Skip to main content
Taming the Imperial Imagination
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Goettlich, Kerry 2018. The rise of linear borders in world politics. European Journal of International Relations, p. 135406611876099.

    Fuoli, Francesca 2018. Incorporating north-western Afghanistan into the British empire: experiments in indirect rule through the making of an imperial frontier, 1884–87. Afghanistan, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 4.

    Manchanda, Nivi 2017. Rendering Afghanistan legible: Borders, frontiers and the ‘state’ of Afghanistan. Politics, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 386.

    Bayly, Martin J. 2015. Imperial ontological (in)security: ‘Buffer states’, International Relations and the case of Anglo-Afghan relations, 1808–1878. European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 21, Issue. 4, p. 816.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Taming the Imperial Imagination
    • Online ISBN: 9781316339176
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Taming the Imperial Imagination marks a novel intervention into the debate on empire and international relations, and offers a new perspective on nineteenth-century Anglo-Afghan relations. Martin J. Bayly shows how, throughout the nineteenth century, the British Empire in India sought to understand and control its peripheries through the use of colonial knowledge. Addressing the fundamental question of what Afghanistan itself meant to the British at the time, he draws on extensive archival research to show how knowledge of Afghanistan was built, refined and warped by an evolving colonial state. This knowledge informed policy choices and cast Afghanistan in a separate legal and normative universe. Beginning with the disorganised exploits of nineteenth-century explorers and ending with the cold strategic logic of the militarised 'scientific frontier', this book tracks the nineteenth-century origins of contemporary policy 'expertise' and the forms of knowledge that inform interventions in Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere today.


'Focusing on the shifting parameters of 'knowledge communities', this impressive book situates Afghanistan and the Afghan frontier in a multi-layered and evolving set of British Imperial and colonial policies and practices during the nineteenth century. It is essential reading for all students of modern Afghanistan and for those concerned with colonial knowledge formations and the history of imperialism.’

Shah Mahmoud Hanifi - James Madison University, Virginia

‘According to Edward Said, 'From travelers’ tales … colonies were created'. In recent years scholars have explored the details of the dialectical relationship between colonial knowledge and imperial policy. In Taming the Imperial Imagination, Martin Bayly continues the work begun by Christopher Bayly on British information gathering in India, pushing the investigation north of the Durand Line into Afghanistan. Bayly reconstructs the images of Afghanistan upon which British officials drew in crafting their policy decisions. After discussing the work of the founding figures, he tracks the emergence after 1830 of a more unified concept of the Afghan polity. This book is an important contribution to the histories of British imperialism and Anglo-Afghan relations and to the re-historicization of the international relations discipline.’

George Steinmetz - Charles Tilly Professor of Sociology, University of Michigan

'Bayly, in a single volume, demolishes powerful self-fulfilling myths. Speaking to multiple audiences with interests across the historical and thematic spectrum, this book is a must-read for anyone wanting to understand why Afghanistan looks the way it does in 2017, and more importantly, why many view it the way they do.'

Avinash Paliwal Source: International Affairs

'Taming the imperial imagination is at once an intellectual history of British constructions of Afghanistan as well as a critical theoretical argument regarding the variegated manifestations of space, sovereignty and territory - the currency of much IR literature - over time. … ultimately, the book’s intellectual ambition is equalled by the author’s sophisticated and compelling argument.'

Benjamin D. Hopkins Source: Cambridge Review of International Affairs

'This is no ordinary book about British colonial-era engagement with Afghanistan. In fact, it is as far removed from orthodox military histories of the Anglo-Afghan experience as it is possible to be. More than anything it chooses to intellectualise the subject in an uncommon fashion and in the process delivers an entirely refreshing approach to what is in danger of becoming a tired and unimaginative field of study. … It is as much a book about the present as it is about the past, and for that reason is a must-read for anyone interested in the formulation of foreign policy and military strategy with respect to those dark corners of our world that stoke the fears of Western imagination.'

