Skip to main content
Spectral Atlas for Amateur Astronomers
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Spectral Atlas for Amateur Astronomers
    • Online ISBN: 9781316694206
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Featuring detailed commented spectral profiles of more than one hundred astronomical objects, in colour, this spectral guide documents most of the important and spectroscopically observable objects accessible using typical amateur equipment. It allows you to read and interpret the recorded spectra of the main stellar classes, as well as most of the steps from protostars through to the final stages of stellar evolution as planetary nebulae, white dwarfs or the different types of supernovae. It also presents integrated spectra of stellar clusters, galaxies and quasars, and the reference spectra of some terrestrial light sources, for calibration purposes. Whether used as the principal reference for comparing with your recorded spectra or for inspiring independent observing projects, this atlas provides a breathtaking view into our Universe's past. The atlas is accompanied and supplemented by Spectroscopy for Amateur Astronomers, which explains in detail the methods for recording, processing, analysing and interpreting your spectra.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

[1]Kaler J. B., Stars and Their Spectra: An Introduction to the Spectral Sequence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
[2]Gray R. O., Corbally Ch. J., Stellar Spectral Classification (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009).
[3]Trypsteen M., Walker R., Spectroscopy for Amateur Astronomers: Recording, Processing, Analysis and Interpretation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017).
[4]DADOS and Baches Spectrographs, Baader Planetarium: available online at:
[5]SQUES Echelle Spectrograph, Eagleowloptics Switzerland
[6]IRIS and ISIS: Christian Buil’s home page
[7]Visual Spec, Vspec: Valerie Désnoux’s processing freeware
[9]Lobel A. SpectroWeb, The Interactive Database of Spectral Standard Star Atlases, Royal Observatory of Belgium, available online at:
[10]Seitter W. C., Atlas für Objektiv Prismen Spektren: Bonner Spektralatlas (Bonn: Astronomical Institute Bonn, 1975), available online at: [accessed October, 2016].
[11]CDS Strasbourg: SIMBAD Astronomical Database,
[12]NASA Extragalactic Database (NED),
[13]The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Edn., data access by Alcyone Software:
[14]Kaler J., STARS: a comprehensive suite of pages that tell the stories of stars and their constellations,
[15]Sota A. et al., The Galactic O Star Spectroscopic Catalog (GOSC) and Survey (GOSSS), (2013), available online at:
[16]Sota A. et al., The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). II. Bright Southern Stars, (2013), available online at:
[17]Versuchsanleitung zum Astrophysikalischen Praktikum, Grobe Klassifikation von Sternspektren, Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, available online at:
[18]Reimann H. -G., (Hrgb.), Astronomisches Praktikum, Astrophysikalisches Institut der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, (2000), available online at:
[19]Ledrew G., The Real Starry Sky, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 95, (2001), 32, available online at:…32L
[20]Grenier I., The Gould Belt, Star Formation and the Interstellar Medium, (2004) available online at:
[21]Grenier I., Perrot C., 3D Dynamical Evolution of the Interstellar Gas in the Gould Belt, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 404, (2003), 519–31, available online at:
[22]Morgan W. W. et al., Revised MK Spectral Atlas for Stars Earlier than the Sun, (Yerkes Observatory, University of Chicago, Kitt Peak National Observatory, 1978), available online at:
[23]Walborn N. R., Fitzpatrick E. L., Contemporary Optical Spectral Classification of the OB Stars: A Digital Atlas, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 102, (1990), 379411, available online at:
[24]Alduseva V. Y., Aslanov A. A. et al., Spectrum Variability of 68 Cygni, an O(f) Star at the Center of a Ring Nebula, Pisma v Astronomicheskii Zhurnal, 8, 717–21; Soviet Astronomy Letters, 8, (1982) 386–8, Translation, available online at:….8..386A
[25]Kraus S., Balega Y. Y., et al., Visual/Infrared Interferometry of Orion Trapezium Stars: Preliminary Dynamical Orbit and Aperture Synthesis Imaging of the θ1 Orionis C system, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 466, (2007), 649–59, available online at:
[26]Harvard University Graduate Course 201B, 2011. ISM and Star Formation: The Orion Bar,
[27]Walborn N. R., An Atlas of Yellow-Red OB Spectra, Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 44, (1980), 535–8, available online at:…44..535W
