Skip to main content
Resisting War
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Suarez, Carla 2017. ‘Living between Two Lions’: Civilian Protection Strategies during Armed Violence in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 54.

    Hallward, Maia Masullo, Juan and Mouly, Cécile 2017. Civil Resistance in Armed Conflict: Leveraging Nonviolent Action to Navigate War, Oppose Violence and Confront Oppression. Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 1.

    Kaplan, Oliver 2017. The Art of Rhetorical Traps in Civilian Self-Protection. Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 111.

    Barter, Shane J. 2017. Civilian Strategy Across Southeast Asia. Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 98.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Resisting War
    • Online ISBN: 9781316671887
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In civil conflicts around the world, unarmed civilians take enormous risks to protect themselves and confront heavily armed combatants. This is not just counterintuitive - it is extraordinary. In this book, Oliver Kaplan explores cases from Colombia, with extensions to Afghanistan, Pakistan, Syria, and the Philippines, to show how and why civilians influence armed actors and limit violence. Based on fieldwork and statistical analysis, the book explains how local social organization and cohesion enable both covert and overt nonviolent strategies, including avoidance, cultures of peace, dispute resolution, deception, protest, and negotiation. These 'autonomy' strategies help civilians retain their agency and avoid becoming helpless victims by limiting the inroads of armed groups.


'We have thousands of books and articles on how armed men threaten unarmed civilians, but very few on the important and fascinating phenomenon of how the civilians protect themselves and fight back. This compelling book fills the gap and represents an important turn in the study of violence, from how it is committed to how it is mitigated.'

Steven Pinker - Johnstone Professor of Psychology, Harvard University and author of The Better Angels of Our Nature

'In this path-breaking book Oliver Kaplan shows that in all the narratives about elites, rebels, guerillas, combatants etc. there was somebody missing: society. Patterns of peace and conflict, it turns out, depend on how society mobilizes, organizes, and negotiates. Combining theory, statistical analysis and extraordinary fieldwork in Colombia, Kaplan develops and tests a theory of just how society influences civil war.'

James A. Robinson - University of Chicago and author of Why Nations Fail

'In the vast literature on civil wars, we have learned considerably about what motivates rebels to risk their lives to resist state power. In these accounts, civilians living in contested zones are typically portrayed as helpless victims adding only to the counts of collateral damage. Oliver Kaplan, in this brilliantly conceived study, challenges these dominant narratives and recasts peasants as anti-violence entrepreneurs. He discovers the conditions under which small rural communities can draw on their solidarity to avoid devastation from both rebels and the state, and avoid mass exodus to cities. Villagers can negotiate with both sides, Kaplan shows, to save their communities, preserving dignity and life while being protected from nearby death and destruction.'

David D. Laitin - Stanford University, California

'The literature on building peace emphasizes the need to include and empower civil society as an antidote to violence and the lack of protection by the state. However, little is known about the conditions under which specific communities mobilize or what goes on under the surface of public protests. Kaplan’s rich and colorful accounts of communities in Colombia and the vagaries they face show how they have confronted and appeased different violent actors. Kaplan’s book should be required reading for anyone attempting to understand how communities are not only victims but also agents in violent contexts.'

Angelika Rettberg - Director of the Master's in Peacebuilding program, Universidad de Los Andes, Colombia

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Abdulrahim, Raja. 2014. “In Syria, Activists in Raqqa Try to Confront Militant Islamist Group.” Los Angeles Times, May 5, 2014.
Abouzeid, Rania. 2012. “Who Will the Tribes Back in Syria's Civil War?”, October 10, 2012.
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James A.. 2002. “Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 117(4): 1231–94.
ACIA (Asociación Campesina Integral del Atrato, Chocó), Consejo Comunitario Mayor, and Red de Solidaridad Social Presidencia de la República. 2002. Medio Atrato: Territorio de Vida. Quibdó: Red de Solidaridad Social; ACIA.
AFP. 2012. “Palestinian Refugees Reclaim Syrian Camp.” AFP, December 21, 2012.
AFP. 2013. “Syria Rebels Announce Withdrawal from Christian Town.” AFP, September 10, 2013.
Al-Ansary, Khalid and Adeeb, Ali. 2006. “Most Tribes in Anbar Agree to Unite Against Insurgents,” The New York Times, September 18, 2006.
Albertus, Michael and Kaplan, Oliver. 2013. “Land Reform as a Counterinsurgency Policy: Evidence from Colombia.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 57(2): 198–231.
Alipala, Julie. 2008. “Army Air Strikes Defeat Peace Zone Agreement Signed in Jolo.” Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 30, 2008.
Almond, Gabriel A. and Verba, Sidney. 1963. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Amnesty International. 2000. Colombia: Return to Hope: Forcibly Displaced Communities of Urabá and Medio Atrato Region.
Amnesty International. 2001. Annual Report Colombia.
Amnesty International. 2002. “Colombia: San Vicente Del Caguán after the Breakdown of the Peace Talks: A Community Abandoned.” AMR23/098/2002, October 16, 2002.
Amos, Deborah. 2012a. “In Syria, Aleppo Today Is Must-See TV For Survival.” National Public Radio, November 28, 2012.
Amos, Deborah. 2012b. “Syrian Villagers Hope Their Example Will Be A Model.” National Public Radio, December 10, 2012.
Anderson, Mary B. 1999. Do No Harm: How Aid Can Support Peace - or War. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Anderson, Mary B. and Wallace, Marshall. 2012. Opting Out of War: Strategies to Prevent Violent Conflict. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Arango, Tim. 2014. “Tears, and Anger, as Militants Destroy Iraq City's Relics.” The New York Times, July 30, 2014.
Arjona, Ana. 2014. “Wartime Institutions a Research Agenda.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 58(8): 1360–89.
Armstrong, Martin and Williams, Lauren. 2012. “Armenian Christians Torn in Syria's Civil War.” The Daily Star (Beirut), October 1, 2012.
Asociación de Trabajadores Campesinos del Carare. 2006. “Estatutos.” ATCC Archive, September 2006.
ASOPROA. 2006. ASOPROA: Fortalecimiento de la organización campesina para la prevención del desplazamiento y el impulso al desarrollo local.
Axelrod, Robert. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
Azam, Jean-Paul. 2006. “On Thugs and Heroes: Why Warlords Victimize Their Own Civilians.” Economics of Governance 7(1): 53–73.
Bagley, Bruce. 1989. “The State and the Peasantry in Contemporary Colombia.” Latin American Issues 6.
Bagley, Bruce and Edel, Matthew. 1980. “Popular Mobilization Programs of the National Front: Cooptation and Radicalization.” In Politics of Compromise: Coalition Government in Colombia, eds. Hellman, Ronald G. and Berry, R. Albert. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
Baker, Aryn. 2014. “‘Systematic Torture and Killing’: A New Report Points Fingers at Syria's Assad.” Time, January 20, 2014.
Bakke, Kristin M. 2014. “Help Wanted? The Mixed Record of Foreign Fighters in Domestic Insurgencies.” International Security 38(4): 150–87.
Ball, Patrick. 1998. Liberal Hypocrisy and Totalitarian Sincerity: The Social and Ideological Origins of the National Non-Government Human Rights Movements in El Salvador, Pakistan, and Ethiopia, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan.
Barnard, Anne. 2012a. “Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses.” The New York Times, March 21, 2012.
Barnard, Anne. 2012b. “In Syria, Missteps by Rebels Erode Their Support.” The New York Times, November 9, 2012.
Barnard, Anne. 2012c. “Syrian Airstrike Kills Palestinian Refugees.” The New York Times, December 17, 2012.
Barnard, Anne. 2014a. “Syrian Government Forces Seize Town in a Deep Blow to Opposition.” The New York Times, March 16, 2014.
Barnard, Anne. 2014b. “Syrian Rebels Say Cease-Fire Deals Prove Deceptive.” The New York Times, January 16, 2014.
Barnard, Anne and Saad, Hwaida. 2013a. “Undecided Syrians Could Tip Balance of Rebellion.” The New York Times, January 5, 2013.
