Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
The Rationalizing Voter
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 186
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Gabriel, Oscar W. 2019. Einstellungen und Verhalten in der empirischen Sozialforschung. p. 273.

    Yaylacı, Şule and Bakıner, Onur 2019. Casualties and Support for Violent Conflict in Civil Wars. Civil Wars, p. 1.

    Poletti, Monica Webb, Paul and Bale, Tim 2019. Why do only some people who support parties actually join them? Evidence from Britain. West European Politics, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 156.

    Wojcieszak, Magdalena Nisbet, Erik C. Kremer, Lea Behrouzian, Golnoosh and Glynn, Carroll 2019. What Drives Media Use in Authoritarian Regimes? Extending Selective Exposure Theory to Iran. The International Journal of Press/Politics, Vol. 24, Issue. 1, p. 69.

    Priddat, Birger P. 2019. Historizität und Sozialität in der sozioökonomischen Bildung. p. 9.

    Collins, Timothy P. 2018. Hypocrisy in American Political Attitudes. p. 57.

    Sinclair, Betsy Smith, Steven S. and Tucker, Patrick D. 2018. “It’s Largely a Rigged System”: Voter Confidence and the Winner Effect in 2016. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 71, Issue. 4, p. 854.

    Ksiazkiewicz, Aleksander Vitriol, Joseph and Farhart, Christina 2018. Implicit Candidate-Trait Associations in Political Campaigns. Political Psychology, Vol. 39, Issue. 1, p. 177.

    Larsen, Erik Gahner 2018. Welfare Retrenchments and Government Support: Evidence from a Natural Experiment. European Sociological Review, Vol. 34, Issue. 1, p. 40.

    Amira, Karyn Cooper, Christopher A. Knotts, H. Gibbs and Wofford, Claire 2018. The Southern Accent as a Heuristic in American Campaigns and Elections. American Politics Research, Vol. 46, Issue. 6, p. 1065.

    Benegal, Salil D. and Scruggs, Lyle A. 2018. Correcting misinformation about climate change: the impact of partisanship in an experimental setting. Climatic Change, Vol. 148, Issue. 1-2, p. 61.

    Lau, Richard R Kleinberg, Mona S and Ditonto, Tessa M 2018. Measuring Voter Decision Strategies in Political Behavior and Public Opinion Research. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 82, Issue. S1, p. 325.

    Ekstrom, Pierce D. and Federico, Christopher M. 2018. Personality and political preferences over time: Evidence from a multiwave longitudinal study. Journal of Personality,

    Sharon, Assaf 2018. Populism and democracy: The challenge for deliberative democracy. European Journal of Philosophy,

    Fiorina, Morris P. 2018. Identities for Realists. Critical Review, Vol. 30, Issue. 1-2, p. 49.

    Robertson, John 2018. Strategische Politische Kommunikation im digitalen Wandel. p. 63.

    Jedinger, Alexander and Schoen, Alexandra 2018. Anti-Americanism and Public Attitudes toward Transatlantic Trade. German Politics, Vol. 27, Issue. 3, p. 317.

    Zamir, Eyal and Sulitzeanu-Kenan, Raanan 2018. Explaining Self-Interested Behavior of Public-Spirited Policy Makers. Public Administration Review, Vol. 78, Issue. 4, p. 579.

    McGrew, Sarah Breakstone, Joel Ortega, Teresa Smith, Mark and Wineburg, Sam 2018. Can Students Evaluate Online Sources? Learning From Assessments of Civic Online Reasoning. Theory & Research in Social Education, Vol. 46, Issue. 2, p. 165.

    Eriksson, Kimmo 2018. Republicans Value Agency, Democrats Value Communion. Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 81, Issue. 2, p. 173.

    ×
  • Milton Lodge, Stony Brook University, State University of New York , Charles S. Taber, Stony Brook University, State University of New York

Book description

Political behavior is the result of innumerable unnoticed forces and conscious deliberation is often a rationalization of automatically triggered feelings and thoughts. Citizens are very sensitive to environmental contextual factors such as the title 'President' preceding 'Obama' in a newspaper headline, upbeat music or patriotic symbols accompanying a campaign ad, or question wording and order in a survey, all of which have their greatest influence when citizens are unaware. This book develops and tests a dual-process theory of political beliefs, attitudes and behavior, claiming that all thinking, feeling, reasoning and doing have an automatic component as well as a conscious deliberative component. The authors are especially interested in the impact of automatic feelings on political judgments and evaluations. This research is based on laboratory experiments, which allow the testing of five basic hypotheses: hot cognition, automaticity, affect transfer, affect contagion and motivated reasoning.

