Skip to main content
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge World History
    • Volume 4: A World with States, Empires and Networks 1200 BCE–900 CE
    • Edited by Craig Benjamin
    • Online ISBN: 9781139059251
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

From 1200 BCE to 900 CE, the world witnessed the rise of powerful new states and empires, as well as networks of cross-cultural exchange and conquest. Considering the formation and expansion of these large-scale entities, this fourth volume of the Cambridge World History series outlines key economic, political, social, cultural, and intellectual developments that occurred across the globe in this period. Leading scholars examine critical transformations in science and technology, economic systems, attitudes towards gender and family, social hierarchies, education, art, and slavery. The second part of the volume focuses on broader processes of change within western and central Eurasia, the Mediterranean, South Asia, Africa, East Asia, Europe, the Americas and Oceania, as well as offering regional studies highlighting specific topics, from trade along the Silk Roads and across the Sahara, to Chaco culture in the US southwest, to Confucianism and the state in East Asia.

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

  • 8 - Art
    pp 179-234
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter presents an overview of concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. This book traces processes associated with the creation of large-scale political entities and networks of exchange, within a time frame that builds on and expands the usual limits of the classical era. The initial chapters in this book provides an overview of the key economic, political, social, cultural, and intellectual developments that occurred between 1200 BCE and 900 CE. Humans had occupied the islands and mainland of Southeast Asia since Paleolithic times, and during the centuries preceding 1200 BCE they had gathered together into a range of agrarian communities. The existence of Ghanaian soldiers and Byzantine emperors, of Muslim caliphs and Hindu gods, and of Chinese emperors and Australian aboriginals was completely unknown to small fishing communities that occupied the Western Atlantic island environment known as the Caribbean.
  • 10 - Western and Central Eurasia
    pp 271-299
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter explores the effects of empire-building on both local economies and global connectivity, and the impact imperial expansion may have had on what one might call economic growth and complexity. It deals with agriculture and its development under imperial conditions. The chapter considers the impact of governance structures and taxation on ancient economies. By financing flood control and irrigation, and maintaining the bureaucracy to implement the projects, the dynasty benefited through taxation and power, but it also fostered agrarian development and social prosperity. The use of limited-purpose money in some spheres of exchange preceded all monetary systems of the Afro-Eurasian world of the mid-first millennium and helps to explain monetization as a path-dependent process. Taxation was one of the most important means of asserting and maintaining empire both financially and symbolically. Democracy was not long-lasting, but with the Macedonian conquest of the Persian Empire, including Egypt, Greek urban culture, centered on civic interaction spread toward Central Asia and Egypt.
  • 11 - Regional study: Baktria – the crossroads of ancient Eurasia
    pp 300-324
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The formation of states, empires, and trans-regional networks across Eurasia and northern Africa led to dramatic transformations in both social and political relations between men and women. This chapter analyzes the interactions and performances of individuals and communities whose traditional gendered identities and roles had become further complicated by the distinction between member and non-member of a political entity defined by law, sovereignty, and competition with other states as well as non-states. In China, family and the inheritance of property evolved along with the waxing and waning of the patriarchal system as well as the composition of the ruling class. Expanding states and empires required soldiers, administrators, and judges to wield and defend public authority. The formation and maintenance of states, empires, and trans-regional networks in the ancient world has traditionally been viewed as primarily a masculine enterprise, contrasted with the feminine world of the household and domestic economy.
  • 12 - The Mediterranean
    pp 325-349
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Slaves could be found in simpler societies, but more important and better known was the existence of slavery in most advanced states. This chapter discusses the spectrum of different types and levels of slave use. It focuses on slavery in pre-state societies and the correlation between slavery and cities, trade, and empires. Historians often distinguish between slave societies and societies with slaves. New World slavery was agricultural and can seem atavistic and primitive in comparison with contemporaneous industrialization with its wage laborers and technology. The growth of state power, like the growth of cities, typically went hand in hand with the increasing inequalities both of wealth and power that produced an elite who might desire slaves for their lifestyle, status, or profit. The racism directed against black Africans in New World slave systems was a modern, relatively systematic, and extreme example of a much more common attitude toward slaves.
