Skip to main content Accessibility help
Sovereignty, International Law, and the French Revolution
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Sussman, Sarah 2018. Recent Books and Dissertations on French History. French Historical Studies, Vol. 41, Issue. 4, p. 745.

  • Edward James Kolla, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service in Qatar, at Georgetown University, Washington, DC
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Sovereignty, International Law, and the French Revolution
    • Online ISBN: 9781316832240
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The advent of the principle of popular sovereignty during the French Revolution inspired an unintended but momentous change in international law. Edward James Kolla explains that between 1789 and 1799, the idea that peoples ought to determine their fates in international affairs, just as they were taking power domestically in France, inspired a series of new and interconnected claims to territory. Drawing on case studies from Avignon, Belgium, the Rhineland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Italy, Kolla traces how French revolutionary diplomats and leaders gradually applied principles derived from new domestic political philosophy and law to the international stage. Instead of obtaining land via dynastic inheritance or conquest in war, the will of the people would now determine the title and status of territory. However, the principle of popular sovereignty also opened up new justifications for aggressive conquest, and this history foreshadowed some of the most controversial questions in international relations today.


'When the right of peoples to self-determination creates an international law immediately to the advantage of the French Revolution and ultimately for our present world, a brilliant paradoxical book explaining how the French Revolution was a key experiment for our modernity.'

Jean-Clément Martin - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne

'Kolla's bold and thought-provoking study transforms our view of the French Revolution's importance for international law. Kolla persuasively argues for positive advances, rooted in the doctrine of popular sovereignty, and for an indirect 'ripple' effect which provided an important foundation for the decisive nineteenth-century advance in international law.'

Hamish Scott - University of Oxford

'Kolla makes a major contribution towards the development of modern international law. By combining political narratives with legal analysis he sheds new light on the impact of revolutionary ideas, in particular with relation to popular sovereignty, on international relations and their legal organization.'

Randall C. H. Lesaffer - Tilburg Law School, The Netherlands

'In this brilliant and thoughtful study of international law during the French Revolution, Kolla presents a fascinating history of the principle of national self-determination, as it developed over a century before Woodrow Wilson brought this idea to Versailles. Kolla’s book will be of great interest to historians of modern Europe, political theorists, and legal scholars.'

Dan Edelstein - Stanford University, California

'This is a masterful history of the relationship of the French revolutionary period (undelineated here) to the development of the international legal principle of popular sovereignty … This book should be a standard reference in the history of international law. Essential.'

S. R. Silverburg Source: Choice

'Through case studies ranging from Corsica to the Netherlands, Kolla elucidates a thoughtful argument that combines a rigorous approach to international law with a well-crafted historical narrative. … Kolla has brought a fresh and nuanced perspective to the question of the impact of the French Revolution on diplomacy and international law. … Highly Recommended.'

Joshua Meeks Source: H-Diplo

'Kolla’s well-researched and careful analysis of specific cases provides an excellent insight into how an idea of political legitimacy, fundamentally important to the modern world, evolved over a decade of conflict.'

