC-30. February 17, 1978. Jimmy Carter Presidential Library. www.jimmycarterlibrary.gov/documents/pddirectives/pd30.pdf.
Ratesh Nestor. “The American Connection.” In Romania, 40 Years (1944–1984), edited by Georgescu Vlad. New York: Praeger, 1985.
Reagan Ronald. “Address to Members of the British Parliament.” June 8, 1982. Transcript. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, National Archives. https://reaganlibrary.archives.gov/archives/speeches/1982/60882a.htm.
Reagan Ronald. “Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evangelicals.” March 8, 1983. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, National Archives. https://reaganlibrary.archives.gov/archives/speeches/1983/30883b.htm.
Reagan Ronald. “Remarks on Central America and El Salvador at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of Manufacturers.” March 10, 1983. Transcript. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, National Archives. https://reaganlibrary.archives.gov/archives/speeches/1983/31083a.htm.
Reagan Ronald. “Remarks on East-West Relations at the Brandenburg Gate.” June 12, 1987. Transcript. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, National Archives. https://reaganlibrary.archives.gov/archives/speeches/1987/061287d.htm.
Remnick David. “The Wandered.” New Yorker, September 18, 2006. www.newyorker.com/magazine/2006/09/18/the-wanderer-3.
Rice Condoleezza. “Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest.” Foreign Affairs (January/February 2000). www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2000–01–01/campaign-2000-promoting-national-interest.
Rice Condoleezza. “Dr. Condoleezza Rice Discusses President's National Security Strategy.” October 1, 2002. Transcript. National Archives. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021001–6.html.
Rice Condoleezza. No Higher Honor: A Memoir of My Years in Washington. New York: Crown Publishers, 2001.
Rice Condoleezza. “Remarks at the American University in Cairo.” United States Department of State, June 20, 2005. http://2001–2009.state.gov/secretary/rm/2005/48328.htm.
Robbins Michael. “People Still Want Democracy.” Journal of Democracy, 26, no. 4 (2015): 8089. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/595925/pdf.
Robbins Michael and Tessler Mark. “Arab Views on Governance after the Uprisings.” Washington Post, October 29, 2014. www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2014/10/29/arab-views-on-governance-after-the-uprisings/.
Roy Olivier. “End of the Old Arab Strongman.” New Statesman, March 3, 2011. www.newstatesman.com/middle-east/2011/02/israel-iran-movement-arab.
Roy Olivier. “The Transformation of the Arab World.” In Democratization and Authoritarianism in the Arab World, edited by Diamond Larry and Plattner Marc, 1528. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.
Rustin Bayard. “From Protest to Politics: The Future of the Civil Rights Movement.” Commentary Magazine 39, no. 2 (1965). www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/from-protest-to-politics-the-future-of-the-civil-rights-movement.
Rustow Dankwart. “Transitions to Democracy: Towards a Dynamic Model.” Comparative Politics 2, no. 3 (1970): 337363. www.jstor.org/stable/421307.
Sadiki Larbi. Rethinking Arab Democratization: Elections without Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Salzman Philip Carl. “Why the Middle East Is the Way It Is.” Hedgehog Review: Critical Reflections on Contemporary Culture 13, no. 3 (2011): 2336. www.iasc-culture.org/THR/archives/Fall2011/Salzman_lo.pdf.
Sanders Katie. “Chris Wallace: Hillary Clinton Defended Syria's Assad as a ‘Possible Reformer.’” Politifact, June 1, 2014. www.politifact.com/punditfact/statements/2014/jun/01/chris-wallace/chris-wallace-hillary-clinton-defended-syrias-assa/.
Samuels David. “A Fourth of July Story.” Tablet, June 30, 2016. www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/191785/a-fourth-of-july-story.
Sestanovich Stephen. Maximalist: America in the World from Truman to Obama. New York: Knopf, 2014.
Shane Scott. “Cables from American Diplomats Portray U.S. Ambivalence on Tunisia.” New York Times, January 15, 2011. www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/world/africa/16cables.html?_r=0.
Sharansky Natan. “Peace Will Only Come after Freedom and Democracy.” Middle East Quarterly 12 (Winter 2005). www.meforum.org/666/natan-sharansky-peace-will-only-come-after.
Sharansky Natan and Dermer Ron. The Case for Democracy. New York: Public Affairs Books, 2006.
Shultz George P. Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1993.
Slaughter Anne Marie. “How to Succeed in a Networked World.” Foreign Affairs 95 (November/December 2016): 7689. www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/world/2016–10–04/how-succeed-networked-world.
Smith Tony. America's Mission: The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy in the Twentieth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Solingen Etel. “Transcending Disciplinary Divide/S: A Comparative Framework on the International Relations of the Middle East.” Project on Middle East Political Science. http://pomeps.org/2015/08/31/transcending-disciplinary-divides-a-comparative-framework-on-the-international-relations-of-the-middle-east/.
Spolar Christine. “Egypt Reformer Feels Iron Hand of the Law.” Chicago Tribune, March 6, 2006. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2006–03–06/news/0603060129_1_ayman-nour-president-hosni-mubarak-egypt.
