Skip to main content
×
Home
Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 10
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Caroppo, Emanuele and Brogna, Patrizia 2016. The trauma faces: an explorative study on asylum seekers. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY TRAUMA STUDIES, Issue. 1, p. 77.


    Bennett, Oliver 2015. Cultures of Optimism.


    Guha, Martin 2015. Book Review. Journal of Mental Health, Vol. 24, Issue. 5, p. 334.


    Hawton, Keith O'Connor, Rory C. and Saunders, Kate E.A. 2015. Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.


    Amble, Ingunn Gude, Tore Stubdal, Sven Oktedalen, Tuva Skjorten, Anne Marie Andersen, Bror Just Solbakken, Ole André Brorson, Hanne H. Arnevik, Espen Lambert, Michael J. and Wampold, Bruce E. 2014. Psychometric properties of the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2: The Norwegian version in an international context. Psychotherapy Research, Vol. 24, Issue. 4, p. 504.


    Americano, Antony and Bhugra, Dinesh 2013. Understanding Medical Education.


    Mugisha, James Hjelmeland, Heidi Kinyanda, Eugene and Knizek, Birthe Loa 2013. Religious Views on Suicide Among the Baganda, Uganda: A Qualitative Study. Death Studies, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 343.


    Blum, Joshua and Jauhar, Sameer 2012. How to Succeed in Psychiatry.


    Kalra, Gurvinder Bhugra, Dinesh and Shah, Nilesh 2012. Cultural aspects of schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry, Vol. 24, Issue. 5, p. 441.


    Bennett, Oliver 2011. The manufacture of hope: religion, eschatology and the culture of optimism. International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 115.


    ×
  • Edited by Dinesh Bhugra, Institute of Psychiatry, London , Kamaldeep Bhui, Barts & The London, Queen Mary School of Medicine and Dentistry

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry
    • Online ISBN: 9780511543609
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511543609
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Cultural psychiatry is concerned with understanding the impact of social and cultural differences and similarities on mental illness and its treatments. A person's cultural characteristics can often lead to misunderstandings, influenced by language, non-verbal styles, codes of etiquette and assumptions. There may also be perceived misconceptions and differences in beliefs and values. In order to provide appropriate, sensitive and acceptable services for different cultural groups, all service providers need to take these factors into account. Written by leading clinicians and academics from around the world, and integrating both practical and theoretical knowledge, the Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry provides a framework for the provision of mental healthcare in a multi-cultural/ multi-racial society and global economy. It will be essential reading for those providing mental healthcare, or who are involved in the organisation and management of services.

Reviews

Review of the hardback:‘This is the first publication in the field to call itself a textbook …’

Source: Lancet

Review of the hardback:'Bhugra and Bhui's edited volume is a superb work of scholarship: a great achievement. … It has been exceedingly well edited; all chapters are well written, without overlap of content and each begins with an editorial introduction putting the contribution into context. … Empathy and the ability to enable patients to tell us their stories are the skills that separate psychiatrists from the rest of the medical profession: this book serves as an aid to those skills and demonstrates the complexity of what a realistic scientific psychopathology has to engage with and the level of art clinicians have to aspire to. Given that all psychiatry must be cultural psychiatry, this book is recommended to all clinicians and given its high academic content, will be of great value to many researchers, particularly those interested in epidemiology for their service to psychiatry.'

Source: Journal of Mental Health

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Page 1 of 2



Page 1 of 2


This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.


R. Alarcon (2001). Hispanic psychiatry: From margin to mainstream. Transcultural Psychiatry, 38(1), 5–25.

M. Banks (1996). Ethnicity: Anthropological Constructions. London: Routledge.

J. M. Begue (1996). French psychiatry in Algeria (1830–1962): from colonial to transcultural. History of Psychiatry, 7(28 pt 4), 533–548.

R. Beneduce & P. Martelli (2005). Politics of healing and politics of culture: ethnopsychiatry, identities and migration. Transcultural Psychiatry, 42(3), 367–393.

A. A. Brill (1913). Piblokto or hysteria among Peary's Eskimos. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 40, 514–520.

A. Bullard (2005). L'Oedipe Africain, a retrospective. Transcultural Psychiatry, 42(2), 171–203.

C. C. Casey & R. B. Edgerton (2005). A Companion to Psychological Anthropology: Modernity and Psychocultural Change. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

S. Castles & M. J. Miller (1998). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford.

D. Fassin & R. Rechtman (2005). An anthropological hybrid: the pragmatic arrangement of universalism and culturalism in French mental health. Transcultural Psychiatry, 42(3), 347–366.

D. Healy (2002). The Creation of Psychopharmacology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

D. Y. Ho , S. Peng , A. C. Lai & S. F. Chan (2001). Indigenization and beyond: methodological relationalism in the study of personality across cultural traditions. Journal of Personality, 69(6), 925–953.

G. Hutchinson & C. Haasen (2004). Migration and schizophrenia: the challenges for European psychiatry and implications for the future. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(5), 350–357.

W. G. Jilek (1995). Emil Kraepelin and comparative sociocultural psychiatry. European Archives for Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 245, 231–238.

R. C. Keller (2001). Madness and colonialism: psychiatry in the British and French empires, 1800–1962. Journal of Social History, 35, 295–326.

R. C. Keller (2005). Pinel in the Maghreb: liberation, confinement, and psychiatric reform in French North Africa. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 79(3), 459–499.

L. J. Kirmayer (2006). Beyond the ‘new cross-cultural psychiatry’: cultural biology, discursive psychology, and the ironies of globalization. Transcultural Psychiatry, 43(1), 126–144.

L. J. Kirmayer , C. Simpson & M. Cargo (2003). Healing traditions: culture, community and mental health promotion with Canadian Aboriginal peoples. Australasian Psychiatry, 11, S15–S23.

P. Kivisto (2002). Multiculturalism in a Global Society. Oxford: Blackwell.

A. Lakoff (2005). Pharmaceutical Reason: Knowledge and Value in Global Psychiatry. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

D. Landy (1985). Pibloktoq (hysteria) and Inuit nutrition: possible implication of hypervitaminosis A. Social Science and Medicine, 21(2), 173–186.

C. Lane (2002). Psychoanalysis and colonialism redux: why Mannoni's ‘Prospero complex’ still haunts us. Journal of Modern Literature, 25(3/4), 127–150.

J. Leff , N. Sartorius , A. Jablensky , A. Korten & G. Ernberg (1992). The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia: five-year follow-up findings. Psychological Medicine, 22, 131–145.

R. A. Levine (2001). Culture and personality studies, 1918–1960: myth and history. Journal of Personality, 69(6), 803–818.

R. Littlewood (1993). Ideology, camouflage or contingency. Racism in British psychiatry. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 30(3), 243–291.

M. Lock (1993). The concept of race: an ideological concept. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 30(3), 203–227.

M. Lock & D. Gordon (eds.) (1988). Biomedicine Examined. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

R. H. Lucas & R. J. Barrett (1995). Interpreting culture and psychopathology: primitivist themes in cross-cultural debate. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 19(3), 287–326.

D. Macey (1996). Frantz Fanon 1925–1961. History of Psychiatry, 7(28 pt 4), 489–497.

A. J. Marsella & G. M. White (eds.) (1982). Cultural Conceptions of Mental Health and Therapy (Vol. 4). Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company.

J. McCulloch (1993). The empire's new clothes: ethnopsychiatry in colonial Africa. History of the Human Sciences, 6(2), 35–52.

J. McCulloch (1995). Colonial Psychiatry and ‘the African Mind’. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

J. Metzl (2003). Prozac on the Couch: Prescribing Gender in the Era of Wonder Drugs. Durham: Duke University Press.

J. M. Murphy (1976). Psychiatric labeling in cross-cultural perspective. Science, 191, 1019–1028.

C. W. Nuckolls (1992). Toward a cultural history of the personality disorders. Social Science and Medicine, 35(1), 37–47.

R. Prince (1997). What's in a name? Transcultural Psychiatry, 34(1), 151–154.

C. Razanajao , J. Postel & D. F. Allen (1996). The life and psychiatric work of Frantz Fanon. History of Psychiatry, 7(28 pt 4), 499–524.

V. Roelcke (1997). Biologizing social facts: an early 20th century debate on Kraepelin's concepts of culture, neurasthenia, and degeneration. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 21(4), 383–403.