Reviews

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

Bibliography
Abelson, Robert. 1963. “Computer Simulation of ‘Hot’ Cognition.” In Computer Simulation of Personality, Frontier of Psychological Theory, eds. Tomkins, Silvan and Messick, Samuel, 277–298, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Abelson, Robert, Aronson, Elliot, McGuire, William, Newcomb, Theodore, Rosenberg, Milton, and Tannenbaum, Percy. 1968. Theories of Cognitive Consistency: A Sourcebook. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Abelson, Robert, and Prentice, Deborah. 1989. “Beliefs as Possessions: A Functional Perspective.” In Attitude Structure and Function, eds. Pratkanis, Anthony, Breckler, Steven, and Greenwald, Anthony, 361–381, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Achen, Christopher. 2002. “Parental Socialization and Rational Party Identification.” Political Behavior 24 (2): 151–170.
Achen, Christopher. 1992. “Social Psychology, Demographic Variables, and Linear Regression: Breaking the Iron Triangle in Voting Research.” Political Behavior 14 (3): 195–211.
Achen, Christopher, and Bartels, Larry. 2006. “It Feels Like We're Thinking: The Rationalizing Voter and Electoral Democracy.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA, August 31–September 3.
Acker, Felix. 2008. “New Findings on Unconscious Versus Conscious Thought in Decision Making: Additional Empirical Data and Meta-Analysis.” Judgment and Decision-Making 3 (4): 292–303.
Ailes, Roger, and Kraushar, Jon. 1989. You Are the Message: Getting What You Want by Being Who You Are. New York: Crown Business.
Albertson, Bethany. 2011. “Religious Appeals and Implicit Attitudes.” Political Psychology 32 (1): 109–130.
Aldrich, John, Sullivan, John, and Borgida, Eugene. 1989. “Foreign Affairs and Issue Voting: Do Presidential Candidates ‘Waltz Before a Blind Audience’?American Political Science Review 83 (1): 123–142.
Amodio, David, and Devine, Patricia. 2006. “Stereotyping and Evaluation in Implicit Race Bias: Evidence for Independent Constructs and Unique Effects on Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91 (4): 652–661.
Amodio, David, and Mendoza, Saaid. 2010. “Implicit Intergroup Bias: Cognitive, Affective, and Motivational Underpinnings.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, Bertram Gawronski and Keith Payne, 353–374, New York: Guliford.
Anderson, John. 1983. The Architecture of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Anderson, John. 1993. Rules of the Mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Anderson, John, Bothell, Daniel, Byrne, Michael, Douglass, Scott, Lebiere, Christian, and Qin, Yulin. 2004. “An Integrated Theory of Mind.” Psychological Review 111 (4): 1036–1060.
Anderson, Norman. 1965. “Averaging Versus Adding as a Stimulus-Combination Rule in Impression Formation.” Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (4): 394–400.
Anderson, Norman. 1968. “Likableness Ratings of 555 Personality-Trait Words.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9 (3): 272–279.
Anderson, Norman. 1981. Foundations of Information Integration Theory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Anderson, Norman, and Hubert, Stephen. 1963. “Effects of Concomitant Verbal Recall on Order Effects in Personality Impression Formation.” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 2 (5–6): 379–391.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Iyengar, Shanto. 1995. Going Negative: How Political Advertisements Shrinks and Polarize the Electorate. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Iyengar, Shanto, Simon, Adam, and Valentino, Nicholas. 1994. “Does Attack Advertising Demobilize Electorate?American Political Science Review 88 (4): 829–838.
Antonakis, John, and Dalgas, Olaf. 2009. “Predicting Elections: Child's Play!Science 323 (5918): 1183.
Ariely, Dan. 2008. Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. New York: HarperCollins.
Ariely, Dan, and Loewenstein, George. 2006. “The Heat of the Moment: The Effect of Sexual Arousal on Sexual Decision Making.” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 19: 87–98.
Aronson, Elliot. 1992. “The Return of the Repressed: Dissonance Theory Makes a Comeback.” Psychological Inquiry 3 (4): 303–311.
Asch, Solomon. 1946. “Forming Impressions of Personality.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 41: 258–290.
Atkinson, Matthew, Enos, Ryan, and Hill, Seth. 2009. “Candidate Faces and Election Outcomes: Is the Face-Vote Correlation Caused by Candidate Selection?Quarterly Journal of Political Science 4 (3): 229–249.
Babad, Elisha. 1999. “Preferential Treatment in Television Interviewing: Evidence From Nonverbal Behavior.” Political Communication 16 (3): 337–358.
Babad, Elisha. 2005. “The Psychological Price of Mass Media Bias.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 11 (4): 245–255.
Banducci, Susan, Thrasher, Michael, Rallings, Colin, and Karp, Jeffrey. 2003. “Candidate Appearance Cues in Low-Information Elections.” Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA, August 28–31.
Bargh, John. 1989. “Conditional Automaticity: Varieties of Automatic Influence in Social Perception and Cognition.” In Unintended Thought, eds. Uleman, James, and Bargh, John, 3–51, New York: Guilford.
Bargh, John. 1994. “The Four Horseman of Automaticity: Awareness, Intention, Efficiency, and Control in Social Cognition.” In Handbook of Social Cognition: Basic Processes, eds. Wyer, Robert and Srull, Thomas, 1–40, Hillsdale, NY: Erlbaum.
Bargh, John. 1997. “The Automaticity of Everyday Life.” In Advances in Social Cognition, ed. Wyer, Robert, 1–61, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bargh, John. 1999. “The Cognitive Monster: The Case Against Controllability of Automatic Stereotype Effects.” In Dual Process Theories in Social Psychology, eds. Chaiken, Shelly and Trope, Yaacov, 361–382, New York: Guilford.
Bargh, John. 2007. Social Psychology and the Unconscious: The Automaticity of Higher Mental Processes. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
Bargh, John, Chaiken, Shelly, Govender, Rajen, and Pratto, Felicia. 1992. “The Generality of the Automatic Attitude Activation Effect.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62 (6): 893–912.
Bargh, John, Chen, Mark, Burrows, Lara. 1996. “Automaticity of Social Behavior: Direct Effects of the Trait Construct and Stereotype Activation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71 (2): 230–244.
Bargh, John, Chartrand, Tanya L.. 1999. “The Unbearable Automaticity of Being.” American Psychologist 54 (7): 462–479.
Bargh, John, and Chartrand, Tanya. 2000. “Studying the Mind in the Middle: A Practical Guide to Priming and Automaticity Research.” In Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology, eds. Reis, Harry and Judd, Charles, 253–285, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bargh, John, Gollwitzer, Peter, Lee-Chai, Annette, Barndollar, Kimberly, and Troetschel, Roman. 2001. “The Automated Will: Nonconscious Activation and Pursuit of Behavioral Goals.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (6): 1014–1027.
Baron, Reuben, and Kenny, David. 1986. “The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (6): 1173–1182.
Barrett, Lisa. 2006. “Are Emotions Natural Categories?Perspectives on Psychological Science 1 (1): 28–58.
Barrett, Lisa. 2006. “Solving the Emotion Paradox: Categorization and the Experience of Emotion.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 1 (1): 20–46.
Barrett, Lisa, Niedenthal, Paula, and Winkielman, Piotr. 2005. Emotion and Consciousness. New York: Guilford Press.
Barrett, Lisa, and Russell, James. 1998. “Independence and Bipolarity in the Structure of Current Affect.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 (4): 967–984.
Barsalou, Lawrence. 1992. Cognitive Psychology: An Overview for Cognitive Scientists. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bartels, Larry. 1993. “Messages Received: The Political Impact of Media Exposure.” American Political Science Review 87 (2): 267–285.
Bartels, Larry. 2000. “Partisanship and Voting Behavior, 1952–1996.” American Journal of Political Science 44 (1): 35–50.
Bartels, Larry. 2002. “Beyond the Running Tally: Partisan Bias in Political Perceptions.” Political Behavior 24 (2): 117–150.
Bartlett, Frederic. 1932. Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Basinger, Scott, and Lavine, Howard. 2005. “Ambivalence, Information, and Electoral Choice.” American Political Science Review 99 (2): 169–184.
Bassili, John. 1989. On-Line Cognition in Person Perception. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bassili, John, and Roy, Jean-Paul. 1998. “On the Representation of Strong and Weak Attitudes About Policy in Memory.” Political Psychology 19 (4): 669–681.
Baumeister, Roy, Muraven, Mark, and Tice, Dianne. 2000. “Ego Depletion: A Resource Model of Volition, Self-Regulation, and Controlled Processing.” Social Cognition 18 (2): 130–150.
Baumeister, Roy, and Newman, Leonard. 1994. “Self-Regulation of Cognitive Inference and Decision Processes.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 20 (1): 3–19.
Bechara, Antoine, Damasio, Antonio, Damasio, Hanna, and Anderson, Steven. 1994. “Insensitivity to Future Consequences Following Damage to Human Prefrontal Cortex.” Cognition 50 (1): 7–15.
Bechara, Antoine, Damasio, Hanna, Tranel, Daniel, and Damasio, Antonio. 1997. “Deciding Advantageously Before Knowing the Advantageous Strategy.” Science 275 (5304): 1293–1295.
Bechara, Antoine, Damasio, Antonio, and Damasio, Hanna. 2000. “Emotion, Decision Making and the Orbitofrontal Cortex.” Cerebral Cortex 10 (3): 295–307.
Bechara, Antoine, Damasio, Hanna, Tranel, Daniel, and Damasio, Antonio. 2005. “The Iowa Gambling Task and the Somatic Marker Hypothesis: Some Questions and Answers.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (4): 159–162.
Bem, Darly. 1967. “Self Perception: An Alternative Interpretation of Cognitive Dissonance Phenomena.” Psychological Review 74 (3): 183–200.
Berelson, Bernard, Lazarsfeld, Paul, and Mcphee, William. 1954. Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Berger, Jonah, Meredith, Mark, and Wheeler, Christian. 2008. “Contextual Priming: Where People Vote Affects How They Vote.” PNAS 105 (26): 8846–8848.
Berggren, Niclas, Jordahl, Henrik, and Poutvaara, Panu. 2010. “The Looks of a Winner: Beauty, and Electoral Success.” Journal of Public Economics 94 (1–2): 8–15.
Berinsky, Adam, and Kinder, Donald. 2006. “Making Sense of Issues through Media Frames: Understanding the Kosovo Crisis.” Journal of Politics 68 (3): 640–656.
Berridge, Kent, and Winkielman, Julia. 2003. “What Is an Unconscious Emotion? The Case for Unconscious ‘Liking’.” Cognition and Emotion 17 (2): 181–211.
Betsch, Tilmann, Plessner, Henning, Hoffmann, Katja, Gütig, Robert, and Schwieren, Christiane. 2001. Different Mechanisms of Information Integration in Implicit and Explicit Attitude Formation. Research paper, University of Heidelberg.
Betsch, Tilman, Plessner, Henning, Schwieren, Christiane, and Guetig, Robert. 2001. “I Like It but I Don't Know Why: A Value-Account Approach to Implied Attitude Formation.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27 (2): 242–253.
Biddle, Jeff, and Hamermesh, Daniel. 1998. “Beauty, Productivity, and Discrimination: Lawyers’ Looks and Lucre.” Journal of Labor Economics 16 (1): 172–201.
Bishop, George F. 2004. The Illusion of Public Opinion: Fact and Artifact in American Public Opinion Polls. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Bishop, Melissa. 2005. “Language Codeswitching and Advertising: The Overlooked Communication Alternative.” Paper presented at the American Marketing Association Summer Educator's Conference, San Francisco, July 29–August 1.
Black, Duncan. 1948. “On the Rationale of Group Decision-Making.” Journal of Political Economy 56 (1): 23–34.
Black, Earl, and Black, Merle. 1987. Politics and Society in the South. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Blair, Irene. 2001. “Implicit Stereotypes and Prejudice.” In Cognitive Social Psychology: On the Tenure and Future of Social Cognition, ed. Moskowitz, Gordon, 359–374, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bobo, Lawrence. 1988. “Attitudes Toward the Black Political Movement: Trends, Meaning, and Effects on Racial Policy Preferences.” Social Psychology Quarterly 51: 287–302.
Bobo, Lawrence. 2001. “Racial attitudes and Relations at the Close of the Twentieth Century.” In Racial Trends and Their Consequences, eds. Smelser, Neil, Wilson, William, and Mitchell, Faith, 264–301, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Bobo, Lawrence, and Kluegel, James. 1993. “Opposition to Race-Targeting: Self-Interest, Stratification Ideology, or Racial Attitudes?American Sociological Review 58: 443–464.
Bodenhausen, Galen. 1993. “Emotions, Arousal, and Stereotypic Judgments: a Heuristic Model of Affect and Stereotyping.” In Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception, eds. Mackie, Donald and Hamilton, David, 13–37, San Diego: Academic Press.
Bodenhausen, Gordon, and Todd, Andrew. 2010. “Automatic Aspects of Judgment and Decision Making.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 278–294, New York: Guilford.
Bosson, Jennifer, Swann, William, and Pennebaker, James. 2000. “Stalking the Perfect Measure of Implicit Self-esteem: The Blind Men and the Elephant Revisited?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79 (4): 631–643.
Bower, Gordon. 1981. “Mood and Memory.” American Psychologist 36 (2): 129–148.
Bower, Gordon, and Forgas, Joseph. 2001. “Affective Influences on the Content of Cognition.” In Handbook of Affect and Social Cognition, ed. Forgas, Joseph, 95–120, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Boynton, G. Robert, and Lodge, Milton. 1994. “Computational Modeling: A Computational Model of a Survey Respondent.” In Political Judgment: Structure and Process, eds. Lodge, Milton and McGraw, Kathleen, 229–248, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Brader, Ted. 2005. “Striking a Responsive Chord: How Political Ads Motivate and Persuade Voters by Appealing to Emotions.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (2): 388–405.
Brader, Ted. 2006. Campaigning for Hearts and Minds: How Emotional Appeals in Political Ads Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brader, Ted. 2011. “The Political Relevance of Emotions: ‘Reassessing’ Revisited.” Political Psychology 32 (2): 337–346.
Brader, Ted, and Valentino, Nicholas. 2007. “Identities, Interests, and Emotions: Symbolic Versus Material Wellsprings of Fear, Anger, and Enthusiasm.” In The Affect Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Political Thinking and Behavior, eds. Neuman, Russell, Marcus, George, Crider, Ann, and MacKuen, Michael, 180–201, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brader, Ted, Valentino, Nicholas, and Suhay, Elizabeth. 2008. “What Triggers Public Opposition to Immigration? Anxiety, Group Cues, and Immigration Threat.” American Journal of Political Science 52 (4): 959–978.
Bradley, Margaret, and Lang, Peter. 1999. “Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW): Instruction Manual and Affective Ratings.” Technical Report C-1. The Center for Research in Psychophysiology, University of Florida.
Brewer, Marilynn, and Brown, Rupert. 1998. “Intergroup Relations.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, eds. Gilbert, Daniel, Fiske, Susan and Lindzey, Gardner, 554–594, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Briñol, Pablo, Petty, Richard, and McCaslin, Michael. 2009. “Changing Attitudes on Implicit Versus Explicit Measures: What is the Difference?” In Attitudes: Insights from the New Implicit Measures, eds. Petty, Richard, Fazio, Russell, and Briñol, Pablo. 285–326, New York: Psychology Press.