Barnard, Anne and Saad, Hwaida. 2013b. “Assault on Christian Town in Syria Adds to Fears Over Rebels.” The New York Times, September 11, 2013.
Barnard, Anne and Saad, Hwaida. 2014. “Nuns Released by Syrians After Three-Month Ordeal.” The New York Times, March 10, 2014.
Barnett, Donald and Njama, Karari. 1966. Mau Mau from Within: Autobiography and Analysis of Kenya's Peasant Revolt. Letchworth: MacGibbon and Kee.
Bates, Robert H., Greif, Avner, Levi, Margaret, Rosenthal, Jean-Laurent, and Weingast, Barry. 2000. Analytic Narratives. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bavier, Joe. 2009. “Congo Villagers Take Up Arms against LRA Rebels,” Reuters UK, January 16, 2009.
BBC. 2011. “Venezuela Links to Farc Detailed.” BBC, May 10, 2011.
BBC. 2013. “Syria Rebels Withdraw from Ancient Christian Town of Maaloula.” BBC, September 6, 2013.
Bejarano, Ana Maria and Pizarro, Eduardo. 2001. “The Coming Anarchy: The Partial Collapse of the State and the Emergence of Aspiring State Makers in Colombia.” Manuscript.
Bernardo, Ariel B. 2010. “Spaces for Peace: Societal Influence through Grassroots Peace Building.” Army Troopers Newsmagazine, July–August 2010: 7–13.
Bobbio, Norberto. 1988. “Gramsci and the Concept of Civil Society.” In Civil Society and the State, ed. Keane, John. London; New York: Verso.
Borrero García, Camilo. 1989. “Acción comunal y política estatal: un matrimonio indisoluble?” Documentos ocasionales CINEP, No. 57, Centro de Investigación y Educación Popular (CINEP).
Bouvier, Virginia M. 2006. “Harbingers of Hope: Peace Initiatives in Colombia.” USIP Special Report (#169).
Bouvier, Virginia M. 2009. Colombia: Building Peace in a Time of War. Washington, D.C.: USIP Press.
Bowen, Jeremy. 2013. “Syrians ‘No Longer Trust Neighbours.’” BBC News, September 15, 2013.
Bradley, Matt. 2016. “Rift Grows in Islamic State Between Foreign, Local Fighters.” Wall Street Journal, March 25, 2016.
Brulliard, Karin. 2010. “In Targeting Taliban Stronghold, U.S. Depends on Afghans’ Reluctant Support.” The Washington Post, July 16, 2010.
Bumiller, Elisabeth. 2010. “U.S. Tries Luring Taliban Foot Soldiers Back to Society.” The New York Times, May 24, 2010.
Buonanno, Paolo, Vanin, Paolo, and Montolio, Daniel. 2009. “Does Social Capital Reduce Crime?Journal of Law and Economics 52 (February 2009): 145–170.
Burch, Jonathon. 2012. “On Syrian Border, Mixed Feelings for Rebel Liberators.” Reuters, November 15, 2012.
Cabreza, Vincent. 2010. “Another Peace Zone in Mt. Province?’” Philippine Daily Inquirer, September 21, 2010.
Campbell, Duncan. 2000. “Heart of Darkness.” The Guardian, June 19, 2000.
Cante, Freddy and Ortiz, Luisa, eds. 2005. Acción Política No-violenta, Una Opción para Colombia. Bógota: Centro Editorial Universidad del Rosario.
Cárdenas, Juan Camilo. 2008. Social Preferences among the People of Sanquianga in Colombia. CEDE, Universidad de Los Andes.
Catholic Relief Services. 2003. “Reflections on Creating and Sustaining Zones of Peace: Lessons from Mindanao, Philippines.” Catholic Relief Services Peace & Reconciliation Program, Davao City, Philippines.
Caviedes, Mauricio, ed. 2007. Paz y Resistencia: Experiencias Indígenas desde la Autonomía. Bogotá: CECOIN.
Ceballos, Miguel and Martin, Gerard. 2001. Participación y Fortalecimiento Institucional a Nivel Local en Colombia. Bogotá: Centro Editorial Javeriano, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Washington, D.C.: Center for Latin American Studies.
Chandrasekaran, Rajiv. 2010. “In Afghanistan, Why Does Counterinsurgency Work in Some Places but Not Others?” The Washington Post, July 25, 2010.
Cheikhomar, Ammar and Austin, Henry. 2013. “Caught in the Middle: Christians Suffer amid Syria's Civil War.” NBC News, August 11, 2013.
Chenoweth, Erica and Stephan, Maria J.. 2011. Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press.
Chivers, C. J. 2013a. “Brutality of Syrian Rebels Posing Dilemma in West.” The New York Times, September 5, 2013.
Chivers, C. J. 2013b. “Some Syrian Kurds Resist Assad, Defying Conventional Views.” The New York Times, January 23, 2013.
Chivers, C. J. 2013c. “Syrians, Fleeing Home, Crowd in Roman Caves.” The New York Times, March 23, 2013.
Chwe, Michael Suk-Young. 2001. Rational Ritual: Culture, Coordination, and Common Knowledge. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
CINEP. 2003. Comunidades de Paz de San Francisco de Asís, Nuestra Señora del Carmen y Natividad de María: Chocó, Colombia. Bógota: CINEP.
CINEP. 2007. “Presentación - Falsos Positivos.” Noche y Niebla 34/35.
Cohen, Jean L. and Arato, Andrew. 1994. Civil Society and Political Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Collier, Paul and Hoeffler, Anke. 2004. “Greed and Grievance in Civil War.” Oxford Economic Papers 56(4): 563–595.
Colombia Ministerio de Gobierno. 1980. Dirección General de Integración y Desarrollo de la Comunidad 20 Años de Desarrollo de la Comunidad 1959 - 1979. Bogotá: DIGEDEC.
Comisión Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación (CNRR). 2007. Disidentes, Rearmados y Emergentes: ¿Bandas Criminales o Tercera Generación Paramilitar? Área de Desmovilización, Desarme y Reintegración. Bogotá: CNRR.
Comisión Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación (CNRR). 2009. Una Historia de Paz para Contar, Recontar y No Olvidar: Cartilla Sobre la Historia de la ATCC. Equipo de Memoria Histórica. Bogotá: CNRR.
Comisión Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación (CNRR). 2011. El Orden Desarmado: La Resistencia de la Asociación de Trabajadores Campesinos del Carare (ATCC). Grupo de Memoria Histórica. Bogotá: CNRR.
Coronel-Ferrer, Miriam. 2005. “Institutional Response: Civil Society.” Background paper, Human Development Network Foundation, Inc.
Corporación Nuevo Arco Iris. 2008. “Preocupante Aumento de Bandas Armadas en Colombia.” Available at:
Crost, Benjamin, Felter, Joseph and Johnston, Patrick. 2014. “Aid under Fire: Development Projects and Civil Conflict.” American Economic Review, 104(6): 1833–1856.
Cubides, F., Jaramillo, J. E. and Mora, L. 1989. Colonización, Coca y Guerrilla. Bogotá: Editorial Alianza.
CubidesC., Fernando. 2006. “La Participación Política del Campesinado en el Contexto de la Guerra: El Caso Colombiano.” In La Construcción de la Democracia en el Campo Latinoamericano, ed. Grammont, Hubert C. Buenos Aires: CLACSO, Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales.
DANE (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística). 1962. Directorio Nacional de Explotaciones Agropecuarias (Censo Agropecuario) 1960. Bogotá: DANE.
DANE (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística). 1971. Censo Agropecuario, 1970–1971: Datos Preliminares. Bogotá: DANE.
DANE (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística). 1978. Directorio Nacional De Entidades Cooperativas 1975–1976. Bogotá: Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística.
DANE (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística). 1985. Divipola. Bogotá: DANE.
DANE (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística). 1987. Colombia Estadística. Bogotá: DANE.
DANE (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística). 1997. División Político-Administrativa de Colombia / República de Colombia. Bogotá: Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, DANE.
DANE (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística). 2000. Divipola. Bogotá: DANE.