Spiegel Avi. “Succeeding by Surviving: Examining the Durability of Political Islam in Morocco.” Brookings Institution, August 2015. www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Morocco_Spiegel-FINALE.pdf.
Springborg Robert. “Arab Armed Forces; State Makers or State Breakers.” Middle East Institute, July 14, 2015. www.mei.edu/content/at/arab-armed-forces-state-makers-or-state-breakers.
Springborg Robert. “Arab Militaries.” In The Arab Uprisings Explained, edited by Lynch Marc, 142159. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.
Stepan Alfred and Linz Juan J.. “Democratization Theory and the ‘Arab Spring.Journal of Democracy 24, no. 2 (2013): 1530. www.journalofdemocracy.org/sites/default/files/Stepan-24–2.pdf.
Stepan Alfred and Robertson Graeme B.. “An ‘Arab’ More Than ‘Muslim’ Electoral Gap.” Journal of Democracy 14, no. 3 (2003): 3044.
Stepan Alfred and Robertson Graeme B.. “Arab, Not Muslim, Exceptionalism.” Journal of Democracy 15, no. 4 (2004): 140146. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/44541.
Stolberg Sheryl Gay. “Bush's Speech Prods Middle Eastern Leaders.” New York Times, May 19, 2008. www.nytimes.com/2008/05/19/world/middleeast/19prexy.html.
Stoner Kathryn and McFaul Michael, eds. Transitions to Democracy: A Comparative Perspective. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.
Tadros Samuel. “The Brotherhood Divided.” Hudson Institute, August 20, 2015. www.hudson.org/research/11530-the-brotherhood-divided.
Tadros Samuel. “Egypt's Elections: Why the Islamists Won.” World Affairs Journal (2012), www.worldaffairsjournal.org/article/egypt%E2%80%99s-elections-why-islamists-won.
Tadros Samuel. Reflections on the Revolution in Egypt. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2014.
Tessler Mark, Jamal Amaney, and Robbins Michael. “New Findings on Arabs and Democracy.” In Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Arab World, edited by Diamond Larry and Plattner Marc, 5468. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.
Testimony before House Foreign Affairs Committee, Subcommittee on International, Economic Policy and Trade.” July 12, 1979. Quoted in Behind the Disappearances: Argentina's Dirty War against Human Rights and the United Nations by Guest Iain, 280. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.
White House. “Statement on President Congratulating Egyptian President Mubarak on Election.” George W. Bush White House Archives, September 10, 2005. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/09/text/20050910–11.html.
White House. “Strengthen Alliances to Defeat Global Terrorism and Work to Prevent Attacks against Us and Our Friends.” http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/nsc/nss/2006/sectionIII.html.
Working Group on Egypt. “A Letter to Secretary Clinton From the Working Group on Egypt.” Letter to Hillary Clinton. April 7, 2010. MS. Washington, DC. http://carnegie-mec.org/2010/04/07/letter-to-secretary-clinton-from-working-group-on-egypt-pub-40535
Working Group on Egypt. “A Need for Free and Fair Elections in Egypt: A Statement by the Working Group on Egypt.” Foreign Policy Initiative, January 29, 2011. www.foreignpolicyi.org/content/statement-working-group-egypt-saturday-january-29–2011.
Working Group on Egypt. “Protests in Egypt: A Statement by the Working Group on Egypt.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, January 27, 2011. www.foreignpolicyi.org/content/protests-egypt-statement-working-group-egypt.
Working Group on Egypt. “A Second Letter to Clinton from the Working Group on Egypt.” Letter to Hillary Clinton. May 11, 2010. MS. Washington, DC. www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/20100511_clinton_letter.pdf.
Working Group on Egypt. “Statement by the Egypt Working Group.” Freedom House, July 8, 2013.
Working Group on Egypt. “Violence in Egypt: A Statement by the Working Group on Egypt.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, February 3, 2011. www.foreignpolicyi.org/content/violence-egypt-statement-working-group-egypt.
Working Group on Egypt. “Working Group on Egypt Writes to President Obama and Secretary Clinton.” Foreign Policy Initiative, February 7, 2011. www.foreignpolicyi.org/content/working-group-egypt-writes-president-obama-and-secretary-clinton.
Working Group on Egypt. “Working Group on Egypt Letter to Secretary Clinton.” Letter to Hillary Clinton. April 17, 2012. MS. Washington, DC.
Working Group on Egypt. “Working Group on Egypt Letter to the President.” Letter to Barack Obama. January 29, 2014. MS. Washington, DC. www.humanrightsfirst.org/wp-content/uploads/Working-Group-on-Egypt-1–28–2014.pdf.
Working Group on Egypt. “Working Group on Egypt Writes to President Obama on the NGO Trial.” Letter to Barack Obama. June 11, 2013. MS. Washington, DC. www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/menasource/working-group-on-egypt-writes-to-president-obama-on-the-ngo-trial.
