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    Brentjes, Sonja 2016. A Companion to Science, Technology, and Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome.

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This volume in the highly respected Cambridge History of Science series is devoted to the history of science in the Middle Ages from the North Atlantic to the Indus Valley. Medieval science was once universally dismissed as non-existent - and sometimes it still is. This volume reveals the diversity of goals, contexts and accomplishments in the study of nature during the Middle Ages. Organized by topic and culture, its essays by distinguished scholars offer the most comprehensive and up-to-date history of medieval science currently available. Intended to provide a balanced and inclusive treatment of the medieval world, contributors consider scientific learning and advancement in the cultures associated with the Arabic, Greek, Latin and Hebrew languages. Scientists, historians and other curious readers will all gain a new appreciation for the study of nature during an era that is often misunderstood.

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

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Donald M. Reid, Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)

Max Meyerhof, “New Light on Ḥunain Ibn Isḥāq and His Period,” Isis, 8 (1926), 685–724

S. Fazzo and H. Wiesner, “Alexander of Aphrodisias in the Kindī-Circle and in al-Kindī's Cosmology,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 3 (1993), 119–53

Roshdi Rashed, “Al-Kindī's Commentary on Archimedes’ ‘The Measurement of the Circle,’” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 3 (1993), 7–53

Gerald J. Toomer, Apollonius, Conics Books V–VII: The Arabic Translation of the Lost Greek Original in the Version of the Banū Mūsā (New York: Springer, 1990)

Jan P. Hogendijk, “Arabic Traces of Lost Works of Apollonius,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 35 (1986), 187–253

Jan P. Hogendijk, “Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī on the Number of Positive Roots of Cubic Equations,” Historia Mathematica, 16, no. 1 (1989), 69–85

Ahmet G. Agargün and Colin R. Fletcher, “Al-Farisī and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic,” Historia Mathematica, 21 (1994), 162–73

Jan P. Hogendijk, “Greek and Arabic Constructions of the Regular Heptagon,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 30 (1984), 197–330

J. L. Berggren, “Mathematics and Her Sisters in Medieval Islam,” Historia Mathematica, 24 (1997), 407–40

Elaheh Kheirandish, The Arabic Version of Euclid's Optics, 2 vols. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1999)

Dimitri Gutas, Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early ʿAbbāsid Society (London: Routledge, 1998)

A. I. Sabra, “Book Review: Géometrie et dioptrique au Xe siècle: Ibn Sahl, al-Quhi, Ibn al-Haytham Roshdi Rashed (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1993),” Isis, 85, no. 4 (1994), 685–6

A. I. Sabra, “The ‘Commentary’ That Saved the Text: The Hazardous Journey of Ibn al-Haytham's Arabic ‘Optics’,” Early Science and Medicine, 12 (2007), 117–33

Mohammed Abattouy, “Greek Mechanics in Arabic Context: Thābit ibn Qurra, Isfizārī, and the Arabic Tradition of Aristotelian and Euclidean Mechanics,” Science in Context, 14 (2001), 179–247

Nikolai Khanikoff, “Analysis and Extracts of Kitāb al-Mizān al-Ḥikma: Book of the Balance of Wisdom, an Arabic Work on the Water-Balance, written by al-Khāzinī in the Twelfth Century,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 6 (1860), 1–128

Peter Adamson, “Vision, Light and Color in al-Kindī, Ptolemy and the Ancient Commentators,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 16 (2006), 207–36

Mohammed Abattouy, “Nutaf min al-Ḥiyal: A Partial Arabic Version of Pseudo-Aristotle's Problemata Mechanica,” Early Science and Medicine, 6 (2001), 96–122

Johannes Pedersen, The Arabic Book, trans. Geoffrey French (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984), pp. 20–36

A. Mark Smith, “The Latin Source of the Fourteenth Century Italian Translation of Alhacen's De aspectibus,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 11 (2001), 27–44

Elaheh Kheirandish, “The ‘Fluctuating Fortunes of Scholarship’: A Very Late Review Occasioned by a Fallen Book,” Early Science and Medicine, 11 (2006), 207–22. For the mechanics attributed to Ibn Sinā, see Miʿyār al-ʿuqūl, ed. Jalāl al-Dīn Humāyī (Teheran: Anjuman-i Āthār-I Millī, 1952).

