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The International Law of Human Trafficking
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  • Cited by 58
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    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bressan, Serena 2011. Louise Shelley: Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, Vol. 17, Issue. 4, p. 349.

    Gallagher, Anne T. 2011. Improving the Effectiveness of the International Law of Human Trafficking: A Vision for the Future of the US Trafficking in Persons Reports. Human Rights Review, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 381.

    Rafferty, Yvonne 2013. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: A review of promising prevention policies and programs.. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 83, Issue. 4, p. 559.

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra and Columb, Seán 2013. A human rights approach to Human Trafficking for Organ Removal. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 897.

    Winterdyk, John and Kaye, Julie 2013. The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. p. 1.

    Reid, Joan A. 2013. Rapid Assessment Exploring Impediments to Successful Prosecutions of Sex Traffickers of U.S. Minors. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 75.

    Tyldum, Guri 2013. Dependence and Human Trafficking in the Context of Transnational Marriage. International Migration, Vol. 51, Issue. 4, p. 103.

    Cheng, Sealing 2013. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration.

    Nelken, David 2013. Exploring the ‘Socio’ of Socio-Legal Studies. p. 137.

    McCarthy, Lauren A. 2014. Human Trafficking and the New Slavery. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 221.

    Smit, Monika and van der Laan, Peter 2014. Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. p. 5263.

    Stoyanova, Vladislava 2014. ARTICLE 4 OF THE ECHR AND THE OBLIGATION OF CRIMINALISING SLAVERY, SERVITUDE, FORCED LABOUR AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING. Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, p. 407.

    Reid, Joan A. and Piquero, Alex R. 2014. Age-Graded Risks for Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Male and Female Youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 29, Issue. 9, p. 1747.

    Choi-Fitzpatrick, Austin 2015. From Rescue to Representation: A Human Rights Approach to the Contemporary Antislavery Movement. Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 14, Issue. 4, p. 486.

    Ollus, Natalia 2015. Regulating forced labour and combating human trafficking: the relevance of historical definitions in a contemporary perspective. Crime, Law and Social Change, Vol. 63, Issue. 5, p. 221.

    Efrat, Asif 2015. Global Efforts against Human Trafficking: The Misguided Conflation of Sex, Labor, and Organ Trafficking. International Studies Perspectives, p. n/a.

    IZCARA PALACIOS, SIMÓN PEDRO 2015. Coyotaje and Drugs: Two Different Businesses. Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol. 34, Issue. 3, p. 324.

    Reid, Joan A. 2015. The Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment. p. 1.

    Zhidkova, Tatiana 2015. Globalization and the Emergence of Violent Non-state Actors: The Case of Human Trafficking. New Global Studies, Vol. 9, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Richards, Tara N. and Reid, Joan A. 2015. Gender stereotyping and sex trafficking: comparative review of research on male and female sex tourism. Journal of Crime and Justice, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 414.

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Book description

Although human trafficking has a long and ignoble history, it is only recently that trafficking has become a major political issue for states and the international community and the subject of detailed international rules. Anne T. Gallagher calls on her direct experience working within the United Nations to chart the development of new international laws on this issue. She links these rules to the international law of state responsibility as well as key norms of international human rights law, transnational criminal law, refugee law and international criminal law, in the process identifying and explaining the major legal obligations of states with respect to preventing trafficking, protecting and supporting victims, and prosecuting perpetrators. This book is a groundbreaking work: a unique and valuable resource for policymakers, advocates, practitioners and scholars working in this controversial and important field.


‘In The International Law of Human Trafficking, Dr Anne Gallagher uses her unique position as a scholar and practitioner to chart the extraordinary developments of the past decade. This carefully researched and well-written book provides a comprehensive and accessible insight into a new, complex but vital area of international law. It affirms the central place that international law, including human rights law, must play in any solution to the age-old problem of private exploitation. I recommend it to all those involved in working against trafficking and supporting the victims of this illegal and inhuman trade.'