N. Rose (1996). Inventing Our Selves: Psychology, Power, and Personhood. Cambridge: New York: Cambridge University Press.

D. L. Rosenhan (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179, 250–258.

T. J. Scheff (1974). The labelling theory of mental illness. American Sociological Review, 39, 444–452.

S. Shamdasani (2003). C. G. Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology: The Dream of a Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

B. Stagoll (2005). Gregory Bateson (1904–1980): a reappraisal. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(11–12), 1036–1045.

J. A. Stigler , R. A. Shweder & G. Herdt (eds.) (1990). Cultural Psychology: Essays on Comparative Human Development. New York: Cambridge University Press.

M. Ommeren , B. Sharma , R. Makaju , S. Thapa & J. Jong (2000). Limited cultural validity of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview's probe flow chart. Transcultural Psychiatry, 37(1), 119–129.

H. Wardle (1999). Gregory Bateson's lost world: the anthropology of Haddon and Rivers continued and deflected. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 35(4), 379–389.

J. Westermeyer (1989). Psychiatric epidemiology across cultures: Current issues and trends. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 26(1), 5–25.

E. D. Wittkower & J. Fried (1959). A cross-cultural approach to mental health problems. American Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 423–428.

E. D. Wittkower & H. Rin (1965). Transcultural psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 13(5), 387–394.

A. Young (1999). W. H. R. Rivers and the war neuroses. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 35(4), 359–378.

H. Abramovitch and L. J. Kirmayer (2003). The relevance of Jungian psychology for cultural psychiatry. Transcultural Psychiatry, 40(2), 155–163.

A. Al-Sabaie (1989). Psychiatry in Saudi Arabia: cultural perspectives. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 26(4), 245–262.

M. C. Angermeyer , P. Breier , S. Dietrich et al. (2005). Public attitudes toward psychiatric treatment. An international comparison. Society for Psychiatry Psychiatry and Epidemiology, 40(11), 855–864.

J. Bains (2005). Race, culture and psychiatry: a history of transcultural psychiatry. History of Psychiatry, 16(62 Pt 2), 139–154.

R. Barrett . (1996). The Psychiatric Team and the Social Definition of Schizophrenia: An Anthropological Study of Person and Illness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

G. S. Belkin and G. L. Fricchione (2005). Internationalism and the future of academic psychiatry. Academic Psychiatry, 29(3), 240–243.

D. Bhugra (2000). Disturbances in objects of desire: Cross-cultural issues. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 15(1), 67–78.

K. Bhui , D. Bhugra and D. Goldberg (2002). Causal explanations of distress and general practitioners' assessments of common mental disorder among Punjabi and English attendees. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37(1), 38–45.

K. Bhui , D. Bhugra , D. Goldberg et al. (2004). Assessing the prevalence of depression in Punjabi and English primary care attenders: the role of culture, physical illness and somatic symptoms. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41(3), 307–322.

J. K. Boehnlein and J. D. Kinzie (1995). Refugee trauma. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 32(3), 223–252.

J. Breslau (2000). Globalizing disaster trauma: psychiatry, science, and culture after the Kobe earthquake. Ethos, 28(2), 174–197.

J. L. Cox (1977). Aspects of transcultural psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 211–221.

T. J. Csordas (2002). Body/Meaning/Healing. New York: Palgrave.

P. B. Cunningham , S. L. Foster and S. W. Henggeler (2002). The elusive concept of cultural competence. Children's Services: Social Policy, Research, and Practice, 5(3), 231–243.

R. Desjarlais (1997). Shelter Blues: Sanity and Selfhood among the Homeless. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

R. Desjarlais (1999). The makings of personhood in a shelter for people considered homeless and mentally ill. Ethos, 27(4), 466.

V. F. DiNicola (1985, part II). Family therapy and transcultural psychiatry: an emerging synthesis. Part I: The conceptual basis. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 22, 151–180.

S. Ekblad and S. Baarnhielm (2002). Focus group interview research in transcultural psychiatry: reflections on research experiences. Transcultural Psychiatry, 39(4), 484–500.

S. Ekblad , V. Manicavasagar , D. Silove et al. (2004). The use of international videoconferencing as a strategy for teaching medical students about transcultural psychiatry. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41(1), 120–129.

R. A. Emsley , A. Waterdrinker , W. P. Pienaar and S. M. Hawkridge (2000). Cultural aspects of psychiatry. Primary Care Psychiatry, 6(1), 29–32.

Estroff, S. (1982). Long-term psychiatric clients in an American community: some socio-cultural factors in chronic mental illness. In Clinically Applied Anthropology. Anthropology in Health Science Settings, ed. N. J. Chrisman and T. W. Maretzki , pp. 369–393. Dordrecht: Reidel.

S. Fernando (2003). Cultural Diversity, Mental Health and Psychiatry: The Struggle against Racism. East Sussex; New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.

P. Freeman (1997). Ethnopsychiatry in France. Transcultural Psychiatry, 34(3), 313–319.

E. Garza-Treviño , P. Ruiz and K. Venegas-Samuels (1997). A psychiatric curriculum directed to the care of the Hispanic patient. Academic Psychiatry, 21(1), 1–10.

Good, B. J. and Good, M. J. (1981). The meaning of symptoms: a cultural hermeneutic model for clinical practice. In The Relevance of Social Science for Medicine, ed. L. Eisenberg and A. Kleinman . Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 165–196.

P. Guarnaccia (2003). Editorial. Methodological advances in cross-cultural study of mental health: setting new standards. Cultural Medical Psychiatry, 27(3), 249–257.

P. Henningsen and L. J. Kirmayer (2000). Mind beyond the net: Implications of cognitive neuroscience for cultural psychiatry. Transcultural Psychiatry, 37(4), 467–494.

M. Hodes (2002). Three key issues for young refugees' mental health. Transcultural Psychiatry, 39(2), 196–213.

D. Hollan (1997). The relevance of person-centered ethnography to cross-cultural psychiatry. Transcultural Psychiatry, 34(2), 219.

M. Hollifield , T. D. Warner , N. Lian et al. (2002). Measuring trauma and health status in refugees: a critical review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(5), 611–621.

K. Hopper (1991). Some old questions for the new cross-cultural psychiatry. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 5(4), 299–330.

S. T. Ilechukwu (1991). Psychiatry in Africa: special problems and unique features. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 28(3), 169–218.

D. Ingleby (ed.) (2005). Forced Migration and Mental Health: Rethinking the Care of Refugees and Displaced Persons. New York: Springer Science and Business Media, Inc.

J. E. Jeffress (1968). Training in transcultural psychiatry in the United States: A 1968 survey. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 15(1), 69–72.

J. H. Jenkins (1991a). Anthropology, expressed emotion, and schizophrenia. Ethos, 19, 387–431.

J. H. Jenkins (1991b). The state construction of affect: political ethos and mental health among Salvadoran refugees. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 15(2), 139–165.

Jenkins, J. H. (1994a). Culture, emotion, and psychopathology. In Emotion and Culture: Empirical Studies of Mutual Influence, ed. S. Kitayama and H. R. Markus . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press, pp. 309–335.

T. Jovanovski (1995). The cultural approach of ethnopsychiatry: a review and critique. New Ideas in Psychology, 13(3), 281–297.

L. J. Kirmayer (2001). Commentary on ‘Why cultural anthropology needs the psychiatrist’: Sapir's vision of culture and personality. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 64(1), 23–31.

L. J. Kirmayer (2002). The refugee's predicament. Evolution Psychiatrique, 67(4), 724–742.

L. J. Kirmayer and A. Young (1999). Culture and context in the evolutionary concept of mental disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108(3), 446–452.

A. Kleinman (1987). Anthropology and psychiatry: the role of culture in cross-cultural research on illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 447–454.

A. Kleinman and A. Cohen (1997). Psychiatry's global challenge: an evolving crisis in the developing world signals the need for a better understanding of the links between culture and mental disorders. Scientific American, 86–89.

C. Laderman (1991) Taming The Wind Of Desire: Psychology, Medicine, and Aesthetics in Malay Shamanistic Performance. Berkeley : University of California Press.

J. Leff (1990). The ‘new cross-cultural psychiatry’: a case of the baby and the bathwater. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 305–307.

S. R. Lopez and P. J. J. Guarnaccia (2000). Cultural psychopathology: Uncovering the social world of mental illness. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 571–598.

S. L. Lustig , M. Kia-Keating W. G. Knight et al. (2004). Review of child and adolescent refugee mental health. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(1), 24–36.