Wilfred R. Theisen, “The Mediaeval Tradition of Euclid's Optics” (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1972); and Wilfred R. Theisen, “Liber de visu: The Greco-Latin Translation of Euclid's Optics,” Mediaeval Studies, 41 (1979), 44–105

Jan P. Hogendijk, “Discovery of an Eleventh-Century Geometrical Compilation: The Istikmāl of Yūsuf ibn Hūd, King of Saragossa,” Historia Mathematica, 13 (1986), 43–52

Roshdi Rashed, “A Pioneer in Anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on Burning Mirrors and Lenses,” Isis, 81 (1990), 464–91

Marshall Clagett, “Some General Aspects of Physics in the Middle Ages,” Isis, 39 (1948), 29–44 at p. 32

C. E. Bosworth, “A Pioneer Arabic Encyclopedia of the Sciences: Al-Khwārizmī's Key of the Sciences,” Isis, 54 (1963), 341–5

J. Stephenson, “The Classification of the Sciences According to Nasiruddin Tusi,” Isis, 5 (1923), 329–38;

F. J. Ragep, ed., trans., and comment., Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī's Memoir on Astronomy (al-Tadhkira fī ʿilm al-hayʾa), 2 vols. (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993)

G. E. R. Lloyd, citing the rejection of heliocentrism, in “Saving the Appearances,” Classical Quarterly, n.s. 28 (1978), 202–22 at pp. 219–22

Gad Freudenthal, “ʿInstrumentalism’ and ʿRealism’ as Categories in the History of Astronomy: Duhem vs. Popper, Maimonides vs. Gersonides,” Centaurus, 45 (2003), 227–48

David King, “Ibn Yūnus’ Very Useful Tables for Reckoning Time by the Sun,” Archive for History of the Exact Sciences, 10 (1973), 342–94

Régis Morelon, “Thābit ibn Qurra and Arabic Astronomy in the Ninth Century,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 4 (1994), 111–39

David King, “The Sacred Direction in Islam: A Study of the Interaction of Religion and Science in the Middle Ages,” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 10 (1985), 315–28 at p. 319

E. S. Kennedy, “Ḥabash al-Ḥāsib's Analemma for the Qibla,” Historia Mathematica, 1 (1974), 3–11

Ahmad S. Dallal, “Ibn al-Haytham's Universal Solution for Finding the Direction of the Qibla by Calculation,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 5 (1995), 145–93

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David Pingree, “The Fragments of the Works of al-Fazārī,” The Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 29 (1970), 103–23

Roshdi Rashed, “Al-Qūhī Versus Aristotle on Motion,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 9 (1999), 7–24

Bernard R. Goldstein, “The Arabic Version of Ptolemy's Planetary Hypotheses,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 57, no. 4 (1967), 1–55

George Saliba, “Early Arabic Critique of Ptolemaic Cosmology: A Ninth-Century Text on the Motion of the Celestial Spheres,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, 25 (1994), 115–41

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F. Jamil Ragep, “Ṭūsī and Copernicus: The Earth's Motion in Context,” Science in Context, 14 (2001), 145–64

Frank Griffel, Al-Ghazali's Philosophical Theology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009)

George Saliba, “Arabic versus Greek Astronomy: A Debate over the Foundations of Science,” Perspectives on Science, 8 (2000), 328–41

A. I. Sabra, “Reply to Saliba,” Perspectives on Science, 8 (2000), 342–5

Robert Morrison, “The Solar Model of Joseph ibn Naḥmias,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 15 (2005), 57–108

George Saliba, “Solar Observations at the Maraghah Observatory Before 1275,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, 16 (1985), 113–22

George Saliba, “Theory and Observation in Islamic Astronomy: The Work of Ibn al-Shāṭir of Damascus,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, 18 (1987), 35–43

E. S. Kennedy, “Late Medieval Planetary Theory,” Isis, 57 (1966), 365–78

George Saliba, “Al-Qushjī's Reform of the Ptolemaic Model for Mercury,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 3 (1993), 161–203

Bernard Goldstein, “Theory and Observation in Medieval Astronomy,” Isis, 63 (1972), 39–47

Bernard R. Goldstein and Noel Swerdlow, “Planetary Distances and Sizes in an Anonymous Arabic Treatise Preserved in Bodleian Ms. Marsh 621,” Centaurus, 15 (1970), 135–70

George Saliba, “The First Non-Ptolemaic Astronomy at the Maraghah School,” Isis, 70 (1979), 571–6

Bernard R. Goldstein, “Some Medieval Reports of Venus and Mercury Transits,” Centaurus, 14 (1969), 49–59 at p. 55