Mary Robinson - former President of Ireland (1990–7) and former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (1997–2002)

‘Dr Gallagher's expertise in this field, particularly in the area of criminal justice responses to trafficking, is recognized and deeply appreciated throughout the ASEAN region. … This meticulously researched book confirms her position as a leading international legal authority on the issue. While scholarly in approach, the book is straightforward in structure and clear in expression. It reflects an acute understanding of the politics of human trafficking and of the significant challenges involved in securing effective national implementation of international norms. The International Law of Trafficking is a valuable reference for policy makers, practitioners and all those working to end impunity for trafficking offences and to secure justice for those who have been trafficked.'

Dr Surin Pitsuwan - Secretary General, Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)

‘Anne Gallagher has been a key player in analyzing, drafting, promoting, and critiquing the international legal order that has emerged over the past decade to address the previously long-neglected phenomenon of human trafficking. This authoritative book combines meticulous legal scholarship with deep insight into the key challenges that must be addressed in the years ahead.'

Philip Alston - John Norton Pomeroy Professor of Law, New York University School of Law

‘With an estimated 2 million women in sexual bondage in half the countries of the world, it is high time for the international community to pay attention to this human tragedy. The trafficking flow goes on while most governments at best only rhetorically deal with this manifestation of crime. Books like this one serve an important purpose in making the phenomenon better known and showing how international legal instruments and mechanisms are available, though by no means adequate and efficient. This is both an important legal contribution and one that addresses a significant human problem.'

M. Cherif Bassiouni - Distinguished Research Professor of Law Emeritus and President Emeritus, International Human Rights Law Institute, DePaul University

‘Trafficking in human beings is a modern form of slavery. Today, however, this issue does not raise the same level of concern as other serious human rights violations. In her remarkable in-depth analysis of international legal obligations to counter human trafficking, Dr Anne T. Gallagher clearly demonstrates that human trafficking is a gross violation of human rights, and comprehensively illustrates where State responsibilities lie. Her reflection on a wide range of international tools to respond to this crime, enriched by her authoritative experience, also provides valuable guidance to accessing the current challenges and possible responses. Her work enables us to understand that even anti-trafficking action could compromise the rights and dignity of trafficked persons, and that a human rights based approach is therefore essential to assess and establish an effective anti-trafficking strategy.'

Dr Maria Grazia Giammarinaro - OSCE Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings

'… the book provides a comprehensive overview of the international law on human trafficking, covering key legal issues and obligations with an appropriate analysis of international primary and secondary materials. The fact that Gallagher is one of the foremost authorities on the subject also adds value to this work. The book is useful not only for an academic audience, but also practitioners working in the field such as law enforcement and public officials and members of civil society.'