C. Martins (1969). Transcultural psychiatry: some concepts. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 27(2), 141–144.

J. M. Metzl (2003). Selling sanity through gender: the psychodynamics of psychotropic advertising. Journal of Medical Humanities, 24(1–2), 79–103.

J. E. Mezzich , L. J. Kirmayer , A. Kleinman , H. Fabrega , D. Parron , and B. Good (1999). The place of culture in DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187(18), 457–464.

N. T. Miyaji (2002). Shifting identities and transcultural psychiatry. Transcultural Psychiatry, 39(2), 173–195.

D. K. Novins , D. W. Bechtold , W. H. Sack , J. Thompson , D. R. Carter , and S. M. Manson (1997). The DSM-IV outline for cultural formulation: a critical demonstration with American Indian children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(9), 1244–1251.

J. Paris (1994). Evolutionary social science and transcultural psychiatry. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 31(4), 339–367.

A. Petryna , A. Lakoff and A. Kleinman (eds.) (2006) Global Pharmaceuticals: Ethics, Markets, Practices. Durham : Duke University Press.

A. M. Raimundo Oda , C. E. Banzato and P. Dalgalarrondo (2005). Some origins of cross-cultural psychiatry. Historical Psychiatry, 16(62 Pt 2), 155–169.

L. H. Rogler (1999). Methodological sources of cultural insensitivity in mental health research. American Psychologist, 54(6), 424–433.

N. Sartorius , C. T. Kaelber , J. E. Cooper et al. (1993). Progress toward achieving a common language in psychiatry: results from the field trial of the clinical guidelines accompanying the WHO classification of mental and behavioral disorders in ICD-10. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50(2), 115–124.

V. Skultans (1991). Anthropology and psychiatry: The uneasy alliance. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 28(1), 5–24.

G. Stix (1996). Listening to culture: Psychiatry takes a leaf from anthropology. Scientific American, 16–21.

L. Swartz (1996). Culture and mental health in the Rainbow Nation: transcultural psychiatry in a changing South Africa. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 33(2), 119–136.

J. Yager , C. Chang and M. Karno (1989). Teaching transcultural psychiatry. Academic Psychiatry, 13(3), 164–171.

F. X. Hezel (1984). Cultural patterns in Turkish suicide. Ethnology, 23(3), 193–206.

F. X. Hezel (1987). Turk suicide epidemic and social change. Human Organization, 46(4), 283–291.

C. Macpherson & L. Macpherson (1987). Towards an explanation of recent trends in suicide in Western Samoa. Man, 22, 305–330.

V. Pearson (1995). Goods on which one loses: women and mental health in China. Social Science and Medicine, 41, 1159–1193.

M. R. Phillips , H. Liu & Y. P. Zhang (1999). Suicide and social change in China. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 23, 25–50.

M. R. Phillips , X. Li & Y. Zhang (2002). Suicide rates in China, 1995–99. The Lancet, 359(9309), 835–840.

L. Pouliot & D. DeLeo (2006). Critical issues in psychological autopsy studies: The need for a standardisation. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 36(5), 491–510.

A. B. Waters (1999). Domestic dangers: Approaches to women's suicide in contemporary Maharashtra, India. Violence Against Women, 5, 525–547.

J. Zhang , S. Jia , W. F. Wieczorek & C. Jiang (2002). An overview of suicide research in China. Archives of Suicide Research, 6(2), 167–184.

J. Zhang , Y. Conwell , L. Zhou & C. Jiang (2004). Culture, risk factors and suicide in rural China: a psychological autopsy case control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 110(6), 430–437.

H. Zouk , M. Tousignant , M. Séguin , A. Lesage & G. Turecki (2006). Characterization of impulsivity in suicide completers : clinical, behavioral and psychosocial dimensions. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92, 195–204.

J. W. Berry & D. L. Sam (2003). Accuracy in scientific discourse. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44, 65–68.

J. Dollard (1935). Criteria for the Life History: with analysis of Six Notable Documents. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

K. Gibson & L. Swartz (2001). Psychology, social transition and organisational life in South Africa: ‘I can't change the past – but I can try’. Psychoanalytic Studies, 3, 381–392.

M. A. Hubble , B. L. Duncan & S. D. Miller (1999). The Heart and Soul of Change: What Works in Therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

R. Inglehart & W. E. Baker (2000). Modernization, cultural change and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review, 65, 19–51.

R. S. Lazarus (1997). Acculturation isn't everything: commentary on immigration, acculturation, and adaptation by J. Berry. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 39–43.

S. Lee (2001). From diversity to unity: the classification of mental disorder in 21st century China. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24, 421–431.

G. Parker , G. Gladstone & K. Tsee Chee (2001). Depression in the planet's largest ethnic group: the Chinese. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 857–864.

C. Paterson & P. Dieppe (2005). Characteristic and incidental (placebo) effects in complex interventions such as acupuncture. British Medical Journal, 330, 1202–1204.

K. Peltzer (2002). Personality and person perception in Africa. Social Behavior and Personality, 30(1), 83–94.

F. W. Rudmin (2003). Critical history of the acculturation psychology of assimilation, separation, integration and marginalization. Review of General Psychology, 7, 3–37.

D. Bhugra (2002). Self-concept: Psychosis and attraction of new religious movements. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 5, 239–252.

H. B. Broch (2001). The villagers' reactions towards craziness: an Indonesian example. Transcultural Psychiatry, 38, 275–305.

J. Campion & D. Bhugra (1998). Religious and indigenous treatment of mental illness in South India – a descriptive study. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 1, 21–30.

M. Cinnirella & K. M. Loewenthal (1999). Religious and ethnic group influences on beliefs about mental illness: A qualitative interview study. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 72, 505–524.

J. P. Crossley & D. P. Salter (2005). A question of finding harmony: a grounded theory study of clinical psychologists' experience of addressing spiritual beliefs in therapy. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory Research and Practice, 78, 295–314.

M. F. Davies , M. Griffiths & S. Vice (2001). Affective reactions to auditory hallucinations in psychotic, evangelical and control groups. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 361–370.

S. Dein (2002). Transcultural psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 535–536.

S. Fernando (2005). Multicultural mental health services: projects for minority ethnic communities in England. Transcultural Psychiatry, 42, 420–436.

J. Foskett (ed.) (2004). User-led research on spiritual issues in psychiatry. Special Section, Mental Health Religion and Culture, 7, 1–58.

J. Gartner , M. Hermatz , A. Hohmann & D. Larson (1990). The effect of patient and clinician ideology on clinical judgement: a study of ideological countertransference. Special issue: Psychotherapy and religion. Psychotherapy, 27, 98–106.

D. Greenberg & E. Witztum (2001). Sanity and Sanctity: Mental Health Work among the Ultra-Orthodox in Jerusalem. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

D. A. Helminiak (1996). A scientific spirituality: the interface of psychology and theology. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 6, 1–20.

D. E. Hinton , D. J. Hufford & L. Kirmayer (2005). Culture and sleep paralysis. Transcultural Psychiatry, 42, 5–10.

B. Ineichen (1991). Schizophrenia in British AfroCaribbeans: two debates confused? International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 37, 227–232.

M. King & S. Dein (1998). The spiritual variable in psychiatric research. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1259–1262.

C. A. Lewis (1998). Cleanliness is next to Godliness: religiosity and obsessiveness. Journal of Religion and Health, 37, 49–61.

C. A. Lewis (2001). Cultural stereotypes of the effects of religion on mental health. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 74, 359–367.

Lipsedge, M. (1996). Religion and madness in history. In Psychiatry and Religion: Context, Consensus, and Controversies, ed. D. Bhugra . London: Routledge.

R. Littlewood & M. Lipsedge (1981a). Some social and phenomenological characteristics of psychotic immigrants. Psychological Medicine, 11, 289–302.

R. Littlewood & M. Lipsedge (1981b). Acute psychotic reactions in Caribbean-born patients. Psychological Medicine, 11, 303–318.

K. M. Loewenthal & Brooke M Rogers . (2004). Culture sensitive support groups: how are they perceived and how do they work? International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50, 227–240.

K. M. Loewenthal & M. Cinnirella (1999). Beliefs about the efficacy of religious, medical and psychotherapeutic interventions for depression and schizophrenia among different cultural–religious groups in Great Britain. Transcultural Psychiatry, 36, 491–504.