François Charette, “The Locales of Islamic Astronomical Instrumentation,” History of Science, 44 (2006), 123–38 at pp. 129–31

Ayman Shihadeh, “From al-Ghazālī to al-Rāzī: 6th/12th Century Developments in Muslim Philosophical Theology,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 15 (2005), 141–79

M. Bagheri, “A Newly Found Letter of Al-Kāshī on Scientific Life in Samarkand,” Historia Mathematica, 24 (1997), 241–56

F. Jamil Ragep, “`Alī Qushjī and Regiomontanus: Eccentric Transformations and Copernican Revolutions,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, 36 (2005), 359–71

Ragep, “Freeing Astronomy,” Osiris, 16 (2001), 49–71

Michael W. Dols, Majnūn: The Madman in Medieval Islamic Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), pp. 211–60

Lawrence I. Conrad, “Epidemic Disease in Formal and Popular Thought in Early Islamic Society,” in Epidemic and Ideas: Essays on the Historical Perception of Pestilence, ed. Terence Ranger and Paul Slack (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 77–99

Lawrence I. Conrad, “Scholarship and Social Context: A Medical Case from the Eleventh-Century Near East,” in Knowledge and the Scholarly Medical Traditions, ed. Don Bates (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 84–100

E. Savage-Smith, “Anatomical Illustration in Arabic Manuscripts,” in Arab Painting: Text and Image in Illustrated Arabic Manuscripts, ed. Anna Contadini (Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section 1, vol. 90) (Leiden: Brill, 2007), pp. 147–59

D. S. Richards, “A Doctor's Petition for a Salaried Post in Saladin's Hospital,” Social History of Medicine, 5 (1992), 297–306

Max Meyerhof, “Thirty-Three Clinical Observations by Rhazes (circa 900 AD),” Isis, 23 (1935), 321–56

C. Álvarez-Millán, “Practice versus Theory: Tenth-Century Case Histories from the Islamic Middle East,” Social History of Medicine, 13 (2000), 293–306

E. Savage-Smith, “The Practice of Surgery in Islamic Lands: Myth and Reality,” Social History of Medicine, 13 (2002), 307–21

F. Sanagustin, “La chirurgie dans le Canon de la médecine (al-Qānūn fī-ṭ-ṭibb) d’Avicenne (Ibn Sīnā),” Arabica, 33 (1986), 84–122

Eliyahu Beller, “Ancient Jewish Mathematical Astronomy,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 38 (1988), 51–66

Y. Tzvi Langermann, “Manuscript Moscow Guenzburg 1020: An Important New Yemeni Codex of Jewish Philosophy,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 115 (1995), 373–87 at pp. 386–7

Raphael Jospe, “Early Philosophical Commentaries on Sefer Yezira: Some Comments,Revue des études juives, 149 (1990), 369–415

Steven M. Wasserstrom, “Sefer Yesira and Early Islam: A Reappraisal,” Jewish Thought and Philosophy, 3 (1993), 1–30

Y. Tzvi Langermann, “On the Beginnings of Hebrew Scientific Literature and On Studying History Through Maqbilot (Parallels),” Aleph: Historical Studies in Science & Judaism, 2 (2002), 169–89

Gad Freudenthal, “Les sciences dans les communautés juives médiévales de Provence: leur appropriation, leur rôle,” Revue des études juives, 152 (1993), 30–136

Luis García-Ballester, Lola Ferre, and Eduard Feliu, “Jewish Appreciation of Fourteenth Century Scholastic Medicine, “Osiris, 2nd ser., 6 (1990), 85–117

Y. Tzvi Langermann, “Arabic Writings in Hebrew Manuscripts,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 6 (1996), 137–60

Bernard RGoldstein. , The Astronomy of Levi ben Gerson (1288–1344) (New York: Springer, 1985)

Bernard R. Goldstein, “Astronomy and Astrology in the Works of Abraham ibn Ezra,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 6 (1996), 9–21

Gad Freudenthal, “Epistémologie, astronomie, et astrologie chez Gersonide,” Revue des études juives, 146 (1987), 357–65

Charles Manekin, The Logic of Gersonides (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1992)

Charles Manekin, “When the Jews Learned Logic from the Pope: Three Medieval Hebrew Translations of the Tractatus of Peter of Spain,” Science in Context, 10 (1997), 395–430

Y. Tzvi Langermann, “Medieval Hebrew Texts on the Quadrature of the Lune,” Historia Mathematica, 23 (1996), 31–53

Gerrit Bos, “R. Moshe Narboni: Philosopher and Physician, a Critical Analysis of His Orah Hayyim,” Medieval Encounters, 1 (1995), 219–51