[28]Gray D. F., The Observation and Analysis of Stellar Photospheres, Third Edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
[29]Gray R. O., A Digital Spectral Classification Atlas, Appalachian State University available online at: also available online at:
[30]Monnier J. D. et al., Imaging the Surface of Altair, Science, 317, 5836, (2007), 342–5, available online at:
[31]Bass2000: A download of the solar spectrum available online at:
[32]NSO Digital Library, Solar Spectral Atlases, available online at:
[33]Ryon J. et al., Comparing the Ca II H and K Emission Lines in Red Giant Stars, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Pacific, 121, 882, (2009), 842–56, available online at:
[34]Allen L. E., Strom K. M., Moderate-Resolution Spectral Standards from λ5600 to λ9000, Astronomical Journal 109, 3, (1995), 1379–90, available online at:….109.1379A
[35]Kirkpatrick J. D. et al., A Standard Stellar Spectral Sequence in the Red/Near Infrared Classes: K5 to M9, Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 77, (1991), 417–40, available online at:…77..417K
[36]Morgan W. W., Keenan P. C., Kellman E., An Atlas of Stellar Spectra, with an Outline of Spectral Classification, Astrophysics Monographs, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1943), available online at:
[37]Torres-Dodgen A. V., Weaver W. B., An Atlas of Low-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra of Normal Stars, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 105, 689, (1993), 693720, available online at: PASP..105..693T
[38]AAVSO, American Association of Variable Star Observers
[39]Valenti A. et al., Spectral Synthesis of TiO Lines, The Astrophysical Journal, 498, 2, (1998), 851–62, available online at:…498..851V
[40]Scalo J. M., Ross J. E., Synthetic Spectra of Red Giants. I – Representative Band Head Profiles of Diatomic Molecules, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 48, 2, (1976), 219–34, available online at:….48..219S
[41]Keenan P. C., Boeshaar P. C., Spectral Types of S and SC Stars on the Revised MK system, Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 43, (1980), 379–91, available online at:…43..379K
[42]Adelman S. J., BVRI Photometry of the Extrinsic S Star HR 1105, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 333, (1998), 952–5, available online at:…333..952A
[43]Wyckoff S., Clegg R. E. S., Molecular Spectra of Pure S-Stars, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 184, (1978), 127–43, available online at:
[44]Shcherbakov A. G., Tuominen I., Activity Modulation of the Red Giant HR 1105 as Observed in the He I Lambda 10830 A, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 255, 1–2, (1992), 215–20, available online at:…255..215S
[45]Albia C. et al., Understanding Carbon Star Nucleosynthesis from Observations, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, 20, 4, (2003), 314–23, available online at:
[46]Keenan P., Morgan W., Classification of the Red Carbon Stars, Astrophysical Journal, 94, (1941), 501, available online at:….94..501K
[47]Keenan P., Revised MK Classification of the Red Carbon Stars, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 105, 691, (1993), 905–10, available online at:
[48]Mahmud N. et al., Understanding Stellar Birth through the Photometric and Spectroscopic Variability of T Tauri Stars (2011),
[49]Kleman B., Laboratory Excitation of the Blue-Green Bands Observed in the Spectra of N-Type Stars, Astrophysical Journal, 123, (1955), 162, available online at:
[50]Sarre P. J. et al., SiC2 in Carbon Stars: Merrill–Sanford Absorption Bands between 4100 and 5500 A, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 319, 1, (2000), 103–10, available online at:
[51]Hirai M., Spectral Analysis of a Peculiar Star WZ Cassiopeiae, University of Tokyo, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 21, (1969), 91, available online at:…21…91H
[52]McKellar A., The 6708 Resonance Line of Li I in the Spectrum of the N-Type Variable Star WZ Cassiopeiae, The Observatory, 64, (1941), 411, available online at:….64….4M/0000004.000.html
[53]Barnbaum C. et al., A Moderate Resolution Spectral Atlas of Carbon Stars, Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 105, (1996), 419, available online at:
[54]Tyson D. et al., Radial Velocity Distribution and Line Strengths of 33 Carbon Stars in the Galactic Bulge, Astrophysical Journal, 367, (1991), 547–60, available online at:…367..547T
[55]Wallace L., Band-Head Wavelengths of C2, CH, CN, CO, NH, NO, O2, OH and Their Ions, Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 7, (1962), 165, available online at:….7..165W
[56]Schneiderbauer S., Carbon Stars, Hydrostatic Models and Optical/Near Infrared Interferometry, (2008), available online at:
[57]Vetesnik M., Photometric and Spectroscopic Investigation of a New Carbon Star in the Auriga Region, Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, Bulletin, 30, 1, (1979), 112, available online at:….1V
[58]Holberg J. B. et al., A Determination of the Local Density of White Dwarf Stars, The Astrophysical Journal, 571, 1, (2002), 512–18, available online at:
[59]Falcon E. et al., A Gravitational Redshift Determination of the Mean Mass of White Dwarfs DA Stars, The Astrophysical Journal, 712, 1, (2010), 585–95, available online at:
[60]McCook G. P., Sion E. M., A Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 121, 1, (1999), 1130, available online at:
[61]Liebert J., Sion E. M., The Spectroscopic Classification of White Dwarfs: Unique Requirements and Challenges, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 60, (1994), 6472, available online at:…60…64L
[62]Holberg J. B. et al., A New Look at the Local White Dwarf Population, The Astronomical Journal, 135, 4, (2008), 1225–38, available online at:–3881/135/4/1225/pdf/1538–3881_135_4_1225.pdf
[63]Wolff B. et al., Element Abundances in Cool White Dwarfs II. Ultraviolet Observations of DZ White Dwarfs, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 385, (2002), 9951007, available online at:
[64]Bonn University: Pre-supernova Evolution of Massive Stars,
[65]Van der Hucht K. A., The VIIth Catalogue of Galactic Wolf–Rayet Stars, New Astronomy Reviews, 45, (2001), 135232, available online at:
[66]Crowther P. A., Physical Properties of Wolf-Rayet Stars, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 45, (2007), 177219, available online at:
[67]Underhill A. B., C lV λ5806 in Wolf Rayet Stars, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 100, (1988), 1269–72, available online at:
[68]Underhill A. et al., A Study of the Moderately Wide Wolf Rayet Spectroscopic Binary HD 190918, Astrophysical Journal, 432, 2, (1994), 770–84, available online at:…432..770U
[69]CFA, Harvard-Smithonian Center for Astrophysics: Atlas for Wolf–Rayet Stars,
[70]Hiltner W. A., Schild R. E., Spectral Classification of Wolf–Rayet Stars, Astrophysical Journal, 143, (1966), 770, available online at:…143..770H
[71]Marchenko S. V. et al., The Unusual 2001 Periastron Passage in the “Clockwork” Colliding Wind Binary WR 140, Astrophysical Journal, 596, (2003), 1295–304, available online at:
[72]Williams P. M. et al., Multi Frequency Variations of Wolf–Rayet System HD 193793, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 243, (1990), 662–84, available online at:
[73]Hamann W. R. et al., Non-LTE Spectral Analyses of Wolf-Rayet Stars: The Nitrogen Spectrum of the WN6 Prototype HD 192163 (WR136), Astronomy and Astrophysics 281, 1, (1994), 184–98, available online at:…281..184H
[74]Cappa C. E. et al., The Interaction of NGC 6888 and HD 192163 with the Surrounding Interstellar Medium, Astronomical Journal 112, (1996), 1104, available online at:….112.1104C
[75]Zhekov S. A. et al., Suzaku Observations of the Prototype Wind-Blown Bubble NGC 6888, The Astrophysical Journal, 728, (2011), 135, available online at:
[76]Sanduleak N., On Stars Having Strong O VI Emission, Astrophysical Journal, 164, (1971), L71, available online at:…164L..71S
[77]Stephenson C. B., Search for New Northern Wolf–Rayet Stars Astronomical Journal, 71, (1966), 477–81, available online at:…..71..477S
[78]Sokal K. R. et al., Chandra Detects the Rare Oxygen Type Wolf–Rayet Star WR 142 and OB Stars in Berkeley 87, The Astrophysical Journal, 715, 2, (2010), 1327–37, available online at:
[79]Drew J. E. et al., Discovery of a WO Star in the Scutum-Crux Arm of the Inner Galaxy, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 351, 1, (2004), 206–14, available online at:
[80]Cherepashchuk A. M., Rustamov D. N., WR stars with the O VI λλ3811, 3834 Emission Doublet, Astrophysics and Space Science 167, 2, (1990), 281–96,
[81]Polcaro V. F. et al., The WO Stars IV. Sand 5: A Variable WO Star?, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 325, (1996), 178–88, available online at:…325..178P
[82]Stahl O., Spectral Atlas of P Cygni, Landessternwarte Heidelberg,
[83]Luud L. S., The Spectrum of P Cygni 1964, Soviet Astronomy, 11, (1964), 211, available online at:….11..211L
[84]Maart de Groot, On the Spectrum and Nature of P Cygni, Bulletin of the Astronomical Institutes of the Netherlands, 20, (1968), 225, available online at:….20..225D
[85]Miroshnichenko A., Presentation: Spectra of the Brightest Be Stars and Objects Description, available as a download from:
[86]Miroshnichenko A., Presentation: Summary of Experiences from Observations of the Be-binary δ Sco, available as a download from:
[87]Chauville J. et al., High and Intermediate-Resolution Spectroscopy of Be Stars, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 378, (2001), 861–82, available online at:
[88]Canto J. et al., Carbon Monoxide Observations of R Monocerotis, NGC 2261 and Herbig Haro 39: The Interstellar Nozzle, Astrophysical Journal, 244, (1981), 102–14, available online at:…244..102C
[89]Böhm K. H. et al., Spectrophotometry of R Monocerotis, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 50, 3, (1976), 361–6, available online at:….50..361B
[90]Turner N. J. J. et al., Models of the Spectral Energy Distributions of FU Orionis Stars, The Astrophysical Journal, 480, 2, (1996), 754–66, available online at:–637X/480/2/754/
[91]Herbig G. H. et al., Line Structure in the Spectrum of FU Orionis, The Astronomical Journal, 136, (2008), 676–83, available online at:
[92]Kenyon S. J. et al., The FU Orionis Phenomenon, Annual Review of Astronomy Astrophysics 34, (1996), 207–40, available online at:
[93]Powell S. L. et al., The Periodic Spectroscopic Variability of FU Orionis, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 426, 4, (2012), 3315–33, available online at:
[94]Wellmann P., Veränderungen im Spektrum von FU Orionis, Zeitschrift für Astrophysik, 29, (1951), 154, available online at:…..29..154W
[95]Grady C. A. et al., Iron Emission Lines in the Spectra of Herbig Ae/Be Stars Viewed through Their Proto-Planetary Disks. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 25, (1993), 1353, available online at:…183.4109G
[96]Samus N. N. et al., General Catalogue of Variable Stars (Samus+ 2007–2011), Online catalog available at:
[97]Smith K. C., Chemically Peculiar Hot Stars, Astrophysics and Space Science, 237, 1–2, (1996), 77105, available online at:…77S
[98]Preston G. W., The Chemically Peculiar Stars of the Upper Main Sequence, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 12, (1974), 257–7, available online at:
[99]Shorlin S. L. S. et al., A Highly Sensitive Search for Magnetic Fields in B, A and F Stars, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 392, (2002), 637–52, available online at:
[100]Allen C. W., Astrophysical Quantities, 3rd edn., (London: The Athlone Press, 1973), available online at:
[101]Gehlich U. K., Differential Fine Analysis Sirius versus Vega, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3, (1969), 169–78, available online at:…..3..169G
[102]Qiu H. M. et al., The Abundance Patterns of Sirius and Vega, The Astrophysical Journal, 548, 2, (2001), 953–65, available online at:–637X/548/2/953/pdf/0004–637X_548_2_953.pdf
[103]Babcock H. W., Burd S., The Variable Magnetic Field of α2 Canum Venaticorum, The Astrophysical Journal, 116, (1952), 817, available online at:…116….8B
[104]Babcock H. W., The 34-kilogauss Magnetic Field of HD 215441, The Astrophysical Journal, 132, (1960), 521, available online at:…132..521B
[105]Borra F., Landstreet J. D., The Magnetic Field Geometry of HD 215441, The Astrophysical Journal, 1, 222, (1978), 226–33, available online at:…222..226B
[106]Elkin V. G. et al., A Rival for Babcock’s Star: the Extreme 30-kG Variable Magnetic Field in the Ap Star HD 75049, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 402, 3, (2010), 1883–91, available online at:
[107]Peterson D. M. et al., The Spectroscopic Orbit of β Scorpii A, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 91, (1979), 8794, available online at:…91…87P
[108]Palate M. et al., Spectral Modelling of the Alpha Virginis (Spica) Binary System, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 556, (2013), 19, available online at:
[109]Pourbaix D., Tokovinin A. et al., SB9: The Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits, (2003), database available online at:
[110]Gray S. K., Ignace R., Hα-Study of β Lyrae, Journal of the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy, 2, (2008), 71–8, available online at:
[111]Hoffman J. L. et al., Spectropolarimetric Evidence for a Bipolar Flow in β Lyrae, The Astronomical Journal, 115, 4, (1998), 1576–91 available online at:….115.1576H
[112]Mennickent R. E., Djurašević G., On the accretion disc and Evolutionary Stage of β Lyrae, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 432, 1, (2013), 799809, available online at:
[113]Skulsky M. et al., On the Dynamics of Circumstellar Gaseous Structures and Magnetic Field of β Lyrae, Magnetic Stars, (2011), 259–63, available online at:
[114]Williams R. E., The Formation of Novae Spectra, Astronomical Journal 104, 2, (1992), 725–33, available online at:….104..725W
[115]Skopal A. et al., The Early Evolution of the Extraordinary Nova Del 2013 (V339 Del), Astronomy and Astrophysics, 569, (2014), 14 pp., available online at:
[116]Buat-Ménard V. et al., The Nature of Dwarf Nova Outbursts, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 366, (2000), 612–22, available online at:
[117]Morales-Rueda L., Marsh T. R., Spectral Atlas of Dwarf Novae in Outburst, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 332, 4, (2002), 814–26, available online at:
[118]Roche J., EG Andromedae, A Symbiotic System as an Insight into Red Giant Chromospheres, Ph.D. thesis, Trinity College Dublin, (2012), available online at:
[119]Kolb K. et al., Synthetic Spectral Analysis of the Hot Component in the S-Type Symbiotic Variable EG Andromeda, The Astronomical Journal, 128, 4, (2004), 1790–4, available online at:
[120]Williams R. E. et al., The Evolution and Classification of Postoutburst Novae Spectra, The Astrophysical Journal, 376, (1991), 721–37, available online at:…376..721W
[121]Williams R. E. et al., The Tololo Nova Survey: Spectra of Recent Novae, Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 90, 1, (1993), 297316, available online at:…90..297W
[122]Anupama G. C., Prabhu T. P., Hα Variability in the Quiescence Spectrum of the Recurrent Nova T Coronae Borealis, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 253, (1991), 605–9, available online at:
[123]Van Rossum D. R., The Nature of the Si II 6150Å, Ca II HK, Ca II IR-Triplet, and Other Spectral Features in Supernova Type Ia Spectra, (2012), eprint arXiv:1208.3781 available online at:
[124]Filippenko A., Optical Spectra of Supernovae, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 35, (1997), 309–55, available online at:
[125]Woolsley S., Janka H. T., The Physics of Core Collapse Supernovae, Nature Physics, 1, 3, (2006), 147–54, available online at:
[126]Grinberg V., Presentation Supernovae-Explosionsmechanismen, La Villa (2006), available online at:
[127]Eberhardt O., Entfernungsmessung mit Supernovae, 2008, available online at:
[128]Richardson D. et al., A Comparative Study of the Absolute Magnitude Distributions of Supernovae, The Astronomical Journal, 123, 2, (2001), 745–52, available online at:
[129]Filippenko A. et al., Estimating The First-Light Time of the Type IA Supernova 2014J in M82, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 783, 1, (2014), L24, 5 pp., available online at:
[130]Kjær K. E. H., Integral Field Spectroscopy Observations of SN 1987A, Ph.D. thesis, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich (2007), available online at:
[131]ESO Messenger Nr. 47, The Spectrum of Supernova 1987A, available online at:
[132]Schlegel E. M. et al., The Type Ib Supernova 1984L in NGC 991, The Astronomical Journal 98, (1989), 577–89, 740, 741, available online at:…..98..577S
[133]Filippenko A. et al., The Type Ic (Helium-Poor Ib) Supernova 1987M - Transition to the Supernebular Phase, The Astronomical Journal, 100, (1990), 1575–87, 1757, available online at:….100.1575F
[134]Kennicutt R. C., Spectrophotometric Atlas of Galaxies, Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 79, 2, (1992), 255–84, available online at:…79..255K
[135]Evans N. W. et al., Dynamical Mass Estimates for the Halo of M31 from Keck Spectroscopy, The Astrophysical Journal, 540, 1, (2000), L9L12, available online at:
[136]Trujillo I. et al., Unveiling the Nature of M94’s (NGC 4736) Outer Region: A Panachromatic Perspective, The Astrophysical Journal, 704, 1, (2009), 618–28, available online at:
[137]Appenzeller I., Introduction to Astronomical Spectroscopy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
[138]Veilleux S., Osterbrock D., Spectral Classification of Emission Line Galaxies, 1986, available online at:…63..295V
[139]Garcia-Lorenzo B. et al., Spectroscopic Atlas of the Central 24”x 20” of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068, The Astrophysical Journal 518, 1, (1999), 190, available online at:–637X/518/1/190/
[140]Ogle P. M. et al., Testing the Seyfert Unification Theory: Chandra HETGS Observations of NGC 1068, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 402, (2003), 849–64, available online at:
[141]Shuder J. M., Osterbrock D. E., Empirical Results from a Study of Active Galactic Nuclei, The Astrophysical Journal, 250, (1981), 5565, available online at:…250…55S
[142]Paltani S., Türler M., The Mass of the Black Hole in 3C273, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 435, 3, (2005), 811–20, available online at:
[143]Boksenberg A. et al., New Spectrometric Results on the Quasar 3C273, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 172, (1974), 289303, available online at:
[144]Peterson B. M. et al., Are Forbidden Lines Present in the Optical Spectrum of the QSO 3C 273?, The Astrophysical Journal, 283, (1984), 529–31, available online at:…283..529P
[145]Oke J. B., The Optical Spectrum of 3C273, The Astrophysical Journal, 141, (1964), 6, available online at:…141….6O
[146]Avara M. J., Precision X-Ray Spectroscopy of 3C273 Jet Knots, B.Sc. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (2008), available online at:
[147]Schmitt J. L., BL Lac Identified as a Radio Source, Nature, 218, (1968), 663.