Browne, Janet. 2002. Charles Darwin: The Power of Place. Princeton, NJ: Knopf.
Bullock, John. 2009. “Partisan Bias and the Bayesian Ideal in the Study of Public Opinion.” Journal of Politics 71 (3): 1109–1124.
Buonomano, Dean. 2011. How the Brain's Flaws Shape Our Lives. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Burdein, Inna. 2007. “Principled Conservatives or Covert Racists: Disentangling Racism and Ideology through Implicit Measures.” Ph.D. Dissertation. Stony Brook University.
Burdein, Inna, Lodge, Milton, and , Charles S. Taber, . 2006. “Experiments On the Automaticity of Political Beliefs and Attitudes.” Political Psychology 27 (3): 359–371.
Burdein, Inna, and Taber, Charles. 2004. “What are they really thinking? Implicit Measures of Ideology and Racism.” Paper presented at the the Midwest Political Science Association. Chicago, IL, April 15–18.
Bushman, Brad, and Anderson, Craig. 1998. “Methodology in the Study of Aggression: Integrating Experimental and Nonexperimental Findings.” In Human Aggression: Theories, Research and Implications for Social Policy, eds. Geen, Russell and Donnerstein, Edward, 23–48, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Butz, David. 2009. “National Symbols as Agents of Psychological and Social Change.” Political Psychology 30 (5): 779–804.
Byrne, Donn, London, Oliver, and Reeves, Keith. 1968. “The Effects of Physical Attractiveness, Sex, and Attitude Similarity on Interpersonal Attraction. “ Journal of Personality 36 (2): 259–272.
Cacioppo, John, Berntson, Gary, Larsen, Jeff, Poehlmann, Kristen, and Ito, Tiffany. 2000. “The Psychophysiology of Emotion.” In The Handbook of Emotion, eds. Lewis, Michael, Haviland, Jeannette, and Barrett, Lisa, 173–191, New York: Guilford.
Cacioppo, John, and Berntson, Gary. 1994. “Relationship between Attitudes and Evaluative Space: A Critical Review, with Emphasis on the Separability of Positive and Negative Substrates.” Psychological Bulletin 115 (3): 401–423.
Cacioppo, John, and Gardner, Wendi. 1999. “Emotion.” Annual Review of Psychology 50: 191–214.
Cacioppo, John, Gardner, Wendi, and Berntson, Gary. 1997. “Beyond Bipolar Conceptualizations and Measures: The Case of Attitudes and Evaluative Space.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 1 (1): 3–25.
Cacioppo, John, Glass, Carol, and Merluzzi, Thomas. 1979. “Self-Statements and Self-Evaluations: A Cognitive-Response Analysis of Heterosocial Anxiety.” Cognitive Therapy and Research 3 (3): 249–262.
Callan, Mitchell, Powell, Nathaniel, and Ellard, John. 2007. “The Consequences of Victim Physical Attractiveness on Reactions to Injustice: The Role of the Observers’ Belief In a Just World.” Social Justice Research 20 (4): 433–456.
Campbell, Donald. 1958. “Common Fate, Similarity, and Other Indices of the Status of Aggregates of Persons as Social Entities.” Behavioural Sciences 3 (1): 14–25.
Cardinal, Rudolph, Parkinson, John, and Everitt, Jeremy. 2002. “Emotion and Motivation: The Role of the Amygdala, Ventral Striatum, and Prefrontal Cortex.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 26 (3): 321–352.
Carlston, Don. 2010. “Models of Implicit and Explicit Mental Representations.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 38–61, New York: Guilford.
Cassino, Dan. 2005. “Standing Water: The Causes and Consequences of Affective Intransitivity.” Ph.D. Dissertation. Stony Brook University.
Cassino, Dan, and Lodge, Milton. 2007. “The Primacy of Affect in Political Evaluations.” In The Affect Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Political Thinking and Behavior, eds. Neuman, Russell, Marcus, George, Crider, Ann, and MacKuen, Michael, 101–123, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cassino, Dan, Taber, Charles, and Lodge, Milton. 2007. “Information Processing and Public Opinion.” Political Psychology 48 (2): 205–220.
Chaiken, Shelly, Liberman, Akiva, and Eagly, Alice. 1989. “Heuristic and Systematic Information Processing within and beyond Persuasion.” In Unintended Thought, eds. Uleman, James and Bargh, John, 212–252, New York: Guilford Press.
Chaiken, Shelly and Trope, Yaacov, eds. 1999. Dual Process Theories in Social Psychology. New York: Guilford Press.
Chaiken, S. and Yates, S. 1985. “Affective-Cognitive Consistency and Thought-Induced Attitude Polarization.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49 (6): 1470–1481.
Chartrand, Tanya, and Bargh, John. 2002. “Nonconscious Motivations: Their Activation, Operation, and Consequences.” In Self and Motivation: Emerging Psychological Perspectives, eds. Tesser, Abraham, Stapel, Diederik, and Wood, Joanne, 13–41, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chen, Mark, and Bargh, John. 1999. “Consequences of Automatic Evaluation: Immediate Behavior Predispositions to Approach or Avoid the Stimulus.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 25 (2): 215–224.
Chen, Serena, and Lee-Chai, Annette, and Bargh, John. 2001. “Relationship Orientation as a Moderator of the Effects of Social Power.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80: 173–187.
Cialdini, Robert. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Cialdini, Robert, Petty, Richard, and Cacioppo, John. 1981. “Attitude and Attitude Change.” Annual Review of Psychology 32 (1): 357–404.
Clore, Gerald, Ortony, Andrew, and Foss, Mark. 1987. “The Psychological Foundations of the Affective Lexicon.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53 (4): 751–766.
Clore, Gerald, Schwarz, Norbert, and Conway, Michael. 1994. “Affective Causes and Consequences of Social Information Processing.” In Handbook of Social Cognition, eds. Wyer, Robert and Srull, Thomas, 323–417, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Clore, Gerald and Isbell, Linda. 2001. “Emotion and Virtue and Vice.” In Political Psychology in Practice, ed. Kuklinski, James. 103–123, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Coats, Susan, Smith, Eliot, Claypool, Heather, and Banner, Michele. 2000. “Overlapping Mental Representations of Self and In-Group: Reaction Time Evidence and its Relationship to Explicit Measures of Group Identification.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 36 (3): 304–315.
Cobb, Michael, and Kuklinski, James. 1997. “Changing Minds: Political Arguments and Political Persuasion.” American Journal of Political Science 41 (1): 88–121.
Collins, Allan, and Loftus, Elizabeth. 1975. “A Spreading-Activation Theory of Semantic Processing.” Psychological Review 82 (6): 407–428.
Collins, Allan, and Quillian, M. Ross. 1969. “Retrieval Time from Semantic Memory.” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 8 (2): 240–247.
Conover, Pamela. 1988. “The Role of Social Groups in Political Thinking.” British Journal of Political Science 18 (1): 51–76.
Converse, Philip. 1964. “The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics.” In Ideology and Discontent, ed. Apter, David, 206–261, New York: Free Press.
Cooper, Joel, and Fazio, Russell. 1984. “A New Look at Dissonance Theory.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 17: 229–266.
Coser, Lewis. 1956. The Functions of Social Conflict. New York: Free Press.
Craemer, Thomas. 2008. “Nonconscious Feelings of Closeness toward African Americans and Support for Pro-Black Policies.” Political Psychology 29 (3): 407–436.
Crawford, Matthew, Sherman, Steven, and Hamilton, David. 2002. “Perceived Entitativity, Stereotype Formation, and the Interchangeability of Group Members.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83 (5): 1076–1094.
Cunningham, William, Preacher, Kristopher, and Banaji, Mahazarin. 2001. “Implicit Attitude Measures: Consistency, Stability, and Convergent Validity.” Psychological Science 12 (2): 163–170.
Cunningham, William and Bavel, Jay Van. 2009. “Varieties of Emotional Experience: Differences in Object or Computation?Emotion Review 1 (1): 56–57.
Custers, Ruud, and Aarts, Henk. 2010. “The Unconscious Will: How the Pursuit of Goals Operates Outside of Conscious Awareness.” Science 329 (5987): 47–50.
Damasio, Antonio. 1994. Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam.
Damasio, Antonio. 1996. “The Somatic Marker Hypothesis and the Possible Functions of the Prefrontal Cortex.” Proceedings of The Royal Society 351: 1413–1420.
Damasio, Antonio. 1999. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Damasio, Antonio. 2002. “How the Brain Creates the Mind,” Scientific American, 12 (1): 4–9.
Damasio, Antonio. 2010. Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain. New York: Pantheon Books.
Damasio, Antonio, Tranel, Daniel, and Damasio, Hanna. 1991. “Somatic Markers and the Guidance of Behaviour.” In Frontal lobe function and dysfunction, eds. Levin, Harvey, Eisenberg, Howard, and Benton, Arthur, 217–228, New York: Oxford University Press.
Davidson, Richard, Scherer, Klaus, and Goldsmith, H. Hill. 2003. Handbook of the Affective Sciences. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dawson, Michael. 1994. Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Deaux, Kay, Reid, Anne, Mizrahi, Kim, and Ethier, Kathleen. 1995. “Parameters of Social Identity.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68 (2): 280–291.
Degner, Juliane, and Wentura, Dirk. 2011. “Types of Automatically Activated Prejudice: Assessing Possessor -Versus Other-Related Valence in the Evaluative Priming Task.” Social Cognition 29 (2): 183–211.
De Houwer, Jan. 2001. “A Structural and Process Analysis of the Implicit Association Test.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 37 (6): 443–451.
De Houwer, Jan. 2006. “What are Implicit Measures and Why Are We Using Them?” In The Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction, eds. Wiers, Reinout and Stacy, Alan, 11–28, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers.
De Houwer, Jan. 2009. “Comparing Measures of Attitudes at the Functional and Procedural Level: Analysis and Implications.” In Attitudes: Insights from the New Implicit Measures, eds. Petty, Richard, Fazio, Russell, and Briñol, Pablo, 361–390, New York: Psychology Press.
De Houwer, Jan, Hermans, Dirk, and Spruyt, Adriaan. 2001. “Affective Priming of Pronunciation Responses: Effects of Target Degradation.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 37 (1): 85–91.
De Houwer, Jan, Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah, Spruyt, Adriaan, and Moors, Agnes. 2009. “Implicit Measures: A Normative Analysis and Review.” Psychological Bulletin 135 (3): 347–368.
De Houwer, Jan, and Moors, Agnes. 2010. “Implicit Measures: Similarities and Differences.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 176–193, New York: Guilford.
Delli Carpini, Michael, and Keeter, Scott. 1991. “Stability and Change in the U.S. Public's Knowledge of Politics.” Public Opinion Quarterly 55 (4): 583–612.
De Marchi, Scott. 2005. Computational and Mathematical Modeling in the Social Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dennett, Daniel. 1991. Consciousness Explained. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
Denzler, Marcus, Foerster, Jens, Liberman, Nira, and Rozenman, Merav. 2010. “Aggressive, Funny, and Thirsty: A Motivational Inference Model (MIMO) Approach to Behavioral rebound.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,36 (10): 1385–1396.
De Steno, David, Richard, Petty, Rucker, Derek, Wegener, Duane, and Braverman, Julia. 2004. “Discrete Emotions and Persuasion: The Role of Emotion-Induced Expectancies.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86 (1): 43–56.
Deutsch, Roland, and Strack, Fritz. 2010. “Building Blocks of Social Behavior: Reflective and Impulsive Processes.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 62–79, New York: Guilford.
Devine, Patricia. 1989. “Stereotypes and Prejudice: Their Automatic and Controlled Components.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56 (1): 5–18.
Dijksterhuis, Ap., and Ad van, Knippenberg. 1998. “The Relation Between Perception and Behavior, or How to Win a Game of Trivial Pursuit.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 (4): 865–877.
Dijksterhuis, Ap., and Henk, Aarts. 2003. “On Wildebeests and Humans: The Preferential Detection of Negative Stimuli.”Psychological Science 14 (1): 14–18.
Dijksterhuis, , , Ap. 2004. “Think Different: The Merit of Unconscious Thought in Preference Development and Decision Making.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87 (5): 586–598.
Dijksterhuis, Ap, Aarts, Henk, and Smith, Pamela. 2005. “The Power of the Subliminal: On Subliminal Persuasion and Other Potential Applications.” In The New Unconscious, eds. Hassin, Ran, Uleman, James, and Bargh, John, 77–106, New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Dijksterhuis, Ap, Bos, Maarten, Nordgren, Loran, and van Baaren, Rick. 2006. “On Making the Right Choice: The Deliberation-Without-Attention Effect.” Science 311 (5763): 1005–1007.
Dijksterhuis, Ap, and van Olden, Zeger. 2006. “On the Benefits of Thinking Unconsciously: Unconscious Thought Can Increase Post-Choice Satisfaction.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42 (5): 627–631.
Dijksterhuis, Ap, Albers, Luuk, and Bongers, Karin. 2009. “Digging For the Real Attitude: Lessons From Research on Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem.” In Attitudes: Insights from the New Wave of Implicit Measures, eds. Petty, Richard, Fazio, Russell and Briñol, Pablo, 229–250, New York: Psychology Press.
Dion, Karen, Berscheid, Ellen, and Walster, Elaine, 1972. “What Is Beautiful is Good.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 24 (3): 285–290.
Ditto, Peter, and Lopez, David. 1992. “Motivated Skepticism: Use of Differential Decision Criteria for Preferred and Nonpreferred Conclusions.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63 (4): 568–584.
Ditto, Peter, Scepansky, James, Munro, Geoffrey, Apanovitch, Anne Marie, and Lockhart, Lisa. 1998. “Motivated Sensitivity to Preference-Inconsistent Information.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75 (1): 53–69.
Dovidio, John, Evans, Nancy, and Tyler, Richard. 1986. “Racial Stereotypes: The Contents of Their Cognitive Representations.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 22 (1): 22–37.
Dovidio, John, Kawakami, Kerry, and Beach, Kelly. 2001. “Implicit and Explicit Attitudes: Examination of the Relationship Between Measures of Intergroup Bias.” In Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Processes, eds. Brown, Rupert and Gaertner, Samuel, 175–197, Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Dovidio, John, Kawakami, Kerry, Smoak, Natalie, and Gaertner, Samuel. 2009. “The Nature of Contemporary Racial Prejudice: Insights from Implicit and Explicit Measures of Attitudes.” In Attitudes: Insights from the New Implicit Measures, eds. Petty, Richard, Fazio, Russell, and Briñol, Pablo, 165–192, New York: Psychology Press.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper & Bros.
Duckitt, John. 1992. “Patterns of Prejudice: Group Interests and Intergroup Attitudes.” South African Journal of Psychology 22 (3): 147–156.
Duckworth, Kimberly, Bargh, John, Garcia, Magda, and Chaiken, Shelly. 2002. “The Automatic Evaluation of Novel Stimuli.” Psychological Science 13 (6): 513–519.
Dunbar, Kevin, and Fugelsang, Johnathan. 2005. “Casual Thinking in Science: How Scientists and Students Interpret the Unexpected.” In Scientific and Technological Thinking, eds. Gorman, Michael, Tweney, Ryan, Goodling, David, 57–79, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
D’Souza, Dinesh. 1995. The End of Racism. New York, NY: Free Press.
Eagly, Alice. 1996. “Differences Between Women and Men: Their Magnitude, Practical Importance, and Political Meaning.” American Psychologist 51 (2): 158–159.
Eagly, Alice, Ashmore, Richard, Makhijini, Mona, and Longo, Laura. 1991. “What is Beautiful is Good, but…: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research on the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype.” Psychological Bulletin 110 (1): 109–128.