Y. Tzvi Langermann, “Science and the Kuzari,” Science in Context, 10 (1997), 495–522

Y. Tzvi Langermann, “Acceptance and Devaluation: Na'manides’ Attitude Towards Science,” Jewish Thought and Philosophy, 1 (1992), 223–45

André Allard, “Le premier traité byzantin de calcul indien: classement des manuscrits et édition critique du texte,” Revue d'histoire des textes, 7 (1977), 57–107

André Allard, “Le petit traité d’Isaac Argyre sur la racine carrée,” Centaurus, 22 (1978), 1–43

Joseph Mogenet, “Une scolie inédite sur les rapports entre l'astronomie arabe et Byzance,” Osiris 14 (1962), 198–221

David Pingree, “Gregory Chioniades and Palaeologan Astronomy,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 18 (1964), 135–60

P. Solon, “The Six Wings of Immanuel Bonfils and Michael Chrysococces,” Centaurus, 15 (1970), 1–20

François Lasserre, “Étude sur les extraits médiévaux de Strabon suivie d'un traité inédit de Michel Psellus,” L’Antiquité Classique, 28 (1959), 32–79

Aubrey Diller, “A Geographical Treatise by Georgius Gemistus Pletho,” Isis, 27 (1937), 371–81, 441–51

G. Brett, “The Automata in the Byzantine Throne of Salomon,” Speculum, 29 (1954), 477–87

Anne-Marie Doyen-Higuet, “The Hippiatrica and Byzantine Veterinary Medecine,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 38 (1984), 111–20

Chris Wickham, Framing the Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400–800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005)

Anthony Corbeill, “Education in the Roman Republic: Creating Traditions,” in Education in Greek and Roman Antiquity, ed. Yun Lee Too (Leiden: Brill, 2001), pp. 261–87

Bruce Eastwood, Ordering the Heavens: Roman Astronomy and Cosmology in the Carolingian Renaissance (Leiden: Brill, 2007), pp. 10–13

Bruce Eastwood and Gerd Grasshoff, “Planetary Diagrams for Roman Astronomy in Medieval Europe, ca. 800–1500,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 94, pt. 3 (2004), 1–158 at pp. 1–2

Rosamond McKitterick, The Carolingians and the Written Word (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 220–7

R. Graham, “The Intellectual Influence of English Monasticism between the Tenth and the Twelfth Centuries,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, n.s. 17 (1903), 23–65

C. Stephen Jaeger, The Envy of Angels: Cathedrals Schools and Social Ideals in Medieval Europe, 950–1200 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995), pp. 25, 164–79

Mark Jordan, “The Construction of a Philosophical Medicine: Exegesis and Argument in Salernitan Teaching on the Soul,” Osiris, 2nd ser., 6 (1990), 42–61

Danielle Jacquart, “Aristotelian Thought in Salerno,” in A History of Twelfth-Century Western Philosophy, ed. Peter Dronke (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 407–28

Tullio Gregory, “La nouvelle idée de nature et de savoir scientifique au XIIe siècle,” in The Cultural Context of Medieval Learning, ed. John E. Murdoch and Edith D. Sylla (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 26) (Boston: Reidel, 1975), pp. 192–218,

William R. Newman, Atoms and Alchemy: Chymistry and the Experimental Origins of the Scientific Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), pp. 25–6

Edith Sylla, “The Oxford Calculators,” in The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy, ed. Norman Kretzmann, Anthony Kenny, and Jan Pinborg (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), pp. 542–8

Edith Sylla, “The Oxford Calculators in Context,” Science in Context, 1 (1987), 257–79

William J. Courtenay, Parisian Scholars in the Early Fourteenth Century: A Social Portrait (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 95–8

Hilde De Ridder-Symoens, “Rich Men, Poor Men: Social Stratification and Social Representation at the University (13th–16th Centuries),” in Showing Status: Representations of Social Position in the Late Middle Ages, ed. Wim Blockmans and Antheun Janse (Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe, 2) (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999), pp. 159–75

Michael H. Shank, “A Female University Student in Fifteenth-Century Kraków,” Signs, 12 (1987), 373–80

J. M. M. H. Thijssen, Censure and Heresy at the University of Paris, 1200–1400 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press,1998)

Mireille Ausécache, “Gilles de Corbeil ou le médecin pédagogue au tournant des XIIe et XIIIe siècles,” Early Science and Medicine, 3 (1998), 187–215

Robert F. Seybolt, trans., Manuale scolarium: An Original Account of Life in the Mediaeval University (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921), pp. 40–5.