Richard Harding Source: H-France

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


  • Archives de la ville et communauté urbaine, Strasbourg

  • Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin, Strasbourg

  • Archives départementales de la Corse-du-Sud, Ajaccio

  • Archives départementales de Vaucluse, Avignon

  • Archives diplomatiques de France, Paris

  • Archives municipales, Avignon

  • Archives nationales de France, Paris

  • Bibliothèque municipale Ceccano, Avignon

  • Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris

  • Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire, Strasbourg

Archives parlementaires de 1787 à 1860: recueil complet des débats législatifs et politiques des Chambres françaises. Paris, 1867–1990.
Austin, John. The Province of Jurisprudence Determined. London, 1832.
Bentham, Jeremy. The Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham: An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Edited by Burns, J. H. and Hart, H. L. A.. Oxford, 2005. First published 1789.
Bodin, Jean. Les six livres de la République. Edited by Frémont, Christiane et al. Paris, 1986. First published 1576.
Boswell, James. An Account of Corsica: The Journal of a Tour to that Island; and Memoirs of Pascal Paoli. London, 1768.
Bousset, Jacques-Bénigne. Politique tirée des propres paroles de l’Ecriture sainte. Edited by Le Brun, Jacques. Geneva, 1967. Written 1679; first published 1709.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. London, 1790.
Bush, George W. Address to American Legion National Convention. Salt Palace Convention Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. August 31, 2006.
Canadian Supreme Court. Reference Re Secession of Quebec. 2 S.C.R. 217, 1998.
Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat de. Extrait du Pacte de Famille ; donné par la Gazette de France, le 26 décembre 1761. Paris, 1790.
von Clausewitz, Carl. On War. Berlin, 1832.
Défense du peuple anglais, sur le jugement et condamnation de Charles premier roi d’Angleterre, Par Milton, Ouvrage propre à éclairer sur la circonstance actuelle où se trouve la France. Valence, 1792.
Desmoulins, Camille. La Révolution de France et de Brabant. Paris, 1789–1791.
Dumont, Jean. Corps universel diplomatique du droit des gens, contenant un recueil des traités d’alliance, de paix, de toutes les conventions et autres contrats, qui ont été faits en Europe, depuis le règne de l’empereur Charlemagne jusques à présent ; avec les capitulations impériales et royales et en général de tous les titres qui peuvent servir à fonder, établir, ou justifier les droits et les intérêts des princes et États de l’Europe. 8 Volumes. Amsterdam, 1726–1731.
Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers. Edited by Diderot, Denis. Paris, 1751–1766.
Grotius, Hugo. De jure belli ac pacis libri tres. Oxford, 1925. First published 1625.
Hamilton, Alexander and Madison, James. “Pacificus-Helvidius debate.” Gazette of the United States. June 29, 1793, 24 August–18 September, 1793.
Harrington, James. The Commonwealth of Oceana. London, 1656.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Cambridge, 1991. First published 1651.
Kant, Immanuel. Political Writings. Edited by Reiss, Hans. Translated by Nisbet, H. B.. 2nd edn. Cambridge, 1991.
Kléber, Jean-Baptiste. Kléber en Egypte, 1798–1800. Edited by Laurens, Henry. Cairo, 1988–1995.
La France et Rome de 1788 à 1797 : Régeste des dépêches du cardinal secrétaire d’état, tirées du fonds des ‘Vescovi’ des archives secrètes du Vatican. Edited by Bourgin, Georges. Paris, 1909.
Lansing, Robert. “Self-Determination: A Discussion of a Phrase.” Saturday Evening Post. May 1921.
Lansing, Robert. The Peace Negotiations: A Personal Narrative. Boston, 1921.
Las Cases, Emmanuel. Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène. Edited by Schmidt, Joël. Paris, 1968. First published 1822–1823.
Lenin, Vladimir. “Decree of Peace.” November 8, 1917.
Mably, Gabriel Bonnot de. Le droit public de l’Europe fondé sur les traités conclus jusqu’en l’année 1740. The Hague, 1746.
Mancini, Pasquale Stanislao. Della nazionalità come fondamento del diritto delle genti: prelezione al corso di diritto internazionale e marittimo pronunciata nella R. Università di Torino dal professore Pasquale Stanislao Mancini nel dì 22 gennaio 1851. Turin, 1851.
Mancini, Pasquale Stanislao. La vita de’ popoli nell’umanità: prelezione al corso di diritto internazionale pubblico, privato e marittimo pronunziata nell’Università di Roma nel dì 23 gennajo 1872 dal professore ordinario Pasquale Stanislao Mancini. Rome, 1872.
von Martens, Georg Friedrich. Précis du droit des gens moderne de l’Europe, fondé sur les traités et l’usage. 2 Volumes. Göttingen, 1789.
Mazzini, Giuseppe. The Duties of Man and Other Essays. London, 1907.
Mazzini, Giuseppe. A Cosmopolitanism of Nations: Giuseppe Mazzini’s Writings on Democracy, Nation Building, and International Relations. Princeton, 2009.
Mill, John Stuart. Considerations of Representative Government. London, 1861.
Milton, John. Political Writings. Edited by Dzelzainis, Martin. Translated by Gruzelier, Claire. Cambridge, 1991.
Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, Baron de. The Spirit of the Laws. Translated by Cohler, Anne M. et al. Cambridge, 1989. First published 1748.
Moreau, Jacob-Nicolas. Exposition et défense de notre constitution monarchique française. 2 Volumes. Paris, 1789.
Paine, Thomas. Political Writings. Edited by Kuklick, Bruce. Cambridge, 2000.
Penn, William. “Essay Towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe.” 1693.
Réimpression de l’Ancien Moniteur, seule histoire authentique et inaltérée de la Révolution française depuis la réunion des Etats-Généraux jusqu’au Consulat (Mai 1789–Novembre 1799). Volume III. Paris, 1850.