Tom Obokata Source: Human Rights Law Review

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Vlassis, D., “The UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime,” in Berdal, M.R. and Serrano, M. eds., Transnational Organized Crime and International Security: Business as Usual? 83 (2002, Lynne Rienner Publishers).
Vojdik, V.K., “Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Women and Girls by UN Peacekeeping Troops,” (2007) 15 Michigan State Journal of International Law157.
Vucetic, S., “Democracies and Human Rights: Why is There No Place for Migrant Workers?” (2007) 11 International Journal of Human Rights403.
Warren, K.B., “The Illusiveness of Counting ‘Victims’ and the Concreteness of Ranking Countries: Trafficking in Persons from Colombia to Japan,” in Andreas, P. and Greenhill, K.M. eds., Sex, Drugs and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict (2010, Cornell University Press, forthcoming).
Weissbrodt, D., “The Protection of Non-Citizens in International Human Rights Law,” in Cholewinski, R., Perruchoud, R. and MacDonald, E. eds., International Migration Law: Developing Paradigms and Key Challenges 221 (2007, Cambridge University Press).
Weissbrodt, D., and Collins, C., “The Human Rights of Stateless Persons,” (2006) 28 Human Rights Quarterly245.
Weitzer, R., “The Social Construction of Sex Trafficking: Ideology and Institutionalization of a Moral Crusade,” (2007) 35 Politics & Society447.
Wittner, K.M., “Curbing Child Trafficking in Intercountry Adoptions: Will International Treaties and Adoption Moratoriums Accomplish the Job in Cambodia?” (2003) 12 Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal595.
Zhang, S.X., and Pineda, S.L., “Corruption as a Causal Factor in Human Trafficking,” in Siegel, D. and Nelen, H. eds., Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies 41 (2008, Springer).
Zilbershatz, Y., “International Law and the Palestinian Right of Return to the State of Israel,” in Benvenisti, E., Gans, C. and Hanafi, S. eds., Israel and the Palestinian Refugees 191 (2007, Springer).
Documents and Reports of Intergovernmental Organizations
Ago, R., “Second Report on State Responsibility,” UN Doc. A/8010/Rev.1, reprinted in [1970] 2 Yearbook of the International Law, UN Doc. A/CN.4/SER.A/1970/Add.1, 271.
,Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN Responses to Trafficking in Persons: Ending Impunity for Traffickers and Securing Justice for Victims. Update and Supplement (Oct. 2007).
,Association of Southeast Asian NationsCriminal Justice Responses to Trafficking in Persons – ASEAN Practitioner Guidelines (2007).
Beesey, A., “From Lao PDR to Thailand and Home Again: The Repatriation of Trafficking Victims and Other Exploited Women and Girl Workers – A Study of 124 Cases” (2004, International Organization for Migration).
Bhabha, J., and Alfirev, C., “The Identification and Referral of Trafficked Persons to Procedures for Determining International Protection Needs” (2009, UN High Commissioner for Refugees).
,Council of Europe, Explanatory Report on the Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, ETS 197, 16.V.2005 (2005).
,Council of Europe and United Nations, Trafficking in Organs, Tissues And Cells and Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of the Removal of Organs (2009).
Ennew, J., Gopal, K., Heeran, J. and Montgomery, H., Children and Prostitution: How Can We Measure the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children? Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography (2nd ed., 1996, UNICEF).
García, -Amador, F.V., “First Report on International Responsibility,” UN Doc. A/CN.4/SER.A/1956/Add.1, reprinted in [1956] 2 Yearbook of the International Law Commission 173.
,International Criminal Police Organization, Trafficking in Human Beings – Best Practice Guidance Manual for Investigators (2nd ed., 2008, General Secretariat of the International Criminal Police Organisation).
,International Labour Office, General Survey of the Reports Relating to Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 and Recommendations Nos. 86 and 151 concerning Migrant Workers (1980).
,International Labour Office, ILO Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (2008).
,International Labour OfficeForced Labour: Casebook of Court Decisions (2009).
,International Labour OfficeThe Cost of Coercion (2009).
,International Labour Organization, International Migration Programme, ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration: Non-Binding Principles and Guidelines for a Rights-Based Approach to Labour Migration (2006).
,International Labour Organization, International Migration ProgrammeThe Demand Side of Human Trafficking in Asia: Empirical Findings (2006).
,International Law Commission, Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of Its Fifty-third Session, UN GAOR, 56th Sess., Supp. No. 10, at 43, UN Doc. A/56/10 (2001).