  • 13 - Regional study: Athens in the fifth century bce
    pp 350-374
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    In the course of the last half-century the interpretation of the first millennium BCE has come to occupy a prominent position not only in the fields of history and the history of religion but, increasingly, also in the humanities and social sciences more generally. One focal point in this development is the growing interest in the idea of the so-called Axial Age. The authors of conceptual historical essays on the Axial Age, Johann P. Arnason and Hans Joas, have somewhat different assessments of the relevance of these references. In all areas where the new openness of thought characteristic of the Axial Age emerged, there were multiple competing conceptualizations and a variety of different schools of thought. Inspired by the evolutionary and cognitive perspective of Merlin Donald, Bellah emphasizes that the Axial Age is expressive of the possibilities that opened up to humankind at the time of the emergence of a fourth evolutionary stage in the development of human culture.
  • 14 - Late antiquity in Europe c. 300–900 ce
    pp 375-406
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The Neolithic Revolution set in motion a development whereby humans influenced their environment on an ever larger scale in order to meet their need for nutrition and material goods. A process of eminent historical importance, especially to the history of the knowledge about nature and technology, was the cultural, political, and economic development of Greece during the Archaic Period. A new era of natural science in ancient Greece began in Alexandria. The development of technology in antiquity was shaped in equal measure by inventions and innovations, by technology transfer and the adoption of technical artefacts and processes from foreign cultures, by the preservation of traditional technology, and also by stagnation. The technological achievements of China included inventions in the field of mechanics, especially the use of water power. The development in India was similar to that in China: the emergence and collapse of empires, immigration, urbanization, internal wars, and local powers shaped Indian civilization in crucial ways.
  • 15 - East Asia
    pp 407-434
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Traditional discourses on gender and sexuality, even as they helped shape the processes of urbanization, commercialization and state-building in the ancient world, were themselves profoundly affected by the growth of political, economic, and religious networks across Eurasia and northern Africa. This chapter examines literary representations of masculinity and femininity in 'world-encompassing' genres like epic and romance, showing how imaginative models of male and female behavior increased in variety and complexity in conjunction with the evolution of trans-regional political and economic network. The first millennium CE witnessed a transformation of ideal masculinity and femininity in Chinese literature as well. Women, indeed, wrote, and their writing on gender relations and sexuality can be found in a variety of the genres that emerged in the context of states, empires, and networks. Trans-regional networks connected human beings across communities and cultures, and thereby created trans-regional relations of gender and sexuality.
  • 16 - Regional study: Confucianism and the state
    pp 435-456
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter provides some hint of the richness and variety of the world's artistic traditions. Though art made in Europe since the Renaissance has had some distinctive features to make such recent and local developments an essential part of the definition would be ethnocentric and parochial. Royal art often functions as propaganda aimed at the people who pose the greatest threat to the king, those nearest him; it is his relatives and high nobles who must be made to feel the sanctity of his person. In Islamic art, writing occurs on all surfaces, from bowls to buildings, in a multiplicity of script variants, sometimes boldly legible, sometimes impenetrably patterned. Setting and audience matter because they are clues to the purposes that shaped a work, clues to the effect it was meant to have. The works of Buddhist art illustrates most of the functions on Seckel's list, and readers will probably have no difficulty supplying Christian counterparts for all of them.
  • 17 - Regional study: exchanges within the Silk Roads world system
    pp 457-479
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The ancient Central Eurasian steppes stretched from Manchuria in the east to the Alfold Plain in Hungary and Romania in the west. Steppe pastoral nomads subsisted largely on the dairy products of their animals, such as cheese, yogurt, and cheese curds, supplemented with meat from their animals as well as from hunting. Covering the Pontic and Caspian steppes, Scythia stretched roughly from the Dniester River to the Amu Darya River and perhaps even to the Altai Mountains. The Sarmatians interacted with the Scythians frequently as the Sarmatians nomadized between the Don and Volga rivers, although by the sixth century some had crossed the Don River and found pastures near the Sea of Azov and may have been subject to Scythian dominion. The Xiongnu merged with other disparate pastoral nomads and formed a new confederation known as the Huns, although this may have been what the Xiongnu called themselves.