Robespierre, Maximilien. Œuvres. 26 Volumes. Paris, 1910–.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men. Dijon, 1754.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. On the Social Contract. Translated and edited by Cress, Donald A.. Indianapolis, 1987. First published 1762.
Saint-Pierre, Charles Irénée Castel de. Projet pour rendre la paix perpétuelle en Europe. Paris, 1986. First published 1713.
Sieyès, Emmanuel Joseph. Qu’est-ce que le Tiers état? Edited by Zapperi, Roberto. Geneva, 1970. First published 1789.
Sieyès, Emmanuel Joseph. Political Writings. Edited by Sonenscher, Michael. Indianapolis, 2003.
Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. Translated by Louise, Aylmer Maude, . New York, 1942. First published 1869.
Vattel, Emmerich. The Law of Nations. Amsterdam, 1758.
Vitoria, Francisco. Political Writings. Edited by Pagden, Anthony and Lawrence, Jeremy. Cambridge, 1992.
Volney, Constantin François de Chassebœuf. Voyage en Egypte et en Syrie. Paris, 1787.
Volney, Constantin François de Chassebœuf. Considérations sur la guerre des Turcs et de la Russie. London, 1788.
Voltaire, . “Guerre.” Dictionnaire Philosophique. Geneva, 1764.
Voltaire, . Précis du siècle de Louis XV, in Œuvres historiques. Paris, 1957. First published 1768.
Wilson, Woodrow. “Fourteen Points.” Speech on “War Aims and Peace Terms.” January 8, 1918.
Wootton, David, ed. Divine Right and Democracy: An Anthology of Political Writing in Stuart England. Harmondsworth, 1986.
Young, Arthur. Voyages en France, pendant les années 1787–88–89 et 90, Entrepris plus particuliérement pour s’assurer de l’état de l’Agriculture, des Richesses, des Ressources et de la Prospérité de cette Nation … Traduit de l’Anglais par F. S. 2nd edn. 3 Volumes. Paris, 1794.
Achard, Paul. Précis de l’histoire d’Avignon, au point de vue religieux, et dans ses rapports avec les principaux événements de l’histoire générale. 2 Volumes. Avignon, 1852.
André, J.-F. Histoire de la Révolution avignonnaise. 2 Volumes. Paris, 1844.
Anghie, Antony. Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law. Cambridge, 2004.
Armitage, David. “The Declaration of Independence and International Law.” William and Mary Quarterly 59 (2002): 3964.
Armitage, David. The Declaration of Independence: A Global History. Cambridge, Mass., 2007.
Armstrong, David. Revolution and World Order: The Revolutionary State in International Society. Oxford, 1993.
Astarita, Tommaso. Between Salt Water and Holy Water: A History of Southern Italy. New York, 2005.
Aulard, Alphonse. “La devise ‘Liberté, égalité, fraternité’.” Etudes et leçons sur la Révolution française. Volume 6. Paris, 1910.
Aulard, Alphonse. La Paix future, d’après la Révolution française et Kant. Paris, 1915.
Aulard, Alphonse. “La société des nations et la Révolution française.” Etudes et leçons sur la Révolution française. Volume 8. Paris, 1921.
Aulard, Alphonse. “L’opinion publique en France et la société des nations.L’origine et l’œuvre de la société des nations. Edited by Munch, P.. Copenhagen, 1923.
Baker, Keith Michael. Inventing the French Revolution: Essays of French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge, 1990.
Baker, Keith Michael. “Enlightenment and the Institution of Society: Notes for a Conceptual History.” Main Trends in Cultural History: Ten Essays. Edited by Melching, Willem and Velema, Wyger. Amsterdam, 1994.
Baker, Keith Michael. “Transformations of Classical Republicanism in Eighteenth Century France.” The Journal of Modern History 73:1 (March 2001): 3253.
Bates, David. “Constitutional Violence.” Journal of Law and Society 34:1 (March 2007): 1430.
Bates, David. States of War: Enlightenment Origins of the Political. New York, 2012.
Beaulac, Stephane. The Power of Language in the Making of International Law: The Word Sovereignty in Bodin and Vattel and the Myth of Westphalia. Leiden, 2004.
Becker, Carl L. The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers. New Haven, 2003.
Belissa, Marc. Fraternité universelle et intérêt national (1713–1795): Les cosmopolitiques du droit des gens. Paris, 1998.
Belissa, Marc. “La Diplomatie et les traités dans la pensée des Lumières: ‘négociation universelle’ ou ‘école du mensonge’.” Revue d’histoire diplomatique 4 (1999): 291317.
Belissa, Marc. Repenser l’ordre européen (1795–1802): De la société des rois aux droits des nations. Paris, 2006.
Belissa, Marc and Ferragu, Gilles, eds. Acteurs diplomatiques et ordre international, XVIIIe–XIXe siècle. Paris, 2007.
Bell, David A. The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680–1800. Cambridge, Mass., 2001.
Bell, David A. The First Total War: Napoleon’s Europe and the Birth of Warfare as We Know It. Boston, 2007.
Bellomo, Manlio. The Common Legal Past of Europe, 1000–1800. Washington DC., 1995.
Belmessous, Saliha, ed. Native Claims: Indigenous Law Against Empire, 1500–1920. Oxford, 2012.
Benno, Teschke. The Myth of 1648: Class, Geopolitics, and the Making of Modern International Relations. London, 2003.
Benton, Lauren. Law and Colonial Cultures: Legal Regimes in World History, 1400–1900. Cambridge, 2002.
Benton, Lauren. A Search for Sovereignty: Law and Geography in European Empires, 1400–1900. Cambridge, 2010.
Bergeron, Louis. France Under Napoleon. Translated by Palmer, R. R.. Princeton, 1981.
Binoche, Jacques. “Les députés d’outre-mer pendant la Révolution française.” Annales historiques de la Révolution française 231 (Jan.–Mar. 1978): 4580.
Biro, Sydney Seymour. The German Policy of Revolutionary France: A Study in French Diplomacy During the War of the First Coalition, 1792–1797. 2 Volumes. Cambridge, Mass., 1957.
