There were so many changes in economic structure and relationships during the first half of the twentieth century. The historical origins of twentieth-century interventionism may be discerned in the interdependent pre-1914 world, and a conjunction of forces, most of them deriving from nineteenth-century sources, was responsible for the pattern of events. The one non-white country which made great independent economic progress before 1914, Japan, reconciled old traditions and new techniques, making use of elements of enterprise within the indigenous historic structure. Yet its path of growth had much in common with that followed earlier by western European countries. The First World War did nothing in Japan to decelerate long-term economic trends: indeed, since it was essentially a European war, it provided Japanese businessmen, like Japanese politicians, with new opportunities. At the beginning of the Great Depression, during the late 1930s, the one comprehensive planning scheme in operation was that of the Soviet Union, where output rose rapidly during the 1930s.