K. M. Loewenthal , M. Cinnirella , G. Evdoka & P. Murphy (2001). Faith conquers all? Beliefs about the role of religious factors in coping with depression among different cultural–religious groups in the UK. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 74, 293–303.

K. M. Loewenthal , V Goldblatt , T. Gorton et al. (1995). Gender and depression in Anglo-Jewry. Psychological Medicine, 25, 1051–1063.

K. M. Loewenthal , V. Goldblatt , T. Gorton et al. (1997a). The costs and benefits of boundary maintenance: Stress, religion and culture among Jews in Britain. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 32, 200–207.

K. M. Loewenthal , V. Goldblatt , T. Gorton et al. (1997b). The social circumstances of anxiety and its symptoms among Anglo-Jews. Journal of Affective Disorders, 46, 87–94.

K. M. Loewenthal , A. K MacLeod , V. Goldblatt , G. Lubitsh & J. D. Valentine (2000). Comfort and joy: religion, cognition and mood in individuals under stress. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 355–374.

K. M. Loewenthal , A. K. MacLeod , S. Cook , M. J. Lee & V. Goldblatt (2003a). Beliefs about alcohol among UK Jews and Protestants: do they fit the alcohol-depression hypothesis? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38, 122–127.

K. M. Loewenthal , A. K. MacLeod , S. Cook , M. J. Lee & V. Goldblatt (2003b). Drowning your sorrows? Attitudes towards alcohol in UK Jews and Protestants: a thematic analysis. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 49, 204–215.

J. Maltby , C. A. Lewis & L. Day (1999). Religious orientation and psychological well-being: the role of the frequency of personal prayer. British Journal of Health Psychology, 4, 363–378.

K. I. Maton (1989). The stress-buffering role of spiritual support: cross-sectional and prospective investigations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 310–323.

E. Peters , S. Day , J. McKenna & G. Orbach (1999). Delusional ideas in religious and psychiatric populations. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 83–96.

J Neeleman & Persaud (1995). Why do psychiatrists neglect religion? British Journal of Medical Psychology, 68, 169–78.

S. Pfeifer (1994). Belief in demons and exorcism in psychiatric patients in Switzerland. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 67, 247–58.

E. J. Roskes , L. Dixon & A. Lehman (1998). A survey of the views of trainees in psychiatry regarding religious issues. Mental Health Religion and Culture, 1, 45–56.

M. Shams & P. R. Jackson (1993). Religiosity as a predictor of well-being and moderator of the psychological impact of unemployment. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 66, 341–352.

T. N. Srinivasan & R. Thara (2001). Beliefs about causation of schizophrenia: do Indian families believe in supernatural causes? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36, 134–140.

C. S. Thomas , K. Stone , M. Osborn & P. F. Thomas (1993). Psychiatric morbidity and compulsory admission among UK-born Europeans, Afro-Caribbeans and Asians in central Manchester. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 91–99.

G. Yorston (2001). Mania precipitated by meditation: a case report and literature review. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 4, 209–214.

M. Yossifova & K. M. Loewenthal (1999). Religion and the judgement of obsessionality. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 2, 145–152.

B. J. Zinnbauer , K. I. Pargament , B. Cole et al. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 549–564.

V. Arango , Y. Y. Huang , M. D. Underwood and J. J. Mann (2003). Genetics of the serotonergic system in suicidal behavior. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 37(5), 375–386.

A. S. Bassett and E. W. Chow (1999). 22q11 deletion syndrome: a genetic subtype of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 46(7), 882–891.

U. J. Behrens , T. M. Worner , L. F. Braly , F. Schaffner and C. S. Lieber et al. (1988). Carbohydratedeficient transferrin, a marker for chronic alcohol consumption in different ethnic populations. Alcohol Clinical Experimental Research, 12(3), 427–432.

T. P. Bridge , D. V. Jeste , C. D. Wise et al. (1984). Schizophrenic outcome in late life: symptom state and platelet monoamine oxidase activity. Psychiatry Research, 11(2), 91–97.

B. J. Carroll , M. Feinberg , J. F. Greden et al. (1981). A specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of melancholia. Standardization, validation, and clinical utility. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38(1), 15–22.

W. H. Chang , T. Y. Chen , S. K. Lin et al. (1990). Plasma catecholamine metabolites in schizophrenics: evidence for the two-subtype concept. Biological Psychiatry, 27(5), 510–518.

J. Charrow (2004). Ashkenazi Jewish genetic disorders. Familial Cancer, 3(3–4), 201–206.

A. Coppen , M. Metcalfe and J. Harwood (1984). WHO collaborative study on the use of the dexamethasone suppression test as a biological indicator of depressive illness. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 7, 226–227.

T. J. Crow (1980). Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease process?' British Medical Journal, 280(6207), 66–68.

L. E. DeLisi , L. M. Neckers , R. A. Staub , S. J. Zalcman and R. J. Wyatt (1980). Lymphocyte monoamine oxidase activity and chronic schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 2(2), 179–186.

M. F. Egan , T. E. Goldberg , B. S. Kolachana et al. (2001). Effect of COMT Val108/158 Met genotype on frontal lobe function and risk for schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98(12), 6917–6922.

D. L. Garver (1997). The etiologic heterogeneity of schizophrenia. Harvard Reviews of Psychiatry, 4(6), 317–327.

D. E. Giles , M. L. Perlis , C. F. Reynolds 3rd and D. J. Kupfer (1998). EEG sleep in African-American patients with major depression: a historical case control study. Depression and Anxiety, 8(2), 58–64.

G. Harrison , D. Owens , A. Holton , D. Neilson and D. Boot (1988). A prospective study of severe mental disorder in Afro-Caribbean patients. Psychological Medicine, 18(3), 643–657.

R. E. Hoffman and S. K. Dobscha (1989). Cortical pruning and the development of schizophrenia: a computer model. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 15(3), 477–490.

K. E. Hutchison , M. Stallings , J. Mc Geary and A. Bryan (2004). Population stratification in the candidate gene study: fatal threat or red herring?' Psychology Bulletin, 130(1), 66–79.

M. King , J. Nazroo , S. Weich et al. (2005). Psychotic symptoms in the general population of England – a comparison of ethnic groups (The EMPIRIC study). Society of Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40(5), 375–381.

D. J. Kupfer (1995). Sleep research in depressive illness: clinical implications – a tasting menu. Biological Psychiatry 38(6): 391–403.

K. P. Lesch , D. Bengel , A. Heils et al. (1996). Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science, 274(5292), 1527–1531.

R. B. Lu , S. L. Ho , H. C. Huang and Y. T. Lin (1988). The specificity of the dexamethasone suppression test in endogenous depressive patients. Neuropsychopharmacology, 1(2), 157–162.

D. Luchins , E. F. Torrey , D. R. Weinberger et al. (1980). HLA antigens in schizophrenia:differences between patients with and without evidence of brain atrophy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 243–248.

J. Mendlewicz and M. Kerkhofs (1991). Sleep electroencephalography in depressive illness. A collaborative study by the World Health Organization. British Journal of Psychiatry 159: 505–509.

H. B. Murphy (1982). Comparative Psychiatry: The International and Intercultural Distribution of Mental Illness. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

A. A. Patkar , W. H. Berrettini , M. Hoehe et al. (2002). Serotonin transporter polymorphisms and measures of impulsivity, aggression, and sensation seeking among African-American cocaine-dependent individuals. Psychiatry Research, 110(2), 103–115.

R. E. Poland , U. Rao , P. Lutchmansingh et al. (1999). REM sleep in depression is influenced by ethnicity. Psychiatry Research, 88(2), 95–105.

U. Rao , R. E. Poland , P. Lutchmaningh et al. (1999). Relationship between ethnicity and sleep patterns in normal controls: implications for psychopathology and treatment. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33(5), 419–426.

L. Rivera-Calimlim and D. K. Reilly (1984). Difference in erythrocyte catechol-O-methyltransferase activity between Orientals and Caucasians: difference in levodopa tolerance. Clinical Pharmacological Therapy, 35(6), 804–809.

R. T. Rubin , R. E. Poland , I. M. Lesser , R. A. Winston and A. L. Blodgett (1987). Neuroendocrine aspects of primary endogenous depression. I. Cortisol secretory dynamics in patients and matched controls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44(4), 328–336.

S. Sasayama (2004). Optimising outcomes in end-stage heart failure: differences in therapeutic responses between diverse ethnic groups. Drug Safari, 27 (Suppl) 1, 19–24.