Christian Tripodi Source: International Journal of Military and Historiography

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Elphinstone Papers

Mss Eur F88

Broughton Papers

Add MS 36473–4, Mss Eur F213

Masson Collection

Mss Eur E161

Papers of John Colvin

Mss Eur F470/2

Board’s Collections


Monographs, External Affairs


Home Correspondence


Secret Correspondence with India


Enclosures to Secret Correspondence with India


Political and Secret Department Memoranda – ‘A’ Series


Political and Secret Department Library


SM52, 1837–8

The Delhi Gazette

Pamphlets, Afghan Affairs, and Maps


  • Foreign Department Consultations

Abbott, James, Narrative of a Journey from Heraut to Khiva, Moscow, and St Petersburgh During the Late Russian Invasion of Khiva, in two volumes (London: H. Allen and Co., 1843).
Bellew, H. W., Journal of a Political Mission to Afghanistan in 1857 (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1862).
Burnes, Alex, ‘Papers Descriptive of the Countries on the North-West Frontier of India: The Thurr, or Desert: Joodpoor and Jaysulmeer’, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 4 (1834), 88129.
Burnes, Alexander, Travels into Bokhara, Second Edition, in three volumes (London: John Murray, 1835).
Alexander, Burnes, Cabool, Second Edition (London: John Murray, 1843).
Burnes, Lieut, ‘Substance of a Geographical Memoir on the Indus’, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 3 (1833), 113–56.
Campbell, George, ‘The North-West Frontier of India’, RUSI Journal, 13/54 (1869), 217–40.
Carr, Ralph E., ‘The Kurdistan Mountain Ranges, Considered in Reference to a Russian Advance on the Tigris Valley’, RUSI Journal, 22/94 (1878), 155–83.
Clark, Hyde, ‘On the Organisation of the Army of India, with Especial Reference to the Hill Regions’, RUSI Journal, 9/7 (1859), 1827.
Conolly, Arthur, Journey to the North of India, in two volumes (London: Richard Bentley, 1834).
Cotton, Sydney, Nine Years on the North-West Frontier of India, From 1854 to 1863 (London: Richard Bentley, 1868).
Durand, Henry Marion, The First Afghan War and Its Causes (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1879).
Eden, Emily, Up the Country (London: Richard Bentley, 1867).
Edwardes, Herbert B., A Year on the Punjab Frontier 1848–9, Volume I (London: Richard Bentley, 1851).
Elphinstone, Mountstuart, An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, and Its Dependencies in Persia, Tartary and India, Second Edition, in two volumes (London: Richard Bentley, 1819).
Elphinstone, Mountstuart, An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul and Its Dependencies in Persia, Tartary and India, Third Edition, in two volumes (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1842).
Ferrier, J. P., Caravan Journeys and Wanderings in Persia, Afghanistan, Turkistan, and Beloochistan (London: John Murray, 1856).
Foucault, Michel (trans. Sheridan Smith, A. M.), The Archaeology of Knowledge, Kindle Edition (Abingdon: Routledge, 2002).
Sir Frere, Bartle, Afghanistan and South Africa, Letters to the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone M.P. Regarding Portions of his Midlothian Speeches, and a Letter to the Later Sir John Kaye, and Other Papers, Fifth Edition (London: John Murray, 1881).
Hamley, E. B., ‘The Strategical Conditions of Our Indian North-West Frontier’, RUSI Journal, 22/98 (1878), 1027–46.
Harlan, Josiah, A Memoir of India and Avghanistaun (New York: J. Dobson, 1842).
Kaye, John William, History of the War in Afghanistan, Volume I (London: Richard Bentley, 1857).
Kennedy Late, J. P., ‘The Strategical and National Importance of Extending Railway Communication Throughout the British Colonies, More Especially Throughout India’, RUSI Journal, 2/5 (1858), 6286.
Masson, Charles, Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, and the Panjab, in three volumes (London: Richard Bentley, 1842).
McNeill, John, Progress and Present Position of Russia in the East (London: John Murray, 1836).
Mitford, Edward Ledwitch, A Land March from England to Ceylon Forty Years Ago Through Dalmatia, Montenegro, Turkey, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Assyria, Persia, Afghanistan, Scinde, and India, of which 7000 Miles on Horseback (London: W.H. Allen & Co., 1884).
Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George, Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab (London: William Murray, 1841).
Pearse, Hugh (ed.), Soldier and Traveller: Memoirs of Alexander Gardner (London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1898).
Rawlinson, Henry, England and Russia in the East (London: John Murray, 1875).
Slagg, John, ‘The True “Scientific Frontier” of India’, The Nineteenth Century (July 1885), 151–9.
Vaughan, J. L., ‘Afghanistan and the Military Operations Therein’, RUSI Journal, 22/98 (1878), 1003–26.
Vigne, Godfrey T., A Personal Narrative of a visit to Ghuzni, Kabul, and Afghanistan, Second Edition (London: George Routledge, 1843).
Wyllie, J. S., Essays on the External Policy of India (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1875).