Eagly, Alice, and Chaiken, Shelly. 1993. The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
Eagly, Alice, and Chaiken, Shelly. 1998. “Attitude Structure and Function.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, eds. Gilbert, Daniel, Fiske, Susan, and Lindzey, Gardner, 269–322. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ebbinghaus, Hermann. 1885/1913. Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology. New York: Dover Publications Inc.
Eberhardt, Jennifer, Goff, Phillip Atiba, Purdie, Valerie, and Davis, Paul. 2004. “Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87 (6): 876–893.
Edsall, Thomas, and Edsall, Mary. 1992. Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Edwards, Kari, and Smith, Edward. 1996. “A Disconfirmation Bias in the Evaluation of Arguments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71 (1): 5–24.
Ehrlinger, Joyce, Plant, Ashby, Richard Eibach, , Columb, Corey, Goplen, Joanna, Kunstman, Jonathan, and Butz, David. 2011. “How Exposure to the Confederate Flag Affects Willingness to Vote for Barack Obama.” Political Psychology 32 (1): 131–146.
Ekman, Paul. 2003. Emotions Inside Out: 130 Years After Darwin's the Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Science.
Ekman, Paul. 2007. Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Elliot, Andrew, and Fryer, James. 2007. “The Goal Construct in Psychology.” In Handbook of Motivation Science, eds. Shah, James and Gardner, Wendi, 235–250. New York: Guilford Press.
Elsworth, Phoebe, and Scherer, Klaus. 2003. “Arousal Processes in Emotion.” In Handbook of Affective Sciences, eds. Davidson, Richard, Scherer, Klaus, and Goldsmith, H. Hill, 572–595, New York: Oxford.
Epstein, Seymour. 1972. “The Nature of Anxiety With Emphasis Upon its Relationship to Expectancy.” In Anxiety: Current Trends in Theory and Research, ed. Spielberger, Charles, 292–338, Oxford: Academic Press.
Epstein, Seymour. 1992. “Constructive Thinking and Mental and Physical Well-Being.” In Life Crises and Experiences of Loss in Adulthood, eds. Montada, Leo, Filipp, Sigrun-Heide, Lerner, Melvin, 385–409, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Erikson, Erik. 1950. Childhood and Society. New York: W.W. Norton.
Erisen, Cengiz, Lodge, Milton, and Taber, Charles. 2008. “Affective Contagion in Political Thinking.” Paper Presented at the Annual Meetings of American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 28–31.
Erskine, Hazel. 1963. “The Polls: Exposure to Domestic Information.” Public Opinion Quarterly 27 (3): 658–662.
Evans, Jonathan, and Over, David. 1996. Rationality and Reasoning. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Eysenck, Michael, and Keane, Mark. 2005. Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.
Farah, Martha. 1990. Visual Agnosia: Disorders of Object Recognition and What They Tell Us About Normal Vision. Cambridge: MIT Press/Bradford Books.
Fazio, Russell. 1989. “On the Power and Functionality of Attitudes: The Role of Attitude Accessibility.” In Attitude Structure and Function, eds. Pratkanis, Anthony, Breckler, Steven, and Greenwald, Anthony, 153–179, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fazio, Russell. 1990. “A Practical Guide to the Use of Response Latency in Social Psychological Research.” In Research Methods in Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 11, eds. Hendrick, Clyde and Clark, Margaret, 74–97, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fazio, Russell. 1992. “Variability in the Likelihood of Automatic Attitude Activation: Data Reanalysis and Commentary on Bargh, Chaiken, Govender and Pratto (1992).” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 (5): 753–758.
Fazio, Russell. 1995. “Attitudes as Object-Evaluation Associations: Determinants, Consequences, and Correlates of Attitude Accessibility.” In Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences, eds. Petty, Richard and Krosnick, Jon, 247–282, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fazio, Russell. 2001. “On the Automatic Activation of Associated Evaluations: An Overview.” Cognition and Emotion 15 (2): 115–41.
Fazio, Russell. 2007. “Attitudes as Object-Evaluation Associations of Varying Strength.” Social Cognition 25 (5): 603–637.
Fazio, Russell, and Zanna, Mark. 1978a. “On the Predictive Validity of Attitudes: The Roles of Direct Experience and Confidence.” Journal of Personality 46 (2), 228–243.
Fazio, Russell, and Zanna, Mark, 1978b. “Attitudinal Qualities Relating to the Strength of the Attitude-Behavior Relationship.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 14, 398–408.
Fazio, Russell, and Williams, Carol. 1986. “Attitude Accessibility as a Moderator of the Attitude-Perception and Attitude-Behavior Relations: An Investigation of the 1984 Presidential Election.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (13): 505–514.
Fazio, Russell, Sanbonmatsu, David, Powell, Martha, and Kardes, Frank. 1986. “On the Automatic Activation of Attitudes.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 (2): 229–238.
Fazio, Russell, Jackson, Joni, Dunton, Bridget, and Williams, Carol. 1995. “Variability in Automatic Activation as an Unobtrusive Measure of Racial Attitudes: A Bona Fide Pipeline?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (6): 1013–1027.
Feingold, Alan. 1992. “Gender Differences in Mate Selection Preferences: A Test of the Parental Investment Model.” Psychological Bulletin 112 (1): 125–139.
Feinstein, Justin, Duff, Melissa, and Tranel, Daniel. 2010. “Sustained Experience of Emotion after Loss of Memory in Patients with Amnesia.” PNAS 107 (17): 7674–7679.
Feldman, Jack, and Lynch, John Jr. 1988. “Self-Generated Validity and Other Effects of Measurement on Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior.” Journal of Applied Psychology 73 (3): 421–435.
Feldman, Lisa. 1995. “Variations in the Circumplex Structure of Mood.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 21 (8): 806–817.
Ferejohn, John, and Fiorina, Morris. 1974. “The Paradox of Not Voting: A Decision Theoretic Analysis.” American Political Science Review, 68 (2): 525–536.
Ferguson, Melissa, and Bargh, John. 2003. “The Constructive Nature of Automatic Evaluation.” In The Psychology of Evaluation: Affective Processes in Cognition and Emotion, eds. Musch, Jochen and Klauer, Karl, 169–188. Hilldale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ferguson, Milissa, and Hassin, Ran 2007. “On the Automatic Association between America and Aggression for News Watchers.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 33 (12): 1632–1647.
Ferguson, Mellisa, and Porter, Shanette. 2010. “What is Implicit about Goal Pursuit?” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 311–331, New York: Guilford.
Festinger, Leon. 1957. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Festinger, Leon, and Carlsmith, James. 1959. “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 58 (2): 203–210.
Fishbein, Martin, and Ajzen, Icek. 1975. Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Fiske, Susan. 1981. “Social Cognition and Affect.” In Cognition, Social Behavior, and the Environment, ed. Harvey, James, 227–264, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fiske, Susan. 1982. “Schema-Triggered Affect: Applications to Social Perception.” In Affect and Cognition: The 17th Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition, eds. Clark, Margaret, and Fiske, Susan, 55–78, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fiske, Susan. 1998. “Stereotyping, Prejudice and Dscrimination.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, eds. Gilbert, Daniel, Fiske, Susan, and Lindzey, Gardner, 357–411, Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Fiske, Susan, and Pavelchak, Mark. 1986. “Category-Based versus Piecemeal Affective Responses: Developments in Schema-Triggered Affect.” In Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior, eds. Sorrentino, Richard, and Higgins, Tory, 167–203, New York: Guilford Press.
Fiske, Susan, and Taylor, Shelley. 1991. Social Cognition, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Forgas, Joseph. 1995. “Mood and Judgment: The Affect Infusion Model (AIM).” Psychological Bulletin 117 (1): 39–66.
Forgas, Joseph, ed. 2000. Feeling and Thinking: The Role of Affect in Social Cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Forgas, Joseph. 2003. “Affective Influences on Attitudes and Judgments.” In Handbook of the Affective Sciences, eds. Davidson, Richard, Scherer, Klaus, and Goldsmith, H. Hill, 596–618, New York: Oxford University Press.
Forgas, Joseph, Kruglanski, Arie, and Williams, Kipling, eds. 2011. The Psychology of Social Conflict and Aggression. New York: Psychology Press.
Fowler, James, and Schreiber, Darren. 2008. “Biology, Politics, and the Emerging Science of Human Nature.” Science 322 (5903): 912–914.
Franklin, Benjamin. Letter to Jonathon Williams. April 8, 1779. Papers of Benjamin Franklin. Microfilm Collection. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.
Franklin, Charles. 1991. “Eschewing Obfuscation? Campaigns and the Perception of U.S. Senate Incumbents.” American Political Science Review 85 (4): 1193–1214.
Freedman, Jonathan, and Sears, David. 1965. “Selective Exposure.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 19, ed. Berkowitz, Leonard, 57–97, New York: Academic Press.
Frey, Dieter. 1986. “Recent Research on Selective Exposure to Information.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 19, ed. Berkowitz, Leonard, 41–80, New York: Academic Press.
Friedman, Howard, DiMatteo, M. Robin, and Mertz, Timohy. 1980. “Nonverbal Communication on Television News.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 6 (3): 427–435.
Fuller, Raymond, and Sheehy-Skeffington, Alan. 1974. “Effects of Group Laughter on Responses to Humorous Material: A Replication and Extension.” Psychological Reports 35: 531–534.
Funk, Carolyn. 1999. “Bringing the Candidate into Models of Candidate Evaluation. “ Journal of Politics 61 (3): 700–720.
Gamson, William. 1992. Talking Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gawronski, Bertram, and Payne, Keith, eds. 2010. Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications. New York: Guilford.
Gawronski, Bertram, and Bodenhausen, Galen. 2006. “Associative and Propositional Processes in Evaluation: An Integrative Review of Implicit and Explicit Attitude Change.” Psychological Bulletin 132 (5): 692–731.
Gawronski, Bertram, and Bodenhausen, Galen. 2007. “Unraveling the Processes Underlying Evaluation: Attitudes From the Perspective of the APE Model.” Social Cognition 25 (5): 687–717.
Gawronski, Betram, Bodenhausen, Galen, and Becker, Andrew. 2007. “I Like It, Because I Like Myself: Associative Self-Anchoring and Post-Decisional Change of Implicit Evaluations.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43 (2): 221–232.
Gawronski, Bertram, Strack, Fritz, and Bodenhausen, Galen. 2009. ”Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency: The Role of Associative and Propositional Processes.” In Attitudes: Insights from the New Wave of Implicit Measures, eds. Petty, Richard, Fazio, Russell, and Briñol, Pablo, 85–117, New York: Psychology Press.
Gawronski, Bertram, and Sritharan, Rajees. 2010. “Formation, Change, and Contextualization of Mental Associations: Determinants and Principles of Variations in Implicit Measures.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, ed. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 216–240, New York: Guilford.
Gazzaniga, Michael. 1992. Nature's Mind. New York: Basic Books.
Gazzaniga, Michael. 1998. The Mind's Past. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gazzaniga, Michael. 1998. “The Split Brain Revisited.” Scientific American 279 (1): 50–55.
Gazzaniga, Michael. 2005. “Forty-Five Years of Split-Brain Research and Still Going Strong.” Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 6 (8): 653–659.
Gazzaniga, Michael. 2009. “Humans: The Party Animal.” Daedalus 138 (3): 21–34.
George, Alexander, and George, Juliette. 1956. Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House: A Personality Study. New York: John Day.
Gerber, Alan, and Green, Donald. 1998. “Misperceptions about Perceptual Bias.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, April 23–25.
Gerber, Alan, and Green, Donald, 1998a. “Rational Learning and Partisan Attitudes.” American Journal of Political Science 42 (3): 794–818.
Gibson, James, and Caldeira, Gregory. 2009. Citizens, Courts, and Confirmations: Positivity Theory and the Judgments of the American People. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gibson, James, Lodge, Milton, and Woodson, Benjamin. 2010. “Inter-Cultural Differences in the Meaning and Influence of the Symbols of Legal Authority and Legitimacy.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL, April 22–26.
Gigerenzer, Gerd. 2007. Gut feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious. New York: Viking Penguin.
Gigerenzer, Gerd and Goldstein, Daniel. 1996. “Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way: Models of Bounded Rationality.” Psychological Review 103: 650–669.
Gilbert, Daniel. 2006. Stumbling on Happiness. New York: Random House. 2006.
Gilens, Martin. 1995. “Racial Attitudes and Opposition to Welfare.” Journal of Politics 57 (4): 994–1014.
Gilens, Martin. 2000. Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gilliam, Franklin, Iyengar, Shanto, Simon, Adam and Wright, Oliver. 1996. “Crime in Black and White: The Violent, Scary World of Local News.” Press/Politics 1 (3): 6–23.
Gilliam, Franklin, and Iyengar, Shanto. 2000. “Prime Suspects: The Influence of Local Television News on the Viewing Public.” American Journal of Political Science 44 (3): 560–573.
Gilliam, Franklin, Valentino, Nicholas and Beckmann, Matthew. 2002. “Where You Live and What You Watch: The Impact of Racial Proximity and Local Television News on Attitudes About Race and Crime.” Political Research Quarterly 55 (4): 755–780.
Giner-Sorolla, Roger. 2011. Moral Emotions in Persons and Groups. New York: Psychology Press.
Gladwell, Malcolm. 2005. BLINK: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. New York: Little, Brown, and Company.
Glanz, James. 2000. “Survey Finds Support is Strong for Teaching 2 Origin Theories.” The New York Times, March 11. Sec. A, p. 1.
Gollwitzer, Peter, and Bargh, John, eds. 1996. The Psychology of Action: Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior. New York: The Guilford Press.
Goren, Paul, Federico, Christopher, and Kittilson, Miki. 2009. “Source Cues, Partisan Identities, and Political Value Expression.” American Journal of Political Science 53 (4): 805–820.
Gosnell, Harold. 1927. Getting Out the Vote. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gould, Madelyn and Shaffer, David. 1986. “The Impact of Suicide in Television Movies: Evidence of Imitation.” New England Journal of Medicine 319 (24): 690–694.
Granberg, Donald, and Holmberg, Soren. 1986. “Political Perception among Voters in Sweden and the US: Analyses of Issues with Explicit Alternatives.” Political Research Quarterly 39 (1): 7–28.
Gray, Jeffrey. 1984. “The Contents of Consciousness: A Neuropsychological Conjecture.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4): 659–722.
Gray, Jeffrey. 1987. The Psychology of Fear and Stress. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Green, Donald, Palmquist, Bradley, and Schickler, Eric. 2002. Partisan Hearts and Minds: Political Parties and the Social Identity of Voters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Green, Donald and Shapiro, Ian. 1994. Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory: A Critique of Applications in Political Science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Greenwald, Anthony, Carnot, Catherine, Beach, Rebecca, and Barbara, . 1987. “Increasing Voting Behavior by Asking People if They Expect to Vote.” Journal of Applied Psychology 72, 315–318.