,International Law CommissionFragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law, UN Doc. A/CN.4/L.682 (Apr. 13, 2006).
,International Organization for Migration, International Response to Trafficking in Migrants and the Safeguarding of Migrant Rights (1994).
,International Organization for MigrationTrafficking and Prostitution: The Growing Exploitation of Migrant Women from Central and Eastern Europe (1995).
,International Organization for MigrationTrafficking in Women from the Dominican Republic for Sexual Exploitation (1996).
,International Organization for MigrationTrafficking in Women to Austria for Sexual Exploitation (1996).
,International Organization for MigrationTrafficking in Women to Italy for Sexual Exploitation (1996).
,International Organization for MigrationTrafficking of Women to the European Union: Characteristics, Trends and Policy Issues (1996).
,International Organization for MigrationData and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey (2005).
,International Organization for MigrationIdentification and Protection Schemes for Victims of Trafficking in Persons in Europe: Tools and Best Practices (2005).
,Inter-Parliamentary Union and United Nations Children's Fund, Combating Child Trafficking, Handbook for Parliamentarians No. 9 (2005).
,Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Human Rights and Poverty Reduction: A Conceptual Framework, UN Sales No. HR/PUB/04/1 (2004).
,Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human RightsThe Rights of Non-Citizens (2006).
,Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human RightsA Legal Framework for the Possible Criminalization of the Demand for the Labour Outcome of Trafficking in Persons (2008).
,Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human RightsCommentary to the United Nations Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking (forthcoming, 2010).
,Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Compensation for Trafficked and Exploited Persons in the OSCE Region (2008).
Pearson, E., The Mekong Challenge: Human Trafficking: Redefining Demand (2005, International Labour Organization).
Rijken, C., The European Legal Framework to Fight Trafficking in Human Beings (2005, International Organization for Migration).
,UNESCO and the Coalition against Trafficking in Women, The Penn State Report: Report of an International Meeting of Experts on Sexual Exploitation, Violence and Prostitution (1999).
,United Nations Children's Fund, Birth Registration: Right from the Start, Innocenti Digest No. 9 (Mar. 2002).
,United Nations Children's Fund, Guidelines for the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking (Sept. 2006).
,UN Economic and Social Council, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking, UN Doc. E/2002/68/Add.1 (May 20, 2002).
,UN General Assembly, Guide for Policy Makers on the Implementation of the United Nations Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, UN Doc. E/CN.15/1998/CRP.4 (Apr. 17, 1988).
,UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1979, UN Doc. HCR/IP/4/Eng/REV.1 (1979, reissued Jan. 2002).
,UN High Commissioner for RefugeesGuidelines on International Protection: Gender-Related Persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, UN Doc. HCR/GIP/02/01 (May 7, 2002).
,UN High Commissioner for RefugeesGuidelines on International Protection: “Membership of a Particular Social Group” within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, UN Doc. HCR/GIP/02/02 (May 7, 2002).
,UN High Commissioner for RefugeesSexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons: Guidelines for Prevention and Response (May, 2003).
,UN High Commissioner for RefugeesGuidelines on International Protection: The application of Article 1(A)(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees to victims of trafficking and persons at risk of being trafficked, UN Doc. HCR/GIP/06/07 (Apr. 7, 2006).
,United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking, “Exploitation of Cambodian Men at Sea: Facts about the Trafficking of Cambodian Men onto Thai Fishing Boats” (2009), available at (accessed Nov. 30, 2009).
,UN Office on Drugs and Crime, Legislative Guides for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto, UN Sales No. E.05.V.2 (2004).
,UN Office on Drugs and CrimeTravaux Préparatoires of the Negotiations for the Elaboration of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto (2006).
,UN Office on Drugs and CrimeToolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2008).
,UN Office on Drugs and CrimeAnti-Human Trafficking Manual for Criminal Justice Practitioners (2009).
,UN Office on Drugs and CrimeCombating Trafficking in Persons: Handbook for Parliamentarians (2009).
,UN Office on Drugs and CrimeGlobal Report on Trafficking in Persons (2009).
,UN Office on Drugs and CrimeModel Law on Trafficking in Persons, UN Sales No. E.09.V.11 (2009).
,World Health Organization and UNAIDS, WHO/UNAIDS Guidance on Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counselling in Health Facilities (2007).