Blanning, T. C. W. The French Revolution in Germany: Occupation and Resistance in the Rhineland, 1792–1802. Oxford, 1983.
Blanning, T. C. W. The Origins of the French Revolutionary Wars. London, 1986.
Blanning, T. C. W. The French Revolutionary Wars, 1787–1802. London, 1996.
Bois, Jean-Pierre. De la paix des rois à l’ordre des empereurs, 1714–1815. Paris, 2003.
Bourgeois, Emile. Manuel historique de politique étrangère. 4 Volumes. 11th edn. Paris, 1933.
Breen, Michael. Law, City and King: Legal Culture, Local Politics, and State Formation in Early Modern Dijon. Rochester, 2007.
Brierly, J. L. The Law of Nations: An Introduction to the International Law of Peace. 6th edn. Oxford, 1963.
Broers, Michael. Europe Under Napoleon, 1799–1815. London, 1996.
Broers, Michael. The Politics of Religion in Napoleonic Italy: The War Against God, 1801–1814. London, 2002.
Broers, Michael. The Napoleonic Empire in Italy, 1796–1814: Cultural Imperialism in a European Context? Houndmills, 2005.
Broers, Michael, Hicks, Peter, and Guimerá, Agustín, eds. The Napoleonic Empire and the New European Political Culture. Houndmills, 2012.
Buckley, Martin. “Turbulent Corsica spurns autonomy.” BBC News. July 12, 2003.
Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French Revolutions in International Political Culture. Princeton, 2002.
Burckard, François. Le Conseil souverain d’Alsace au XVIIIe siècle: Représentant du roi et défenseur de la province. Strasbourg, 1995.
Sir Butler, Geoffrey and Maccoby, Simon. The Development of International Law. London, 1928.
Carlyle, Thomas. The French Revolution: A History. 3 Volumes. London, 1837.
Carr, Edward Hallett. The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919–1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. London, 1962.
Carrington, Dorothy et al., eds. Le bicentenaire et ces îles qu’on dit françaises. Paris, 1989.
Charpenne, Pierre. Les grands épisodes de la Révolution dans Avignon et le Comtat. 4 Volumes. Avignon, 1901.
Chayes, Abram. The Cuban Missile Crisis: International Crises and the Role of Law. New York, 1974.
Chayes, Abram, Ehrlich, Thomas, and Lowenfeld, Andreas F.. International Legal Process: Materials for an Introductory Course. 2 Volumes. Boston, 1968–69.
Chobaut, Hyacinthe. “Avignon et le Comtat à la veille de la Révolution Française.” Mémoires de l’Académie de Vaucluse 23 (3e et 4e trimestres 1923): 139161.
Chuquet, Arthur. L’expédition de Custine. Paris, 1892.
Clere, Jean-Jacques. “Le rattachement d’Avignon et du Comtat à la France: approche juridique (1789–1791).” Annales historiques de la Révolution française 290 (Octobre–Décembre 1992): 571587.
Cobban, Alfred. In Search of Humanity: The Role of the Enlightenment in Modern History. New York, 1960.
Cobban, Alfred. The Nation State and National Self-Determination. New York, 1970.
Cohen, B. R. “The Confidence Economy: An Interview with T. J. Jackson Lears.” May 7, 2013,
Covell, Charles. The Law of Nations in Political Thought: A Critical Survey from Vitoria to Hegel. Houndmills, 2009.
Covo, Manuel. “Commerce, empire et révolutions dans le monde atlantique: La colonie française de Saint-Domingue entre métropole et États-Unis (ca. 1778–ca. 1804).” PhD dissertation, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, École doctorale de sciences sociales, 2013.
Crook, Malcolm. Elections in the French Revolution: An Apprenticeship in Democracy, 1789–1799. Cambridge, 1996.
Dahbour, Omar. Illusion of the Peoples: A Critique of National Self-Determination. Lanham, Md., 2003.
David, Marcel. Fraternité et révolution française, 1789–1799. Paris, 1987.
Davis, Walter W. Joseph II: An Imperial Reformer for the Austrian Netherlands. The Hague, 1974.
Defranceschi, Jean. La Corse française (30 novembre 1789 – 15 juin 1794). Paris, 1980.
Delia, Luigi. Droit et philosophie à la lumière de l’Encyclopédie. Oxford, 2015.
Doyle, William. The Old European Order. 2nd edn. Oxford, 1992.
Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. 2nd edn. Oxford, 2002.
Droz, Jacques. La pensée politique et morale des Cisrhénans. Paris, 1940.
Droz, Jacques. L’Allemagne et la Révolution française. Paris, 1949.
Dubois, Laurent. A Colony of Citizens: Revolution and Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1787–1804. Chapel Hill, 2004.
Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, Mass., 2004.
Echeverria, Durand. The Maupeou Revolution: A Study in the History of Libertarianism, France, 1770–1774. Baton Rouge, 1985.
Edelstein, Dan. The Terror of Natural Right: Republicanism, the Cult of Nature, and the French Revolution. Chicago, 2009.
Edelstein, Dan. “Do We Want a Revolution Without Revolution? Reflections on Political Authority.” French Historical Studies 35:2 (Spring 2012): 269289.
Edelstein, Melvin. The French Revolution and the Birth of Electoral Democracy. Farnham, 2014.
Ehrlich, Eugen. Fundamental Principles of the Sociology of Law. Translated by Moll, Walter. New York, 1962. First published,1913.
Elias, Norbert. The Civilizing Process: The History of Manners. Translated by Jephcott, Edmund. New York, 1978.
Elliott, J. H. The Revolt of the Catalans: A Study in the Decline of Spain (1598–1640). Cambridge, 1963.
Emmanuelli, René. “L’intégration à la France.Histoire de la Corse. Edited by Arrighi, Paul and Olivesi, Antoine. Toulouse, 1986.
Englund, Steven. Napoleon: A Political Life. New York, 2004.
Erickson, Richard J. International Law and the Revolutionary State: A Case Study of the Soviet Union and Customary International Law. Leiden, 1972.
Eych, Erich. Bismarck and the German Empire. London, 1960.
Fabry, Mikulas. Recognizing States: International Society and the Establishment of States Since 1776. Oxford, 2010.
Fitzmaurice, Andrew. Sovereignty, Property and Empire, 1500–2000. Cambridge, 2014.