Greenwald, Anthony, and Banaji, Mahzarin. 1995. “Implicit Social Cognition: Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Stereotypes.” Psychological Review 102 (1): 4–27.
Greenwald, Anthony, Banaji, Mahzarin, Rudman, Laurie, Farnham, Shelly, Nosek, Brian, and Mellott, Deborah. 2002. “Unified Theory of Implicit Attitudes, Stereotypes, Self-Esteem, and Self-Concept.” Psychological Review 109 (1): 3–25.
Greenwald, Anthony, and Nosek, Brian. 2009. “Attitudinal Dissociation: What Does It Mean?” In Attitudes: Insights from the New Implicit Measures, eds. Petty, Richard, Fazio, Russell, and Briñol, Pablo, 65–118, New York: Psychology Press.
Greenwald, Anthony, Poehlman, Andrew, Uhlmann, Eric, and Banaji, Mahzarin. 2009. “Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-Analysis of Predictive Validity.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97 (1): 17–41.
Gregory, Stanford, and Gallagher, Timothy. 2002. “Spectral Analysis of Candidates’ Nonverbal Vocal Communication: Predicting U.S. Presidential Elections Outcomes.” Social Psychology Quarterly 65 (3): 298–308.
Grynaviski, Jeffrey. 2006. “A Bayesian Learning Model with Applications to Party Identification.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 18 (3): 323–346.
Hagen, Michael. 1995. “References to Racial Issues.” Political Behavior 17: 49–88.
Haidt, John. 2001. “The Emotional Dog and its Rational Tail: A Social Intuitionist Approach to Moral Judgment.” Psychological Review 108 (4): 814–834.
Hamann, Stephan. 2001. “Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Emotional Memory.” Trends in Cognitive Science 5 (9): 394–400.
Hamill, Ruth, and Lodge, Milton. 1986. “Cognitive Consequences of Political Sophistication.” In Political Cognition, eds. Lau, Richard and Sears, David, 69–93, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hamilton, David, Sherman, Steven, and Castelli, Luigi. 2002. “A Group by Any Other Name -- The Role of Entitativity in Group Perception.” European Review of Social Psychology 12 (1): 139–166.
Hamilton, David, and Sherman, Steven. 1994. “Stereotypes.” In Handbook of Social Cognition, eds. Wyer, Robert, Jr. and Srull, Thomas, 1–68, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hamilton, David and Sherman, Steven. 1996. “Perceiving Persons and Groups.” Psychological Review 103: 336–355.
Harmon-Jones, Eddie, Brehm, Jack, Greenberg, Jeff, Simon, Linda, and Nelson, David. 1996. “Evidence That the Production of Aversive Consequences Is Not Necessary to Create Cognitive Disonance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70 (1): 5–16.
Hart, William, Ottati, Victor, and Krumdick, Nathanial. 2011. “Physical Attractiveness and Candidate Evaluation: A Model of Correction.” Political Psychology 32 (2): 181–203.
Harton, Helen, and Latané, Bibb. 1997. “Information and Thought-induced Polarization: The Mediating Role of Involvement in Making Attitudes Extreme.” Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 12 (2): 271–299.
Hassin, Ran, Ferguson, Mellisa, Shidlovsky, Danielle, and Gross, Thomas. 2007. “Waved by Invisible Flags: The Effects of Subliminal Exposure to Flags on Political Thought and Behavior.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (50): 19757–19761.
Hassin, Ran, Uleman, James, and Bargh, John, eds. 2005. The New Unconscious. New York, Oxford University Press.
Hastie, Reid. 1984. “Causes and Effects of Causal Attribution.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46 (1): 44–56.
Hastie, Ried, and Park, Bernadette. 1986. “The Relationship Between Memory and Judgment Depends on Whether the Judgment is Memory-Based or On-line.” Psychological Review 93: 258–268.
Hastie, Reid, and Pennington, Nancy. 1989. “Notes on the Distinction Between Memory-Based versus On-Line Judgments.” In On-Line Cognition in Person Perception, ed. Bassilli, John, 1–19, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Healy, Andrew, Malhotra, Neil, and Hyunjung Mo, Cecillia. 2010. “Irrelevant Events Affect Voters’ Evaluation of Government Performance.” Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States of America 107 (29): 12804–12809.
Heider, Fritz. 1958. The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: Wiley.
Hermans, Dirk, Houwer, Jan De, and Eelen, Paul. 1994. “The Affective Priming Effect: Automatic Activation of Evaluative Information in Memory.” Cognition and Emotion 8 (6): 515–533.
Heuer, Friderike, and Reisberg, Daniel. 1990. “Vivid Memories of Emotional Events: The Accuracy of Remembered Minutiae.” Memory & Cognition 18 (5): 496–506.
Hibbing, John, and Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth. 2002. Stealth Democracy: American's Beliefs About How Government Should Work. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Higgins, Tory. 1989. “Knowledge Accessibility and Activation: Subjectivity and Suffering from Unconscious Sources.” In Unintended Thought: The Limits of Awareness, eds. Uleman, James and Bargh, John, 75–123, New York: Guilford Press.
Hofmann, Wilhelm, and Wilson, Timothy. 2010. “Consciousness, Introspection, and the Adaptive Unconscious.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 197–215, New York: Guilford.
Hofmann, Wilhelm, Betram, Gawronski, Gschwendner, Tobias, Le, Huy and Schmitt, Manfred. 2005. “A Meta-Analysis on the Correlation between the Implicit Association Test and Explicit Self-Report Measures.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31: 1369–1385.
Hofstadter, Douglas. 2010. I Am a Strange Loop. New York: Basic Books.
Huang, Li-Ning and Price, Vincent. 2001. “Motivations, Goals, Information Search, and Memory About Political Candidates.” Political Psychology 22 (4): 665–692.
Huber, Gregory, and Lapinski, John. 2006. “The ‘Race Card’ Revisited: Assessing Racial Priming in Policy Contests.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (2): 421–440.
Huckfeldt, Robert, , T.K. Ahn, , Pietryka, Matthew, and Reilly, Jack. 2011. “Noise, Bias, and Expertise in the Political Communication Process.” Paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL, April 12–15.
Huckfeldt, Robert, Levine, Jeffrey, Morgan, William, and Sprague, John. 1999. “Accessibility and the Political Utility of Partisan and Ideological Orientations.” American Journal of Political Science 43 (3): 888–911.
Huddy, Leonie. 2002. “Context and Meaning in Social Identity Theory: A Response to Oakes.” Political Psychology 23 (4): 825–838.
Huddy, Leonie, Stanley, Feldman, Taber, Charles, and Lahav, Galya. 2005. “Threat, Anxiety, and Support of Antiterrorism Policies.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (3): 593–608.
Huddy, Leonie, Feldman, Stanley, and Cassese, Erin. 2007. “On the Distinct Effects of Anxiety and Anger.” In The Affect Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Political Thinking and Behavior, eds. Neuman, Russell, Marcus, George, Crider, Ann, and MacKuen, Michael, 202–230, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Huddy, Leonie, and Gunnthorsdottir, Anna. 2000. “The Persuasive Effect of Emotive Visual Imagery: Superficial Manipulation or the Product of Passionate Reason.” Political Psychology 21 (4): 745–778.
Huddy, Leonie, and Terkildsen, Nadya. 1993. “The Consequences of Gender Stereotypes for Women Candidates at Different Levels and Types of Office.” Political Research Quarterly 46 (3): 503–525.
Hurwitz, Jon, and Peffley, Mark. 2005. “Playing the Race Card in the Post-Willie Horton Era: The Impact of Racialized Code Words on Support for Punitive Crime Policy.” Public Opinion Quarterly 69 (1): 99–112.
Isbell, Linda, and Ottati, Victor. 2002. “The Emotional Voter: Effects of Episodic Affective Reactions on Candidate Evaluation.” The Social Psychology of Politics: Social Psychological Applications to Social Issues 5: 55–74.
Ito, Tiffany. 2010. “Implicit Social Cognition: Insights from Social Neuroscience.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 80–92, New York: Guilford.
Ito, Tiffany, and Cacioppo, John. 1999. “The Psychophysiology of Utility Appraisals.” In Well Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, eds. Kahneman, Daniel, Diener, Edward, Schwarz, Norbert, 470–488, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Ito, Tiffany, and Cacioppo, John. 2005. “Variations on a Human Universal: Individual Differences in Positivity Offset and Negativity Bias.” Cognition and Emotion 19 (1): 1–26.
Iyengar, Shanto, and McGuire, William, eds. 1993. Explorations in Political Psychology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Jackman, Simon, and Sniderman, Paul, 2002. “The Institutional Organization of Choice Spaces: A Political Conception of Political Psychology.” In Political Psychology, ed. Monroe, Kristen, 209–224, Mahway, NJ: Erlbaum.
Jacoby, Larry, Colleen, Kelley, Brown, Judith, and Jasechko, Jennifer. 1988. “Becoming Famous Overnight: Limits on the Ability to Avoid Unconscious Influences of the Past.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56 (3): 326–338.
James, William. 1884. “What is an Emotion?Mind 9 (34): 188–205.
James, William. 1890. Principles of Psychology. New York: Holt.
Jamieson, Kathleen, and Birdsell, David. 1988. Presidential Debates: The Challenge of Creating an Informed Electorate. New York: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, Laird, and Oatley, Keith. 1989. “The Language of Emotions: An Analysis of a Semantic Field.” Cognition and Emotion 3: 81–123.
Johnston, Chris, and Lavine, Howard, Lodge, Milton and Woodson, Benjamin. 2010. Affective Intelligence, Endogenous Affect, or Ambivalence? A Test of Three Theories. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association. Chicago, IL, April 22–25.
Jost, John, Nosek, Brian, and Gosling, Samuel. 2008. “Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 3 (2): 126–136.
Jostmann, Nils, Lakens, Daniel, and Schubert, Thomas. 2009. “Weight as an Embodiment of Importance.” Psychological Science 20 (9): 1169–1174.
Judd, Charles, and Krosnick, Jon. 1989. “The Structural Bases of Consistency Among Political Attitudes: Effects of Political Expertise and Attitude Importance.” In Attitude Structure and Function, eds. Pratkanis, Anthony, Breckler, Steven, and Greenwald, Anthony, 99–128, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Judd, Charles and Lusk, Cynthia. 1984. “Knowledge Structures and Evaluative Judgments: Effects of Structural Variables on Judgmental Extremity.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46 (6): 1193–1207.
Just, Marion, Crigler, Ann and Belt, Todd. 2007. “Don't Give up Hope: Emotions, Candidate Appraisals and Votes.” In The Affect Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Political Thinking and Behavior, eds. Neuman, Russell, Marcus, George, Crigler, Ann and MacKuen, Michael, 231–259, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Kahneman, Daniel. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Kahneman, Daniel, Slovic, Paul, and Tversky, Amos. 1982. Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kahneman, David, and Tversky, Amos. 1974. “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.” Science 185 (4157): 1124–1131.
Karpinski, Andrew, Steinman, Ross, and Hilton, James. 2005. “Attitude Importance as a Moderator of the Relationship between Implicit and Explicit Attitude Measures.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31 (7): 949–962.
Karremans, Johan, Stroebe, Wolfgang, and Claus, Jasper. 2006. “Beyond Vicary's Fantasies: The Impact of Subliminal Priming and Brand Choice.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42 (6): 792–798.
Kay, Aaron, Wheeler, Christian, Bargh, James and Ross, Lee. 2004. “Material Priming: The Influence of Mundane Physical Objects on Situational Construal and Competitive Behavioral Choice.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 95 (1): 83–96.
Kelley, Stanley, and Mirer, Thad. 1974. “The Simple Act of Voting.” American Political Science Review 68 (2): 572–591.
Keltner, Dacher, and Ekman, Paul. 2003. “Introduction: Expression of Emotion.” In Handbook of Affective Sciences, eds. Davidson, Richard, Scherer, Klaus, and Goldsmith, Hill, 411–456, New York: Oxford University Press.
Keppel, , , Geoffrey, and Wickens, Thomas. 2004. Design and Analysis: A Researcher's Handbook. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Kibria, Nazli. 2000. “Race, Ethnic Options, and Ethnic Binds: Identity Negotiations of Second-Generation Chinese and Korean Americans.” Sociological Perspectives 43 (1): 77–95.
Kim, Sung-youn. 2005. A Model of Political Information Processing: The Dynamics of Candidate Evaluation and Strategic Behaviors in Social Dilemma Games. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stony Brook University.
Kim, Sung-youn, Taber, Charles, and Lodge, Milton. 2010. “A Computational Model of the Citizen as Motivated Reasoner: Modeling the Dynamics of the 2000 Presidential Election.” Political Behavior 32 (1): 1–28.
Kinder, Donald. 1986. “The Continuing American Dilemma: White Resistance to Racial Change 40 Years after Myrdal.” Journal of Social Issues 42, 151–171.
Kinder, Donald. 1998. “Opinion and Action in the Realm of Politics.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, eds. Gilbert, Daniel, Fiske, Susan, and Lindzey, Gardner, 778–876, Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Kinder, Donald, and Kiewiet, D. Roderick. 1979. “Economic Discontent and Political Behavior: The Role of Personal Grievances and Collective Economic Judgments in Congressional Voting.” American Journal of Political Science 23 (3): 495–527.
Kinder, Donald, Peters, Mark, Abelson, Robert, and Fiske, Susan. 1980. “Presidential Prototypes.” Political Behavior 2 (4): 315–337.
Kinder, Donald, and Sanders, Lynn. 1996. Divided by Color: Racial Politics and Democratic Ideals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kinder, Donald, and Sears, David. 1981. “Prejudice and Politics: Symbolic Racism Versus Racial Threats to the Good Life.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40 (3): 414–431.
King, Amy and Leigh, Andrew. 2010. “Bias at the Ballot Box? Testing Whether Candidates’ Gender Affects Their Vote.” Social Science Quarterly 91 (2): 324–343.
King, Eden, Shapiro, Jenessa, Hebl, Michelle, Singletary, Sarah, and Turner, Stacey. 2006. “The Stigma of Obesity in Customer Service: A Mechanism for Remediation and Bottom-Line Consequences of Interpersonal Discrimination.” The Journal of Applied Psychology 91 (3): 579–593.
Kleinnijenhuis, Jan, van Hoof, Anita, and Oegema, Dirk. 2006. “Negative News and the Sleeper Effect of Distrust.” International Journal of Press/Politics 11 (2): 86–104.
Knowles, Eric, Lowery, Brian, and Schaumberg, Rebecca. 2010. “Racial Prejudice Predicts Opposition to Obama and His Heath Care Reform Plan.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 46 (2): 420–423.
Kollman, Ken, Miller, John, and Page, Scott. 1992. “Adaptive Parties in Spatial Elections.” American Political Science Review 86 (4): 929–937.
Kramer, Roderick, Leonardelli, Geoffrey, and Livingston, Robert. 2011. Social Cognition. Social Identity, and Intergroup Relations. New York: Psychology Press.
Krosnick, John, and Abelson, Robert. 1992. “The Case for Measuring Attitude Strength in Surveys.” In Questions about Questions: Inquiries into the Cognitive Bases of Surveys, ed. Tanur, Judith, 177–203, New York: Sage.
Krosnick, Jon, Betz, Andrew, Jussim, Lee, and Lynn, Ann. 1992. “Subliminal Conditioning of Attitudes.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 18 (2): 152–162.
Krosnick, Jon, and Petty, Richard. 1995. “Attitude Strength: An Overview.” In Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences, eds. Petty, Richard and Krosnick, Jon, 1–24, Hillside, NJ: Erlbaum.
Krueger, Joachim, ed. 2011. Social Judgment and Decision Making. New York: Psychology Press.