K. M. Smits , L. J. Smits , J. S. Schouten , et al. (2004). Influence of SERTPR and STin2 in the serotonin transporter gene on the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depression: a systematic review. Molecular Psychiatry, 9(5), 433–441.

L. Staner , P. Linkowski , and J. Mendlewicz (1994). Biological markers as classifiers for depression: a multivariate study. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacological Biology and Psychiatry, 18(5), 899–914.

M. E. Thase , A. D. Simons , and C. F. Reynolds 3rd. (1996). Abnormal electroencephalographic sleep profiles in major depression: association with response to cognitive behavior therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(2), 99–108.

M. T. Tsuang , M. J. Lyons , and S. V. Faraone (1990). Heterogeneity of schizophrenia. Conceptual models and analytic strategies. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 17–26.

E. F. Walker and D. Diforio (1997). Schizophrenia: a neural diathesis-stress model. Psychology Review 104(4), 667–685.

H. L. White , M. N. McLeod , and J. R. Davidson (1976). Catechol O-methyltransferase in red blood cells of schizophrenic, depressed, and normal human subjects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 184–187.

A. Y. Zhang and L. R. Snowden (1999). Ethnic characteristics of mental disorders in five U.S. communities. Cultural Diversity Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5(2), 134–146.

G. Adshead (1998). Psychiatric staff as attachment figures. Understanding management problems in psychiatric services in the light of attachment theory. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 64–69.

J. Berry (1997). Immigration, acculturation, adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 5–68.

K. Bhui , P. Brown , T. Hardie et al. (1998). African-Caribbean men remanded to Brixton Prison. Psychiatric and forensic characteristics and outcome of final court appearance. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 337–344.

K. Bhui , D. Bhugra and D. Goldberg (2000). Cross-cultural validity of the Amritsar Depression Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire amongst English and Punjabi primary care attenders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35(6), 248–254.

K. Bhui , D. Bhugra , D. Goldberg , G. Dunn and M. Desai (2001). Cultural influences on the prevalence of common mental disorder, general practitioners' assessments and help-seeking among Punjabi and English people visiting their general practitioner. Psychological Medicine, 31(5), 815–825.

K. Bhui , S. Stansfeld S. Hull et al. (2003). Ethnic variations in pathways to and use of specialist mental health services in the UK. Systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 105–116.

C. A. Chew-Graham , S. Mullin , C. R. May et al. (2002). Managing depression in primary care: another example of the inverse care law? Family Practice, 19, 632–637.

J. Coid , N. Kahtan , S. Gault et al. (2000). Ethnic differences in admissions to secure forensic psychiatry services. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 241–247.

J. Coid , A. Petruckevitch , P. Bebbington et al. (2002b). Ethnic differences in prisoners. 2: risk factors and psychiatric service use. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 481–487.

E. Cole , G. Leavey , M. King et al. (1995). Pathways to care for patients with a first episode of psychosis. A comparison of ethnic groups. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 770–776.

G. Corbie-Smith , S. B. Thomas and D. M St George . (2002). Distrust, race, and research. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162, 2458–2463.

M. J. Crawford , D. Rutter , C. Manley et al. (2002). Systematic review of involving patients in the planning and development of health care. British Medical Journal, 325, 1263.

M. P. Doescher , B. G. Saver , P. Franks et al. (2000). Racial and ethnic disparities in perceptions of physician style and trust. Archives of Family Medicine, 9(10), 1163.

H. A. Elfenbein and N. Ambady (2002). On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: a meta-analysis. Psychology Bulletin, 128(2), 203–235.

H. A. Elfenbein and N. Ambady (2003). When familiarity breeds accuracy: cultural exposure and facial emotion recognition. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology 85(2), 276–290.

H. Fabrega (1989). Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 415–425.

J. Falkowski , V. Watts , W. Falkowski et al. (1990). Patients leaving hospital without the knowledge or permission of staff – absconding. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 488–490.

G Feder , A M Crook , P Magee , S Banerjee , A D Timmis , H. Hemingway (2002) Ethnic differences in invasive management of coronary disease: prospective cohort study of patients undergoing angiography. British Medical Journal, 324(7336):511–6.

T. Fryers , D. Melzer and R. Jenkins (2003). Social inequalities and the common mental disorders: a systematic review of the evidence. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38, 229–237.

R. Gater , Almeida e Sousa , G. Barrientos et al. (1991). The pathways to psychiatric care: a cross-cultural study. Psychological Medicine 21, 761–774.

S. Gupta (1991). Psychosis in migrants from the Indian subcontinent and English-born controls. A preliminary study on the use of psychiatric services. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 222–225.

M. King , E. Coker , G. Leavey et al. (1994). Incidence of psychotic illness in London: comparison of ethnic groups. British Medical Journal, 309, 1115–1119.

G. Kirov and R. M. Murray (1999). Ethnic differences in the presentation of bipolar affective disorder. European Psychiatry, 14, 199–204.

R. Mallett , J. Leff , D. Bhugra et al. (2002). Social environment, ethnicity and schizophrenia. A case-control study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37, 329–335.

C. McLean , C. Campbell and F. Cornish (2003). African-Caribbean interactions with mental health services in the UK: experiences and expectations of exclusion as (re)productive of health inequalities. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 657–669.

H. S. Moffic and J. D. Kinzie (1996). The history and future of cross cultural psychiatric services. Community Mental Health Journal, 32(6), 581–592.

J. Nazroo Y. (2003) The structuring of ethnic inequalities in health: economic position, racial discrimination, and racism. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 277–284.

S. Parkman , S. Davies , M. Leese et al. (1997). Ethnic differences in satisfaction with mental health services among representative people with psychosis in south London: PRiSM study 4. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 260–264.

H. Pote and M. Orrell (2002). Perceptions of schizophrenia in multicultural Britain. Ethnicity and Health, 7(1), 7–20.

T. Shioiri , T. Someya , D. Helmeste and S. W. Tang (1999). Misinterpretation of facial expression: a cross-cultural study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 53(1), 45–50.

C. Siegel , G. Hugland and E. D. Chambers (2003). Performance measures and their benchmarks for assessing organisational cultural competency in behavioural health and care service delivery. Administration and Public Policy in Mental Health, 31(2), 141–170.

L. R. Snowden (2003). Bias in mental health assessment and intervention: theory and evidence. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 239–243.

M. Ryn and S. S. Fu (2003). Paved with good intentions: do public health and human service providers contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in health? American Journal of Public Health, 93, 248–255.

S. Wessely (1998). The Camberwell Study of crime and schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33 (Suppl. 1), S24–S28.

J. Ablon (1971). Bereavement in a Samoan community. British Journal of Psychology, 44, 329–337.

R. Alarcón and E. Foulks (1995). Personality disorders and culture: Contemporary clinical views, Part A. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 1, 3–17.

A. Binitie (1975). A factor-analytical study of depression across cultures (African and European). British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 559–563.

N. Chance (1964). A cross-cultural study of social cohesion and depression. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 1, 19–24.

D. J. Cooke (1997). Psychopaths: oversexed, overplayed but not over here? Criminal Behaviors and Mental Health, 7(1), 3–11.

M. F. El-Islam (1969). Depression and guilt: a study at an Arab psychiatric clinic. Social Psychiatry, 4, 56–58.

S. J. M. Fernando (1975). A cross-cultural study of some familial and social factors in depressive illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 46–53.

A. H. Gobar (1970). Suicide in Afghanistan. British Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 493–496.

A. B. Hollingshead & F. C. Redlich (1958). Social Class and Mental Illness: A Community Study. New York: John Wiley.

H. G. Hwu , E. K. Yeh & L. Y. Chang (1989). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Taiwan defined by the Chinese Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 136–147.

D. S. Kosson , S. S. Smith & J. P. Newman (1990). Evaluating the construct validity of psychopathy in Black and White male inmates: three preliminary studies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 250–259.

C. Vecchia , F. Lucchini & F. Levi (1994). Worldwide trends in suicide mortality, 1955–1989. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90, 53–64.

S. R. Lopez (1989). Patient variable biases in clinical judgment: conceptual overview and methodological considerations. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 184–203.

R. Lynn (2002). Racial and ethnic differences in psychopathic personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(2), 273–316.

K Ohara (1963). Characteristics of suicides in Japan, especially of parent–child double suicide. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120(4), 382–385.