Fitzsimmons, Michael P. The Night the Old Regime Ended: August 4, 1789 and the French Revolution. University Park, Pa., 2003.
Franck, Thomas. The Power of Legitimacy Among Nations. Oxford, 1990.
Frey, Linda and Frey, Marsha. “Diplomatic Immunity? International Law and the French Revolutionary Legacy.” Proceedings of the Western Society for French History 20 (1993): 213223.
Frey, Linda and Frey, Marsha. “‘The Reign of the Charlatans Is Over’: The French Revolutionary Attack on Diplomatic Practice.” The Journal of Modern History 65:4 (Dec. 1993): 706744.
Frey, Linda and Frey, Marsha. “‘Courtesans of the King’: Diplomats and the French Revolution.” Proceedings of the Western Society for French History 32 (2004): 107122.
Frey, Marsha. “Question of Privilege: The Revolutionary Attack on ‘Protected Spies’.” Rebels Against the Old Order, Essays in Honor of Morris Slavin. Youngstown, Oh., 1994.
Fugier, André. Histoire des relations internationales. Volume 4, La Révolution française et l’Empire napoléonien. Edited by Renouvin, Pierre. Paris, 1954.
Furet, François. Interpreting the French Revolution. Translated by Forster, Elborg. Cambridge, 1981.
Furet, François. Revolutionary France, 1770–1880. Translated by Nevill, Antonia. Oxford, 1992.
Furet, François and Ozouf, Mona, eds. Dictionnaire critique de la Révolution française. Translated by Goldhammer, Arthur. Cambridge, Mass., 1989 and Paris 1992.
Gagnière, Sylvain et al. Histoire d’Avignon. Aix-en-Provence, 1979.
Gardner, John. “Legal Positivism: 5 ½ Myths.” The American Journal of Jurisprudence 46 (2001): 199227.
Gauthier, Florence. Triomphe et mort du droit naturel en Révolution: 1789–1795–1802. Paris, 1992.
Gaxotte, Pierre. The French Revolution. Translated by Phillips, Walter Alison. London, 1932.
Geyl, Pieter. Napoleon: For and Against. Translated by Renier, Olive. New Haven, 1964.
Gierke, Otto. Natural Law and the Theory of Society, 1500 to 1800. 2 Volumes. Translated by Barker, Ernest. Cambridge, 1934.
Godechot, Jacques. La grande nation: l’expansion révolutionnaire de la France dans le monde de 1789 à 1799. 2 Volumes. Paris, 1956.
Gou, Leonard. Het plan van constitutie van 1796. Chronologische bewerking van het archief van de eerste constitutiecommissie ingesteld bij decreet van de Nationale Vergadering van 15 maart 1796. The Hague, 1975.
Gou, Leonard. Het Ontwerp van Constitutie van 1797. De behandeling van het Plan van Constitutie in de Nationale Vergadering. 3 Volumes. The Hague, 1983–1985.
Gould, Eliga. “Zones of Law, Zones of Violence: The Legal Geography of the British Atlantic, circa 1772.” William and Mary Quarterly 60: 2 (April 2003): 471510.
Gould, Eliga. Among the Powers of the Earth: The American Revolution and the Making of a New World Empire. Cambridge, Mass., 2014.
Grab, Alexander. Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe. Houndmills, 2003.
Greene, Jack P.Law and the Origins of the American Revolution.” The Cambridge History of Law in America. Volume 1, Early America (1580–1815). Edited by Grossberg, Michael and Tomlins, Christopher. Cambridge, 2008.
Grewe, Wilhelm G. The Epochs of International Law. Translated by Byers, Michael. Berlin, 2000.
Guiomar, Jean-Yves. L’invention de la guerre totale: XVIIIe–XXe siècle. Paris, 2004.
Gulick, Edward Vose. Europe’s Classical Balance of Power: A Case History of the Theory and Practice of One of the Great Concepts of European Statecraft. Ithaca, 1955.
Guyot, Raymond. Le Directoire et la paix de l’Europe: Des traités de Bâle à la deuxième coalition (1795–99). Paris, 1911.
Harding, Christopher and Lim, C. L., eds. Renegotiating Westphalia: Essays and Commentary on the European and Conceptual Foundations of Modern International Law. The Hague, 1999.
Hardwick, Julie. Family Business: Litigation and the Political Economies of Daily Life in Seventeenth-Century France. Oxford, 2009.
Harouel, Jean-Louis. Les republiques sœurs. Paris, 1997.
Hartman, Eric. La Révolution Française en Alsace et en Lorraine. Paris, 1990.
Heater, Derek. National Self-Determination: Woodrow Wilson and His Legacy. New York, 1994.
Henkin, Louis. How Nations Behave: Law and Foreign Policy. 2nd edn. New York, 1979.
Hinsley, F. H. Sovereignty. 2nd edn. Cambridge, 1986.
Hirschman, Albert O. The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism Before Its Triumph. Princeton, 1977.
Hombourger, René. “Les vaines démarches des princes électeurs rhénans possessionnés en Alsace et en Lorraine (1790–1792).” Mémoires de l’Académie nationale de Metz CLXIX:VII:I (1988): 87100.
Hull, Isabel V. A Scrap of Paper: Breaking and Making International Law During the Great War. Ithaca, 2014.
Hunt, Lynn. Inventing Human Rights: A History. New York, 2007.
Hunter, Ian. “Vattel’s Law of Nations: Diplomatic Casuistry for the Protestant Nation.” Grotiana 31 (2010): 108140.
Jacobs, Beatrix, Kubben, Raymond, and Lesaffer, Randall, eds. In the Embrace of France: The Law of Nations and Constitutional Law in the French Satellite States of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Age (1789–1815). Baden-Baden, 2008.
Jainchill, Andrew. Reimagining Politics After the Terror: The Republican Origins of French Liberalism. Ithaca, 2008.
James, Leighton S. Witnessing the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars in German Central Europe. Houndmills, 2013.
Jordan, David P. Napoleon and the Revolution. Houndmills, 2012.
Jospin, Lionel. Le mal napoléonien. Paris, 2014.
Jourdan, Annie. La Révolution batave: Entre la France et l’Amérique (1795–1806). Rennes, 2008.
Kaiser, Thomas. “A Tale of Two Narratives: The French Revolution in International Context, 1787–93.” A Companion to the French Revolution. Edited by McPhee, Peter. Malden, Mass., 2015.
Kaiser, Thomas. Marie-Antoinette and the Austrian Plot, 1748–1794. Forthcoming.