DANE (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística). 2007. Divipola. Bogotá: DANE.
DANE (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística). 2008. GIST Data Repository [cited 2008]. Available from
Daniel, James M. 1965. Rural Violence in Colombia since 1946. Washington, D.C.: Special Operations Research Office.
De Friedemann, Nina S. 1979. “Ma Ngombe: Guerreros y Ganaderos en Palenque.” Available at:
DePetris, Daniel. 2013. “Alawite Group against Assad.” The Epoch Times, October 28, 2012.
Di Giovanni, Janine. 2012. “Mountaintop Town Is a Diverse Haven From Syria's Horrors.” The New York Times, November 22, 2012.
Doughty, Kristin and Ntambara, David Moussa. 2005. “Resistance and Protection: Muslim Community Actions during the Rwandan Genocide.” Available at:
Dudley, Steven. 2003. Walking Ghosts: Murder and Guerilla Politics in Colombia. Taylor & Francis, Inc.
Duncan, Gustavo. 2006. Los Señores de la Guerra: De Paramilitares, Mafiosos y Autodefensas en Colombia. Bogotá.
East View Cartographic, Inc. 2002. VMAP Level 1 GIS Vector Data. East View Cartographic, Inc.
Easterly, William. 2007. The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good. Penguin Books.
Eastman, Jorge Mario. 1982. Seis Reformas Estructurales al Régimen Político: Resultados Electorales de 1930 a 1982. Bogotá: Ministerio de Gobierno.
Echandía Castilla, Camilo. 1999. El Conflicto Armado y las Manifestaciones de Violencia en las Regiones de Colombia. Santa Fé de Bogotá: Presidencia de la República de Colombia, Oficina del Alto Comisionado para la Paz, Oberservatorio de Violencia; Imprenta Nacional.
Eckstein, Harry. 1975. “Case-Study and Theory in Macro-Politics.” In Handbook of Political Science, eds. Greenstein, F. and Polsby, N.. Reading: Addison-Wesley.
Edel, Matthew. 1969. “The Colombian Community Action Program: Costs and Benefits.” Yale Economic Essays 9(Fall 1969): 3–58.
Edel, Matthew. 1971. “Determinants of Investments by Colombian Community Action Boards.” Journal of Developing Areas 5(2): 207–221.
El Espectador. 2015. “Colombia, El Segundo País Con Más Desplazados: Ya Son Seis Millones.” December 2, 2015.
El Tiempo. 1996. “Campesinos Impiden Toma Guerrillera En Santander” (Campesinos Impede Guerrilla Attack in Santander). El Tiempo, April 12, 1996.
El Tiempo. 2001a. “Paz: 500 Diálogos Clandestinos” (Peace: 500 Clandestine Dialogues). El Tiempo, November 11, 2001.
El Tiempo. 2001b. “Paeces Impiden Ataque De Las Farc” (Paez Impede FARC Attack). El Tiempo, November 14, 2001.
El Tiempo. 2002a. “Lo De Nosotros Son Las Veredas” (What's Ours Are the Villages). El Tiempo, September 11, 2002.
El Tiempo. 2002b. “No Les Serviremos Ni a Uribe Ni a las Farc” (We Won't Serve Uribe nor the FARC). El Tiempo, July 29, 2002.
El Tiempo. 2002c. “FARC Acechan a Juntas Comunales.” El Tiempo, July 25, 2002.
El Tiempo. 2004. “Comunales Preocupados Por Politización Y Amenazas.” El Tiempo, December 7, 2004.
El Tiempo. 2005. “A Prueba, Neutralidad de Ocho Comunidades de Paz en el Urabá.” El Tiempo, March 9, 2005.
El Tiempo. 2008a. “Por ser de izquierda, asesinaron a líder comunitario en San Vicente del Caguán.” El Tiempo, December 15, 2008.
El Tiempo. 2008b. “Acusan a ‘Botalón’ por Masacre en Cimitarra (Santander).” El Tiempo, August 8, 2008.
El Tiempo. 2009. “Por masacre de 12 taladores en Cimitarra, aseguran a ‘Botalón’” (For Massacre of 12 Woodcutters in Cimitarra, ‘Botalón’ Is Imprisoned). El Tiempo, January 7, 2009.
El Tiempo. “Justicia y Paz: 5 años” (editorial). 2010. El Tiempo, July 25, 2010.
Ellickson, Robert C. 1991. Order without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Elster, Jon. 2000. “Analytic Narratives by Bates, Greif, Levi, Rosenthal, and Weingast: A Review and Response.” American Political Science Review 94(3): 685–702.
England, Andrew. 2008. “Syria's Religious Tolerance Belies Critics.” Financial Times, September 15, 2008.
Equipo, Nizkor. 2001. “Colombia Nunca Más: Crímenes de Lesa Humanidad (Zona 14ª 1966, Tomo I).” Proyecto Nunca Más, Colombia.
Estado Mayor del Bloque Oriental FARC-EP. 2002. “Contra las Instituciones del Estado.”
Fahim, Kareem. 2012. “Stalemate Deals Grief and Fury in Syria.” The New York Times, January 23, 2012.
Falla, Ricardo. 1994. Massacres in the Jungle: Ixcán, Guatemala, 1975–1982. Boulder: Westview Press.
Fals Borda, Orlando. 1960. Acción Comunal en Una Vereda Colombiana: Su Aplicación, Sus Resultados y Su Interpretación. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Sociología.
FARC-EP. Date unknown. “Boletín informativo del Comité Temático de las FARC-EP N 11.”
Fearon, James. 1994. “Domestic Political Audiences and the Escalation of International Disputes.” American Political Science Review 88(3): 577–592.
Fearon, James D. 1995. “Rationalist Explanations for War.” International Organization 49(3): 379–414.
Fearon, James D. 1996. “Causes and Counterfactuals in Social Science: Exploring and Analogy between Celular Automata and Historical Processes.” In Counterfactual Thought Experiments in World Politics: Logical, Methodological, and Psychological Perspectives, eds. Tetlock, Philip E. and Belkin, Aaron. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Fearon, James D. and Laitin, David D.. 1996. “Explaining Interethnic Cooperation.” American Political Science Review 90(4): 715–735.
Fearon, James D. and Laitin, David D.. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97(1): 75–90.
Fearon, James D. and Laitin, David D.. 2008. “Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.” In The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology.
Fearon, James D., Humphreys, Macartan, and Weinstein, Jeremy M.. 2009. “Can Development Aid Contribute to Social Cohesion after Civil War? Evidence from a Field Experiment in Post-Conflict Liberia.” The American Economic Review 99(2): 287–291.
Fernandez, Edwin. 2011. “Officials Want Harassed Village Declared Peace Zone.” Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 9, 2011.
Ferro, Juan Guillermo and Ramón, Graciela Uribe. 2002. El Orden de la Guerra: Las FARC-EP entre la Organización y la Política. Bogotá: CEJA.
Filkins, Dexter. 2010. “Afghan Tribe Vows to Fight Taliban in Return for U.S. Aid.” The New York Times, January 28, 2010.
Fisk, Robert. 2013. “Syria Crisis: In Sacred Maaloula, Where They Speak the Language of Christ, War Leads Neighbours into Betrayal.” The Independent, September 25, 2013.
Forero, Juan. 2005. “Colombia War Spills Into Indians’ Peaceful World.” The New York Times, May 2, 2005.
Fumerton, Mario. 2001. “Rondas Campesinas in the Peruvian Civil War: Peasant Self-Defence Organisations in Ayacucho.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 20(4): 470–497.
Funes, Maria J. 1998. “Social Responses to Political Violence in the Basque Country: Peace Movements and Their Audience.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 42(4): 493–510.
Gall, Carlotta. 2009. “U.S. Faces Resentment in Afghan Region.” The New York Times, July 3, 2009.
Gall, Carlotta. 2010. “U.S. Hopes Afghan Councils Will Undermine Taliban.” The New York Times, June 19, 2010.
Gall, Carlotta and Wafa, Abdul Wahhed. 2006. “Taliban Truce in District of Afghanistan Sets Off Debate.” The New York Times, December 2, 2006.