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Georgios Anagnostopoulos , A Companion to Aristotle, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

Keith Bradley , and Paul Cartlege (eds.), Cambridge World History of Slavery, Cambridge University Press, 2011, vol. i.

Sheila Ager , “The Power of Excess: Royal Incest and the Ptolemaic Dynasty,” Anthropologica 48 (2006): 165–86.

Peter Fibiger Bang , and Christopher A. Bayly (eds.), Tributary Empires in Global History, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

P. R. Bedford , “The Persian Near East,” in Walter Scheidel , Ian Morris , and Richard P. Saller (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 302–33.

Catherine M. Cameron , “Captives and Cultural Change: Implications for Archaeology,” Current Anthropology 52 (2011): 169209.

Catherine M. Cameron (ed.), “Organization of Production at Chaco Canyon” (special issue), American Antiquity 66/1 (2001): 5140.

Joe W. Saunders , Rolfe D. Mandel , C. Garth Sampson , Charles M. Allen , E. Thurman Allen , Daniel A. Bush , et al., “Watson Brake, a Middle Archaic Mound Complex in Northeast Louisiana,” American Antiquity 70 (2005): 631–68.

Enrico Dal Lago , and Constantina Katsari (eds.), Slave Systems: Ancient and Modern, Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Robert N. Bellah , ”What Is Axial about the Axial Age?” European Journal of Sociology 46 (2005): 6989.

Peter Brown , The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, ad 200–1000, Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.

Robert N. Bellah , and Hans Joas (eds.), The Axial Age and Its Consequences, Cambridge, ma: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012.

Delmer M. Brown (ed.), The Cambridge History of Japan, Cambridge University Press, 1993, vol. i.

Alex W. Barker , Craig E. Skinner , M. Steven Shackley , Michael D. Glascock , and J. Daniel Rogers , “Mesoamerican Origin for an Obsidian Scraper from the Precolumbian Southeastern United States,” American Antiquity 67 (2002): 103108.

Brian Campbell , “The Marriage of Soldiers under the Empire,” The Journal of Roman Studies 68 (1978): 153–66.

William James Burroughs , Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Keith Bradley , Slavery and Society at Rome, Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Philip D. Curtin , Cross-Cultural Trade in World History, Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Walter Burkert , Greek Religion, Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press, 1985.

Florin Curta , The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, c. 500–700, Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Nicola Di Cosmo , Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History, Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Louis Cohn-Haft , “Divorce in Classical Athens,” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 115 (1995): 114.

Kate Cooper , The Fall of the Roman Household, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

456 Julia Ching , Mysticism and Kingship in China: The Sage-King Paradigm, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Patricia Ebrey , “The Economic and Social History of Later Han,” in Michael Loewe and Denis Twitchett (eds.), The Cambridge History of China, Cambridge University Press, 1986, pp. 608–48.

Christopher Carr , and D. Troy Case , Gathering Hopewell: Society, Ritual and Ritual Interaction, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 2005.

Matthew P. Fitzpatrick , “Provincializing Rome: The Indian Ocean Trade Network and Roman Imperialism,” Journal of World History 22 (2011): 2754.

Peter Hiscock , Archaeology of Ancient Australia, London and New York: Routledge, 2008.

Luciano Canfora , “Thucydides in Rome and Late Antiquity,” in Antonios Regakos and Antonis Tsakmakis (eds.), Brill’s Companion to Thucydides, Leiden: Brill, 2006, pp. 721–53.

Kate Cooper , “A Father, a Daughter and a Procurator: Authority and Resistance in the Prison Memoir of Perpetua of Carthage,” Gender & History 23 (2011): 685702.

Edward E. Cohen , Athenian Economy and Society: A Banking Perspective, Princeton University Press, 1997.

James Davidson , “Bodymaps: Sexing Space and Zoning Gender in Ancient Athens,” Gender & History 23 (2011): 597614.

R. M. Geraghty , “The Impact of Globalization in the Roman Empire, 200 bcad 100,” Journal of Economic History 67 (2007): 1036–61.

Gillian Clark . Christianity and Roman Society, Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Vere Gordon Childe , Man Makes Himself, London: Watts, 1936.