R. Prince (1968). The changing picture of depressive syndromes in Africa: is it fact or diagnostic fashion? Canadian Journal of African Studies, 1, 177–192.

N. Sartorius , A. Jablensky & R. Shapiro (1977). Two-year follow-up of the patients included in the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 7, 529–541.

G. E. Simon , M. VonKorff , M. Piccinelli , C. Fullerton and J. Ormel (1999). An international study of the relation between somatic symptoms and depression. New England Journal of Medicine, 341(18), 1329–1335.

A. Sumathipala , S. H. Siribadanna and D. Bhugra (2004). Culture bound syndromes: the story of dhat syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 200–209.

R. Waziri (1973). Symptomatology of depressive illness in Afghanistan. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 213–217.

J. Westermeyer (1973). On the epidemicy of amok violence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 873–876.

D. S. Young (1989). Neurasthenia and related problems. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 13(2), 131–138.

M. Zuckerman (2003). Are there racial and ethnic differences in psychopathic personality? A critique of Lynn's (2000) racial and ethnic differences in psychopathic personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(6), 1463–1469.

M. Beiser & J. A. E. Fleming (1986). Measuring psychiatric disorder among Southeast Asian refugees. Psychological Medicine, 16, 627–639.

R. J. Blendon , A. C. Scheck , K. Donelan et al. (1995). How White and African Americans view their health and social problems: different experiences, different expectations. Journal of the American Medical Association. 273(4), 341–346.

A. Boroffka (1990). Emil Kraeplin (1856–1926). Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 27, 228–237.

D. Cheng , F. T. Leong & R. Geist (1993). Cultural differences in psychological distress between Asian and Caucasian American college students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling Development, 21(3), 182–190.

D. W. Coombs & G. Globetti (1986). Alcohol use and alcoholism in Latin America: changing patterns and sociocultural explanations. International Journal of Addictions, 21, 59–81.

J. T. deJong (1996). A comprehensive public mental health programme in Guinea-Bissaiu: a useful model for African, Asian and Latin-America countries. Psychological Medicine, 26, 97–108.

M. Delgado (1995). Puerto Rican elders and natural support systems: Implications for human services. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 24, 115–130.

A. Favazza & N. Oman (1978). Foundations of cultural psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 293–303.

J. Freyberg (1980). Difficulties in separation-individuation as experienced by offspring of Nazi Holocaust survivors. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 50, 87–95.

J. Gerevic & E. Bacskai (1995). Drug problems and drug policy: a Hungarian point of view. European Addiction Research, 1, 50–60.

E. H. Griffith & P. Ruiz (1977). Cultural factors in the training of psychiatric residents in a Hispanic urban community. Psychiatric Quarterly, 49, 29–37.

C. V. Haldipur (1980). The idea of ‘cultural’ psychiatry: a comment on the foundations of cultural psychiatry. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 21, 206–211.

E. Hauff & P. Vaglum (1994). Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Vietnamese refugees; a prospective community study of prevalence, course, psychopathology, and stressors. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 182(2), 85–90.

J. M. Jaranson , J. N. Butcher , L. Halcon et al. (2004). Somali and Oromo refugees: correlates of torture and trauma. American Journal of Public Health, 94(4), 591–598.

D. R. Johnson , S. C. Feldman , H. Lubin & S. M. Southwick (1995). The therapeutic use of ritual and ceremony in the treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(2), 283–298.

J. D. Kinzie , W. H. Sack , R. H. Angell & B. Rath (1986). The psychiatric effects of massive trauma on Cambodian children; I. The children. Journal of the Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 370–376.

K. Knafl & C. Gilliss (2002). How families managed chronic conditions: an analysis of the concept of normalization. Research in Nursing Health, 9, 215–222.

J. Krupinski (1967). Sociological aspects of mental ill-health in migrants. Society of Science Medicine, 1, 267–281.

J. Krupinski , A. Stoller & L. Wallace (1973) Psychiatric disorder in East European refugees now in Australia. Social Science Medicine, 7, 31–49.

J. P. Leff (1974). Transcultural influences on psychiatrists' rating of verbally expressed emotion. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 336–340.

G. R. Leon , J. N. Butcher , M. Kleinman , A. Goldberg & M. Almagor (1981). Survivors of the Holocaust and their children: current status and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41(3), 503–516.

K. M. Lin , L. Tazuma & M. Masuda (1979). Adaptational problems of Vietnamese refugees; I. Health and mental health status. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 955–961.

T. Y. Lin (1989). Neurasthenia in Asian cultures. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 13, 105–241.

T. Y. Lin , K. Tardiff , G. Donetz & W. Goretsky (1978). Ethnicity and patterns of help seeking. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 2, 3–13.

R. Littlewood (1980). Anthropology and psychiatry: an alternative approach, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 53, 213–224.

C. Lujan , L. M. DeBruyn , P. A. May & M. E. Bird (1989). Profile of abused and neglected American Indian children in the Southwest. Child Abuse Neglect, 13, 449–461.

E. F. Major (1996) The impact of the Holocaust on the second generation: Norwegian Jewish Holocaust survivors and their children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 441–454.

L. R. Marcos , L. Urcuyo , M. Kesselman & M. Alpert (1973). The language barrier in evaluating Spanish-American patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 29, 655–659.

M. Mead (1947). The implications of culture change for personality development. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 17, 633–645.

R. E. Mollica , X. Cui , K. McInnes & M. P. Massagli (2002). Science-based policy for psychosocial interventions in refugee camps; a Cambodian example. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190, 158–166.

A. Nadler & D. Ben-Slushan (1989). Forty years later: long-term consequences of massive traumatization as manifested by holocaust survivors from the city and the kibutz. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 57, 287–293.

A. Paredes (1975). Social control of drinking among the Aztec Indians of Mexoamerica. Journal of Studies of Alcohol, 36, 1139–1153.

J. M. Portela (1971). Social aspects of transference and countertransference in the patient–psychiatrist relationship in an underdeveloped country: Brazil. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 17, 177–188.

R. H. Prince (1976). Psychotherapy as the manipulation of endogenous healing mechanisms. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 13, 115–133.

K. H. Reubank (1995). Drug use and drug policy in Western Europe. European Addiction Research, 1, 32–41.

W. H. Sack , G. N. Clarke & J. Seeley (1995). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder across two generations of Cambodian refugees. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1160–1166.

W. H. Sack , G. N. Clarke & J. Seeley (1996). Multiple forms of stress in Cambodian adolescent refugees. Child Development, 67, 107–116.

N. Sartorius , A. Jablensky & R. Schapiro (1978). Cross cultural differences in the short-term prognosis of schizophrenic psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 4, 102–113.

D. Savin , W. H. Sack , G. N. Clarke , N. Meas & J. Richart (1996). The Khmer adolescent project: III. A study of trauma from Thailand's site II refugee camp. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 384–391.

J. Szapocnik , D. Santisteban , W. Kurtines , A. Perez-Vidal & O. Hervis (1984). Bicultural effectiveness training: a treatment intervention for enhancing intercultural adjustment in Cuban American families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 6(4), 317–344.

W. S. Tseng , J. F. McDermott & K. Ogino (1982). Cross cultural differences in parent–child assessment: USA and Japan. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 28, 305–317.

W. S. Tseng , M. Asai , J. Liu & W. Pismai (1990). Multi-cultural study of minor psychiatric disorders in Asia: symptom manifestations. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 36(4), 252–264.

M. T. Tsuang (1976). Schizophrenia around the world. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 17, 477–481.

J. L. Vincent , D. H. Bihari , P. M. Suter , H. A. Bruining & J. White (1995). The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe. Journal American Medical Association, 274(8), 639–644.

J. Westermeyer (1972). Options regarding alcohol use among the Chippewa. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 42(3), 398–403.

J. Westermeyer (1990). Working with an interpreter in psychiatric assessment and treatment. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 178, 745–749.

J. Westermeyer & L. Sines (1979). Reliability of cross-cultural psychiatric diagnosis with an assessment of two rating contexts. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 15(3), 199–213.

C. Williams & J. Westermeyer (1984). Psychiatric problems among adolescent Southeast Asian refugees: a descriptive study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 171, 79–85.

R. Winkelmayer , E. Gottheil , R. V. Exline & A. Paredes (1978). The relative accuracy of U.S., British, and Mexican raters in judging the emotional displays of schizophrenic and normal U.S. women. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 600–608.