Keitner, Chimène I. The Paradoxes of Nationalism: The French Revolution and Its Meaning for Contemporary Nation Building. Albany, 2007.
Kemiläinen, Aira. “L’affaire d’Avignon” (1789–1791) from the Viewpoint of Nationalism. Helsinki, 1971.
Kennedy, Michael L. The Jacobin Clubs and the French Revolution: The First Years. Princeton, 1982.
Kennedy, Michael L. The Jacobin Clubs and the French Revolution: The Middle Years. Princeton, 1988.
Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. New York, 1988.
Kissinger, Henry A. A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace, 1812–1822. Boston, 1973.
Koh, Harold Hongju. “Review Essay: Why Do Nations Obey International Law?Yale Law Journal 106 (June, 1997): 25992659.
Kolla, Edward James. “Not So Criminal: New Understandings of Napoléon’s Foreign Policy in the East.” French Historical Studies 30:2 (2007): 175201.
Koselleck, Richard. Critique and Crisis: Enlightenment and the Pathogenesis of Modern Society. Cambridge, Mass., 1988.
Koskenniemi, Martti. “The Politics of International Law.” The European Journal of International Law 1:1 (1990): 432.
Koskenniemi, Martti. From Apology to Utopia: The Structure of International Legal Argument. Cambridge, 2005.
Krabbe, Hugo. “L’idée modern de l’état.” Recueil de l’Académie de droit international III (1926): 509583.
Krasner, Stephen D. Sovereignty: Organized Anarchy. Princeton, 1999.
Krasner, Stephen D. Power, the State, and Sovereignty: Essays on International Relations. New York, 2009.
Kubálková, V. and Cruickshank, A. A.. Marxism and International Relations. Oxford, 1985.
Kubben, Raymond. Regeneration and Hegemony: Franco-Batavian Relations in the Revolutionary Era, 1795–1803. Leiden, 2011.
Kulsrud, Carl J.The Seizure of the Danish Fleet, 1807: The Background.” The American Journal of International Law 32 (April 1938): 280311.
Lapied, Martine. Le Comtat et la Révolution française: naissance des opinions collectives. Aix-en-Provence, 1996.
Laurent, François. Histoire du droit des gens et des relations internationale. 18 Volumes. Brussels, 1850–1870.
Lauterpacht, Hersch. “The Grotian Tradition in International Law.” British Yearbook of International Law 23:1 (1946): 153.
Lefebvre, Georges. The Directory. Translated by Baldick, Robert. New York, 1967.
Lefebvre, Georges. La Révolution française. 7th edn. Paris, 1989.
Lentz, Thierry. Nouvelle histoire du Premier Empire. 4 Volumes. Paris, 2008–2010.
Lerner, Marc H. A Laboratory of Liberty: The Transformation of Political Culture in Republican Switzerland, 1750–1848. Leiden, 2012.
Leuwers, Hervé. “Révolution et guerre de conquête. Les origines d’une nouvelle raison d’État (1789–1795).” Revue du Nord LXXV:299 (janvier–mars 1993): 2140.
Leuwers, Hervé. Un Juriste en Politique: Merlin de Douai (1754–1838). Arras, 1996.
Livret, Georges and Wilsdorf, Nicole. Le Conseil souverain d’Alsace au XVIIe siècle, Origines, création, activité judiciaire et politique, installation à Colmar (1698): Les traités de Westphalie et les lieux de mémoire. Strasbourg, 1997.
Lovett, Gabriel H. Napoleon and the Birth of Modern Spain. 2 Volumes. New York, 1965.
Ludwig, Theodor. Die deutschen Reichstände im Elsass und der Ausbruch der Revolutionskriege. Strasbourg, 1898.
Lyons, Martin. France under the Directory. Cambridge, 1975.
Lyons, Martin. Napoleon Bonapatre and the Legacy of the French Revolution. Houndmills, 1994.
Macdonald, R. St. J. and Johnston, Douglas M., eds. The Structure and Process of International Law: Essays in Legal Philosophy, Doctrine, and Theory. Dordrecht, 1986.
MacMillan, Margaret. Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World. New York, 2001.
Manela, Erez. The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism. Oxford, 2007.
Martin, Jean-Clément, ed. La Vendée et la France. Paris, 1987.
Martin, Jean-Clément, Violence et Révolution: Essai sur la naissance d’un mythe national. Paris, 2006.
Martin, Jean-Clément, Dictionnaire de la Contre-Révolution. Perrin, 2011.
Marx, Roland. Recherches sur la vie politique de l’Alsace prérévolutionnaire et révolutionnaire. Strasbourg, 1966.
Marx, Roland. La Révolution et les classes sociales en Basse-Alsace. Paris, 1974.
Mason, Laura. “Introduction,” Thermidor forum. French Historical Studies 38:1 (February 2015): 182.
Masson, Frédéric. Le Département des affaires étrangères pendant la Révolution, 1787–1804. Geneva, 1977.
Mathiez, Albert. Rome et le clergé français sous la Constituante: La Constitution civile du Clergé, l’Affaire d’Avignon. Paris, 1911.
Mathiez, Albert. Les grandes journées de la Constituante, 1789–1791. Paris, 1913.
Mathiez, Albert. La Révolution et les étrangers : Cosmopolitisme et défense nationale. Paris, 1918.
Mazower, Mark. Governing the World: The History of an Idea, 1815 to the Present. New York, 2012.
Mignet, François Auguste Marie. Histoire de la Révolution française depuis 1789 jusqu’en 1814. Paris, 1824.
Miller, David. On Nationality. Oxford, 1995.
Miller, Mary Ashburn. A Natural History of Revolution: Violence and Nature in the French Revolutionary Imagination, 1789–1794. Ithaca, 2011.
Minsky, Amir. “In a Sentimental Mood: German Radicals and the French Revolution in the Rhineland, 1792–1814.” PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2008.
Mirkine-Guetzévitch, Boris. “La « guerre juste » dans le droit constitutionnel français (1790–1946).” Revue générale de droit international public. Volume LIV. Paris, 1950.
Morgan, Edmund S. Inventing the People: The Rise of Popular Sovereignty in England and America. New York, 1988.
Mornet, Daniel. Les origines intellectuelles de la Révolution française, 1715–1787. Lyon, 1989.
Moulinas, René. Histoire de la Révolution d’Avignon. Avignon, 1986.