H. D. Baker , “Degrees of Freedom: Slavery in Mid-first Millennium BC Babylonia,” World Archaeology 33 (2001): 1826.

John W. Kantner (ed.), “The Chaco World,” Kiva 69 (2003).

William V. Harris , “The Late Republic,” in Walter Scheidel , Ian Morris , and Richard P. Saller (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 511–42.

John F. Haldon , Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture, Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Geoff Irwin , The Prehistoric Exploration and Colonisation of the Pacific, Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Robert K. Fleck , and F. Andrew Hanssen , “‘Rulers Ruled by Women’: An Economic Analysis of the Rise and Fall of Women’s Rights in Ancient Sparta,” Economics of Governance 10 (2009): 221–45.

Touraj Daryaee , Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire, London: I. B. Tauris, 2013.

686 Kyle Harper , Slavery in the Late Roman World, ad 275–425, Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Guy Halsall , Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376–568, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Terry L. Jones , Alice A. Storey , Elizabeth A. Matisoo-Smith and Jóse M. Ramírez-Aliaga , Polynesians in America: Pre-Columbian Contacts with the New World, Lanham, md: AltaMira Press, 2011.

Patricia Crone , Slaves on Horses: The Evolution of the Islamic Polity, Cambridge University Press, 1980.

David Pankenier , Astrology and Cosmology in Early China: Conforming Earth to Heaven, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Evy Johanne Håland , “The Ritual Year of Athena: The Agricultural Cycle of the Olive, Girls’ Rites of Passage, and Official Ideology,” Journal of Religious History 36 (2012): 256–84.

Gérard Fussman , “Southern Bactria and Northern India before Islam: A Review of Archaeological Reports,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 116 (1996): 243–59.

Sheila Dillon , and Sharon L. James (eds.), A Companion to Women in the Ancient World, Malden, ma: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

Dennis P. Kehoe , “The Early Roman Empire: Production,” in Walter Scheidel , Ian Morris , and Richard P. Saller (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 543–69.

Peter B. Golden , “The Peoples of the South Russian Steppes,” in Denis Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 256–84.

100 Leland Donald , Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Paul Dundas , The Jainas, New York: Routledge, 1992.

54 John H. Kroll , “The Monetary Use of Weighed Bullion in Archaic Greece,” in William V. Harris (ed.), The Monetary System of the Greeks and Romans, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 1237.

Sharon L. James , and Sheila Dillon (eds.), A Companion to Women in the Ancient World, Malden, ma: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

W. K. C. Guthrie , The Sophists, Cambridge University Press, 1971.

Angeliki E. Laiou , and Cécile Morrison , The Byzantine Economy, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Greg Fisher , Between Empires: Arabs, Romans, and Sasanians in Late Antiquity, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Ian Lilley (ed.), Archaeology of Oceania: Australia and the Pacific Islands, Carlton, Vic.: Blackwell, 2006.

Gavin D. Flood , (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.

Joe Cribb , and Georgina Hermann (eds.), After Alexander, Central Asia before Islam, Oxford University Press, 2007.

George Cowgill , “State and Society at Teotihuacan, Mexico,” Annual Review of Anthropology 26 (1997): 129–61.

75 Mathew Kuefler , “The Marriage Revolution in Late Antiquity: The Theodosian Code and Later Roman Marriage Law,” Journal of Family History 32 (2007): 343–70.

602 Barbara J. Mills , “Recent Research on Chaco: Changing Views on Economy, Ritual and Society,” Journal of Archaeological Research 10 (2002): 65117.

Meaghan A. McEvoy , Child Emperor Rule in the Late Roman West, ad 367–455, Oxford University Press, 2013.

Gershon Galil , The Lower Stratum Families in the Neo-Assyrian Period, ed. Thomas Schneider , Leiden: Brill, 2007.

Susan Keech McIntosh , “Changing Perceptions of West Africa’s Past: Archaeological Research Since 1988,” Journal of Archaeological Research 2 (1994): 165–98.

Mark Edward Lewis , The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han, Cambridge, ma: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007.