M. Aidoo and T. Harpham (2001). The explanatory models of mental health amongst low-income women and health care practitioners in Lusaka, Zambia. Health Policy and Planning. 16, 206–213.

R. D. Alarcón , J. Westermeyer , E. F. Foulks and P. Ruiz (1999). Clinical relevance of contemporary cultural psychology. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187, 465–471.

J. R. Betancourt (2004). Cultural competence – marginal or mainstream movement? New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 953–955.

K. Bhui and D. Bhugra (2002). Explanatory models for mental distress: implications for clinical practice and research. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 6–7.

D. W. Blumhagen (1981). On the nature of explanatory models. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 5, 337–340.

D. H. Brendel (2003). Reductionism, eclecticism and pragmatism in psychiatry: the dialectic of clinical explanation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 28, 563–580.

A. Callan and R. Littlewood (1998). Patient satisfaction: ethnic origin or explanatory model? International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 44, 1–11.

J. R. Carrillo , A. R. Green and J. R. Betancourt (1999). Cross-cultural primary care: a patient-based approach. Annals of Internal Medicine, 130, 829–834.

N. Daie , E. Witztum , M. Mark and S Rabinowitz . (1992). The belief in the transmigration of souls: psychotherapy of a Druze patient with severe anxiety reaction. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 65, 119–130.

T. C. Daley (2005). Beliefs about treatment of mental health problems among Cambodian American children and parents. Social Science and Medicine, 61, 2384–2395.

L. Eisenberg (1977). Disease and illness: distinctions between professional and popular ideas of sickness. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 1, 9–23.

M. Eisenbruch (1990). Classification of natural and supernatural causes of mental distress: development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178, 712–719.

G. L. Engel (1977). The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129–136.

H. Fabrega Jr. (1975). The need for an ethnomedical science. Science, 189, 969–975.

N. Fox , K. Ward and A. O'Rourke (2005). Pro-anorexia, weight-loss drugs and the internet: an ‘anti-recovery’ explanatory model of anorexia. Sociology of Health and Illness, 27, 944–971.

B. Good (1977). The heart of what's the matter: the semantics of illness in Iran. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 1, 25–58.

T. P. Ho and C. Luk (1997). Comparison of child psychiatric patients in hospital and community clinics in Hong Kong. General Hospital Psychiatry, 19, 362–369.

D. Joel , M. Sathyaseelan , R. Jayakaran , C. Vijayakumar , S. Muthurathnam and K. S. Jacob (2003). Explanatory models of psychosis among community health workers in South India. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108, 66–69.

A. Kleinman (1978b). What kind of model for the anthropology of medical systems? American Anthropologist, 80, 661–665.

A. Kleinman , L. Eisenberg and B. Good (1978). Culture, illness and care: clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Annals of Internal Medicine, 88, 251–258.

J. A. Larsen (2004). Finding meaning in first episode psychosis: experience, agency and the cultural repertoire. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 18, 447–471.

R. B. Lemelson (2004). Traditional healing and its discontents: efficacy and traditional therapies of neuropsychiatric disorders in Bali. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 18, 48–76.

R. Littlewood (1990). The new cross-cultural psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 775–776.

K. R. Lloyd , K. S. Jacob , V. Patel , L. St Louis , D. Bhugra and A. H. Mann (1998). The development of the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI) and its use among primary-care attenders with common mental disorders. Psychology and Medicine, 28, 1231–1237.

P. D. McGorry and S. B. McConville (1999). Insight in psychosis: an elusive target. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 40, 131–142.

D. J. Niehaus , P. Oosthuizen , C. Lochner et al. (2004). A culture-bound syndrome amafufunyana and a culture-specific event ukuthwasa: differentiated by a family history of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Psychopathology, 37, 59–63.

H. G. Nutini (1965) Some considerations on the nature of social structure and model building: a critique of Claude Levi-Strauss and Edmund Leach. American Anthropologist, 67, 707–731.

V. Patel (1995). Explanatory models of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa. Social Science and Medicine, 40, 1291–1298.

S. Penka , S. Krieg , Ch. Hunner and A. Heinz (2003). Different explanatory models ofr addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment. Nervenarzt, 74, 581–586.

M. Rodrigues , V. Patel , S. Jaswal and N. Souza (2003). Listening to mothers: qualitative studies on motherhood and depression from Goa, India. Social Science and Medicine, 57, 1797–1806.

J. Sayre (2000). The patient's diagnosis: explanatory models of mental illness. Qualitative Health Research, 10, 71–83.

S. Sheikh and A. Furnham (2000). A cross-cultural study of mental health beliefs and attitudes towards seeking professional help. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35, 326–334.

L. Stern and L. J Kirmayer . (2004). Knowledge structures in illness narratives: development and reliability of a coding scheme. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41, 130–142.

L. Swartz (1987). Illness negotiation: the case of eating disorders. Social Science and Medicine, 24, 613–618.

M. G. Weiss (1997). Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue: framework for comparative study of illness experience. Transcultural Psychiatry, 34, 235–263.

M. G. Weiss , S. D. Sharma , R. K. Gaur , J. S. Sharma , A. Desai and D. R. Doongaji (1986). Traditional concepts of mental disorder among Indian psychiatric patients: preliminary report of work in progress. Social Science and Medicine, 23, 379–386.

M. G. Weiss , D. R. Doongaji , S. Siddhartha et al. (1992). The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). Contribution to cross-cultural research methods from a study of leprosy and mental health. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 819–830.

M. G. Weiss , R. Raguram and S. M. Channabasavanna (1995). Cultural dimensions of psychiatric diagnosis. A comparison of DSM-III-R and illness explanatory models in South India. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 353–359.

B. Williams and D. Healy (2001). Perceptions of illness causation among new referrals to a community mental health team: explanatory model or exploratory map? Social Science and Medicine, 53, 465–476.

A. Young (1981). When rational men fall sick: an inquiry into some assumptions made by medical anthropologists. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 5, 317–337.

A. Young (1982). The anthropologies of illness and sickness. Annual Review of Anthropology, 11, 257–285.

M. S. Bhatia & S. C. Malik (1991). Dhat syndrome. A useful diagnostic entity in Indian culture. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 691–695.

D. Bhugra (2005). Cultural identities and cultural congruency: a new model for evaluating mental distress in immigrants. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 111(2), 84–93.

A. Bottero (1991). Consumption by semen loss in India and elsewhere. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 15, 303–320.

R. K. Chadda & N. Ahuja (1990). Dhat syndrome: a sex neurosis in Indian subcontinent. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 577–579.

R. K. Chadda (1995). Dhat syndrome: Is it a distinct clinical entity? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 91, 136–139.

T. L. Chiu , J. E. Tong & K. E. Schmidt (1972). A clinical and survey study of latah in Sarawak. Psychological Medicine, 2, 155–165.

Darby, R. (2001). A source of serious mischief. In Understanding Cricumcision, ed. G. C. Denniston , F. M. Hodges & M. F. Milos . New York: Kluwer Academic Press, pp. 153–197.

P. Silva & S. A. W. Dissanayeke (1989). The loss of semen syndrome in Sri Lanka: a clinical study. Sex and Marital Therapy, 4(2), 195–204.

Friedman, C. T. H. (1982). The so called hysteropsychoses: Latah, windigo and pibloktoq. In Extraordinary Disorders of Human Behavior, ed. C. T. H. Friedman , and R. Faguet . New York: Plenum, pp. 215–228.

E. C. Kunkle (1967). The ‘Jumpers’ of Maine: a reappraisal. Archives of Internal Medicine, 119, 355–358.

H. K. Malhotra & N. N. Wig (1975). Dhat syndrome: a culture-bound sex neurosis of the Orient. Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 4(5), 519–528.

H. B. M. Murphy (1977). Transcultural psychiatry should begin at home. Psychological Medicine, 7, 369–371.

C. Rittenbaugh (1982). Obesity as a culture-bound syndrome. Cultural Medicine and Psychiatry, 6, 347–361.

R. C. Simons (1980). The resolution of the latah paradox. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 168, 195–206.

R. C. Simons & C. C. Hughes , (eds.) (1985). Culture Bound Syndromes. Dordrecht: Rendel.

F. H. G. Loon (1927). Amok and latah. Journal of the Abnormal and Soclial Psychology, 21, 434–444.

P. M. Yap (1965). Koro: a culture-bound depersonalised syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 111, 43–50.