Adamec, Ludwig (ed.), Historical and Political Gazetteer of Afghanistan, Volume 6 (Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1985).
Adler, Emanuel, ‘Constructivism in International Relations: Sources, Contributions, and Debates’, in Carlsnaes, Walter, Risse, Thomas, and Simmons, Beth A. (eds.), Handbook of International Relations, Second Edition (London: Sage, 2013), 112–44.
Agamben, Giorgio, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Kindle Edition (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998).
Agnew, J., Geopolitics: Re-visioning World Politics, Second Edition (London: Routledge, 1998).
Agnew, John, ‘The Territorial Trap: The Geographical Assumptions of International Relations Theory’, Review of International Political Economy, 1/1 (1994), 5380.
Ahmed, Akbar S., ‘An Aspect of the Colonial Encounter in the North-West Frontier Province’, Asian Affairs, 9/2 (1978), 319–27.
Ahmed, Manan, ‘Adam’s Mirror: The Frontier in the Imperial Imagination’, Economic and Political Weekly, XLVI/13 (2011), 60–5.
Ahmed, Manan, ‘Flying Blind: US Foreign Policy’s Lack of Expertise’, The National (, 10 May 2011).
Alder, G. J., ‘The Key to India?: Britain and the Herat Problem 1830–1863 – Part 1’, Middle Eastern Studies, 10/2 (1974), 186209.
Allen, Charles, Soldier Sahibs: The Men Who Made the North-West Frontier (London: Abacus, 2001).
Anderson, John, ‘Poetics and Politics in Ethnographic Texts: A View from the Colonial Ethnography of Afghanistan’, in Brown, Richard Harvey (ed.), Writing the Social Text: Poetics and Politics in Social Science Discourse (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1992), 91116.
Anderson, Malcolm, Frontiers: Territory and State Formation in the Modern World (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004).
Anghie, Antony, ‘Finding the Peripheries: Sovereignty and Colonialism in Nineteenth-Century International Law’, Harvard International Law Journal, 40/1 (1999), 171.
Ansorge, Joseph Teboho and Barkawi, Tarak, ‘Utile Forms: Power and Knowledge in Small Wars’, Review of International Studies, 40/1 (2014), 324.
Armitage, David, ‘The Fifty Years’ Rift: Intellectual History and International Relations’, Modern Intellectual History, 1/1 (2004), 97109.
Ballantyne, Tony, ‘Rereading the Archive and Opening up the Nation-State: Colonial Knowledge in South Asia and Beyond’, in Burton, Antoinette (ed.), After the Imperial Turn: Thinking with and Through the Nation (London: Duke University Press, 2003), 102–21.
Banerjee, Mukulika, The Pathan Unarmed (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2000).
Barfield, Thomas, Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010).
Barfield, Thomas J., ‘Problems in Establishing Legitimacy in Afghanistan’, Iranian Studies, 37/2 (2004), 263–93.
Barkawi, Tarak, ‘Empire and Order in International Relations and Security Studies’, in Denemark, Robert A. (ed.), The International Studies Encyclopedia, Volume III (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), 1360–79.
Barkawi, Tarak and Stanski, Keith, Orientalism and War (London: Hurst, 2012).
Barkawi, Tarak and Laffey, Mark, ‘The Postcolonial Moment in Security Studies’, Review of International Studies, 32/2 (2006), 329–52.
Barkawi, Tarak and Laffey, Mark, ‘Retrieving the Imperial: Empire and International Relations’, Millennium, 31/1 (2002), 109–27.
Batty, David, ‘Liam Fox Calls for Faster UK Troop Withdrawal from Afghanistan’, (, 22 May 2010).
Bayly, Christopher A., The Birth of the Modern World 1780–1914 (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004).
Bayly, Christopher A., Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780–1870 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Bayly, Christopher A., Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
Bayly, Christopher A., ‘Knowing the Country’, Modern Asian Studies, 27/1 (1993), 343.
Bayly, Martin, ‘Allow it to Speak for itself’, Times Higher Education, 10 March (2011), 47–8. Available online:
Bayly, Martin J., ‘Imperial Ontological (In)security: “Buffer States”, International Relations and the Case of Anglo-Afghan Relations, 1808–1878’, European Journal of International Relations, 21/4 (2015), 816–40.
Bayly, Martin J., ‘The “Re-turn” to Empire in IR: Colonial Knowledge Communities and the Construction of the Idea of the Afghan Polity, 1809–38’, Review of International Studies, 40/3 (2014), 443–64.
Becker, Seymour, ‘The “Great Game”: The History of an Evocative Phrase’, Asian Affairs, 43/1 (2012), 6180.
Bell, Duncan, ‘Dissolving Distance: Technology, Space, and Empire in British Political Thought, 1770–1900’, Journal of Modern History, 77/3 (2005), 523–62.
Bell, Duncan, ‘Empire and International Relations in Victorian Political Thought’, Historical Journal, 49/1 (2006), 281–98.
Bell, Duncan, The Idea of Greater Britain (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007).
Bell, Duncan, ‘International Relations: The Dawn of a Historiographical Turn?’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 3/1 (2001), 115–26.