A. M. Keith , Engendering Rome: Women in Latin Epic, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Michael Loewe , and Edward L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 bc, Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Peter Garnsey , Famine and Food Supply in the Greco-Roman World, Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Martha C. Nussbaum , and Juha Sihvola (eds.), The Sleep of Reason: Erotic Experience and Sexual Ethics in Ancient Greece and Rome, University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Robert Goldenberg , The Origins of Judaism: From Canaan to the Rise of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

N. Morley , Trade in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

299 Marshall G. S. Hodgson , “The Role of Islam in World History,” in Marshall G. S. Hodgson , Rethinking World History: Essays on Europe, Islam, and World History, ed. Edmund Burke III, CambridgeUniversity Press, 1993, pp. 97125.

Stewart Gordon (ed.), Robes and Honor: the Medieval World of Investiture, New York: Palgrave, 2001.

William V. Harris , “Geography and the Sources of Roman Slaves,” Journal of Roman Studies 89 (1999): 6275.

Catherine Hezser , Jewish Slavery in Antiquity, Oxford University Press, 2005.

324 Xinru Liu , “A Silk Road Legacy: The Spread of Buddhism and Islam,” Journal of World History 22 (2011): 5581.

Nishijime Sadao , “The Economic and Social History of Former Han,” in Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe (eds.), The Cambridge History of China, Cambridge University Press, 1986, pp. 545607.

Peter Sarris , Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian, Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Marshall G. S. Hodgson , The Venture of Islam, University of Chicago Press, 1974, vols. i and ii.

Paul Rainbird , The Archaeology of Micronesia, Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Adriaan Verhulst , The Carolingian Economy, Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Stephen Plog , and Carrie Heitman , “Hierarchy and Social Inequality in the American Southwest, ad 800–1200,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (2010): 19619–26.

Brent D. Shaw , Sacred Violence: African Christians and Sectarian Hatred in the Age of Augustine, Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Colin Mackerras , “The Uighurs,” in Denis Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 317–42.

Asma Sayeed , Women and the Transmission of Religious Knowledge in Islam, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Donald H. Shively , and William H. McCullough (eds.), The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press, 1999, vol. ii.

Mike Smith , The Archaeology of Australia’s Deserts, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Allan Gotthelf , and James G. Lennox (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Aristotle’s Biology, Cambridge University Press, 1987.

A. I. Melyukova , “The Scythians and Sarmatians,” in Denis Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 97117.

Chris Wickham , Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400–800, Oxford University Press, 2005.

Bruce Lincoln , Religion, Empire & Torture: The Case of Achaemenian Persia, with a Postscript on Abu Ghraib, University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Andrew Wilson , “Saharan Trade in the Roman Period: Short-, Medium- and Long-Distance Trade Networks,” Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 47 (2012): 409–49.

Walter Scheidel , “The Divergent Evolution of Coinage in Eastern and Western Eurasia,” in William V. Harris (ed.), The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 267–86.

John Peter Oleson (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World, Oxford University Press, 2008.

Bruce Trigger , Understanding Early Civilizations: A Comparative Study, Cambridge University Press, 2003, chapter 16 (“Art and Architecture”).

E. G. Pulleybank , “The Origins and Nature of Chattel Slavery in China,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1 (1958): 185220.

Ann Brower Stahl (ed.), African Archaeology, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.

Brigette Ford Russell , “Wine, Women, and the Polis: Gender and the Formation of the City-State in Archaic Rome,” Greece and Rome 50 (2003): 7784.

David Grove , “Olmec Archaeology: A Half Century of Research and Its Accomplishments,” Journal of World Prehistory 11 (1997): 51101.

Steven E. Sidebotham , Berenike and the Ancient Mediterranean Spice Route, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

László Török , The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization, Handbook of Oriental Studies, vol. 31, Leiden: Brill, 1997.

Richard P. Saller , Patriarchy, Property, and Death in the Roman Family, Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Walter Scheidel , “Quantifying the Sources of Slaves in the Early Roman Empire,” Journal of Roman Studies 87 (1997): 156–69.

Denis Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Serenity Young , “Female Mutability and Male Anxiety in an Early Buddhist Legend,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 16 (2007): 1439.

W. H. Wills , “Ritual and Mound Formation during the Bonito Phase in Chaco Canyon,” American Antiquity 66 (2001): 433–51.

Jonathan Haas , and Winifred Creamer , “Crucible of Andean Civilization: The Peruvian Coast from 3000 to 1800 bc,” Current Anthropology 47 (2006): 745–75.