[148]Gorham P. W. et al., Markarian 421’s Unusual Satellite Galaxy, The Astronomical Journal, 119, (2000), 1677–86, available online at:
[149]Foster C. et al., Deriving Metallicities from the Integrated Spectra of Extragalactic Globular Clusters Using the Near-Infrared Calcium Triplet, The Astronomical Journal, 139, 4, (2009), 1566–78, available online at:
[150]Idiart T. et al., The Infrared Ca II Triplet as a Metallicity Indicator of Stellar Populations, The Astronomical Journal, 113, (1997), 1066, available online at:….113.1066I
[151]Mauro F. et al., Deriving Metallicities from Calcium Triplet Spectroscopy in Combination with Near Infrared Photometry, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 563, (2014), A76, 22 pp., available online at:
[152]Abt H. A., Levato H., Spectral Types in the Pleiades, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 90, (1978), 201–3, available online at:…90..201A
[153]Morgan W., The Integrated Spectral Types of Globular Clusters, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 68, 405, (1956), 509, available online at:…68..509M
[154]Schiavon R. P. et al., A Library of Integrated Spectra of Galactic Globular Clusters, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 160, (2005), 163–75, available online at:
[155]Katsuda S. et al., Discovery of a Pulsar Wind Nebula Candidate in the Cygnus Loop, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 754, 1, (2012), L7, 5 pp.
[156]Gurzadyan G. A., The Physics and Dynamics of Planetary Nebulae (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2010).
[157]Gurzadyan G. A., Excitation Class of Nebulae: An Evolution Criterion? Astrophysics and Space Science, 181, 1, (1990), 73-88, available online at:…73G
[158]Reid W. A. et al., An Evaluation of the Excitation Parameter for the Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, 27, 2, (2010), 187–98, available online at:
[159]Schmoll J., AIP: 3D Spektrofotometrie Extragalaktischer Emissionslinienobjekte, Ph.D. thesis, University of Potsdam (2001), available online at:
[160]Gieseking F., Planetarische Nebel, six-part article series, in Sterne und Weltraum, 1983.
[161]Rozelot J. P., Neiner C., Astronomical Spectrography for Amateurs, EAS Publication Series, 47 (2011).
[162]Varshni Y. P. et al., Emission Lines Identified in Planetary Nebulae, (2006), table available online at:
[163]Kaler J., The Planetary Nebulae, part of Jim Kaler’s STARS website, available online at:
[164]Cohen M. et al., The Peculiar Object HD 44179 “The Red Rectangle,” Astrophysical Journal, 196, (1975), 179–89, available online at:…196..179C
[165]Thomas J. D., Spectroscopic Analysis and Modeling of the Red Rectangle, Ph.D. thesis, University of Toledo, (2012), available online at:
[166]Glinski R. J. et al., On the Red Rectangle Optical Emission Bands, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 332, 2, (2002), L17L22, available online at:
[167]Wehres N. et al., C2 Emission Features in the Red Rectangle, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 518, (2010), A36, 10 pp., available online at:…518A..36W.php
[168]Davidson K., Emission-line Spectra of Condensations in the Crab Nebula, The Astrophysical Journal, 228, (1979), 179–90, available online at:…228..179D
[169]Walsh J. R. et al., Complex Ionized Structure in the Theta-2 Orionis Region, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 201, (1981), 561–7, available online at:
[171]Brown M. E. et al., A High Resolution Catalogue of Cometary Emission Lines, The Astronomical Journal, 112, (1996), 1197–202, available online at:
[172]Catanzaro G., High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Telluric Lines, Astrophysics and Space Science, 257, 1, (1997), 161–70, available online at:
[173]Vacca W. D. et al., A Method of Correcting Near-Infrared Spectra for Telluric Absorption. The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 115, 805, (2003), 389409, available online at:
[174]Schlatter P., “Trocknen” von Sternspektren, Spektrum 43, (2012), available online at:
[175]Babcock H. D., Herzberg L., Fine Structure of the Red System of Atmospheric Oxygen Bands, The Astrophysical Journal, 108, (1948), 167, available online at:…108..167B
[176]Benn C. R., Measuring Light Pollution on La Palma, (2007), available online at:
[177]Schlatter P., Ulrich A., Der Natrium Flash, Mitteilungsblatt Spektrum, 47, (2014), 813, available online at:
[178]Slipher V. M., The Spectrum of Lightning, Lowell Observatory Bulletin No. 79, 3, (1917), 55–8, available online at:…3…55S
[179]Orville R. E., Henderson R. W., Absolute Spectral Irradiance Measurements of Lightning from 375 to 880 nm, Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 41, (1984), 21, 3180, available online at:…41.3180O also available online at:
[180]Pickles A. J., A Stellar Spectral Flux Library, 1150–25000 Å. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 110, 749, (1998), 863–78, available online at:
[181]Karkoschka E., The Observer's Sky Atlas, (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2007).