Zimmermann, C., and Watts, C., WHO Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Interviewing Trafficked Women (2003, World Health Organization).
Other Documents and Reports
Allain, J., “The Definition of ‘Slavery’ in General International Law and the Crime of Enslavement within the Rome Statute,” speech given at the Guest Lecture Series of the Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Court, Apr. 26, 2007.
Allain, J., “A Legal Consideration of ‘Slavery’ in Light of the Travaux Préparatoires of the 1926 Convention,” paper presented at the conference “Twenty-First Century Slavery: Issues and Responses” in Hull (UK), Nov. 23, 2006.
Allain, J., “Mobilization of International Law to Address Trafficking and Slavery,” paper presented at the 11th Joint Stanford-University of California Law and Colonialism in Africa Symposium, Mar. 19–21, 2009.
,American Bar Association, Rule of Law Initiative, Human Trafficking Assessment Tool (2005), available at (accessed Feb. 2, 2010).
,American Law Institute, Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States (Philadelphia: ALI, 1990).
Anderson, B., and O'Connell-Davidson, J., Trafficking: A Demand-Led Problem? A Multi-Country Pilot Study (2002, Save the Children).
Bindman, J., and Doezema, J., “Redefining Prostitution as Sex Work on the International Agenda” (1997, Anti-Slavery International).
,Brookings Institute, Handbook for Applying the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement (2000, Brookings Project on Internal Displacement and the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs).
Byrnes, A., Herminia Graterol, M. and Chartres, R., “State Obligation and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women,” UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2007–48 (July 19, 2007).
,Canadian Council for Refugees, “Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons”, Feb. 20, 2000, available at (accessed Dec. 1, 2009).
,Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, “HIV Testing of UN Peacekeeping Forces: Legal and Human Rights Issues” (2001).
Cerone, J., “State Accountability for the Acts of Non-State Actors: The Trafficking of Women for the Purposes of Sex Industry Work” (unpublished paper, on file with the author).
Chuang, J., “Rescuing Trafficking from Ideological Capture: Anti-Prostitution Reform and Its Influence on U.S. Anti-Trafficking Law and Policy,” forthcoming, draft paper presented at the Columbia Law School, Center for Gender and Sexuality Law, Feminist Theory Workshops, Dec. 8, 2009, Chuang%20Paper.pdf (accessed Feb. 2, 2010).
Clapham, A., and Garcia Rubio, M., “The Obligations of States with Regard to Non-State Actors in the Context of the Right to Health,” Health and Human Rights Working Paper Series No. 3 (2002, World Health Organization).
Cedrangolo, U., “The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Jurisprudence of the Committee on the Rights of the Child” (UNICEF: Innocenti Research Paper, April 2009).
,Centre for Reproductive and Sexual Rights, Bringing Rights to Bear: An Analysis of the Work of UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies on Reproductive and Sexual Rights (2001)
Connors, J., Byrnes, A. and Beyani, C., Assessing the Status of Women: A Guide to Reporting under the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (2nd ed., 1996, International Women's Rights Action Watch (IRWAW) USA and the Commonwealth Secretariat).
Dariam, S., “Uses of CEDAW in Addressing Trafficking in Women” (2003, International Women's Rights Action Watch).
D'Ascoli, S., and Scherr, K.M., “The Rule of Prior Exhaustion of Local Remedies in the International Law Doctrine and its Application in the Specific Context of Human Rights Protection,” European University Institute Working Paper LAW No. 2007/02 (Feb. 19, 2007).
David, F., “Human Smuggling and Trafficking: An Overview of the Responses at the Federal Level” (2000, Australian Institute of Criminology Research and Public Policy).
David, F., Trafficking of Women for Sexual Purposes, Australian Institute of Criminology Research and Public Policy Series No. 95 (2008), available at{1CE51DE9–5346–4565-A86B-778F895BF9E1}rpp95.pdf (accessed Nov. 30, 2009).
David, P., David, F. and Gallagher, A.T., “International Legal Cooperation in Trafficking in Persons Cases” (2010, ASEAN, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Asia Regional Cooperation to Prevent People Trafficking, forthcoming,).
Dent, J.A., Research Paper on the Social and Economic Rights of Non-Nationals in Europe (1998, European Council on Refugees and Exiles).
Derks, A., “From White Slaves to Trafficking Survivors: Notes on the Trafficking Debate,” paper presented at the Conference on Migration and Development, May 4–5, 2000.
Dottridge, M., Handbook on Planning Projects to Prevent Child Trafficking (2007, Terre des Hommes).