Galula, David. 1965. Counter-Insurgency Warfare Theory and Practice. Second Printing edition. Praeger.
García, Alejandro. 1996. Hijos de la Violencia: Campesinos de Colombia Sobreviven a “Golpes” de Paz. Madrid: Libros de la Catarata.
García Durán, S. J. 2005. “To What Extent Is There a Peace Movement in Colombia? An Assessment of the Country's Peace Mobilization, 1978–2003.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bradford.
García Durán, Mauricio. 2006a. Movimiento por la paz en Colombia. 1978–2003. Bogotá: UNDP Colombia, CINEP, COLCIENCIAS Colombia.
García Durán, S. J.. 2006b. “De Turbay a Uribe: Sin Política de Paz pero con Conflicto Armado.” In En la Encrucijada: Colombia en el Siglo XXI, ed. Buitrago, Francisco Leal. Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma.
Geddes, Barbara. 2003. Paradigms and Sand Castles: Theory Building and Research Design in Comparative Politics. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
George, Alexander L. 1979. “Case Studies and Theory Development: The Method of Structured, Focused Comparison.” In Diplomacy: New Approaches in History, Theory and Policy, ed. Lauren, P. G. New York: The Free Press.
Gettleman, Jeffrey. 2007. “Chaos in Darfur Rises as Arabs Fight with Arabs,” The New York Times, September 3, 2007.
Gettleman, Jeffrey. 2009a. “Armed with Little but Resolve, and Defending a Hollowed Village,” The New York Times, February 18, 2009.
Gettleman, Jeffrey. 2009b. “For Somalia, Chaos Breeds Religious War,” The New York Times, May 24, 2009.
Gettleman, Jeffrey. 2009c. “Radical Islamists Slipping Easily Into Kenya,” The New York Times, July 22, 2009.
Gettleman, Jeffrey and Schmitt, Eric. 2009. “US Aided a Failed Plan to Rout Ugandan Rebels,” The New York Times, February 6, 2009.
Gitlitz, John S. and Rojas, Telmo. 1983. “Peasant Vigilante Committees in Northern Peru.” Journal of Latin American Studies 15(01): 163–197.
GMH. 2013. ¡Basta Ya! Colombia: Memorias de Guerra y Dignidad. Bogotá: Imprenta Nacional.
Goldstein, Joseph and Shah, Taimoor. 2015. “Taliban Strike Crucial District in Afghanistan.” The New York Times, June 19, 2015.
Gómez-Suárez, Andrei. 2007. “Perpetrator Blocs, Genocidal Mentalities and Geographies: The Destruction of the Unión Patriótica in Colombia and Its Lessons for Genocide Studies.” Journal of Genocide Research 9(4): 637–660.
Gopal, Anand and Rosenberg, Matthew. 2009. “Afghan Villagers Attack Taliban, Sever Ties with Militants.” The Wall Street Journal, July 19, 2009.
Greene, David. 2010. “A Village Clings to Hope Amid Dagestan's Dangers.” National Public Radio, March 18, 2010.
Guerra Curvelo, Weildler. 2004. La Disputa Y La Palabra: La Ley En La Sociedad Wayuu. Bogotá: Ministerio de Cultura.
Guevara, Che. 1961. Guerilla Warfare. (Stone, I. F., The Authorized Translation). Vintage Books.
Gutiérrez Sanín, Francisco. 2008. “Telling the Difference: Guerrillas and Paramiliataries in the Colombian Civil War.” Politics & Society 36(3).
Gutiérrez Sanín, Francisco and Barón, Mauricio. 2005. “Re-Stating the State: Paramilitary Territorial Control and Political Order in Colombia (1978–2004).” Crisis States Program Working Paper no. 66. Bogotá.
Guzmán Campos, Germán, Borda, Orlando Fals, and Luna, Eduardo Umaña. 1963. La Violencia en Colombia, Estudio de un Proceso Social. Bogotá: Ediciones Tercer Mundo.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie. 2008. “Sticks and Stones: Naming and Shaming the Human Rights Enforcement Problem.” International Organization 62(4): 689–716.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie. 2009. Forced to Be Good: Why Trade Agreements Boost Human Rights. Cornell, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hancock, Landon E. and Mitchell, Christopher, eds. 2007. Zones of Peace. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, Inc.
Hartlyn, Jonathan. 1988. The Politics of Coalition Rule in Colombia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hassan, Hassan. 2014. “Hope Springs in Syria? How Local Cease-fires Have Brought Some Respite to Damascus.” Foreign Affairs Snapshot, January 22, 2014.
Heaton, Laura and Fick, Maggie. 2010. “Field Dispatch: The Arrow Boys of Southern Sudan – An Army of the Willing.” Available at: publications/arrow-boys-sudan.
Henao Delgado, Hernán and Estrada, María Teresa Arcila. 1993. Nariño, Antioquia. Medellín: CORNARE; Universidad de Antioquia (INER).
Henderson, James D. 1985. When Colombia Bled: A History of the Violence in Tolima. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
Hernández Delgado, Esperanza. 2004. Resistencia Civil Artesana de Paz: Experiencias Indígenas, Afrodescendientes y Campesinas. Bógota: Editorial Pontificia Universidad Javeriana: SUIPPCOL.
Hirschman, Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Holmes, Jennifer S., De Piñeres, Sheila Amin Gutiérrez, and Curtin, Kevin M.. 2007. “A Subnational Study of Insurgency: FARC Violence in the 1990s.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30(3): 249–65.
Houghton, Juan and Villa, William. 2005. Los territorios Indígenas Colombianos: Teorías y Prácticas. Bogotá: Centro de Cooperación al Indígena, CECOIN.
Human Rights Watch. 2003. “You'll Learn Not to Cry: Child Combatants in Colombia.” Human Rights Watch Report.
Human Rights Watch. 2015. “Colombia: Top Brass Linked to Extrajudicial Executions.” June 24, 2015.
Humphreys, Macartan and Weinstein, Jeremy. 2006a. “Handling and Manhandling Civilians in Civil War.” American Political Science Review 100(3): 429–447.
Humphreys, Macartan and Weinstein, Jeremy. 2006b. “Handling and Manhandling Civilians: Derivation of Hypotheses.” Appendix.
Humphreys, Macartan and Weinstein, Jeremy M.. 2008. “Who Fights? The Determinants of Participation in Civil War.” American Journal of Political Science 52(2): 436–55.
Huntingon, Samuel P. 1967. “Political Stability and Security in South Vietnam.” Report to USAID, December 1967.
Inglehart, Ronald, Basáñez, Miguel, and Moreno, Alejandro Menéndez. 1998. Human Values and Beliefs: a Cross-Cultural Sourcebook. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC). 2010. “Colombia Current IDP Figures.” Available at: OpenDocument#sources.
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC). 2014. “Philippines IDP Figures Analysis.” February 2014.
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC). 2015. “Syria IDP Figures Analysis.” December 31, 2015.
Ivan García, Jorge. 1994. “Asociaciones De Seguridad Rural Son Un Invento Viejo” (Rural Security Associations are an Old Invention). El Tiempo, December 16, 1994.
Jaffe, Greg. 2009. “U.S. Plans to Shift Forces to Populated Areas of Afghanistan.” The Washington Post, September 22, 2009.
Jawad Al-Tamimi, Aymenn. 2012. “Syria's Assyrians, Caught in the Middle.” The Daily Star (Beirut), December 7, 2012.
Justicia y Paz (Comisión Intereclesial de Justicia y Paz). 2003. “Colombia: Desplazadas forzadamente familias del Cacarica.” September 12, 2003.
Kalyvas, Stathis. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis and Kocher, Matthew. 2009. “The Dynamics of Violence in Vietnam: An Analysis of the Hamlet Evaluation System (HES).” Journal of Peace Research 46(3): 335–55.
Kamman, Curtis W. 1999. “FARC Abusing Civilians in ‘Despeje.’” Confidential Cable 004726. United States Embassy, Colombia; National Security Archive, May 10, 1999.