Abia C. et al., The Chemical Composition of the Rare J-Type Carbon Stars, Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana, 71, (1999), 631–8, available online at:
Ansgar R., Observations of Cool-Star Magnetic Fields, Living Reviews in Solar Physics, 8, (2012), 1, available online at:
Aufdenberg J. P. et al., The Nature of the Na I D-lines in the Red Rectangle, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 417, 4, (2011), 2860–73, available online at:
Barnbaum C., A High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Carbon Stars, Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 90, 1, (1993), 317432, available online at:…90..317B
Caltech, Images, Catalogs and Atlases: A Collection of Spectral Atlases of Extragalactic Objects, available online at:
Chochol D. et al., Photometry and Spectroscopy of the Classical Nova V339 Del in the First Month After Outburst, Contributions of the Astronomical Observatory Skalnaté Pleso, 43, 3, (2014), 330–7, available online at:
Danziger I. J. et al., Optical Spectra of Supernova Remnants, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 88, (1976), 44–9, available online at:…88…44D
Danziger I. J. et al., Optical and Radio Studies of SNR in the Local Group Galaxy M33, The Messenger, 21, (1980), 7, available online at:
Ducsati J. R. et al., Intrinsic Colors of Stars in the Near Infrared, The Astrophysical Journal, 558, 1, (2001), 309, available online at:–637X/558/1/309/fulltext/
DVAA Quasar List, Sorted by magnitude, available online at:
Eversberg T., Vollmann K., Spectroscopic Instrumentation, Fundamentals and Guidelines for Astronomers (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2015).
Filippenko A., Optical Spectra and Light Curves of Supernovae, Proceedings of the ESO/MPA/MPE Workshop, ESO Astrophysics Symposia, (2003), p. 171, available online at:
Fitzgerald M., The Intrinsic Colours of Stars and Two-Colour Reddening Lines, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 4, (1970), 234, available online at:…..4..234F
Gianninas A. et al., A Spectroscopic Survey and Analysis of Bright, Hydrogen-Rich White Dwarfs, The Astrophysical Journal, 743, 2, (2011), 138, available online at:
Greenstein B. J. L., The Gravitational Redshift of 40 Eridani B, Astrophysical Journal, 175, (1972), L1, available online at:…175L…1G
Hansen-Ruiz C. S., van Leeuwen F., Definition of the Pleiades Main Sequence in the HR Diagram, Proceedings From The Hipparcos Venice '97 Symposium (1997), available online at:
Hanuschik R. W., High Resolution Emission line Spectroscopy of Be Stars, I. Evidence for a Two-Component Structure of the Hα Emitting Envelope, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 166, 1–2, (1986), 185–94, available online at: http:/…166..185H
Harrison K. M., Astronomical Spectroscopy for Amateurs (New York: Springer, 2011).
Harrold S., Kajubi J., Active Nuclei and Their Host Galaxies: Observations of Seyfert Galaxies, 2008, available online at:
Hearnshaw J. B., The Analysis of Starlight: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Astronomical Spectroscopy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Hearnshaw J. B., Astronomical Spectrographs and Their History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
Hessmann F. V., The Spectrum of SS Cygni During a Dwarf Nova Eruption, The Astrophysical Journal, 300, (1986), 794803, available online at:…300..794H
Hogerheijde M., Observatory Leiden, Radiative Processes, Appendix E, Extra Problem Set, available online at:
IRAF, NOAO, Image Reduction and Analysis Facility,
Jacobi G. H. et al., A Library of Stellar Spectra,
Jolin M. A. et al., Toward Understanding the Environment of R Monocerotis from High Resolution Near-Infrared Polarimetric Observations, The Astrophysical Journal, 721, (2010) 1748–54, available online at:–637X/721/2/1748/fulltext/apj_721_2_1748.text.html
Joos F., Schmid H. M., Limb Polarization of Uranus and Neptune II: Spectropolarimetric Observations, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 463, 3, (2007), 1201–10, available online at:…463.1201J
Kitchin C. R., Optical Astronomical Spectroscopy (New York: Taylor and Francis Group, 1995).