Bell, Duncan, ‘Victorian Visions of Global Order: An Introduction’, in Bell, Duncan (ed.), Victorian Visions of Global Order (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 125.
Bell, Duncan, ‘Writing the World: Disciplinary History and Beyond’, International Affairs, 85/1 (2009), 322.
Berger, Peter L. and Luckmann, Thomas, The Social Construction of Reality (London: Penguin Press, 1967).
Bierstecker, Thomas J. and Weber, Cynthia (eds.), State Sovereignty as Social Construct (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Blom Hansen, Thomas and Stepputat, Finn, Sovereign Bodies: Citizens, Migrants and States in the Postcolonial World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005).
Boulger, Demetrius C., Lord William Bentinck (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1897).
Branch, Jordan, ‘“Colonial Reflection” and Territoriality: The Peripheral Origins of Sovereign Statehood’, European Journal of International Relations, 18/2 (2012), 277–97.
Branch, Jordan, ‘Mapping the Sovereign State: Technology, Authority, and Systemic Change’, International Organization, 65/1 (2011), 136.
Bruner, Jerome, ‘The Narrative Construction of Reality’, Critical Enquiry, 18/1 (1991), 121.
Burke, Peter, A Social History of Knowledge (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2002).
Burroughs, Peter, ‘Imperial Institutions and the Government of Empire’, in Porter, Andrew and Low, Alaine (eds.), The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume III, The Nineteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 170–97.
Buzan, Barry and Lawson, George, The Global Transformation: History Modernity and the Making of International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
Campbell, David, Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992).
Caroe, Olaf, The Pathans: 550 B.C.– A.D. 1957 (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2011).
Checkel, J. T., ‘The Constructivist Turn in International Relations Theory’, World Politics, 50/2 (1998), 324–48.
Coburn, Noah, Bazaar Politics: Poetry and Pottery in an Afghan Market Town (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011).
Coghlan, Tom, ‘Afghans Accuse Defence Secretary Liam Fox of Racism and Disrespect’, The Times (, 24 May 2010).
Cohn, Bernard S., Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996).
Colebrooke, Thomas E., Life of the Honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
Sir Colebrooke, Edward, ‘Memoir of the Honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, XVIII (1861), 221344.
Coll, Steve, Ghost Wars (London: Penguin Books, 2005).
Comaroff, John and Comaroff, Jean, Ethnography and the Historical Imagination (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992), 11.
Connolly, William E., ‘Tocqueville, Territory, and Violence’, in Shapiro, Michael J. and Alker, Hayward R. (eds.), Challenging Boundaries (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996), 141–64.
Cowper-Coles, Sherard, Cables from Kabul (London: Harper Press, 2011).
Cox, Michael, Booth, Ken, and Dunne, Tim, ‘Empires, Systems, and States: Great Transformations in International Politics’, Review of International Studies, 27/1 (2001), 115.
Cullather, Nick, ‘Damning Afghanistan: Modernization in a Buffer State’, Journal of American History (September 2002).
Cullather, Nick, The Hungry World (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010).
Curzon, George N., ‘Text of the 1907 Romanes Lecture on the Subject of Frontiers’ (
Dalby, Simon, ‘The Pentagon’s New Imperial Cartography: Tabloid Realism and the War on Terror’, in Gregory, Derek and Pred, Allan (eds.), Violent Geographies: Fear, Terror, and Political Violence (London: Routledge, 2007), 255–72.
Dalrymple, William, Return of a King (London: Bloomsbury, 2013).
Dirks, Nicholas, Castes of Mind (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).
Doty, Roxanne Lynn, Imperial Encounters: The Politics of Representation in North-South Relations (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996).
Dupree, Louis, Afghanistan (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Duthie, John Lowe, ‘Pragmatic Diplomacy or Imperial Encroachment? British Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1874–1879’, International History Review, 4/5 (1983), 475–95.
Edwards, David B., Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).
Edwards, David B., Heroes of the Age: Moral Faultlines on the Afghan Frontier (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996).
Edwards, Lucy Morgan, The Afghan Solution (London: Bactria Press, 2011).
Elman, Colin and Elman, Miriam Fendius (eds.), Bridges and Boundaries: Historians, Political Scientists, and the Study of International Relations (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001).
Engerman, David, Know Your Enemy: The Rise and Fall of America’s Soviet Experts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).
Engerman, David, Modernization from the Other Shore: American Intellectuals and the Romance of Russian Development (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003).