Dungel, J., “Command Responsibility in International Criminal Tribunals,” paper presented at the National Consultative Summit on Extrajudicial Killings and Enforced Disappearances: Searching for Solutions, July 16–17, 2007, available at (accessed Nov. 29, 2009).
Eide, A., “Promoting Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Obligations of States and Accountability of Non-State Actors,” paper presented to the Second Global Forum on Human Development: Human Rights and Human Development, Oct. 10 2000, available at (accessed Nov. 25, 2009).
,European Women Lawyers Association (EWLA), Resolution on Trafficking in Human Beings regarding the future European Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, adopted by the EWLA General Assembly, Mar. 18, 2005.
Freidrich, M.G., Myer, A.N. and Perlman, D.G., “The Trafficking in Persons Report: Strengthening a Diplomatic Tool,” UCLA School of Public Affairs (May 8, 2006).
Gallagher, A.T., “Trafficking and the Human Rights of Women: Using the CEDAW Convention and Committee to Strengthen National and International Responses to Trafficking in Women and Girls,” background paper for the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Expert Group Meeting on the Promotion and Implementation of CEDAW, Trafficking in Women and Violence against Women, Oct. 3–5, 2005.
,Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women, Collateral Damage: the Impact of Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights Around the World (2007).
,Global Alliance against Trafficking in Women, Human Rights and Trafficking in Persons: A Handbook (2000).
,Global Alliance against Trafficking in Women, Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women, Foundation against Trafficking in Women, International Human Rights Law Group, “Human Rights Standards for the Treatment of Trafficked Persons” (Jan. 1999).
,The Global Campaign for Ratification of the Convention on Rights of Migrants, (accessed Nov. 29, 2009).
,Global Commission on International Migration, Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for Action (2005).
Goodwin-Gill, G.S., “Forced Migration and Human Rights,” paper presented at the Expert Meeting on International Legal Norms and Migration, May 23–25, 2002.
Hoffman, R.L., “Effective Countermeasures against the Trafficking in Human Beings and Smuggling of Migrants” in UN Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders, Work Product of the 122nd International Training Course: Effective Administration of Criminal Justice to Tackle Trafficking in Human Beings and Smuggling of Migrants 80 (2002).
Hughes, D.M., The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking (2005).
,Human Rights Watch, A Modern Form of Slavery: Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand (1993).
,Human Rights WatchRape for Profit: Trafficking of Nepali Girls and Women to India's Brothels (1995).
,Human Rights WatchShattered Lives: Sexual Violence During the Rwandan Genocide and Its Aftermath (1996).
,Human Rights Watch“Are You Happy to Cheat Us?” Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in Russia (2009).
,Human Rights WatchWorkers in the Shadows: Abuse and Exploitation of Child Domestic Workers in Indonesia (2009).
,International Centre for Migration Policy Development, Anti-Trafficking Training Materials for Judges and Prosecutors (2006).
,International Centre for Migration Policy Development, The Relationship between Organized Crime and Trafficking in Aliens (1999).
,International Council on Human Rights Policy, Irregular Migration, Migrant Smuggling and Human Rights: Towards Coherence (2010).
,International Council on Human Rights Policy and Transparency International, Corruption and Human Rights: Making the Connection (2009), available at (accessed Feb. 1, 2010).
,International Movement Against All Forms of Discrimination and Racism, Final Report: South Asian Dialogue on Trafficking in Women and Children, Towards the Adoption of a SAARC Convention, Feb. 11–12, 1999, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Jennings, K.M. and Nicolić-Ristanović, V., “UN Peacekeeping Economies and Local Sex Industries: Connections and Implications,” MICROCON Research Working Paper 17 (2009).
Jones-Pauly, C.C., Report on Anti-Trafficking Laws in Six Countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Poland) and Compliance with the International Conventions against Trafficking (1999).
Knaus, K., Kartusch, A. and Reiter, G., Combat of Trafficking in Women for the Purpose of Forced Prostitution (2000, Institute for Human Rights).
International, Strada, Violation of Women's Rights: A Cause and Consequence of Trafficking in Women (2008).
Lam, J., and Skrivankova, K., Opportunities and Obstacles: Ensuring Access to Compensation for Trafficked Persons in the UK (2009, Anti-Slavery International).
Lim, L.L., “Trafficking, Demand and the Sex Market,” paper presented at the International Symposium on Gender at the Heart of Globalization, Mar. 12, 2007, available at (accessed Feb. 1, 2010).