Lamareille F. et al., Spectral Classification of Emission-Line Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey I, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 509, (2010), A53, 5 pp. and Spectral Classification of Emission-Line Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 531, (2011), A71, 10 pp., available online at: Part I: 2010, Part II: 2011
Degl’Innocenti E. Landi, On the Effective Landé Factor of Magnetic Lines, Solar Physics, 77, 1–2, (1980), 285–9, available online at:…77..285L
Landstreet J. D., The Measurement of Magnetic Fields in Stars, The Astronomical Journal, 85, (1980), 611–20, available online at:…..85..611L
Lorenz R. et al., Backyard Spectroscopy and Photometry of Titan, Uranus and Neptune, Planetary and Space Science, 51, (2003), 113–25, available online at:
Lynds B. T., The Spectra of White Dwarfs, The Astrophysical Journal, 125, (1957), 719, available online at:…125..719L
Mathys G., Ap Stars with Resolved Zeeman Split Lines, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 232, 1, (1990), 151–72, available online at:…232..151M
Mathys G., Lanz T., Ap Stars with Resolved Magnetically Split Lines, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 256, 1, (1992), 169–84, available online at:…256..169M
Mathys G. et al., The Mean Magnetic Field Modulus of Ap Stars, Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, 123, (1996) 353402, available online at:
McKay A., Spectra of T Tauri Stars,
MILES Spectral Library, containing ~1000 spectra of reference stars,
Miroshnichenko A. et al., Properties of the δ Scorpii Circumstellar Disk from Continuum Modeling, The Astrophysical Journal, 652, 2, (2006), 1617, available online at:
Moore B. D. et al., HST Observations of the Wolf-Rayet Nebula NGC 6888, The Astronomical Journal, 119, (2000), 29913002, available online at:
Morgan L. A., The Emission Line Spectrum of the Orion Nebula, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 153, (1971), 393–9, available online at:
Noll S., Spektroskopische Variationen des Herbig Ae/Be Sterns HD 163296. Diploma thesis, University of Heidelberg (1999),
Ojha D. K., Joshi S. C. et al., On the Shell Star Pleione (BU Tauri), Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, 12, 3, (1991), 213–23, available online at:–223.pdf
Peterson B. M. et al., Central Masses and Broad-Line Region Sizes of Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Homogeneous Analysis of a Large Reverberation-Mapping Database, The Astrophysical Journal, 613, 2, (2004), 682–99, available online at:
Pollmann E., Spektroskopische Beobachtungen der Hα- und der He I 6678-Emission am Doppelsternsystem δ Scorpii,
Pradhan A. K., Nahar S. N., Atomic Astrophysics and Spectroscopy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
Reiners A., Magnetic Fields in Low-Mass Stars: An Overview of Observational Biases, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU Symposium, 302, (2014), 156–63, available online at:
Robinson K., Spectroscopy: The Key to the Stars (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2007).
Rozelot J. P., Neiner C., The Rotation of Sun and Stars, Lecture Notes in Physics 765, (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009).
RSpec: Tom Field’s Real-time Spectroscopy,
Shelyak Instruments: Alpy, Lhires, LISA and eShel,
Shipman H. L. et al., The Mass and Radius of 40 Eridani B from HIPPARCOS: An Accurate Test of Stellar Interior Theory, The Astrophysical Journal, 488, (1997), L43–6, available online at:–4357/488/1/L43
Slanger T. G., Cosby P. C. et al., The High-Resolution Light-polluted Night-Sky Spectrum at Mount Hamilton, California, The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 115, 809, (2003), 869–78, available online at:
Sokoloski J. L., Symbiotic Stars as Laboratories for the Study of Accretion and Jets: A Call for Optical Monitoring, Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, 31, 2, (2003), 89102, available online at:
Spectra L200, Users Manual for the Spectra L200 by Ken Harrison,
SpectroTools: freeware program by Peter Schlatter,
Stefl S. et al., V/R Variations of Binary Be Stars, ESO 2007,
Stockton A. et al., Spectroscopy of R Monocerotis and NGC 2261, The Astrophysical Journal, 199, (1974), 406–10, available online at:…199..406S
Tanaka M. et al., Near-Infrared Spectra of 29 Carbon Stars: Simple Estimates of Effective Temperature, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 59, (2007), 939–53, available online at:
The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System,
Thompson G. B., Time-series Analysis of Line Profile Variability in Optical Spectra of ε Orionis, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toledo, (2009), available online at:!etd.send_file?accession=toledo1249511358&disposition=inline
Tonkin S. F., Practical Amateur Spectroscopy (London: Springer-Verlag, 2004).
UCM, University of Madrid: Libraries of Stellar Spectra, available online at:
Warner B. D., A Practical Guide to Lightcurve Photometry and Analysis (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2006).
Williams College, USA, Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra, available online at:
Wilson O. C., The Wolf–Rayet Spectroscopic Binary HD 190918, The Astrophysical Journal, 109, (1948), 76, available online at:…109…76W


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 307 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 808 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 28th July 2017 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.