Kruglanski, Arie and Webster, Donna. 1996. “Motivated Closing of the Mind: ‘Seizing’ and ‘Freezing.’Psychological Review 103 (2): 263–283.
Kruglanski, Arie and Sleeth-Keppler, Davis. 2007. “The Principles of Social Judgment.” In Social Psychology. Handbook of Basic Principles, eds. Kruglanski, Arie and Higgins, Tory, 116–137, New York: Guilford Press.
Kuhn, , , Deanna, and Lao, Joseph. 1996. “Effects of Evidence on Attitudes: Is Polarization the Norm?Psychological Science 7 (2): 115–120.
Kuklinski, James, Hurley, Norman. 1994. “On Hearing and Interpreting Political Messages: A Cautionary Tale of Citizens’ Cue taking.” Journal of Politics 56 (3): 729–751.
Kuklinski, James, and Quirk, Paul. 2000. “Reconsidering the Rational Public: Cognition, Heuristics, and Mass Opinion.” In Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality, eds. Lupia, Arthur, McCubbins, Mathew, and Popkin, Samuel, 154–187, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kuklinski, James, Quirk, Paul, Jenet, Jennifer, Schwieder, David, and Rich, Robert. 2000. “Misinformation and the Currency of Democratic Citizenship.” Journal of Politics 63 (3): 790–816.
Kunda, Ziva. 1987. “Motivated Inference: Self-serving Generation and Evaluation of Causal Theories.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53 (4): 636–647.
Kunda, Ziva. 1990. “The Case for Motivated Reasoning.” Psychological Bulletin 108 (3): 480–498.
Kunda, Ziva. 1999. Social Cognition: Making sense of People. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lachman, Roy, Lachman, Janet, and Butterfield, Earl, eds. 1979. Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing: An Introduction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Ladd, Jonathan, and Lenz, Gabriel. 2008. “Regressing the Role of Anxiety in Vote Choice.” Political Psychology 29 (2): 275–296.
Ladd, Jonathan, and Lenz, Gabriel. 2011. “Does Anxiety Improve Voters’ Decision Making?Political Psychology 32 (2): 347–361.
Laird, James. 1974. “Self-Attribution of Emotion: The Effects of Expressive Behavior on the Quality of Emotional Experience.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 29 (4): 475–486.
Lakoff, George. 1991. “Metaphors of War,” At .
Lakoff, George. 2001. “Metaphors of Terror.” At .
Lane, Robert. 1969. Political Thinking and Consciousness: The Private Life of the Political Mind. Chicago: Markham Publishers.
Lang, Peter, Greenwald, Mark, Bradley, Margaret, and Hamm, Alfons. 1993. “Looking at Pictures: Affective, Facial, Visceral, and Behavioral Reactions.” Psychophysiology 30 (3): 261–273.
Langlois, Judith, Kalakanis, Lisa, Rubenstein, Adam, Larson, Andrea, Hallam, Monica, and Smoot, Monica. 2000. “Maxims or Myths of Beauty? A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review.” Psychological Bulletin 126 (3): 390–423.
Langlois, Judith, Ritter, Jean, Roggman, Lori and Vaughn, Lesley. 1991. “Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.” Developmental Psychology 27 (1): 79–84.
Langlois, Judith, Lori, Roggman, Casey, Rita, Ritter, Jean, Reiser-Danner, Loretta, and Jenkins, Vivian. 1987. “Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces: Rudiments of a Stereotype?Developmental Psychology 23 (3): 363–369.
Larson, Axel. 1996. “A Template-Matching Pandemonium Recognizes Unconstrained Handwritten Characters with high Accuracy.” Memory and Cognition 24 (2): 136.
Lasswell, Harold. 1930. Psychopathology of Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lau, Richard. 1985. “Two Explanations for Negativity Effects in Political Behavior.” American Journal of Political Science 29 (1): 119–138.
Lau, Richard. 1989. “Construct Accessibility and Electoral Choice.” Political Behavior 11 (1): 5–32.
Lau, Richard, and Redlawsk, David. 1997. “Voting Correctly.” American Political Science Review 91 (3): 585–598.
Lau, Richard R. and Redlawsk, David P.. 2001. “An Experimental Study of Information Search, Memory, and Decision-making during a Political Campaign.” In Citizens and Politics: Perspectives from Political Psychology, ed. Kuklinski, James, 136–159, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lau, , , Richard, and Redlawsk, David. 2006. How Voters Decide. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lau, , , Richard, Sigelman, Lee, and Rovner, Ivy. 2007. “Effects of Negative Political Campaigns: A Meta-Analytic Reassessment.” Journal of Politics 69 (4): 1176–1209.
Lavine, Howard. 2001. “Electoral Consequences of Ambivalence Toward Presidential Candidates.” American Journal of Political Science 45 (4): 915–929.
Lavine, Howard. 2002. “On-Line versus Memory-Based Process Models of Political Evaluation.” In Political Psychology, ed. Monroe, Kristin, 225–248, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Lavine, Howard, Thomsen, Cynthia, and Gonzales, Marti. 1997. “The Development of Interattitudinal Consistency: The Shared-Consequences Model.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72 (4): 735–749.
Lavine, Howard, Borgida, Eugene, and Sullivan, John. 2000. “On the Relationship between Attitude Involvement and Attitude Accessibility: Toward a Cognitive-Motivational Model of Political Information Processing.” Political Psychology 21 (1): 81–106.
Lavine, Howard, Lodge, Milton, Polichak, Jamie, and Taber, Charles. 2002. “Explicating the Black Box through Experimentation: Studies of Authoritarianism and Threat.” Political Analysis 10 (4): 343–361.
Lavine, Howard, Steenbergen, Marco, and Christopher, Johnson, C. (forthcoming). The Ambivalent Partisan: How Critical Loyalty Promotes Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lazarus, Richard. 1995. “Vexing Research Problems Inherent in Cognitive-Mediational Theories of Emotion and Some Solutions.” Psychological Inquiry 6 (3): 183–196.
LeDoux, Jospeh. 1994. “Emotion, Memory and the Brain.” Scientific American 270 (6): 32–39.
LeDoux, Joseph. 1996. The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.
LeDoux, Joseph. 2003. Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. London: Penguin Books.
Lebo, Matthew, and Cassino, Daniel. 2007. “The Aggregated Consequences of Motivated Reasoning and the Dynamics of Partisan Presidential Approval.” Political Psychology 28 (6): 719–746.
Lehrer, Jonah. 2009. The Decisive Moment: How the Brain Makes Up Its Mind. Melbourne, Australia: The Text Publishing Company.
Lenz, Gabriel, and Lawson, Chappell. 2007. “Looking the Part: Television Leads Less Informed Citizens to Vote on Candidate's Appearance.” Unpublished manuscript, Department of Political Science, MIT.
Lerner, Jennifer, and Keltner, Dacher. 2000. “Beyond Valence: Toward a Model of Emotion-Specific Influences on Judgment and Choice.” Cognition and Emotion 14 (4): 473–493.
Lerner, Jennefer, Small, Deborah, Loewenstein, George. 2004. “Heart Strings and Purse Strings, Carryover Effects of Emotions on Economic Decisions.” Psychological Science 15 (5): 337–341.
Levenson, Robert. 2003. “Autonomic Specificity and Emotion.” In Handbook of the Affective Sciences, eds. Davidson, Richard, Scherer, Klaus, and Goldsmith, Hill, 212–224, New York: Oxford University Press.
Libet, Benjamin. 1985. “Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Action.” Behavioral and Brain Science 8 (4): 529–539.
Libet, Benjamin. 1993. “The Neural Time Factor in Conscious and Unconscious Events.” In Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Consciousness, CIBA Foundation Symposium 174: 123–146. Chichester: Wiley.
Libet, Benjamin. 2004. Mind Time: The Temporal Factor in Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lichtenstein, Meryl and Srull, Thomas. 1987. “Processing Objectives as a Determinant of the Relationship Between Recall and Judgment.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 23 (2): 93–118.
Lindsay, Peter, and Norman, Donald. 1977. Human Information Processing: An Introduction to Psychology. New York: Academic Press.
Lickel, Brian, Hamilton, David, Wieczorkowska, Grazyna, Lewis, Amy, Sherman, Steven, and Uhles, Neville. 2000. “Varieties of Groups and the Perception of Group Entitativity.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78 (2): 223–246.
Lindstrom, Martin, and Underhill, Paco. 2008. Buyology: Truth and Lies about Why We Buy. New York. Doubleday.
Little, Anthony. Burriss, Robert, Jones, Benedict and Roberts, Craig. 2007. “Facial Appearance Affects Voting Decision.” Evolution and Human Behavior 28 (1): 18–27.
Lodge, Milton, McGraw, Kathleen, and Stroh, Patrick. 1989. “An Impression Driven Model of Candidate Evaluation.” American Political Science Review 83 (2): 399–420.
Lodge, Milton, Steenbergen, Marco, and Brau, Shawn. 1995. “The Responsive Voter: Campaign Information and the Dynamics of Candidate Evaluation.” American Political Science Review 89 (2): 309–326.
Lodge, Milton, and Stroh, Patrick. 1993. “Inside the Mental Voting Booth: An Impression-Driven Model.” In Explorations in Political Psychology, eds. Iyengar, Shanto and McGuire, William, 225–263, Durham: Duke University Press.
Lodge, Milton, and Taber, Charles. 2000. “Three Steps toward a Theory of Motivated Political Reasoning.” In Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality, eds. Lupia, Arthur, McCubbins, Mathew, and Popkin, Samuel, 183–213, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lodge, Milton, and Taber, Charles. 2005. “The Automaticity of Affect for Political Leaders, Groups, and Issues: An Experimental Test of the Hot Cognition Hypothesis.” Political Psychology 26 (3): 455–482.
Lodge, Milton, Taber, Charles and Verhulst, Brad. 2011. “Conscious and Unconscious Information Processing with Implications for Experimental Political Science.” In Handbook of Experimental Political Science, eds. Druckman, James, Green, Donald, Kuklinski, James, and Lupia, Arthur, 155–170. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Loewenstein, George. 2007. “Affect Regulation and Affective Forecasting.” In Handbook of Emotion Regulation, ed. Gross, James, 180–203, New York: Guilford.
Loewenstein, George, and Lerner, Jennifer. 2003. “The Role of Affect in Decision Making.” In Handbook of the Affective Sciences, eds. Davidson, Richard, Scherer, Klaus, and Goldsmith, Hill, 619–642, New York: Oxford University Press.
Loewenstein, George, Weber, Elke, Hsee, Christopher, and Welch, Ned. 2001. “Risk as Feelings.” Psychological Bulletin 127 (2): 267–286.
Lord, , , Charles. 1992. “Was Cognitive Dissonance Theory a Mistake?Psychological Inquiry 3 (4): 339–342.
Lord, Charles, Ross, Lee, and Lepper, Mark. 1979. “Biased Assimilation and Attitude Polarization: The Effects of Prior Theories on Subsequently Considered Evidence.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37 (11): 2098–2109.
Luker, Kristin. 1984. Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood. Berkeley: University of California Press.
MacKuen, Michael, Wolak, Jennifer, Keele, Luke, and Marcus, George. 2010. “Civic Engagements: Resolute Partisanship or Reflective Deliberation?American Journal of Political Science 54 (2): 440–458.
MacLeod, Colin, and Campbell, Lynlee. 1992. “Memory Accessibility and Probability Judgments: An Experimental Evaluation of the Availability Heuristic.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63 (6): 890–902.
Maison, Dominika, Greenwald, Anthony, and Bruin, Ralph. 2004. “Predictive Validity of the Implicit Attitude Test in Studies of Brands, Consumer Attitudes, and Behavior.” Journal of Consumer Psychology 14 (4): 405–415.
Marcus, George. 1991. “Emotions and Politics: Hot Cognitions and the Rediscovery of Passion.” Social Science Information 30 (2): 195–232.
Marcus, George. 2002. The Sentimental Citizen: Emotion in Democratic Politics. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
Marcus, George, MacKuen, Michael, and Neuman, Russell. 2011. “Parsimony and Complexity: Developing and Testing Theories of Affective Intelligence.” Political Psychology 32 (2): 323–336.
Marcus, George, Neuman, W. Russell, and MacKuen, Michael. 2000. Affective Intelligence and Political Judgment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Markus, Helen, and Zajonc, Robert. 1985. “The Cognitive Perspective in Social Psychology.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology (Vol.1), eds. Lindzey, Gordon and Aronson, Eliot, 137–230, New York: Random House.
Martin, Leonard, and Tesser, Abraham eds. 1992. The Construction of Social Judgments. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Mast, Fred, and Zaltman, Gerald. 2005. “A Behavioral Window on the Mind of the Market: An Application of the Response Time Paradigm.” Brain Research Bulletin 67 (5): 422–427.
McConahay, John. 1986. “Modern Racism, Ambivalence, and the Modern Racism Scale.” In Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism, ed. Dovidio, John and Gaertner, Samuel, 91–125, Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
McDermott, Rose. 2004. “The Feeling of Rationality: The Meaning of Neuroscientific Advances for Political Science.” Perspectives on Politics 2(4): 691–706.
McGraw, Kathleen. 1987. “Guilt Following Transgression: An Attribution of Responsibility Approach.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53 (2): 247–256.
McGraw, Kathleen. 2000. “Contributions to the Cognitive Approach to Political Psychology.” Political Psychology 21 (4): 805–832.
McGraw, Kathleen M (2011). “Candidate Impressions and Evaluations”. In Handbook of Experimental Political Science, eds. Druckman, James N., Green, Donald P., Kuklinski, James H. and Lupia, Arthur, 187–200. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McGraw, Kathleen, Fischle, Mark, Stenner, Karen, and Lodge, Milton. 1996. “What's in a Word? Bias in Trait Descriptions of Political Leaders.” Political Behavior 18 (3): 263–287.
McGraw, Kathleen, Lodge, Milton, and Stroh, Patrick. 1990. “On-Line Processing in Candidate Evaluation: The Effect of Issue Order, Salience, Issue Importance, and Sophistication.” Political Behavior 12 (1): 41–58.
McGraw, Kathleen M., and Steenbergen, Marco. 1995. “Pictures in the Head: Memory Representations of Political Candidates.” In Political Judgment: Structure and Process, eds. Lodge, Milton and McGraw, Kathleen M., 15–42, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
McGraw, Kathleen, Lodge, Milton, and Jones, Jeffery. 2002. “The Pandering Politicians of Suspicious Minds.” Journal of Politics 64 (2): 362–383.
McGrayne, Sharon. 2011. The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant from Two Centuries of Controversy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
McGuire, William. 1966. “Attitudes and Opinions.” Annual Review of Psychology 17 (1): 475–515.
McGuire, William, and McGuire, Claire. 1991. “The Content, Structure, and Operation of Thought Systems.” In Advances in Social Cognition, Volume IV, eds. Wyer, Robert and Srull, Thomas, 1–78, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
McGuire, William, and Padawer-Singer, Alice. 1976. “Trait Salience in the Spontaneous Self-Concept.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33 (6): 743–754.
Meffert, Michael, Guge, Michael, and Lodge, Milton. 2004. “Good, Bad, and Ambivalent: The Consequences of Multidimensional Political Attitudes.” In Studies in Public Opinion: Attitudes, Nonattitudes, Measurement Error, and Change, eds. Saris, Willem and Sniderman, Paul, 63–92, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Meliema, Amgelika, and Bassili, John. 1995. “On the Relationship between Attitudes and Values: Exploring the Moderating Effects of Self-Monitoring and Self-Monitoring Schematicity.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 21: 885–892.
Mendelberg, Tali. 2001. The Race Card: Campaign Strategy, Implicit Messages, and the Norm of Equality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Merikle, Philip, and Daneman, Meredyth. 1998. “Psychological Investigations of Unconscious Perception.” Journal of Consciousness Studies 5: 5–18.