Ewans, Martin, Securing the Indian Frontier in Central Asia: Confrontation and negotiation, 1865–95 (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010).
Farish, Matthew, ‘Targeting the Inner Landscape’, in Gregory, Derek and Pred, Allan (eds.), Violent Geographies: Fear, Terror, and Political Violence (London: Routledge, 2007), 255–72.
Fay, C. R., ‘The Movement Towards Free Trade, 1820–1853’, in Holland, J. Rose, A. P. Newton, , and Benians, E. A. (eds.), The Cambridge History of the British Empire, Volume II: The Growth of the New Empire 1783–1870 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968), 389416.
Finnemore, Martha, National Interests in International Society (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996).
Fraser-Tytler, William, Afghanistan: A Study of Political Developments in Central and Southern Asia, Third Edition (London: Oxford University Press, 1967).
Furlong, Ray, ‘Knowledge of Afghanistan “Astonishingly Thin”’, BBC News (, 31 July 2010).
Geertz, Clifford, The Interpretation of Cultures (London: Fontana Press, 1993).
Gezari, Vanessa M., The Tender Soldier: A True Story of War and Sacrifice (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2013).
Gilman, Nils, Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America (Baltimore, MD: John’s Hopkins University Press, 2003).
Giustozzi, Antonio, Decoding the Neo-Taliban: Insight from the Afghan Field (London: Hurst, 2009).
Giustozzi, Antonio, Koran, Kalashnikov, Laptop: The Neo-Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008).
Golinski, Jan, Making Natural Knowledge: Constructivism and the History of Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
Gong, Gerrit, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).
González, Roberto J., American Counterinsurgency: Human Science and the Human Terrain (Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press, 2009).
Government of the Punjab, Calendar of Persian Correspondence (Lahore: Punjab Archives Civil Secretariat, 1985).
Green, Nile, ‘Tribe, Diaspora, and Statehood in Afghan History’, Journal of Asian Studies, 67/1 (2008), 171211.
Gregory, Derek, ‘From a View to Kill: Drones and Late-Modern War’, Theory Culture Society, 27/7–8 (2011), 188215.
Gregory, Derek, Geographical Imaginations (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994).
Gregory, Derek, “The Rush to the Intimate’: Counterinsurgency and the Cultural Turn’, Radical Philosophy, 150 (July–August, 2008), 823.
Gregory, Derek, ‘Vanishing Points: Law, Violence, and Exception in the Global War Prison’, in Gregory, Derek and Pred, Allan (eds.), Violent Geographies: Fear, Terror, and Political Violence (London: Routledge, 2007), 205–36.
Gregory, Derek and Pred, Allan (eds.), Violent Geographies: Fear, Terror, and Political Violence (London: Routledge, 2007).
Grey, C. and Garrett, H. L. O., European Adventurers of Northern India 1785–1849 (Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1993).
Haas, Peter, ‘Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination’, International Organization, 46/1 (1992), 135.
Hacking, Ian, Historical Ontology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002).
Hacking, Ian, ‘The Looping Effects of Human Kinds’, in Sperber, Dan, Premack, David, and Premack, Ann James (eds.), Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 351–94.
Hadley, Edmund, ‘The Origins and Evolution of the Taliban’s Political Discourse’, unpublished MA thesis (School of Oriental and African Studies, 2014).
Hall, Lesley, A Brief Guide to Sources for the Study of Afghanistan in the India Office Records (London: India Office Library and Records, 1981).
Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud, Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008). Available online:
Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud, ‘Quandaries of the Afghan Nation’, in Bashir, Shahzad and Crews, Robert D. (eds.), Under the Drones: Modern Lives in the Afghanistan-Pakistan Borderlands (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012), 91101.
Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud, ‘Shah Shuja’s “Hidden History” and its Implications for the Historiography of Afghanistan’, South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal [online] (May 2012). Available online:
Haroon, Sara, Frontier of Faith: Islam in the Indo-Afghan Borderland (London: Hurst, 2007).
Hevia, James, The Imperial Security State: British Colonial Knowledge and Empire-Building in Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
Hiebert, Fredrick and Cambon, Pierre (eds.), Afghanistan: Crossroads of the Ancient World (London: British Museum Press, 2011).
Hillemann, Ulrike, Asian Empire and British Knowledge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
Hobson, John, The Eurocentric Conception of World Politics: Western International Theory, 1760–2010 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
Hobson, John, Lawson, George, and Rosenberg, Justin, ‘Historical Sociology’, LSE Research Online, June 2010 (
Hoffman, Stanley, ‘An American Social Science: International Relations’, Daedalus, 106/3 (1977), 4160.