Kant, Immanuel. 1970. Kant's Political Writings. Reiss, Hans, ed. translated by Nisbet, H.B.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kaplan, Oliver. 2010. Civilian Autonomy in Civil War. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Political Science, Stanford University.
Kaplan, Oliver. 2012. “A New Approach to the Drug War” (A novel model offers hope for communities battling narcos and militants). National Interest, July 26, 2012.
Kaplan, Oliver. 2013a. “Protecting Civilians in Civil War: The Institution of the ATCC in Colombia.” Journal of Peace Research 50(3): 351–367.
Kaplan, Oliver. 2013b. “Nudging Armed Groups: How Civilians Transmit Norms of Protection.” Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 2(3): 62.
Kaplan, Oliver. 2013c. “Shootings and Shamans: Indigenous Group Authority Structures and Civil War Violence in Colombia,” working paper.
Kaplan, Oliver and Nussio, Enzo. 2015. “Community Counts: The Social Reintegration of Ex-combatants in Colombia.” Conflict Management and Peace Science. DOI: 10.1177/0738894215614506
Kaplan, Oliver and Nussio, Enzo. 2016. “Explaining Recidivism of Ex-combatants in Colombia.” Journal of Conflict Resolution. DOI: 10.1177/0022002716644326
Karam, Zeina. 2012. “War Rips Apart Families, Neighbors in Syria as Political, Sectarian Loyalties Take Over.” Associated Press, November 30, 2012.
Keck, Margaret and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press.
Keohane, Robert O. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kernell, Samuel. 1986. Going Public: New Strategies of Presidential Leadership. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
Khalek, Rania. 2013. “Syria's Nonviolent Resistance Is Dying to Be Heard.” Al Jazeera America, September 9, 2013.
Khan, Riaz. 2009. “Tribal Elders Gunned Down by Taliban in Pakistan.” The Associated Press, September 24, 2009.
King, Gary, Keohane, Robert O., and Verba, Sidney. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kirkpatrick, David D. 2012. “Syrian Children Speak of Revenge against Alawites.” The New York Times, September 3, 2012.
Kirkpatrick, David D. 2013. “Syrian Civilians Take Reins in Test of Self-Government.” The New York Times, March 1, 2013.
Kline, Harvey F. 2003. “Colombia: Lawlessness, Drug Trafficking, and Carving Up the State.” In State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror, ed. Rotberg, Robert I.. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
Krasner, Stephen D. 1982. “Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables.” International Organization 36(2): 15–205.
Kriger, Norma J. 1992. Zimbabwe's Guerrilla War: Peasant Voices. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kuperman, Alan J. 2000. “Rwanda in Retrospect.” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2000.
Kuran, Timur. 1991. “Now Out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989.” World Politics 44(October): 7–48.
Lacina, Bethany. 2006. “Explaining the Severity of Civil Wars.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 50(2): 276–289.
Guevara, Ladrón de and Dávila, Andrés. 1998. “El Ejército Colombiano: Un Actor Más de la Violencia.” In Las violencias: inclusión creciente, ed. Rodríguez, Jaime Arocha. Santafé de Bogotá: Centro de Estudios Sociales Fac. de Ciencias Humanas Univ. Nacional.
Laitin, David D. and Greif, Avner. 2004. “A Theory of Endogenous Institutional Change.” American Political Science Review 98(4): 633–652.
Leal Buitrago, Francisco. 1990. Clientelismo: El Sistema Político Y Su Expresión Regional. Bogotá: Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Relaciones Internacionales.
Leal Buitrago, Francisco, ed. 2006. En la Encrucijada: Colombia en el siglo XXI. Bogotá: Editorial Norma.
Lederach, John Paul. 1997. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Lederach, John Paul. 2003. “The Mystery of Transformative Times and Spaces: Exploring a Theology of Grassroots Peacemaking.” In Artisans of Peace: Grassroots Peacemaking Among Christian Communities, eds. Cejka, Mary Ann and Bamat, Thomas. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Lederach, John Paul. 2005. The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lee, Zosimo E. 2000. “Peace Zones as Special Development Areas: A Preliminary Assessment.” In Building Peace: Essays on Psychology and the Culture of Peace, eds. Bernardo, A.B.I. and Ortigas, C.D.. Manila: De la Salle University Press.
LeGrand, Catherine. 1986. Frontier Expansion and Peasant Protest in Colombia, 1850–1936. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
León, Juanita. 2004. No somos machos, pero somos muchos. Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma.
Levitsky, Steven and Helmke, Gretchen. 2006. Informal Institutions and Democracy: Lessons from Latin America. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lichbach, Mark. 1994. “What Makes Rational Peasants Revolutionary: Dilemma, Paradox, and Irony in Peasant Rebellion.” World Politics 46: 383–418.
Lichbach, Mark. 1998. “Contending Theories of Contentious Politics and the Structure-Action Problem of Social Order.” Annual Review of Political Science 1998(1): 401–424.
Lieberman, Evan S. 2005. “Nested Analysis as a Mixed-Method Strategy for Comparative Research.” The American Political Science Review 99(3): 435–452.
Cano, Llano, Jairo, John. 2006. El Movimiento Comunal en Colombia.
Lohmann, Susanne. 1994. “The Dynamics of Informational Cascades: The Monday Demonstrations in Leipzig, East Germany, 1989–91.” World Politics 47(October): 42–101.
Lorente, Luis. 1985. Distribución De La Propiedad Rural En Colombia, 1960–1984. Bogotá: Ministerio de Agricultura; Corporación de Estudios Ganaderos y Agrícolas.
Luttwak, Edward N. 1999. “Give War a Chance.” Foreign Affairs 78: 36–44.
Mackety, Robert. 2014. “Syrians Protest Assad and Islamist Militants.”, The Lede Blog, January 3, 2014.
Magaloni, Beatriz, Díaz-Cayeros, Alberto and Estevez, Federico. Forthcoming. Strategies of Vote-Buying: Poverty, Democracy, and Social Transfers in Mexico.
Mahony, Liam and Eguren, Luis Enrique. 1997. Unarmed Bodyguards: International Accompaniment for the Protection of Human Rights. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
Malek, Alia. 2012. “Syrian Armenians Seek Shelter in Armenia.” The New York Times, December 11, 2012.
Malkasian, Carter. 2013. War Comes to Garmser: Thirty Years of Conflict on the Afghan Frontier. London: Oxford University Press.
Mallari, Delfin Jr.. 2007. “Solcom Chief Slams ‘Peace Zone.’” Philippine Daily Inquirer, October 4, 2007.
Mao, Zedong. 1961. On Guerrilla Warfare. New York: Praeger.
MAPP/OEA. 2010. “Décimo Cuarto Informe Trimestral del Secretario General al Consejo Permanente sobre la Misión de Apoyo al Proceso de Paz en Colombia.” OEA/Ser.G CP/doc. 4486/10, April 26, 2010.
Martz, John D. 1997. The Politics of Clientelism: Democracy and State in Colombia. New Brunswick, CT and London: Transaction Publishers.
Marwell, Gerald and Oliver, Pamela. 1993. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mason, David T. 1996. “Insurgency, Counterinsurgency, and the Rational Peasant.” Public Choice 86(1–2): 63–83.
Masood, Salman. 2009. “Taliban Ambush in Pakistan Kills 8 Militiamen.” The New York Times, September 25, 2009.
McAdam, Doug, Tarrow, Sidney and Tilly, Charles 2001. Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, John D. and Zald, Mayer N.. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” The American Journal of Sociology 82(6): 1212–1241.
McChrystal, Stanley A. 2009. “COMISAF Initial Assessment (Unclassified).” U.S. Department of Defense, September 21, 2009.
McDonnell, Patrick J. 2014. “In Syria's Capital, Residents Recall a Sectarian Tolerance Gone By.” Los Angeles Times, April 19, 2014.
McKenna, T. 1998. Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Meyer, John W. and Rowan, Brian. 1977. “Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony.” American Journal of Sociology 83(2): 340–363.
Milgrom, Paul R. and Weingast, Barry R. 1990. “The Role of Institutions in the Revival of Trade: The Law Merchant, Private Judges, and the Champagne Fairs.” Economics and Politics (2): 1–23.