P. R. C. Weaver , Familia Caesaris: A Social Study of the Emperor’s Freedmen and Slaves, Cambridge University Press, 1972.

Walter Scheidel , Ian Morris , and Richard P. Saller (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

D. T. Potts , The Archaeology of Elam, Cambridge University Press, 1999.

R. J. van der Spek ‚ “The Hellenistic Near East,” in Walter Scheidel , Ian Morris , and Richard P. Saller (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 409–34.

Yiqun Zhou , Festivals, Feasts, and Gender Relations in Ancient China and Greece, Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Sitta von Reden , Money in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Tom Stevenson , “Women of Early Rome as Exempla in Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, Book 1,” Classical World 104 (2011): 175–89.

Denis Sinor , “The Establishment and Dissolution of the Türk Empire,” in Denis Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 285316.

Denis Sinor , “The Hun Period,” in Denis Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 177206.

Xinzhong Yao , An Introduction to Confucianism, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Monica L. Smith , ‘“Indianization” from the Indian Point of View: Trade and Cultural Contacts with Southeast Asia in the Early First Millennium C.E.’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 42 (1999): 126.

Cyril Stanley Smith , A Search for Structure (Cambridge, ma: MIT Press, 1981), chapters 8 (“Art, Technology, and Science: Notes on Their Historical Interaction”) and 9 (“Metallurgical Footnotes to the History of Art”).

Greg Woolf , “World Systems Analysis and the Roman Empire,” Journal of Roman Archaeology 3 (1990): 4458.

267 Samuel Szadeczky-Kardoss , “The Avars,” in Denis Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 206–29.

Owen Lindauer , and John H. Blitz , “Higher Ground: The Archaeology of North American Platform Mounds,” Journal of Archaeological Research 5 (1997): 169207.

Ying-Shih , “The Hsiung-nu,” in Denis Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 115–81.268

Geoffrey E. R. Lloyd , Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of His Thought, Cambridge University Press, 1968.

Christiane Sourvinou-Inwood , Athenian Myths and Festivals, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Robert Wallace , “Damon of Oa: a Music Theorist Ostracized?” in Penelope Murray and Peter J. Wilson (eds.), Music and the Muses: The Culture of Mousike in the Classical Athenian City, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 249–67.

Denis C. Twitchett , and Michael Loewe , The Cambridge History of China, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986, vol. i.

Deborah Pearsall , and Dolores Piperno , “Antiquity of Maize Cultivation in Ecuador: Summary, and Re-evaluation of the Evidence,” American Antiquity 55 (1990): 324–61.

James Longrigg , Greek Rational Medicine: Philosophy and Medicine from Alcmaeon to the Alexandrians, London: Routledge, 1993.

Jeffery Quilter , “Architecture and Chronology at El Paraíso, Peru,” Journal of Field Archaeology 12 (1985): 279–97.

Jeffery Quilter , and Terry Stocker , “Subsistence Economics and the Origins of Andean Complex Societies,” American Anthropologist 85 (1983), 545–62.

Brett Ruby , Christopher Carr , and Douglas K. Charles , “Community Organizations in the Scioto, Mann and Havana Hopewellian Regions: A Comparative Perspective,” in Christopher Carr and D. Troy Case (eds.), Gathering Hopewell: Society Ritual and Ritual Interaction, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 2005, pp. 119–76.

Helaine Selin (ed.), Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, London: Springer, 1997.

Ruth Shady Solis , Jonathan Haas , and Winifred Creamer , “Dating Caral, a Preceramic Site in the Supe Valley on the Central Coast of Peru,” Science 292 (2001): 723–76.

571 Michael Spence , “Obsidian Production and the State in Teotihuacan,” American Antiquity 46 (1981): 769–88.

Sarah Waterlow , Nature, Change, and Agency in Aristotle’s Physics: A Philosophical Study, Oxford: Clarendon, 1982.

Victor D. Thompson , and C. Fred T. Andrus , “Evaluating Mobility, Monumentality, and Feasting at the Sapelo Island Shell Ring Complex,” American Antiquity 76 (2011): 315–43.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 178
Total number of PDF views: 3983 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 9719 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.