L. Andrade , J. J. Caraveo-Anduaga , P. Berglund et al. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive episodes: results from the International Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE) surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12, 3–21.

R. V. Bjil , R. Graff , E. Hiripi et al. (2003). The prevalence of treated and untreated mental disorders in five countries. Health Affairs, 22, 122–133.

D. Blazer , D. C. Hughes & L. K. George (1987). The epidemiology of depression in an elderly community population. Gerontologist, 27, 281–287.

G. Canino , R. Lewis-Fernandez & M. Bravo (1997). Methodological challenges in cross-cultural mental health research. Transcultural Psychiatry, 34, 163–184.

P. Cohen & J. Cohen (1984). The clinician's illusion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 1178–1182.

B. P. Dohrenwend & B. S. Dohrenwend (1974). Social and cultural influences on psychopathology. Annual Review of Psychology, 25, 417–452.

B. P. Dohrenwend & B. S. Dohrenwend (1982). Perspective on the past and future of psychiatric epidemiology. The Rema Lapouse Lecture. American Journal of Public Health, 72, 1271–1279.

B. P. Dohrenwend , I. Levav , P. E. Shrout et al. (1992). Socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders: the causation-selection issue. Science, 255, 946–952.

J. Endicott & R. L. Spitzer (1978). A diagnostic interview: the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844.

H. Fabrega Jr. (1994). International systems of diagnosis in psychiatry. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 256–263.

J. A. Flaherty , R. Kohn , I. Levav & S. Birz (1988a). Demoralization in Soviet-Jewish immigrants to the United States and Israel. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 29, 588–597.

E. M. Goldberg & S. L. Morrison (1963). Schizophrenia and social class. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 785–802.

D. P. Goldberg , K. Rickels , R. Downing & P. Hesbacher (1976). A comparison of two psychiatric screening tests. British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 61–67.

E. Jarvis (1971). Insanity and Idiocy in Massachusetts: Report of the Commission of Lunacy (1855). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

R. C. Kessler (1999). The World Health Organization International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE): initial work and future directions – the NAPE Lecture 1998. Nordic Association for Psychiatric Epidemiology. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 99, 2–9.

J. B. Kirkbride , P. Fearon , C. Morgan et al. (2006). Heterogeneity in the incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes: findings from the 3-center AeSOP study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(3), 250–258.

D. C. Leighton , J. S. Harding , D. B. Macklin , C. C. Hughes & A. H. Leighton (1963a). Psychiatric findings of the Stirling County Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 119, 1021–1026.

I. Levav , R. Kohn , B. P. Dohrenwend et al. (1993). An epidemiologic study of mental disorders in a 10-year cohort of young adults in Israel. Psychological Medicine, 23, 691–707.

J. E. Mezzich , H. Fabrega Jr. & A. Kleinman (1992). Cultural validity and DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 4.

R. F. Mollica , N. Sarajlic , M. Chernoff , J. Lavelle , I. S. Vukovic & M. P. Massagli (2001). Longitudinal study of psychiatric symptoms, disability, mortality, and emigration among Bosnian refugees. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286, 546–554.

C. S. North , S. J. Nixon , S. Shariat et al. (1999). Psychiatric disorders among survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 755–762.

L. N. Robins , J. E. Helzer , J. Croughan & K. S. Ratcliff (1981). National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 381–389.

Sartorius, N. & Kuyken, W. (1994). Translation of health status instruments. In Quality of Life Assessment: International Perspectives, ed. J. Orley & W. Kuyken . New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 3–18.

J. P. Selten , N. Veen , W. Feller et al. (2001). Incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrant groups to the Netherlands. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 367–372.

M. S. Sharpley , G. Hutchinson , R. M. Murray & K. McKenzie (2001). Understanding the excess of psychosis among the African-Caribbean population in England: review of current hypotheses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178 (Suppl. 40), 60–68.

P. E. Shrout , B. P. Dohrenwend & I. Levav (1986). A discriminant rule for screening cases of diverse diagnostic types: preliminary results. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 314–319.

R. L. Spitzer , J. Endicott & E. Robins (1978). Research diagnostic criteria: Rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–782.

L. Srole , T. S. Langer , S. T. Michael , M. K. Opler & T. A. Rennie (1962). Mental Health in the Metropolis: The Midtown Manhattan Study. New York: McGraw Hill.

B. Ustun , W. Compton , D. Mager et al. (1997). WHO Study on the reliability and validity of the alcohol and drug use disorder instruments: overview of methods and results. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 47, 161–169.

W. A. Vega , B. Kolody , S. Aguilar-Gaxiola , E. Aldrete & R. Catalano (1998). Lifetime prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among rural and urban Mexican Americans in California. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 771–782.

M. G. Weiss (2001). Cultural epidemiology: an introduction and overview. Anthropology and Medicine, 8, 1–29.

M. M. Weissman , R. C. Bland , G. J. Canino et al. (1997). The cross-national epidemiology of panic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 305–309.

J. H. Wing , J. Nixon , S. A. Mann & J. P. Leff (1977). Reliability of the PSE (ninth edition) used in a population survey. Psychological Medicine, 7, 505–516.

J. K. Wing , T. Babor , T. Brugha et al. (1990). SCAN: schedules for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 589–593.

H. U. Wittchen (1994). Reliability and validity studies of the WHO – Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): a critical review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 28, 57–84.

World Mental Health Survey Consortium (2004). Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291, 2581–2590.

Arends-Toth, J. & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2006). Assessment of psychological acculturation. In Cambridge Handbook of Acculturation Psychology, ed. D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 142–160.

J. W. Berry (1970). Marginality, stress and ethnic identification in an acculturated Aboriginal community. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 239–252.

J. W. Berry (1992). Acculturation and adaptation in a new society. International Migration, 30, 69–85.

J. W. Berry , U. Kim , T. Minde & D. Mok (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21, 491–511.

J. W. Berry , U. Kim , S. Power , M. Young & M. Bujaki (1989). Acculturation attitudes in plural societies. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 38, 185–206.

R. Bourhis , C. Moise , S. Perreault & S. Senecal (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: a social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32, 369–386.

N. Endler & J. Parker (1990). Multidimensional assessment of coping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 844–854.

T. Graves (1967). Psychological acculturation in a tri-ethnic community. South-Western Journal of Anthropology, 23, 337–350.

M. Laroche , C. Kim , M. Hui & A. Joy (1996). An empirical study of multidimensional change: the case of the French Canadians in Quebec. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27(1), 114–131.

J. Phinney (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499–514.

J. Phinney , V. Chavira & L. Williamson (1992). Acculturation attitudes and self-esteem among school and college students. Youth and Society, 23, 299–312.

R. Redfield , R. Linton & M. Herskovits (1936). Memorandum on the study of acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38, 149–152.

A Ryder , L. Alden & D. Paulhus (2000). Is acculturation unidimensional or bidimensional? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 49–65.

S. Atran , D. L. Medin and N. O. Ross (2005). The cultural mind. Psychological Review, 112, 744–776.

J. R. Bindon , A. Knight , W. D. Dressler and D. E. Crews (1997). Social context and psychosocial influences on blood pressure among American Samoans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 103, 7–18.

R. Boudon (1988). Will sociology ever be a normal science? Theory and Society, 17, 747–771.

J. C. Cassel , R. Patrick and C. D. Jenkins (1960). Epidemiological analysis of the health implications of culture change. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 84, 938–949.

L. R. Chavez , J. M. McMullin , S. I. Mishra and F. A. Hubbell (2001). Beliefs matter: cultural beliefs and the use of cervical cancer-screening tests. American Anthropologist, 103, 1114–1129.

P. V. Chin-Hong and S. T. McGarvey (1996). Lifestyle incongruity and adult blood pressure in Western Samoa. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 130–137.

N. Crossley (2001). The phenomenological habitus and its construction. Theory and Society, 30, 81–120.

D'Andrade, R. G. (1992). Schemas and motivation. In Human Motives and Cultural Models, ed. R. G. D'Andrade and C. Strauss . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 23–44.

R. G. D'Andrade (1995). The Development of Cognitive Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

W. W. Dressler (1991b). Social support, lifestyle incongruity, and arterial blood pressure in a Southern black community. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 608–620.

W. W. Dressler (1995). Modelling biocultural interactions in anthropological research: an example from research on stress and cardiovascular disease. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 38, 27–56.

W. W. Dressler (2001). Medical anthropology: toward a third moment in social science? Medical Anthropology Quarterly,