Lutz, C., Gutmann, M. and Brown, K., “Conduct and Discipline in UN Peacekeeping Operations: Culture, Political Economy and Gender,” Report submitted to the Conduct and Discipline Unit, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations (Oct. 19, 2009).
Mattar, M. “The International Criminal Court (ICC) Becomes a Reality: When Will the Court Prosecute the First Trafficking in Persons Case?” (Protection Project, 2002).
,Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare (Lao PDR) and UNICEF, “Broken Promises, Shattered Dreams: A Profile of Child Trafficking in the Lao PDR” (2004).
Monheim, J., “Human Trafficking and the Effectiveness of Asylum Policies,” Saarland University Center for the Study of Law and Economics (CSLE) Discussion Paper No. 2008–01 (2008).
Morrison, J., and Crosland, B., “The Trafficking and Smuggling of Refugees: The End Game in European Asylum Policy?” UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit (EPAU) Working Paper No. 39 (Apr. 15, 2001).
O'Connell Davidson, J., and Farrow, C., “Child Migration and the Construction of Vulnerability” (2007, Save the Children).
Opeskin, B., The Influence of International Law on the International Movement of Persons, United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Research Paper 2009/18 (2009).
Pécoud, A., and Guchteneire, P., “Migration, Human Rights and the United Nations: An Investigation into the Low Ratification Record of the UN Migrant Workers Convention” (Global Comm'n on Int'l Migration, Global Migration Perspectives No. 3, 2004), available at (accessed Nov. 19, 2009).
,Physicians for Human Rights, “No Status: Migration, Trafficking and Exploitation of Women in Thailand: Health and HIV/AIDS Risks for Burmese and Hill Tribe Women and Girls” (2004).
,Project Victims in Europe, Implementation of the EU Framework Decision on the standing of victims in the criminal proceedings in the Member States of the European Union (2009, Portugese Association for Victim Support (APAV)).
,Redress Trust, “Implementing Victims' Rights: A Handbook on the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparations” (2006).
Rehn, E., and Johnson Sirleaf, E., Women, War and Peace, The Independent Experts' Assessment on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Women and Women's Role in Peace-Building (2002, UNIFEM).
Renshaw, C., “The Globalisation Paradox and the Implementation of International Human Rights: The Function of Transnational Networks in Combating Human Trafficking in the ASEAN Region,” paper presented to the Law and Society Association Australia and New Zealand (LSAANZ) Conference: W(h)ither Human Rights, Sydney, Dec. 10–12, 2008.
Richards, S., Steel, M. and Singer, D., “Hope Betrayed: An Analysis of Women Victims of Trafficking and Their Claims for Asylum” (Feb. 2006, POPPY Project).
Saito, K., “International Protection for Trafficked Persons and Those Who Fear Being Trafficked,” UNHCR Research Paper No. 149 (2007), available at (accessed Nov. 19, 2009).
Schloenhardt, A., “Migrant Smuggling: Illegal Migration and Organised Crime in Australia and the Asia Pacific Region” (2003).
Smith, H.M., and Smith, C., “Human Trafficking: The Unintended Effects of United Nations Intervention,” paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, April 2010.
Surtees, R., Listening to Victims: Experiences of Identification, Return and Assistance in South-Eastern Europe (2007, International Centre for Migration Policy and Development).
Taran, P.A., and Moreno-Fontes Chammartin, G. (International Labour Organization), “Getting at the Roots: Stopping Exploitation of Migrant Workers by Organized Crime,” paper presented at the International Symposium on the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime: Requirements for Effective Implementation, Turin, Feb. 22–23, 2002
,US Department of Justice, “Model State Anti-Trafficking Criminal Statute” (2003), available at (accessed Nov. 29, 2009).
,US Department of State, “Trafficking in Persons Report” (2009).
,US Department of State, “Trafficking in Persons Report” (2008).
,US Government Accountability Office, “Human Trafficking: Better Data, Strategy and Reporting Needed to Enhance UN Antitrafficking Efforts Abroad,” July 2006, available at (accessed Nov. 22, 2009).
Warnath, S., “Examining the Intersections between Trafficking in Persons and Domestic Violence” (2007, USAID and Creative Associates).
Wijers, M., “Keep Your Women Home: European Policies on Trafficking in Women” (unpublished manuscript, 1998).
Wolte, S., “Armed Conflict and Trafficking in Women” (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, 2004), available at–5304.pdf (accessed Feb. 1, 2010).
Wyler, L.S. and Siskin, A., “Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service (2010), available at (accessed June 9, 2010).
Zhang, S., and Chin, K., “Characteristics of Chinese Human Smugglers: A Cross-National Study” (Oct. 2002).