Miles, Lynden, Nind, Louise, and Macrae, Neil. 2010. “Moving Through Time.” Psychological Science 21 (2): 222–223.
Millar, Murray, and Tesser, Abraham. 1986. “Thought-Induced Attitude Change: The Effects of Schema, Structure and Commitment.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (2): 259–269.
Miller, Arthur, McHoskey, John, Bane, Cynthia, and Dowd, Timothy. 1993. “The Attitude Polarization Phenomenon: Role of Response Measure, Attitude Extremity, and Behavioral Consequences of Reported Attitude Change.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 (4): 561–574.
Miller, Arthur, Wattenberg, Martin, and Malanchuk, Oksana. 1986. “Schematic Assessments of Political Candidates.” American Political Science Review 80 (2): 521–540.
Miller, George. 1956. “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information.” Psychological Review 63 (2): 81–97.
Mondak, Jeffery. 1994. “Policy Legitimacy and the Supreme Court: The Sources and Contexts of Legitimization.” Political Research Quarterly 47 (3): 675–692.
Moors, Agnes, Spruyt, Adriaan and De Houwer, Jan. 2010. “In Search of a Measure that Qualifies as Implicit: Recommendations Based on a Decompositional View of Automaticity.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Application, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 19–37, New York: Guilford.
Morris, James, Squires, Nancy, Taber, Charles, and Lodge, Milton. 2003. “Activation of Political Attitudes: A Psychophysiological Examination of the Hot Cognition Hypothesis.” Political Psychology 24 (4): 727–745.
Mueller, Ulrich and Mazur, Allan. 1996. “Facial Dominance in West Point Cadets Predicts Military Rank 20 +Years Later.” Social Forces 74 (3): 823–850.
Mullen, Brian, David Futrell, , Stairs, Debbie, Tice, Dianne, Baumeister, Roy, Dawson, Kathryn, Riordan, Catherine, Radloff, Christine, Goethals, George, Kennedy, John, and Rosenfeld, Paul. 1986. “Newscasters’ Facial Expressions and Voting Behavior of Viewers: Can a Smile Elect a President?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (2): 291–295.
Munro, Geoffrey, Ditto, Peter, Lockhart, Lisa, Fagerlin, Angela, Gready, Michael, and Peterson, Elizabeth. 2002. “Biased Assimilation of Sociopolitical Arguments: Evaluating the 1996 U.S. Presidential Debate.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 24 (1): 15–26.
Murphy, Fionnuala, Nimmo-Smith, Ian, and Lawrence, Andrew. 2003. “Functional Neuroanatomy of Emotion: A Meta-Analysis.” Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience 3 (3): 207–233.
Murphy, Sheila, and Zajonc, Robert. 1993. “Affect, Cognition and Awareness: Affective Priming with Optimal and Suboptimal Stimulus Exposures.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 (5): 723–729.
Navarro, Daniel, Lee, Michael, Dry, Matthew, and Schultz, Benjamin. 2008. “Extending and Testing a Bayesian Theory of Generalization.” Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1746–1751. The Cognitive Science Society: Austin, TX.
Neely, James. 1976. “Semantic Priming and Retrieval from Lexical Memory: Evidence for Facilitatory and Inhibitory Processes.” Memory & Cognition 4 (5): 648–654.
Neely, James. 1977. “Semantic Priming and Retrieval from Lexical Memory: Roles of Inhibitionless Spreading Activation and Limited-capacity Attention.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 106 (3): 226–254.
Neisser, Uric. 1976. Principles and Implications of Cognitive Psychology. New York: W.H. Freeman.
Neuman, Russell. 1986. The Paradox of Mass Politics: Knowledge and Opinion in the American Electorate. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Neuman, Russell, Just, Marion, and Crigler, Ann. 1992. Common Knowledge: News and the Construction of Political Meaning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Newman, Leonard, and Uleman, , , James. 1989. “Spontaneous Trait Inference.” In Unintended Thought, eds. Uleman, Jens, and Bargh, James, 155–188, New York: Guilford.
Nie, Norman, Miller, Darwin, Golde, Saar, Butler, Daniel, and Winneg, Kenneth. 2010. “The World Wide Web and the U.S. Political News Market.” American Journal of Political Science 54 (2): 428–439.
Niedenthal, Paula, and Showers, Carolyn. 1991. “The Perception and Processing of Affective Information and Its Influences on Social Judgment.” In Emotion and Social Judgments, ed. Forgas, Joseph, 125–143, Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.
Niedenthal, Paula, and Setterlund, Marc. 1994. “Emotion Congruence in Perception.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 20 (4): 401–411.
Niedenthal, Paula, Halberstadt, Jamin, and Setterlund, Marc. 1997. “Being Happy and Seeing “Happy”: Emotional State Mediates Visual Word Recognition.” Cognition and Emotion 11 (4): 403–432.
Niedenthal, Paula, Halberstadt, Jamin, and Innes-Ker, Ase. 1999. “Emotional Response Categorization.” Psychological Review 106 (2): 337–361.
Niedenthal, Paula, and Halberstadt, Jamin. 2000. “Grounding Categories in Emotional Response.” In Feeling and Thinking: The Role of Affect in Social Cognition, ed. Forgas, Joseph, 357–386, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Niedenthal, Paula, Barsalou, Lawrence, Winkielman, Piotr, Krauth-Gruber, Silva, and Ric, Francois. 2005. “Embodiment in Attitudes, Social Perception, and Emotion.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 9 (3): 184–211.
Nisbett, Richard, and Ross, Lee. 1980. Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Norretranders, Tor. 1998. The User Illusion: Cutting Consciousness Down to Size. New York: Penguin Books.
Norris, Catherine, Dumville, Amanda, and Lacy, Dean. 2011. “Affective Forecasting Errors in the 2008 Election: Underpredicting Happiness.” Political Psychology 32 (2): 235–249.
Nosek, Brian. 2004. Moderators of the Relationship Between Implicit and Explicit Attitudes. Unpublished manuscript, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
Nosek, Brian, Graham, Jesse, and Hawkins, Carlee. 2010. “Implicit Political Cognition.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, B. Keith, 548–564, New York: Guilford.
Nosek, Brian, Greenwald, Anthony, and Banaji, Mahzarin. 2005. “Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: II. Method Variables and Construct Validity.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31 (2): 166–180.
Nosek, Brian, and Smyth, Frederick. 2007. “A Multitrait-Multimethod Validation of the Implicit Association Test: Implicit and Explicit Attitudes are Related but Distinct Constructs.” Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (1): 14–29.
Nyhan, Brendan, and Reifler, Jason. 2010. “When Corrections Fail: The Persistence of Political Misperceptions.” Political Behavior 32 (2): 303–330.
Oakhill, Jane, and Johnson-Laird, Phillip. 1985. “The Effect of Belief on the Spontaneous Production of Syllogistic Conclusions.” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (4): 553–570.
Oatley, Keith. 2002. “Creative Expression and Communication of Emotions in the Visual and Narrative Arts.” In Handbook of the Affective Sciences, eds. Davidson, Richard, Scherer, Klaus, and Goldsmith, Hill, 481–502, New York: Oxford University Press.
Oberman, Lindsay, and Ramachandran, Vilayanur. 2007. “The Simulating Social Mind: The Role of the Mirror Neuron System and Simulation in the Social and Communicative Deficits of Autism Spectrum Disorders.” Psychological Bulletin 133 (2): 310–327.
Olivola, Christopher, and Todorov, Alexander. 2010. “Fooled by First Impressions? Re-examining the Diagnostic Value of Appearance-Based Inferences.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 46: 315–324.
Olson, Kristina, and Dunham, Yarrow. 2010. “The Development of Implicit Social Cognition.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 241–254, New York: Guilford.
Olson, Michael, and Fazio, Russell. 2004. “Reducing the Influence of Extrapersonal Associations on the Implicit Association Test: Personalizing the IAT.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86 (5): 653–667.
Olson, Michael, and Fazio, Russell. 2009. “Implicit and Explicit Measures of Attitude: The Perspective of the MODE Model.” In Attitudes: Insights From the New Implicit Measures, eds. Petty, Richard, Fazio, Russell and Briñol, Pablo, 19–64, New York: Psychology Press.
Olson, James, and Zanna, Mark. 1993. “Attitudes and Attitude Change.” Annual Review of Psychology 44: 117–154.
Ongur, Dost, and Price, Joseph. 2000. “The Organization of Networks within the Orbital and Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Rats, Monkeys and Humans.” Cerebral Cortex 10 (3): 206–219.
Ortony, Andrew, and Turner, Terrence. 1990. “What's Basic About Basic Emotions?Psychological Review 97 (3): 315–331.
Orwell, George. 1949. 1984. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Company.
Oskamp, Stuart, and Schultz, Wesley. 2005. Attitudes and Opinions (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Page, Benjamin, and Shapiro, Robert. 1992. The Rational Public: Fifty Years of Trends in Americans’ Policy Preferences. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Panksepp, Jaak. 1998. Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Park, Bernadette. 1989. “Trait Attributes As On-line Organizers in Person Impressions.” In Online Cognition in Person Perception, ed. Bassilli, John, 39–60, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Pascal, Blaise. 1670 (2010). Pensées. New York: Penguin Books. Translated by A. J. Krailsheimer.
Pascalis, Oliver, and Slater, Alan, eds. 2003. The Development of Face Processing in Infancy and Early Childhood: Current Perspectives. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Payne, John. 1982. “Contingent Decision Behavior.” Psychological Bulletin 92 (2): 382–402.
Payne, Keith, Cheng, Clara, Govorun, Olesya, and Stewart, Brandon. 2005. “An Inkblot for Attitudes: Affect Misattribution as Implicit Measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89 (3): 277–293.
Pennington, Nancy, and Hastie, Reid. 1992. “Explaining the Evidence: Tests of the Story Model for Juror Decision Making.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62 (2): 189–206.
Pennington, Nancy, and Hastie, Reid. 1993. “Reasoning in Explanation-Based Decision Making.” Cognition 49 (1–2): 123–163.
Perdue, Charles, Dovidio, John, Gurtman, Michael, and Tyler, Richard. 1990. “Us and Them: Social Categorization and the Process of Intergroup Bias.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (3): 475–486.
Perkins, Andrew, and Forehand, Mark. 2010. “Implicit Social Cognition and Indirect Measures in Consumer Behavior.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 535–547, New York: Guilford.
Perugini, Marco, Richetin, Juliette, and Zogmaister, Cristina. 2010. “Prediction of Behavior.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition:Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 255–277, New York: Guilford.
Pettigrew, Thomas and Meertens, Roel. 1995. “Subtle and Blatant Prejudice in Western Europe.” European Journal of Social Psychology 25 (1): 57–75.
Petty, , , Richard, and Briñol, Pablo. 2008. “Persuasion: From Single to Multiple to Meta-Cognitive Processes.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 3 (2): 137–147.
Petty, Richard, and Briñol, Pablo. 2010. “Attitude Structure and Change: Implications for Implicit Measures.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition:Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 335–352, New York: Guilford.
Petty, Richard, and Cacioppo, John. 1981. Attitudes and Persuasion: Classic and Contemporary Approaches. Dubuque, IA: Brown and Benchmark.
Petty, Richard, and Cacioppo, John. 1986. Communication and Persuasion: Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change. New York: Springer.
Petty, Richard, Fazio, Russell, and Briñol, Pablo, eds. 2009. Attitudes: Insights from the New Implicit Measures. New York: Psychology Press.
Petty, Richard. and Krosnick, Jon, eds. 1995. Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Petty, Richard, Tormala, Zakary, Briñol, Pablo, and Jarvis, Blair. 2006. “Implicit Ambivalence from Attitude Change: An Exploration of the PAST Model.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90 (1): 21–41.
Petty, Richard, and Wegener, Duane. 1998. “Attitude Change: Multiple Roles for Persuasion Variables.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, eds. Gilbert, Daniel, Fiske, Susan, and Lindzey, Gardner, 323–390, Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Petty, Richard, Wegener, Duane, and Fabrigar, Leandre. 1997. “Attitudes and Attitude Change.” Annual Review of Psychology 48: 609–647.
Petty, Richard, Schumann, David, Richman, Steven, and Strathman, Alan. 1993. “Positive Mood and Persuasion: Different Roles for Affect under High and Low Elaboration Conditions.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 (1): 5–20.
Phan, Luan, Wager, Tor, Taylor, Stephan, and Liberzon, Israel. 2002. “Functional Neuroanatomy of Emotion: A Meta-Analysis of Emotion Activation Studies in PET and fMRI.” NeuroImage 16 (2): 331–348.
Piliavin, Jane Allyn, Dovidio, John, Gaertner, Samuel, and Clark, R.D.. 1981. Emergency Intervention. New York: Academic Press.
Plato. 2000. The Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pratkanis, Anthony. 1989. “The Cognitive Representation of Attitudes.” In Attitude Structure and Function, eds. Pratkanis, Anthony, Breckler, Steven, and Greenwald, Anthony70–98, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Price, Vincent and Hsu, Mei-Ling. 1992. “Public Opinion About AIDS Policies: The Role of Misinformation and Attitudes toward Homosexuals.” Public Opinion Quarterly 56 (1): 29–52.
Pomerantz, Eva, Chaiken, Shelly, and Tordesillas, Rosalind. 1995. “Attitude Strength and Resistance Processes.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (3): 408–419.
Posner, Michael, and Snyder, Charles. 1975a. “Attention and Cognitive Control.” In Information Processing and Cognition: The Loyola Symposium, ed. Solso, Robert, 55–85, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Posner, Michael, and Snyder, Charles. 1975b. “Facilitation and Inhibition in the Processing of Signals.” In Attention and Performance V., eds. Rabbitt, P.M.A., and Dornic, Stanislav, 669–698, New York: Academic Press.
Pyszczynski, Thomas, and Greenberg, Jeffrey. 1987. “Self-Regulatory Perseveration and the Depressive Focusing Style: A Self-Awareness Theory of Reactive Depression.” Psychological Bulletin 102 (1): 122–138.
Pyszczynski, Thomas, Solomon, Sheldon, and Greenberg, Jeff. 2003. In the Wake of 9/11: The Psychology of Terror. New York: American Psychological Association.
Rabinowitz, George and MacDonald, Stuart. 1989. “A Directional Theory of Issue Voting.” American Political Science Review 83 (1): 93–121.
Rahn, Wendy, Aldrich, John, and Borgida, Eugene. 1994. “Individual and Contextual Variations in Political Candidate Appraisal.” American Political Science Review 88 (1): 193–199.
Rahn, Wendy, Aldrich, John, Borgida, Eugene, and Sullivan, John. 1990. “A Social Cognitive Model of Candidate Appraisal.” In Information and Democratic Processes, eds. Ferejohn, John and Kuklinski, James, 136–159, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Rahn, Wendy, Krosnick, Jon, and Breuning, Michael. 1994. “Rationalization and Derivation Processes in Survey Studies of Political Candidate Evaluation.” American Journal of Political Science 38 (3): 582–600.
Rapport, Ronald, Metcalf, Kelly, and Hartman, Jon. 1989. “Candidate Traits and Voter Inferences: An Experimental Study.” Journal of Politics 51 (4): 917–932.
Ratcliff, Roger and McKoon, Gail. 1996. “Bias Effects in Implicit memory Tasks.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 125 (4): 403–421.
Razran, Gregory. 1938. “Conditioning Away Social Bias by the Luncheon Technique.” Psychological Bulletin 37: 481.