Moulinas, René. Journées Révolutionnaires à Avignon. Nîmes, 1988.
Moulinas, René. “L’élaboration d’un nouveau droit international: Avignon, le Comtat, et le droit des peuples à disposer d’eux-mêmes (1789–1791).” La Réunion d’Avignon et du Comtat à la France: Actes du colloque organisé par l’Association départementale du bicentenaire de la Révolution et par l’Académie de Vaucluse … (Avignon, Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humains, 21 septembre 1991). Edited by Moulinas, René. Avignon, 1992.
Moyn, Samuel. The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History. Cambridge, Mass., 2012.
Moyn, Samuel. Human Rights and the Uses of History. London, 2014.
Muret, Pierre. “L’affaire des princes possessionnés d’Alsace et les origines du conflit entre la Révolution et l’Empire.” Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine 1 (1900): 433456, 566592.
Murphy, Orville T. The Diplomatic Retreat of France and Public Opinion on the Eve of the French Revolution, 1783–1789. Washington, DC, 1998.
Neff, Stephen C.A Short History of International Law.” International Law. Edited by Evans, Malcolm D.. 3rd edn. Oxford, 2010.
Neff, Stephen C. Justice Among Nations: A History of International Law. Cambridge, Mass., 2014.
Nordman, Daniel. Frontières de France: De l’espace au territoire, XVIe – XIXe siècle. Paris, 1998.
Nussbaum, Arthur. A Concise History of the Law of Nations. New York, 1950.
Nys, E.La Science du droit international en France.” Les Théories politiques et le droit international en France jusqu’au XVIIIe siècle. Geneva, 1970. First published 1899.
Oberlé, Roland and Péronnet, Michel. La Révolution en Alsace, 1789–1799. Le Coteau, 1989.
Occupants occupés, 1792–1815: Colloque de Bruxelles, 29 et 30 janvier 1968. Brussels, 1969.
Ofuatry-Kodjoe, Wentworth. The Principle of Self-Determination in International Law. New York, 1977.
Onuf, Peter and Onuf, Nicholas. Federal Union, Modern World: The Law of Nations in an Age of Revolutions, 1776–1814. Madison, 1993.
Oppenheim, Lassa. “The Science of International Law: Its Task and Method.” The American Journal of International Law 2:2 (1908): 313356.
Osiander, Andreas. The States System of Europe, 1640–1990: Peacemaking and the Conditions of International Stability. Oxford, 1994.
Osiander, Andreas. “Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth.” International Organization 55:2 (Spring 2001): 251287.
Pagden, Anthony. Lords of All the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France, c.1500–c.1800. New Haven, 1995.
Pagden, Anthony. “Empire and Its Anxieties.” The American Historical Review 117:1 (February 2012): 141148.
Palmer, R. R. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800. 2 Volumes. Princeton, 1959.
Paust, Jordan J. Beyond the Law: The Bush Administration’s Unlawful Responses in the “War” on Terror. Cambridge, 2007.
Peter, Daniel. “L’attitude des Princes possessionnés en Alsace du Nord au début de la Révolution.” L’Outre-forêt: revue d’histoire de l’Alsace du Nord 73 (1991): 2528.
Peyrard, Christine, Pomponi, Francis, and Vovelle, Michel, eds. L’administration napoléonienne en Europe: adhésions et résistances. Aix-en-Provence, 2008.
Piirimae, Partel. “The Westphalian Myth and the Idea of External Sovereignty.” Sovereignty in Fragments: The Past, Present and Future of a Contested Concept. Edited by Kalmo, Hent and Skinner, Quentin. Cambridge, 2010.
Pocock, J. G. A. The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition. Princeton, 1975.
Pocock, J. G. A. Three British Revolutions: 1641, 1688, 1776. Princeton, 1980.
Pocock, J. G. A. Virtue, Commerce, and History: Essays on Political Thought and History, Chiefly in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge, 1985.
Pocock, J. G. A.Deconstructing Europe.” London Review of Books 13:24 (December 19, 1991): 610.
Pocock, J. G. A.What Do We Mean by Europe?Wilson Quarterly 21:1 (Winter, 1997): 1230.
Popkin, Jeremy. You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery. Cambridge, 2010.
Price, Munro. Preserving the Monarchy: The comte de Vergennes, 1774–1787. Cambridge, 1995.
Rambaud, Alfred. Les Français sur le Rhin (1792–1804). Paris, 1891.
von Ranke, Leopold. Ursprung und Beginn der Revolutionskriege, 1791 und 1792. Leipzig, 1875.
von Ranke, Leopold. “The Great Powers.” The Secret of World History: Selected Writings on the Art and Science of History. Translated and edited by Wines, Roger. New York, 1981.
Redslob, Robert. Histoire des grands principes du droit des gens depuis l’antiquité jusqu’à la veille de la Grande Guerre. Paris, 1923.
Richardson, Charles Owen. “The Ideas of Napoleon III on the Principle of Self-Determination of Nationalities and Their Influence on His Foreign Policy.” PhD dissertation, Georgetown University, 1963.
Rovère, Ange. “Dans le sillage de France, 1769–1796.” Le Mémorial des Corses. Volume 2, Soumission et résistance, 1553–1796. Edited by Pomponi, Francis. Ajaccio, 1980.
Rowe, Michael. From Reich to State: The Rhineland in the Revolutionary Age, 1780–1830. Cambridge, 2003.
Rowlands, Guy. The Dynastic State and the Army Under Louis XIV: Royal Service and Private Interest, 1661–1701. Cambridge, 2002.
Sagnac, Philippe. Le Rhin français pendant la révolution et l’empire. Paris, 1917.
Sahlins, Peter. Boundaries: The Making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees. Berkeley, 1989.
Sahlins, Peter. “Natural Frontiers Revisited: France’s Boundaries Since the Seventeenth Century.” The American Historical Review 95:5 (Dec. 1990): 14231451.
Sahlins, Peter. Unnaturally French: Foreign Citizens in the Old Regime and After. Ithaca, 2004.
Samuel, Henry. “Corsican Nationalist in Terrorism Trial.” The Telegraph. March 11, 2005.