Hopf, Ted, ‘The Promise of Constructivism in International Relations Theory’, International Security, 23/1 (1998), 171200.
Hopkins, Benjamin, ‘The Bounds of Identity: The Goldsmid Mission and the Delineation of the Perso-Afghan Border in the Nineteenth Century’, Journal of Global History, 2 (2007), 233–54.
Hopkins, Benjamin, ‘A History of the “Hindustani Fanatics” on the Frontier’, in Hopkins, Benjamin and Marsden, Magnus (eds.), Beyond Swat: History, Society, and Economy Along the Afghanistan-Pakistan Frontier (London: Hurst, 2013), 3950.
Hopkins, Benjamin, The Making of Modern Afghanistan (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).
Hopkins, Benjamin, ‘The Myth of the “Great Game”: The Anglo-Sikh Alliance and Rivalry’, Centre of South Asian Studies Occasional Paper, No. 5 (Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 2004).
Hopkins, Benjamin and Marsden, Magnus, Fragments of the Afghan Frontier (London: Hurst, 2011).
Hopkirk, Peter, The Great Game: On Secret Service in High Asia (London: John Murray, 2006).
Howard, Michael, ‘The Uses and Abuses of Military History’, RUSI Journal, 138/1 (1993), 2630.
Husain, Farrukh, Afghanistan in the Age of Empires: The Great Game for South and Central Asia (unpublished manuscript).
Ingram, Edward, In Defence of British India: Great Britain in the Middle East 1775–1842 (London: Frank Cass, 1984).
Irschick, Eugene, Dialogue and History: Constructing South India, 1795–1895 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
Isacoff, Jonathan B., ‘On the Historical Imagination of International Relations: The Case for a “Deweyan Reconstruction”’, Millennieum, 31/3 (2002), 603–26.
Jacobi, Daniel, ‘On the “Construction” of Knowledge and the Knowledge of “Construction”’, International Political Sociology, 5/1 (2011), 94–7.
Johnson, Rob, The Afghan Way of War (London: Hurst and Company, 2011).
Johnson, Rob, Spying for Empire: The Great Game in Central and South-East Asia, 1757–1947 (London: Greenhill Books, 2006).
Johnson, Thomas H. and Chris Mason, M., ‘No Sign Until the Burst of Fire: Understanding the Pakistan-Afghanistan Frontier’, International Security, 32/4 (2008), 4177.
Jones, Seth G., In the Graveyard of Empires: America’s War in Afghanistan (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2009).
Kashani-Sabet, Firoozeh, Frontier Fictions: Shaping the Iranian Nation 1804–1946 (London: I.B. Tauris, 2000).
Katzenstein, Peter (ed.), The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996).
Keene, Edward, Beyond the Anarchical Society: Grotius, Colonialism and Order in World Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
Kipling, Rudyard, Twenty-One Tales (London: The Reprint Society, 1946).
Kleveman, Lutz, The New Great Game: Blood and Oil in Central Asia (New York: Grove Press, 2003).
Kuklick, Bruce, Blind Oracles: Intellectuals and War from Kennan to Kissinger (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006).
Lake, Anthony, ‘Confronting Backlash States’, Foreign Affairs, 73/2 (1994), 4555.
Latham, Michael, Modernization as Ideology: American Social Science and ‘Nation Building’ in the Kennedy Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000).
Lawson, George, ‘The Eternal Divide? History and International Relations’, European Journal of International Relations, 18 (2012), 203–26.
Lawson, George, ‘The Promise of Historical Sociology in International Relations’, International Studies Review, 8/3 (2006), 397423.
Lawson, Phillip, The East India Company: A History (Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1993).
Leveen Lee, J.The Journals of Edward Stirling in Persia and Afghanistan, 1828–29. Notification of Future Publication’, Journal of Persian Studies, 24 (1986), 191–3.
Lindholm, Charles, ‘Images of the Pathan: The Usefulness of Colonial Ethnography’, European Journal of Sociology, 21/2 (1980), 350–61.
Long, David and Schmidt, Brian (eds.), Imperialism and Internationalism in the Discipline of International Relations (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2005).
MacDonald, Myra, ‘Do You Think Afghanistan Hasn’t Changed Since 1842?’, Reuters (, 20 March 2012).
Macintyre, Ben, The Man Who Would be King: The First American in Afghanistan (New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 2004).
Mackenzie, John M., Orientalism: History, Theory and the Arts (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995).
Maley, William (ed.), Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban (London: Hurst, 2001).
Malkasian, Carter, War Comes to Garmser: Thirty Years of Conflict on the Afghan Frontier (London: Hurst, 2013).
Manchanda, Nivi, ‘Imagining Afghanistan: The History and Politics of Colonial Knowledge Production’, unpublished DPhil thesis (University of Cambridge, 2014).
Martin, Mike, ‘A Brief History of Helmand’, Afghan COIN Centre, UK Ministry of Defence, 2011.
Martin, Mike, An Intimate War: An Oral History of the Helmand Conflict (London: Hurst, 2014).
McLaren, Martha, British India and British Scotland, 1780–1830 (Akron, OH: University of Akron Press, 2001).
Michener, James A., Caravans (New York: Fawcett Crest, 1963).