Ministerio de Gobierno. 1993. Censo Nacional Calificado de Juntas de Acción Comunal, 1993. Santa Fé de Bogotá: Ministerio de Gobierno, Dirección General de Integración y Desarrollo de la Comunidad (DIGIDEC).
Molano, Alfredo. 1987. Selva Adentro: Una Historia Orral de la Colonización del Guaviare. Bogotá: Ancora Editores.
Molano, Alfredo and Reyes, Alejandro. 1978. “Los Bombardeos en el Pato.” Controversia 89.
Molano, Alfredo, Bland, Daniel, and Selfa, Lance. 1994. “The Dispossessed.” In La Historia al Final del Milenio: Ensayos de Historiografía Colombiana y Latinoamericana. Bogotá, Colombia: Editorial Universidad Nacional, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Departamento de Historia.
Moreno, Guillermo Cardona. 2008. Acción Comunal: Cincuenta Años Vista a Través de los Congresos Nacionales. Manuscript.
Muana, Patrick K. 1997. “The Kamajoi Militia: Civil War, Internal Displacement and the Politics of Counter-Insurgency.” Africa Development 22(3/4): 77–99.
Mullen, Michael. 2009. “Strategic Communication: Getting Back to Basics.” Joint Forces Quarterly (55 October): 2–4.
Murdie, Amanda. 2014. Help or Harm: The Human Security Effects of International NGOs. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
National Public Radio. 2013. “Grants to Rural Afghan Villages Pay Off.” March 18, 2013.
Navarrete-Frías, Carolina and Thoumi, Francisco E.. 2005. “Illegal Drugs and Human Rights of Peasants and Indigenous Communities: The Case of Colombia.” Management of Social Transformations Policy Papers (15), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
Naylor, Hugh. 2015. “In New Sign of Assad's Troubles, Syria's Druze Turn Away from President.” The Washington Post, July 17, 2015.
Naylor, Hugh. 2016. “Al-Qaeda Affiliate Faces Unusual Backlash from Fed-up Syrians.” The Washington Post, April 13, 2016.
Nechama Tec. 1993. Defiance: The Bielski Partisans. New York: Oxford University Press.
Nordland, Rod and Mawad, Dalal. 2012. “Palestinians in Syria Drawn into the Violence.” The New York Times, July 30, 2012.
Nordstrom, Carolyn. 1992. “The Backyard Front.” In The Paths to Domination, Resistance, and Terror, eds. Martin, JoAnn and Nordstrom, Carolyn. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Nordstrom, Carolyn. 1997. “From War to Peace – Examples from Sri Lanka and Mozambique.” In Cultural Variation in Conflict Resolution: Alternatives to Violence, eds. Fry, Douglas P. and Björkqvist, Kaj. Psychology Press.
NOW News. 2013. “Syrians Protest against Islamist Group Violations in Idlib.” NOW News (Beirut), January 25, 2013.
O'Donnell, Guillermo. 1999. “Polyarchies and the (Un)Rule of Law in Latin America: A Partial Conclusion.” In The (Un)Rule of Law and the Underprivileged in Latin America, eds. O'Donnell, Guillermo Méndez, Juan E. and Pinheiro, Paulo Sergio. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Ober, Josiah. 2008. Democracy and Knowledge. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Observatorio de Paz Integral. 2005. “La Población Civil y el Conflicto Armado en el Magdalena Medio, 1996–2004.” Barrancabermeja.
Observatorio del Programa Presidencial de Derechos Humanos y DIH. 2001. “Panorama Actual del Magdalena Medio.” Bogotá: Vicepresidencia de la República de Colombia.
Offstein, Norman. 2005. National, Departmental, and Municipal Rural Agricultural Land Distribution in Colombia: Analyzing the Web of Inequality, Poverty and Violence. CEDE Working Paper. Bogotá: Universidad de Los Andes.
Oficina del Alto Comisionado para la Paz. 2006. Proceso de Paz con las Autodefensas. Bogotá: Presidencia de la República de Colombia.
Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Oquist, Paul H. 1980. Violence, Conflict, and Politics in Colombia. New York: Academic Press.
Ortiz Sarmiento, Carlos Miguel. 1985. Estado y Subversión en Colombia: La Violencia en el Quindío, Años 50. Bogotá, Colombia: CIDER Uniandes, Fondo Editorial CEREC.
Otis, John. 2010. “What's Andy Warhol Doing in Rural Colombia?” Global Post, March 10, 2010. Available at:
Oweis, Khaled Yacoub. 2013. “Fearing Stark Future, Syrian Alawites Meet in Cairo.” Reuters, March 23, 2013.
OXFAM and other NGOs. 2009. “Caught in the Conflict: Civilians and the International Security Strategy in Afghanistan.” Available at:
Páez Segura, José Antonio. 2005. Los Espacios Humanitarios: Una Pedagogía en la Vida y Para la Vida. Bucaramanga: Programa de Paz y Desarrollo de Magdalena Medio (PPDMM).
Palacios, Marco. 2006. Between Legitimacy and Violence. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Patterson, Anne W. 2000. “From the Outside Looking In: Meta/Caquetá Residents View the Despeje.” Confidential Cable, 010660. United States Embassy, Colombia; National Security Archive, December 4, 2000.
Patterson, Anne W. 2002. “Colombia's Meta Department–FARC Engaged in Hostile Activities/Paramilitaries Not a Factor.’” Confidential Cable 001202. United States Embassy, Colombia; National Security Archive, February 7, 2002.
Pearce, Jenny. 1997. “Sustainable Peace-Building in the South: Experiences from Latin America.” Development in Practice 7(4): 438.
Pearson, Craig. 2009. “New Afghan Strategy Tackles One Village at a Time.” CanWest News Service. Available at:
Peña, Carina. 1997. “La Guerrilla Resiste Muchas Miradas: El Crecimiento de las FARC en los Municipios Cercanos a Bogotá: Caso del Frente 22 en Cundinamarca.” Análisis Político SEP/DIC 1997(No. 32): 83–99.
Peñaranda, Ricardo. 2006. “Resistencia Civil y Tradiciones de Resistencia en el Suroccidente Colombiano.” In Nuestra Guerra Sin Nombre: Transformaciones del Conflicto en Colombia, eds. Wills, María Emma, Gutiérrez, Francisco and Gómez, Gonzalo Sánchez. Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma, Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Relaciones Internacionales (IEPRI).
Perlez, Jane and Shah, Pir Zubair. 2008a. “Pakistan Uses Tribal Militias in Taliban War.” The New York Times, October 24, 2008.
Perlez, Jane and Shah, Pir Zubair. 2008b. “As Taliban Overwhelm Police, Pakistanis Hit Back.” The New York Times, November 2, 2008.
Perlez, Jane. 2009. “Taliban Seize Vital Pakistan Area Closer to the Capital.” The New York Times, April 23, 2009.
Petersen, Roger. 2001. Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons from Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pizarro León-Gómez, Eduardo, Peñaranda, Ricardo and Gilhodes, Pierre. 1991. Las Farc (1949–1966), de La Autodefensa a La Combinación de Todas Las Formas de Lucha. Bogotá: Tercer Mundo Editores.
Popkin, Samuel L. 1979. The Rational Peasant: The Political Economy of Rural Society in Vietnam. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Presidencia de la República de Colombia. 2013. “Presidente Santos, en la entrega del documento ‘De la violencia a la sociedad de los derechos.’” December 10, 2013.
Project Ploughshares. 2013. “Philippines-CPP/NPA.” Project Ploughshares.
Putnam, Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Quitasol, Kimberlie. 2014. “Villagers Help Search for Rebel Camp in Sagada.” Philippine Daily Inquirer, May 16, 2014.
Raghavan, Sudarsan. 2010. “In Somalia's War, a New Challenger Is Pushing Back Radical al-Shabab Militia.” The Washington Post, May 27, 2010.