Claudia Kren, “Patterns in Arts Teaching at the Medieval University of Vienna,” Viator, 18 (1987), 321–36

Richard Lemay, “Teaching of Astronomy in Medieval Universities Principally at Paris in the Fourteenth Century,” Manuscripta, 20 (1976), 197–217

Joan Cadden, “Charles V, Nicole Oresme, and Christine de Pizan: Unities and Uses of Knowledge in Fourteenth-Century France,” in Texts and Contexts in Ancient and Medieval Science: Studies on the Occasion of John E. Murdoch's Seventieth Birthday, ed. Edith Sylla and Michael McVaugh (Leiden: Brill, 1997), pp. 208–44

Joel Kaye, Economy and Nature in the Fourteenth Century: Money, Market Exchange and the Emergence of Scientific Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

José Chabás, “Astronomy in Salamanca in the Mid-Fifteenth Century: The Tabulae resolutae,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, 29 (1998), 167–75

George Molland, “The Quadrivium in the Universities: Four Questions,” in Scientia und Ars im Hoch- und Spätmittelalter, ed. Ingrid Craemer-Ruegenberg and Andreas Speer, 2 vols. (Miscellanea Mediaevalia, 22) (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1994), vol. 1, pp. 66–78

José Chabás and Bernard Goldstein, The Alfonsine Tables of Toledo (Archimedes, 8) (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003)

José Chabás, “The University of Salamanca and the Renaissance of Astronomy during the Second Half of the 15th Century,” in Universities and Science in the Early Modern Period, ed. Mordechai Feingold and Victor Navarro-Brotons (Dordrecht: Springer, 2006), pp. 29–36

William Crossgrove, “The Vernacularization of Science, Medicine, and Technology in Late Medieval Europe: Broadening Our Perspectives,” Early Science and Medicine, 5 (2000), 46–63

Bernard R. Goldstein, “Levi ben Gerson: On Astronomy and Physical Experiments,” in Physics, Cosmology, and Experiment, 1300–1700: Tension and Accommodation, ed. Sabetai Unguru (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 126) (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991), pp. 75–82

James Banker, The Culture of San Sepolcro during the Youth of Piero della Francesca (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003), pp. 85–9

Elspeth Whitney, “Paradise Restored: The Mechanical Arts from Antiquity through the Thirteenth Century,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 80, no. 1 (1990), 1–170

Michael R. McVaugh, “The Nature and Limits of Medical Certitude at Early Fourteenth-Century Montpellier,” Osiris, 2nd ser., 6 (1990), 62–84

David C. Lindberg, “On the Applicability of Mathematics to Nature: Roger Bacon and His Predecessors,” British Journal for the History of Science, 15 (1982), 3–25

John E. Murdoch, “From Social to Intellectual Factors: An Aspect of the Unitary Character of Late Medieval Learning,” in The Cultural Context of Medieval Learning: Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on Philosophy, Science, and Theology in the Middle Ages, September 1973, ed. John E. Murdoch and Edith D. Sylla (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 26; Synthèse Library, 76) (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1975), pp. 271–348

Pamela O. Long, “Power, Patronage, and the Authorship of Ars: From Mechanical Know-How to Mechanical Knowledge in the Last Scribal Age,” Isis, 88 (1997), 1–41

Michael H. Shank, “Academic Consulting in Fifteenth-Century Vienna: The Case of Astrology,” in Texts and Contexts in Ancient and Medieval Science: Studies on the Occasion of John E. Murdoch's Seventieth Birthday, ed. Edith Sylla and Michael McVaugh (Leiden: Brill, 1997), pp. 245–70

Edward Grant, God and Reason in the Middle Ages (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

David C. Lindberg, “Science as Handmaiden: Roger Bacon and the Patristic Tradition,” Isis, 78 (1987), 518–36

Edward Grant, “The Condemnation of 1277, God's Absolute Power, and Physical Thought in the Late Middle Ages,” Viator, 10 (1979), 211–44

David C. Lindberg, The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1450 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), pp. 234–41

N. L. Swerdlow, “Review of Olaf Pedersen, Early Physics and Astronomy,” Speculum, 72 (1997), 875–7.

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Ann Gayton Carmichael, “Contagion Theory and Contagion Practice in Fifteenth-Century Milan,” Renaissance Quarterly, 44 (1991), 213–56

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