Mitchell, Timothy, ‘The World as Exhibition’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 31/2 (1989), 217–36.
Mitzen, Jennifer, ‘Anchoring Europe’s Civilizing Identity: Habits, Capabilities and Ontological Security’, Journal of European Public Policy, 13/2 (2006), 270–85.
Mitzen, Jennifer, ‘Ontological Security in World Politics: State Identity and the Security Dilemma’, European Journal of International Relations, 12/3 (2006), 341–70.
Moran, Neil K., Kipling and Afghanistan (Jefferson, NC: MacFarland and Co, Inc., 2005).
Morgan, Gerald, ‘Myth and Reality in the Great Game’, Asian Affairs, 4 (1973), 5565.
Nawid, Senzil, ‘The State, the Clergy, and British Imperial Policy in Afghanistan During the 19th and Early 20th Centuries’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 29/4 (1997), 581605.
Noelle, Christine, State and Tribe in Nineteenth Century Afghanistan: The Reign of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan (1826–1863) (Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1997).
Noelle-Karimi, Christine, ‘The Abdali Afghans Between Multan, Qandahar and Herat in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries’, in Hopkins, Benjamin D. and Marsden, Magnus (eds.), Beyond Swat: History, Society and Economy along the Afghanistan-Pakistan Frontier (London: Hurst & Company, 2013), 31–8.
Norris, J. A., The First Afghan War, 1838–1842 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967).
Omrani, Bijan, ‘Charles Masson of Afghanistan: Deserter, Scholar, Spy’, Asian Affairs, 39/2 (2008), 199216.
Onuf, Nicholas, World of Our Making (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1989), 6.
Paglan, Trevor, ‘Groom Lake and the Imperial Production of Nowhere’, in Gregory, Derek and Pred, Alan (eds.), Violent Geographies: Fear Terror and Political Violence (London: Routledge, 2009), 237–54.
Peers, Douglas M., Between Mars and Mammon: Colonial Armies and the Garrison State in India 1819–1835 (London: Tauris Academic Studies, 1995).
Phillips, C. H. (ed.), The Evolution of India and Pakistan 1858 to 1947, Select Documents (London: Oxford University Press, 1962).
Pitts, Jennifer, ‘Boundaries of Victorian International Law’, in Bell, Duncan (ed.), Victorian Visions of Global Order (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 6788.
Pitts, Jennifer, A Turn to Empire: The Rise of Imperial Liberalism in Britain and France (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005).
Porch, Douglas, Counterinsurgency: Exposing the Myths of the New Way of War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
Porter, Patrick, Military Orientalism: Eastern War Through Western Eyes (London: Hurst, 2009).
Pratt, Mary Louise, Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008).
Price, David H., Weaponizing Anthropology (Petrolia, CA: Counterpunch, 2011).
Rand, Gavin and Wagner, Kim A., ‘Recruiting the “Martial Races”: Identities and Military Service in Colonial India’, Patterns of Prejudice, 46/3–4 (2012), 232–54.
Rashid, Ahmed, Descent into Chaos (London: Viking, 2008).
Rashid, Ahmed, Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia (London: I.B. Tauris, 2002).
Rendell, Jane, ‘Scottish Orientalism: From Robertson to James Mill’, Historical Journal, 25/1 (1982), 4369.
Reus-Smit, Christian, ‘Reading History through Constructivist Eyes’, Millennium, 37/2 (2008), 395414.
Richards, Thomas, The Imperial Archive: Knowledge and the Fantasy of Empire (London: Verso, 1993).
Risse, Thomas, ‘“Let’s Argue”: Communicative Action in World Politics’, International Organization, 54/1 (2000), 139.
Rosenberg, Emily S., ‘Introduction’, in Rosenberg, Emily S. (ed.), A World Connecting, 1870–1945 (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012), 325.
Rubin, Barnett, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002).
Said, Edward, Orientalism (London: Penguin, 2003).
Satia, Priya, Spies in Arabia: The Great War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain’s Covert Empire in the Middle East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).
Scott, James C., Seeing Like a State (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998).
Shahrani, M. Nazif, ‘Statebuilding and Social Fragmentation in Afghanistan: A Historical Perspective’, in Banuazizi, Ali and Weiner, Myron (eds.), The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986), 2374.
Shapiro, Michael J. and Alker, Hayward R. (eds.), Challenging Boundaries (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996).
Shaw, Martin, ‘Post-Imperial and Quasi-Imperial: State and Empire in the Global Era’, Millennium, 31/2 (2002), 327–36.
Siddique, Abubakar, The Pashtun Question: The Unresolved Key to the Future of Afghanistan and Pakistan (London: Hurst, 2014).
Simpson, Emile, War from the Ground Up: Twenty-First-Century Combat as Politics (London: Hurst, 2012).
Simpson, Gerry, Great Powers and Outlaw States: Unequal Sovereigns in the International Legal Order (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Skinner, Quentin, ‘The State’, in Ball, Terrance, Farr, James, and Hanson, Russell L. (eds.), Political Innovation and Conceptual Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 90131.