Ramírez, María Clemencia. 2001. Entre el Estado y la Guerrilla: Identidad y Ciudadanía en el Movimiento de los Campesinos Cocaleros del Putumayo. Bogotá, Colombia: Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia, Colciencias.
Ramírez, Sara and Mitchell, Christopher. 2009. “Local Peace Communities in Colombia: An Initial Comparison of Three Cases.” In Colombia: Building Peace in a Time of War, ed. Bouvier, Virginia. Washington, D.C.: USIP Press.
RECORRE. 2007. Red de Comunidades en Ruptura y Resistencia (RECORRE), 2007 [cited 2007].
Rempe, Dennis M. 1999. “The Origin of Internal Security in Colombia: Part I — A CIA Special Team Surveys La Violencia, 1959–60.” Small Wars & Insurgencies 10(3): 24–61.
Restrepo, Gloria Inés. 2005. “Dinámicas e Interrrelaciones en los Procesos de Resistencia Civil: Estudio de Caso Comparado de los Procesos de Resistencia Civil Organizada de la Asociación de Trabajadores Campesinos del Carare y la Comunidad de Paz de San José de Apartadó.” B.A. thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
Restrepo, Gloria Inés. 2006. “Dinámicas e Interacciones en los Procesos de Resistencia Civil. Estudio de Caso Comparado entre la Comunidad de Paz de San José de Apartadó y la Asociación de Trabajadores Campesinos del Carare.” Revista Colombiana de Sociología 27(2).
Restrepo, Jorge Alberto and Spagat, Michael. 2006. “El Conflicto en Colombia: Quién Hizo Qué a Quién? Un Enfoque Cuantitativo (1988–2003).” In Nuestra Guerra sin Nombre: Transformaciones del Conflicto en Colombia, eds. Wills, María Emma Gutiérrez, Francisco and Gómez, Gonzalo Sánchez. Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma, Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Relaciones Internacionales (IEPRI).
Rettberg, Angelika. 2006. Buscar la paz en medio del conflicto, un propósito que no da tregua: un estudio de las iniciativas de paz en Colombia (Desde los años 90 hasta hoy). Bogotá: Universidad de los Andes.
Reuters. 2014. “Philippines, Muslim Rebels Sign Final Peace Deal to End Conflict.” Reuters, March 27, 2014.
Richani, Nazih. 2002. Systems of Violence: The Political Economy of War and Peace in Colombia. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Roldán, Mary. 2002. Blood and Fire: La Violencia in Antioquia, Colombia, 1946–1953. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Romero, Mauricio. 2003. Paramilitares y Autodefensas, 1982–2003. Bogotá, D.C.: Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Relaciones Internacionales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia: Editorial Planeta Colombiana.
Romero, Simon. 2008. “Two Colombias, at War and at Peace.” The New York Times, September 7, 2009.
Romero, Simon. 2009. “An Isolated Village Finds the Energy to Keep Going.” The New York Times, October, 16, 2009.
Rubin, Alissa J. 2010a. “As U.S. Frees Detainees, Afghans Ask Why They Were Held.” The New York Times, March 19, 2010.
Rubin, Alissa J. 2010b. “Taliban Overhaul Image to Win Allies.” The New York Times, January 21, 2010.
Rubin, Alissa J. and Oppel, Richard A. Jr. 2010. “U.S. and Afghanistan Debate More Village Forces.” The New York Times, July 12, 2010.
Rubio, Mauricio. 1997. “Perverse Social Capital – Some Evidence From Colombia.” Journal of Economic Issues 31(3).
Ruhl, J. Mark. 1980. “The Military.” In Politics of Compromise: Coalition Government in Colombia, eds. Hellman, Ronald G. Berry, R. Albert. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
Saeed, Abdirahim. 2012. “Syria: An Attempt to Live a Normal Life.” BBC, December 24, 2012.
Salazar, Boris and Castillo, María del Pilar. 2001. La Hora de Los Dinosaurios: Conflicto y Depredación en Colombia. Bogotá: CEREC, Universidad del Valle.
Sánchez Torres, Fabio. 2007. Las Cuentas de la Violencia: Ensayos Económicos Sobre el Conflicto y el Crimen en Colombia. Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma: Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Economía.
Sánchez, Fabio and Palau, María Del Mar. 2006. “Conflict, Decentralisation, and Local Governance in Colombia, 1974–2004.” CEDE Working Paper. Bogotá: Universidad de Los Andes.
Sánchez, Gonzalo, and Meertens, Donny. 2001. Bandits, Peasants, and Politics: The Case of “La Violencia” in Colombia. Austin: University of Texas Press, Institute of Latin American Studies.
Sandoval, Luis. 2004. La Paz en Movimiento. Vol. 1 and 2. Bogotá: ISMAC.
Sands, Phil. 2011. “Syria's Palestinians Try to Stay Neutral amid Turmoil.” The National (UAE), May 5, 2011.
Sands, Phil. 2012. “Syria's Druze community: A Silent Minority in No Rush to Take Sides.” The National (UAE), February 22, 2012.
Sanford, Victoria. 2003. “Peacebuilding in a War Zone: The Case of Colombian Peace Communities.” International Peacekeeping 10(2): 107–118.
Sanford, Victoria. 2004. “Contesting Displacement in Colombia: Citizenship and State Sovereignty at the Margins.” In Anthropololgy in the Margins of the State, eds. Das, Veena and Poole, Deborah. Santa Fe: School of American Research.
Santos, Solimon Jr.. 2005. Peace Zones in the Philippines: Concept, Policy and Instruments. Quezon City: Gaston Z. Ortigas Peace Institute.
Sarmiento Anzola, Libardo. 1998. Municipios y Regiones de Colombia: Una Mirada Desde la Sociedad Civil. Bogotá: Fundación Social, Vicepresidencia de Planeación.
Schmidt, Eric, Mazzetti, Mark, and Gall, Carlotta. 2007. “U.S. Hopes to Use Pakistani Tribes against Al Qaeda.” The New York Times, November 19, 2007.
Schock, Kurt. 2005. Unarmed Insurrections: People Power Movements In Nondemocracies. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Scott, James C. 1985. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Scott, James C. 1992. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Seawright, Jason and Gerring, John. 2008. “Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research: A Menu of Qualitative and Quantitative Options.” Political Research Quarterly 61(2): 294–308.
Semelin, Jacques. 1993. Unarmed against Hitler: Civilian Resistance in Europe, 1939–1943. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Semple, Michael. 2009. Reconciliation in Afghanistan. Washington, D.C.: US Institute of Peace Press.
Sepúlveda Roldán, David. 2004. Saiza: Esplendor y ocaso, un pueblo fantasma del Nudo de Paramillo. Tierralta (Córdoba): Corpocodesa, ACNUR, Opción Legal.
Sewall, Sarah et al. 2007. The U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual. University of Chicago Press Ed. University of Chicago Press.
Shanker, Thom. 2010. “Joint Chiefs Chairman Readjusts Principles on Use of Force.” The New York Times, March 3, 2010.
Sharp, Gene. 1973. The Politics of Nonviolent Action. Boston: P. Sargent Publisher.
Sharp, Gene and Paulson, Joshua. 2005. Waging Nonviolent Struggle: 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential. Manchester, NH: Extending Horizons Books.
Shinwari, Ibrahim. 2008. “Elders Refuse to Form Lashkar in Landi Kotal.” Available at:
Simmons, Beth A. 2009. Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domstic Politics. Cambridge University Press.
Sivard, Ruth L. 1993. World Military and Social Expenditures 1993. Washington, D.C.: World Priorities.
Sly, Liz. 2013. “Syrian War Makes Sudden Appearance at Convent in Historic Christian Town.” The Washington Post, September 9, 2013.
Snapp, Trevor. 2010. “Sudan's ‘Arrow Boys’ Challenge Militants.” National Public Radio, August 2, 2010.
Solomon, Erika. 2012. “In War-Torn Syria, Secrets and Double Lives.” Reuters, November 14, 2012.
Solomon, Erika. 2014. “Special Report: Amid Syria's Violence, Kurds Carve out Autonomy.” Reuters, January 22, 2014.
de Sousa Santos, Boaventura and Villegas, Mauricio García. 2004. Emancipación Social y Violencia en Colombia. Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma.