Working Group on Egypt. “Working Group on Egypt Writes Secretary Clinton to Express Concern about Assault against Civil Society Groups in Egypt.” Letter to Hillary Clinton. January 3, 2012. MS. Washington, DC. www.atlanticcouncil.org/news/in-the-news/8499-working-group-letter-to-secretary-clinton-calls-for-suspending-military-assistance-to-egypt.
Tlili Mustapha. “The Mirage of Political Islam.” New York Times, June 3, 2014. www.nytimes.com/2014/06/04/opinion/the-mirage-of-political-islam.html.
Trager Eric. Arab Fall: How the Muslim Brotherhood Won and Lost Egypt in 891 Days. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2016.
Trager Eric, Ullah Haroon, and Sakthivel Vish. “Islamists in Government: Do They Moderate once in Power?” Policywatch 2246 (2014). www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/islamists-in-government-do-they-moderate-once-in-power.
Traub James. The Freedom Agenda: Why America Must Spread Democracy (Just Not the Way George Bush Did). New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2008.
United Nations Development Programme. Arab Human Development Report 2002: Creating Opportunities for Future Generations. New York: United Nations Publications, 2002. www.arab-hdr.org/publications/other/ahdr/ahdr2002e.pdf.
United Nations General Assembly (GA. Sixtieth Session, 2005 World Summit Outcome, ¶138139. September 15, 2005. www.globalr2p.org/media/files/wsod_2005.pdf.
U.S. Department of State. “Action Memorandum from the Director of Policy Planning to the Secretary of State.” The Human Rights Policy: An Interim Assessment. January 20, 1978. https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1977–80v02/d105.
U.S. Department of State. “Congressional Budget Justification Fiscal Year 2016.” www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/9276/FY16CBJStateFORP.pdf.
U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 1981. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=ien.35556011424686;view=1up;seq=22.
U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1982. February 1983. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015014164753;view=1up;seq=1.
U.S. Department of State. “Themes.” June 29, 1989. Document 33 in Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 16. National Security Archive, The George Washington University. http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB16/docs/doc34.pdf.
U.S. Department of State. “The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.” September 2002. www.state.gov/documents/organization/63562.pdf.
“U.S. President Bush's Speech to United Nations.” CNN, November 10, 2001. http://edition.cnn.com/2001/US/11/10/ret.bush.un.transcript/index.html.
Vaïsse Justin. Neoconservatism: The Biography of a Movement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.
Vance Cyrus. “Human Rights and Foreign Policy,” April 30, 1977. Transcript. U.S. Department of State. https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1977–80v01/d37.
Vogelsgang Sandra. “What Price Principle? U.S. Policy on Human Rights.” Foreign Affairs 56, (January 1978): 818841. www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1978–07–01/what-price-principle-us-policy-human-rights.
Warnke Paul C.Apes on a Treadmill.” Foreign Policy 18 (Spring 1975): 1229. www.jstor.org/stable/1147960.
Way Lucan. “The Lessons of 1989.” In Democratization and Authoritarianism in the Arab World (A Journal of Democracy Book), edited by Diamond Larry and Plattner Marc, 151161. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.
Wehrey Fredric. “Saudi Arabia's Anxious Autocrats.” In Authoritarianism Goes Global, edited by Diamond Larry, Plattner Marc, and Walker Christopher 105. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2016.
Weissenbach Kristina. “Promoting Internal Party Democracy: Party Assistance of the German Political Foundations in Sub-Saharan Africa.” NRW School of Governance, Universitat Duisburg Essen. https://ecpr.eu/Filestore/PaperProposal/0f72a5c2–8fc4–43b3–92ad-cff5fcf8226f.pdf.
Whitehead Laurence. “Democratisation with the Benefit of Hindsight.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality, edited by Newman Edward and Rich Roland, 135165. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2004.
Wicker Tom. George Herbert Walker Bush. New York: Penguin, 2004.
Wiktorowicz Quintan. “Civil Society as Social Control: State Power in Jordan.” Comparative Politics 33, no. 1 (2000): 4361. www.jstor.org/stable/422423.
Wilson Woodrow. “Address to a Joint Session of Congress on the Conditions of Peace.” January 8, 1918. Transcript. American Presidency Project, University of California-Santa Barbara. www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65405.2.
Wollack Kenneth. “Retaining the Human Dimension.” In Critical Mission: Essays on Democracy Promotion Curve, edited by Carothers Thomas, 198203. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2004. http://carnegieendowment.org/files/CrticalMissionTOC.pdf.
Woodward Susan L., ”Upside-Down Policy: The U.S. Debate on the Use of Force and the Case of Bosnia.” In The Use of Force after the Cold War, edited by Brands H. W., 111136. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2000.
al-Youssoufi Hala. “Tunisia Labor Union Serves as Political Mediator.” al-Monitor, March 14, 2014. www.al-monitor.com/pulse/politics/2014/03/tunisia-labor-union-political-balance.html.
Zakaria Fareed. “A New Middle East.” Time, May 1, 2011. http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2069033,00.html.
Zakaria Fareed. “The Rise of Illiberal Democracy.” Foreign Affairs 76 (1997): 2243. www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1997–11–01/rise-illiberal-democracy.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 355 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 1170 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 30th August 2017 - 18th February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.