Savage, Gary. “The French Revolution and the Secret du roi: Diplomatic Tradition, Foreign Policy and Political Culture in Later Eighteenth-century France.” PhD dissertation, Cambridge University, 2005.
Schmitt, Carl. The Concept of the Political. Translated by Schwab, George. Chicago, 1996.
Schmitt, Carl. The Nomos of the Earth in the International Law of the Jus Publicum Europaeum. Translated by Ulmen, G. L.. New York, 2003.
Schroeder, Paul. The Transformation of European Politics, 1763–1848. Oxford, 1994.
Scott, H. M. The Birth of a Great Power System, 1740–1815. New York, 2006.
Scott, Shirley V. International Law in World Politics: An Introduction. Boulder, 2004.
Segond, A.Les foules révolutionnaires à Avignon.” Provence historique 19:78 (octobre–décembre 1969): 307328.
Sellers, Mortimer, ed. The New World Order: Sovereignty, Human Rights, and the Self-Determination of Peoples. Oxford, 1996.
Sepinwall, Alyssa Goldstein. The Abbé Grégoire and the French Revolution: The Making of Modern Universalism. Berkeley, 2005.
Serna, Pierre, ed. Républiques sœurs: Le Directoire et la Révolution atlantique. Rennes, 2009.
Seton-Watson, R. W. Britain in Europe, 1789–1914: A Survey of Foreign Policy. Cambridge, 1938.
Seward, Desmond. Napoleon and Hitler: A Comparative Biography. New York, 1988.
Sewell, William. A Rhetoric of Bourgeois Revolution: The Abbé Sieyès and What Is the Third Estate? Durham, 1994.
Sewell, William. “The French Revolution and the Emergence of the Nation Form.” Nation Building in the Transatlantic World. Edited by Morrison, Michael A. and Zook, Melinda. Lantham, Md., 2004.
Shilliam, Robbie. “What about Marcus Garvey? Race and the Transformation of the Sovereignty Debate.” Review of International Studies 32:3 (2006): 379400.
Siat, Jeannine. Histoire du rattachement de l’Alsace à la France. Le Coteau, 1987.
Simpson, Gerry. Great Powers and Outlaw States: Unequal Sovereigns in the International Legal Order. Cambridge, 2004.
Sorel, Albert. L’Europe et la Révolution française. 7 Volumes. Paris, 1925.
Soullier, Charles. Histoire de la Révolution d’Avignon et du Comté-Venaissin en 1789 et années suivants. 2 Volumes. Paris and Avignon, 1844.
Spieler, Miranda Frances. “The Legal Structure of Colonial Rule During the French Revolution.” William and Mary Quarterly, 56:2 (April 2009): 365408.
Straumann, Benjamin. “The Peace of Westphalia as a Secular Constitution.” Constellations 15:2 (June 2008): 173188.
Summer, James. Peoples and International Law: How Nationalism and Self-Determination Shape a Contemporary Law of Nations. Leiden, 2007.
Tackett, Timothy. Becoming a Revolutionary: The Deputies of the French National Assembly and the Emergence of a Revolutionary Culture (1789–1790). Princeton, 1996.
Tackett, Timothy. When the King Took Flight. Cambridge, Mass., 2003.
Tackett, Timothy. The Coming of the Terror in the French Revolution. Cambridge, Mass., 2015.
Taracouzio, T. A. The Soviet Union and International Law: A Study Based on the Legislation, Treaties and Foreign Relations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. New York, 1935.
Taylor, A. J. P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe, 1848–1918. Oxford, 1954.
Tuck, Richard. The Rights of War and Peace: Political Thought and the International Order from Grotius to Kant. Oxford, 1999.
Tulard, Jean. Napoléon, ou, Le mythe du sauveur. Translated by Waugh, Teresa. London, 1984 and Paris, 1987.
Tutino, Stefania. Empire of Souls: Robert Bellarmine and the Christian Commonwealth. Oxford, 2010.
Vagts, Alfred and Detlev, F.. “The Balance of Power in International Law: A History of an Idea.” The American Journal of International Law 73 (1979): 555580.
Van Kley, Dale. The French Idea of Freedom: The Old Regime and the Declaration of Rights of 1789. Stanford, 1994.
Varouxakis, Georgios. Liberty Abroad: J. S. Mill on International Relations. Cambridge, 2013.
Venturi, Franco. The End of the Old Regime in Europe, 1768–1776. Translated by Litchfield, R. Burr. Princeton, 1989.
Vovelle, Michel. Les républiques-sœurs sous le regard de la Grande Nation (1795–1803): de l’Italie aux portes de l’Empire ottoman, l’impact du modèle républicain français. Paris, 2000.
Walt, Stephen M. Revolution and War. Ithaca, 1996.
Wanquet, Claude. “La Première députation de la Réunion à l’Assemblée Nationale.Révolution Française et Océan Indien: Prémices, paroxysmes, héritages et déviances. Edited by Wanquet, Clause and Jullien, Benoît. Paris, 1996.
Weitz, Eric. “Self-Determination: How a German Enlightenment Idea Became the Slogan of National Liberation and a Human Right.” The American Historical Review 120:2 (April 2015): 462496.
Whiteman, Jeremy J. Reform, Revolution and French Global Policy, 1787–1791. Aldershot, 2003.
Whitman, James Q. The Verdict of Battle: The Law of Victory and the Making of Modern War. Cambridge, Mass., 2012.
Wight, Martin. “International Legitimacy.” Systems of States. Edited by Bull, Hedley. Leicester, 1977.
Woloch, Isser. The New Regime: Transformations of the French Civic Order, 1789–1820s. New York, 1994.
Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787. Chapel Hill, 1969.
Wood, Laurie Marie. “Îles de France: Law and Empire in the French Atlantic and Indian Oceans, 1680–1780.” PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 2013.
Woolf, Stuart. Napoleon’s Integration of Europe. London, 1991.
Worden, Blair. “Milton and Marchamont Nedham.” Milton and Republicanism. Edited by Armitage, David, Himy, Armand, and Skinner, Quentin. Cambridge, 1995.
Zayas, Alfred M.. The Wehrmacht War Crimes Bureau, 1939–1945. Lincoln, 1989.
Zeller, Gason. “La Monarchie d’Ancien Régime et les frontières naturelle.” Revue d’histoire moderne 8 (1933): 305333.
Zeller, Gason. “Histoire d’une idée fausse.” Revue de synthèse 11 (1936): 115131.