Starn, Orin. 1999. Nightwatch: The Politics of Protest in the Andes. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Stoll, David. 1993. Between Two Armies in the Ixil Towns of Guatemala. New York: Columbia University Press.
Stors, Michel. 2013. “‘Their Agendas Have Ruined Us’: Religious Tolerance the Latest Casualty of Syrian Conflict.” National Post, February 20, 2013.
SudarskyR., John. 2007. La Evolución del Capital Social en Colombia, 1997 - 2005. Bogotá: Fundación Antonio Restrepo Barco.
Suleman, Mohammad and Williams, Sue. 2003. “Strategies and Structures in Preventing Conflict and Resisting Pressure: A Study of Jaghori District, Afghanistan, under Taliban control.” Steps Toward Conflict Prevention Project (STEPS) working paper, Collaborative for Development Action (CDA), March 2003.
Taj, Farhat. 2011. Taliban and Anti-Taliban. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1994. Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tarrow, Sidney. 2007. “Inside Insurgencies: Politics and Violence in an Age of Civil War.” Perspectives on Politics 5(3): 587–600.
Tavanti, Marco. 2003. Las Abejas: Pacifist Resistance and Syncretic Identities in a Globalizing Chiapas. New York: Routledge.
Tavernise, Sabrina and Ashraf, Irfan. 2009. “Attacked, Pakistani Villagers Take on Taliban.” The New York Times, June 10, 2009.
Taylor, Michael. 1988. “Rationality and Revolutionary Collective Action.” In Rationality and Revolution, ed. Taylor, Michael. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Thoumi, Francisco E. 1997. Drogas Ilícitas en Colombia: Su Impacto Económico, Político y Social. Santa Fé de Bogotá: Planeta Colombia Editorial, S.A.
Tice, Austin. 2012. “In Syria, an Oasis from the War.” The Washington Post, July 15, 2012.
Tilly, Charles. 1992. Coercion, Capital and European States: AD 990–1992. Cambridge, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Time Magazine. 1964. “Colombia: Death of Black Blood.” Time, May 8, 1964.
Tobler, W. R. 1970. “A Computer Movie Simulating Urban Growth in the Detroit Region.” Economic Geography 46: 234–240.
Todd, Molly. 2010. Beyond Displacement: Campesinos, Refugees, and Collective Action in the Salvadoran Civil War. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Torres Restrepo, Camilo. 1963. “La Violencia y los Cambios Socio-Culturales en las Areas Rurales Colombianas.” Asociación Colombiana de Sociologia: Memoria del Primer Congreso Nacional de Sociologia: 95–152.
Torres Sánchez, Jaime and Téllez, Fabio Barrera. 1982. Colombia Represión, 1970–1981. 2 vols. Bogotá: CINEP.
Torres, Wilfredo Magno III, ed. 2007. Rido: Clan Feuding and Conflict Management in Mindanao. Makati City: The Asia Foundation.
Triana y Antorveza, Humberto. 1966. La Acción Comunal en Colombia: Resultados de una Evaluación en 107 Municipios. Bogotá: Ministerio de Gobierno, Direccion General de Integracion y Desarrollo de la Comunidad.
Tulio Rodríguez, Marco. 1982. Los Municipios Olvidados. Bogotá: El Tiempo.
Tyson, Ann Scott. 2008. “New Joint Effort Aims to Empower Afghan Tribes to Guard Themselves.” The Washington Post, March 31, 2008.
Tzu, Sun. 2005. The Art of War. Boston, MA; London: Shambhala.
U.S. Department of State. 2000. “1999 Country Reports on Human Rights.” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, February 25, 2000. Available at:
United Nations. 1998–2006. Cultivos Ilícitos de Coca: Estadísticas Municipales. SIMCI, United Nations.
United Nations Development Program (UNDP). 2003. El Conflicto, Callejón con Salida: Informe Nacional de Desarrollo Humano para Colombia – 2003. United Nations Development Program, ed. Buendía, Hernando Gómez.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 2010. “UNHCR Global Report 2010.”
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 2014. “Syria Tops World List for Forcibly Displaced after Three Years of Conflict.” March 14, 2014.
USAID. 2009. “Religion, Conflict and Peacebuilding Toolkit.” Available at:
Valentino, Benjamin. 2004. Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Vargas Velásquez, Alejo. 1992. Magdalena Medio Santandereano. Bogotá, D.C., Colombia: CINEP.
Varshney, Ashutosh. 2002. Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Vásquez Delgado, Teófilo. 2013. Territorios, conflicto armado y política en el Caguán: 1900–2010. Universidad de los Andes, Master's thesis, Department of Geography, January 22, 2013. 2009. “El Pájaro’ señala a capitán de la Policía de nexos con ‘paras’ y ‘narcos.’” August 25, 2009.
Vicepresidencia de la República de Colombia. 2001. “Iniciativas Comunitarias de Paz en Colombia: Semillas que Abren el Camino de la Paz. Fondo de Impresiones para la Paz.” Observatory on Human Rights in Colombia Monthly Newsletter May 2001(15).
Vicepresidencia de la República de Colombia. 2003a. “Los Derechos Humanos en el Departamento de Meta.” Programa Presidencial de Derechos Humanos.
Vicepresidencia de la República de Colombia. 2003b. “Panorama Actual de los Municipios que Conformaron la Zona de Distensión.” Programa Presidencial de Derechos Humanos, December 2003.
Villarraga Sarmiento, Álvaro. 2003. Vida, Dignidad y Territorio: Comunidades de Paz y Zonas Humanitarias en el Urabá y Atrato. Bogotá D.C.: Fundación Cultura Democrática; Ministerio del Interior; Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo; Programa por la Paz, Compañía de Jesús; Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia; Instituto de Estudios para el Desarrollo de la Paz.
Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA). 2011. “In La Macarena, Colombia, a Program on ‘Autopilot.’” June 10, 2011, video interview.
Weinstein, Jeremy. 2006. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wilkinson, Isambard and Marwat, Lakki. 2008. “Pakistan Chieftain Hunts Down Taliban.” Telegraph (UK), September 22, 2008.
Wills, María Emma, Gutiérrez, Francisco and Gómez, Gonzalo Sánchez, eds. 2006. Nuestra Guerra Sin Nombre: Transformaciones del Conflicto en Colombia. Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma, Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Relaciones Internacionales (IEPRI).
Wilson, K. B. 1992. “Cults of Violence and Counter-Violence in Mozambique.” Journal of Southern African Studies 18(3): 527–582.
Wirpsa, Leslie, Rothschild, David and Garzón, Catalina. 2009. “The Power of the Bastón: Indigenous Resistance and Peace Building in Colombia.” In Colombia: Building Peace in a Time of War, ed. Bouvier, Virginia. Washington, D.C.: USIP Press.
Wood, Elisabeth. 2003. Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. New York: Cambridge University Press.
World Bank. 2000. Violence in Colombia: Building Sustainable Peace and Social Capital. World Bank Publications.
World Bank. 2004. Voices of the Poor in Colombia: Strengthening Livelihoods, Families, and Communities, eds. Arboleda, Jairo A. and Petesch, Patti L.. Washington D.C.: World Bank.
Yarbro, Stan. 1990. “Village in Colombia Battles Violence, Wins Peace Prize.” Christian Science Monitor, December 4, 1990.
Zamora, Gloria Lucy. 1983. Los Moradores de la Represión: en el Magdalena Medio. Bogotá: Centro de Investigaciones y Educación Popular.
Zamosc, Léon. 1982. Los usuarios campesinos y las luchas por la tierra en los años 70. Bogotá: CINEP.
Zamosc, Léon. 1986. The Agrarian Question and the Peasant Movement in Colombia: Struggles of the National Peasant Association, 1967–1981. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zamosc, Leon. 2001. “Peasant Struggles of the 1970s in Colombia.” In Power and Popular Protest: Latin American Social Movements, eds. Merino, Susan Eckstein and Garretón, Manuel Antonio. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 950 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 1465 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 13th June 2017 - 20th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.