Stafford, Robert A., ‘Scientific Exploration and Empire’, in Porter, Andrew and Low, Alaine (eds.), The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume III, The Nineteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 294319.
Stanski, Keith, ‘“So These Folks are Aggressive”: An Orientalist Reading of Afghan Warlords’, Security Dialogue, 41/1 (2009), 7394.
Star, Alexander, ‘Afghanistan: What the Anthropologists Say’, The New York Times, 11 November 2011. Available online:
Steele, Brent J., ‘Ontological Security and the Power of Self-Identity: British Neutrality and the American Civil War’, Review of International Studies, 31/3 (2005), 519–40.
Stehr, Nico and Meja, Volker (eds.), Society and Knowledge, Second Edition (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2005).
Stern, Philip J., ‘“A Politie of Civill and Military Power”: Political Thought and the Late Seventeenth-Century Foundations of the East India Company State’, Journal of British Studies, 47/2 (2008), 253–83.
Stewart, Jules, On Afghanistan’s Plains: The Story of Britain’s Afghan Wars (London: I.B. Tauris, 2011).
Stewart, Rory, ‘The Irresistible Illusion’, London Review of Books, 31/13 (9 July 2009), 36. Available online:
Stewart, Rory, The Places in Between (London: Picador, 2005).
Stoler, Ann Laura, Along the Archival Grain: Epistemic Anxieties and Colonial Common Sense (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009).
Stoler, Ann Laura, ‘On Degrees of Imperial Sovereignty’, Public Culture, 18/1 (2006), 125–46.
Stoler, Ann Laura, and Bond, David, ‘Refractions off Empire: Untimely Comparisons in Harsh Times’, Radical History Review, 95 (2006), 93107.
Strang, David, ‘Contested Sovereignty: The Social Construction of Colonial Imperialism’, in Bierstecker, Thomas J. and Weber, Cynthia (eds.), State Sovereignty as Social Construct (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 2249.
Sylvest, Casper, ‘The Foundations of Victorian International Law’, in Bell, Duncan (ed.), Victorian Visions of Global Order (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Tannenwald, Nina, The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons Since 1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
Tapper, Richard (ed.), The Conflict of Tribe and State in Iran and Afghanistan (London: Croom Helm, 1983).
The Editors, ‘Despair and Necessity in Afghanistan’, The National Review (, 20 March 2012).
Thornton, A. P.Afghanistan in Anglo-Russian Diplomacy, 1869–1873’, Cambridge Historical Journal, 11/2 (1954), 204–18.
Thornton, A. P.The Reopening of the “Central Asian Question”, 1864–9’, History, 41 (1956), 122–36.
Tomsen, Peter, The Wars of Afghanistan (New York: Public Affairs, 2011).
Toynbee, Arnold J., Between Oxus and Jumna (London: Oxford University Press, 1967).
Tripodi, Christian, ‘“Good for One But Not the Other” the “Sandeman System” of Pacification as Applied to Baluchistan and the North-WestFrontier 1877–1947’, Journal of Military History, 73/3 (2009), 767802.
Trotter, J. L., The Earl of Auckland (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1893).
Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt, Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005).
Tuathail, Gearóid Ó, Critical Geopolitics (London: Routledge, 1996).
Tuathail, Gearóid Ó and Agnew, John, ‘Geopolitics and Discourse: Practical Geopolitical Reasoning in American Foreign Policy’, Political Geography, 11/2 (1992), 190204.
Tuck, Peter J. N. (ed.), The East India Company 1600–1858 (London: Routledge, 1998).
United States Department of the Army, The US Army Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Manual (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007).
Van Der Pijl, Kees, Nomads, Empires, States: Modes of Foreign Relations and Political Economy, Volume I (London: Pluto Press, 2007).
Van Linschoten, Alex Strick and Kuehn, Felix, An Enemy We Created: The Myth of the Taliban/Al Qaeda Merger in Afghanistan, 1970–2010 (London: Hurst, 2012).
Vitalis, Robert, ‘Birth of a Discipline’, in Long, David and Schmidt, Brian (eds.), Imperialism and Internationalism in the Discipline of International Relations (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2005), 159–82.
Weldes, Jutta, ‘Constructing National Interests’, European Journal of International Relations, 2/3 (1996), 275318.
Wendt, Alexander, ‘Anarchy is What States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics’, International Organization, 46/2 (1992), 391425.
Wendt, Alexander, Social Theory of International Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
Whitteridge, Gordon, Charles Masson of Afghanistan (Warminster, Wiltshire: Aris and Phillips Ltd., 1986).
Whitteridge, Gordon, Charles Masson of Afghanistan, Second Edition (Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2002).
Yapp, Malcolm, Strategies of British India: Britain, Iran, and Afghanistan 1798–1850 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980).
Zaeef, Abdul Salam, My Life with the Taliban (London: Hurst, 2009).