Read, Stephen, and Miller, Lynn. 1998. Connectionist Models of Social Reasoning and Social Behavior. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Redlawsk, David. 2001. “You Must Remember This: A Test of the On-Line Model of Voting.” Journal of Politics 63 (1): 29–58.
Redlawsk, David. 2002. “Hot Cognition or Cool Consideration? Testing the Effects of Motivated Reasoning on Political Decision Making.” Journal of Politics 64 (4): 1021–1044.
Redlawsk, David. 2004. “What Voters Do: Information Search During Election Campaigns.” Political Psychology 25 (4): 595–610.
Redlawsk, David, Civettini, Andrew, and Emmerson, Karen. 2010. “The Affective Tipping Point: Do Motivated Reasoners Ever ‘Get It’?Political Psychology 31 (4): 563–593.
Redlawsk, David, Civettini, Andrew, and Lau, Richard. 2007. “Affective Intelligence and Voting: Information Processing and Learning in a Campaign.” In The Affect Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Political Thinking and Behavior, eds. Neuman, Russell, Marcus, George, Crider, Ann, and MacKuen, Michael, 152–179, Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Reyes, Robert, Thompson, , , William, and Bower, Gordon. 1980. “Judgmental Biases Resulting From Differing Availabilities of Arguments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39 (1): 2–12.
Rich, Frank. 2006. The Greatest Story Ever Sold: The Decline and Fall of the Truth From 9/11 to Katrina. New York: The Penguin Press.
Riggle, Ellen, Ottati, Victor, Wyer, Robert, Kuklinski, James, and Shwarz, Norbert. 1992. “Bases of Political Judgments: The Role of Stereotypic and Nonstereotypic Information.” Political Behavior 14 (1): 67–87.
Riker, William, and Ordeshook, Peter. 1968. “A Theory of the Calculus of Voting.” American Political Science Review 62 (1): 25–42.
Risen, Jane, and Critcher, Clayton. 2011. “Visceral Fit: While in a Visceral State, Associated States of the World Seem More Likely.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100 (5): 777–793.
Rhodes, Gillian. 2006. “The Evolutionary Psychology of Facial Beauty.” Annual Review of Psychology 57: 884–887.
Robinson, Michael, and Clore, Gerald. 2002. “Belief and Feeling: Evidence for an Accessibility Model of Emotional Self-Report.” Psychological Bulletin 128 (6): 934–960.
Roccato, Michele, and Zogmaister, Cristina. 2010. “Predicting the Vote through Implicit and Explicit Attitudes: A Field Research.” Political Psychology 31 (2): 249–274.
Rolls, Edmund. 1999. The Brain and Emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.
Romer, Daniel, Kenski, Kate, Waldman, Paul, Adasiewicz, Christopher, and Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. 2003. Capturing Campaign Dynamics: The National Annenberg Election Survey. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rosar, Ulrich, Klein, Markus, and Beckers, Tilo. 2008. “The Frog Pond Beauty Contest: Physical Attractiveness and Electoral Success of the Constituency Candidates at the North Rhine-Westphalia State Election of 2005.” European Journal of Political Research 47 (1): 64–79.
Rosch, Eleanor. 1975. “Cognitive Representations of Semantic Categories.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 104 (3): 192–233.
Rosch, Eleanor. 1978. “Principles of Categorization.” In Cognition and Categorization, eds. Rosch, Eleanor and Lloyd, Barbara, 28–50, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Roseman, Ira. 1991. “Appraisal Determinants of Discrete Emotions.” Cognition and Emotion 5 (3): 161–200.
Roseman, Ira. 2001. “A Model of Appraisal in the Emotion System: Integrating Theory, Research, and Applications.” In Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research, eds. Scherer, Klaus, Shorr, Angela, and Johnstone, Tom, 68–91, New York: Oxford University Press.
Roseman, Ira, Abelson, Robert, and Ewing, Michael. 1986. “Emotions and Political Cognition: Emotional Appeals in Political Communication.” In Political Cognition, eds. Lau, Richard and Sears, David, 279–294, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rosenberg, Shawn. 2002. The Not So Common Sense: Differences in How People Judge Social and Political Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Rosenberg, Shawn, Bohan, Lisa, McCafferty, Patrick, and Harris, Kevin. 1986. “The Image and the Vote: The Effect of Candidate Presentation on Voter Preference.” American Journal of Political Science 30 (1): 108–127.
Roth, Byron. 1994. Prescription for Failure: Race Relations in the Age of Social Science. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Rucker, Derek, and Petty, Richard. 2004. “Emotion Specificity and Consumer Behavior: Anger, Sadness, and Preference for Activity.” Motivation and Emotion 28 (1): 3–21.
Rumelhart, David, and Ortony, Andrew. 1977. “The Representation of Knowledge in Memory.” In Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge, eds. Anderson, Robert, Spiro, Rand, and Montague, William, 99–135, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Russell, James. 1980. “A Circumplex Model of Affect.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39 (6): 1161–1178.
Russell, James. 1991. “Culture and the Categorization of Emotions.” Psychological Bulletin 110 (3): 426–450.
Russell, James. 2003. “Core Affect and the Psychological Construction of Emotion.” Psychological Review 110 (1): 145–172.
Russell, James, Bachorowski, Jo-Ann, and Fernández-Dols, Jose. 2003. “Facial and Vocal Expressions of Emotion.” Annual Review of Psychology 54: 329–349.
Russell, James, and Barrett, Lisa. 1999. “Core Affect, Prototypical Emotional Episodes, and Other Things Called Emotion: Dissecting the Elephant.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76 (5): 805–819.
Ruys, Kristen, and Stapel, Diederik. 2008. “The Secret Life of Emotions.” Psychological Science 19 (4): 385–391.
Sagan, Carl. 1987. “The Burden of Skepticism.” The Skeptical Inquirer 12 (1): 38–46.
Sanbonmatsu, David, and Fazio, Russell. 1990. “The Role of Attitudes in Memory-Based Decision MakingJournal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (4): 614–622.
Sanford, Anthony. 1987. The Mind of Man: Models of Human Understanding. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Sassenberg, Kai,and Moskowitz, Gordon. 2005. “Don't Stereotype, Think Different! Overcoming Automatic Stereotype Activation by Mindset Priming.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 41 (5): 506–514.
Schachter, Stanley, and Singer, Jerald. 1962. “Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State.” Psychological Review 69 (5): 379–399.
Schatz, Robert, and Lavine, Howard. 2007. “Waving the Flag: National Symbolism, Social Identity, and Political Engagement.” Political Psychology 28 (3): 329–355.
Scherer, Klaus. 1999. “On the Sequential Nature of Appraisal Processes: Indirect Evidence from a Recognition Task.” Cognition and Emotion 13 (6): 763–793.
Scherer, Klaus. 2004. “What Emotions Can Be Induced by Music? What are the Underlying Mechanisms? And How Can We Measure Them?Journal of New Music Research 33 (3): 239–251.
Scherer, Klaus, Schorr, Angela, and Johnstone, Tom, eds. 2001. Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schnabel, Konrad, and Asendorph, Jens. 2010. “The Self-Concept: New Insights from Implicit Measurement Procedures.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition:Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 408–425. New York: Guilford.
Schneider, Daniel, Krosnick, Jon, Ofir, Eyal, Milligan, Claire, and Tahk, Alexander. 2008. “The Psychology of Voting: How and Why the Order of Candidate Names on the Ballot and Election Laws Influence Election Outcomes.” Society for Personality and Social Psychology Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 26–28.
Schneider, Daniel, Tahk, Alexander, and Krosnick, Jon. 2007. “Reconsidering the Impact of Behavior Prediction Questions on Illegal Drug Use: The Importance of Using Proper Analytic Methods.” Social Influence 2 (3): 178–196.
Schuman, Howard, and Presser, Stanley. 1981. Question and Answers in Attitude Surveys: Experiments on Question Form, Wording, and Context. New York: Academic Press.
Schwarz, Norbert, and Bless, Herbert. 1992. “Scandals and the Public's Trust in Politicians: Assimilation and Contrast Effects.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 18 (5): 574–579.
Schwarz, Norbert and Clore, Gerald. 1983. “Mood, Misattribution, and Judgments of Well-Being: Informative and Directive Functions of Affective States.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45 (3): 513–523.
Schwarz, Norbert and Clore, Gerald. 1988. “How Do I Feel about It? Informative Functions of Affective States.” In Affect, Cognition, and Social Behavior: New Evidence and Integrative Attempts, eds. Fiedler, Klaus and Forgas, Joseph, 44–62, Goettingen, Federal Republic of Germany: Hogrefe.
Schwitzgebel, Eric. 2008. “The Unreliability of Naïve Introspection.” Philosophical Review 117 (2): 242–273.
Schwitzgebel, Eric. 2011. Perplexities of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Sears, David. 2001. “The Role of Affect in Symbolic Politics.” In Citizens and Politics: Perspectives from Political Psychology, ed. Kuklinski, James, 14–40, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sears, David, and Freedman, Jonathan. 1967. “Selective Exposure to Information: A Critical Review.” Public Opinion Quarterly 31 (2): 194–213.
Sears, David, Freedman, Jonathan, and O’Connor, Edward, Jr. 1964. “The Effects of Anticipated Debate and Commitment on the Polarization of Audience Opinion.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 28 (4): 615–627.
Sears, David, and Henry, P.J.. 2003. “The Origins of Symbolic Racism.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85 (2): 259–275.
Sears, David, Huddy, Leonie, and Schaffer, Lynitta. 1986. “A Schematic Variant of Symbolic Politics Theory, as Applied to Racial and Gender Equality.” In Political Cognition, eds. Lau, Richard and Sears, David, 159–202, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sears, David, and Lau, Richard. 1983. “Inducing Apparently Self-Interested Political Preferences.” American Journal of Political Science 27 (2): 223–252.
Sears, David, and Whitney, Robert. 1973. Political Persuasion. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
Sekaquaptewa, Denise, Vegas, Partick, and von Hippel, William. 2010. “A Practical Guide to Paper and Pencil Implicit Measures of Attitudes.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 140–155, New York: Guilford.
Shabbir, Haseeb, and Thwaites, Des, 2007. “The Use of Humor to Mask Deceptive Advertising: It's No Laughing Matter.” Journal of Advertising 36 (2): 75–85.
Shanteau, James. 1992. “How Much Information Does an Expert Use? Is it Relevant?Acta Psychologica 81 (1): 75–86.
Shelton, Nichole, Richeson, Jennifer, Salvatore, Jessica, and Trawalter, Sophie. 2009. “Ironic Effects of racial bias During Interracial Interactions.” Psychological Science 16 (5): 397–402.
Shepard, Roger. 1967. “Recognition Memory for Words, Sentences, and Pictures.” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6 (1): 156–163.
Sherman, Jeffrey. 2009. “Controlled Influences on Implicit Measures: Confronting the Myth of Process Purity and taming the Cognitive Monster.” In Attitudes: Insights from the New Implicit Measures, eds. Petty, Richard, Fazio, Russell, and Briñol, Pablo, 391–428, New York: Psychology Press.
Shermer, , , Michael. 2002. “The Captain Kirk Principle.” Scientific American 287 (6): 39.
Shih, Margaret, Pittinsky, Todd, and Ambady, Nalini. 1999. Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance. Psychological Science 10 (1): 81–84.
Sidanius, Jim, Pratto, Felicia, and Bobo, Lawrence. 1996. “Racism, Conservatism, Affirmative Action and Intellectual Sophistication: A Matter of Principled Conservatism or Group Dominance?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70: 476–490.
Sigelman, Lee, Sigelman, Carol, and Fowler, Christopher. 1987. “A Bird of a Different Feather? An Experimental Investigation of Physical Attractiveness and the Electability of Female Candidates.” Social Psychology Quarterly 50 (1): 32–43.
Simon, Herbert. 1957. Models of Man: Social and Rational: Mathematical Essays on Rational Human Behavior in a Social Setting. New York: Wiley.
Simon, Herbert. 1967. “Motivational and Emotional Controls of Cognition.” Psychological Review 74 (1): 29–39.
Simon, Herbert. 1969. The Sciences of the Artificial. Boston: MIT Press.
Simon, Herbert. 1985. “Human Nature in Politics: The Dialogue of Psychology and Political Science.” American Political Science Review 79 (2): 293–304.
Simons, Daniel. 1996. “In Sight, Out of Mind: When Object Representations Fail.” Psychological Science 7 (5): 301–305.
Singer, Nancy. “Making Ads That Whisper.” The New York Times, November, 14, 2010, p. 4.
Sleeth-Keppler, David. 2007. “Seeing the World in Black and White: The Effects of Perceptually Induced Mind-Sets on Judgment.” Psychological Science 18 (9): 768–772.
Slovic, Paul. 1999. “Trust, Emotion, Sex, Politics, and Science: Surveying the Risk Assessment Battlefield.” Risk Analysis 19: 689–701.
Slovic, Paul. 2002. “The Affect Heuristic.” In Heuristics and Biases, eds. Gilovich, Thomas, Griffin, Dale, and Kahneman, Daniel, 397–420, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Slovic, Paul, Finucane, Melissa, Peters, Ellen, and McGregor, Donald. 2004. “Risk as Analysis and Risk as Feelings: Some Thoughts about Affect, Reason, Risk, and Feelings.” Risk Analysis 24: 1–12.
Slovic, Paul, Finucane, Melissa, Peters, Ellen, and MacGregor, Donald. 2007. “The Affect Heuristic.” European Journal of Operations Research 177 (3): 1333–1352.
Small, Deborah A., and Lerner, Jennifer S.. (2008). “Emotional Policy: Personal Sadness and Anger Shape Judgments About a Welfare Case.” Political Psychology 29: 149–168.
Smith, Craig, Haynes, Kelly, Lazarus, Richard, and Pope, Lois. 1993. “In Search of the Hot Cognitions: Attributions, Appraisals, and Their Relation to Emotion.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65 (5): 916–929.
Smith, Eliot. 1999. “Affective and Cognitive Implications of a Group Becoming Part of the Self: New Models of Prejudice and the Self-Concept.” In Social Identity and Social Cognition, eds. Abrama, Dominic and Hoggs, Michael, 83–196, London: Blackwell Publishers.
Smith, Eliot. 1994. Procedural Knowledge and Processing Strategies in Social Cognition. In Handbook of Social Cognition, eds. Wyer, Robert and Srull, Thomas, 99–151, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Smith, Eric. 1989. The Unchanging American Voter. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Son Hing, Leanne, Chung-Yan, Greg, Hamilton, Leah, and Zanna, Mark. 2008. “A Two-Dimensional Model that Employs Explicit and Implicit Attitudes to Characterize Prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94 (6): 971–987.
Sniderman, Paul. 1993. “The New Look in Public Opinion Research.” In Political Science: The State of the Discipline, Volume II, ed. Finifter, Ada, 218–223, Washington: The American Political Science Association.
Sniderman, Paul. 2000. “Taking Sides: A Fixed Choice Theory of Political Reasoning.” In Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality, eds.Lupia, Arthur, McCubbins, Matthew, and Popkin, Samuel, 74–84, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sniderman, Paul, and Tetlock, Philip. 1986a. “Reflections on American Racism.” Journal of Social Issues 42 (2): 173–187.
Sniderman, Paul, and Tetlock, Philip. 1986b. “Symbolic Racism: Problems of Motive Attribution in Political Analysis.” Journal of Social Issues 42 (2): 129–150.
Sniderman, Paul, and Piazza, Thomas. 1993. The Scar of Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sniderman, Paul, and Carmines, Edward. 1997. Reaching beyond Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sniderman, Paul, and Theriault, Shawn. 2004. “The Structure of Political Argument and the Logic of Issue Framing.” In Studies in Public Opinion: Attitudes, Non-attitudes, Measurement Error and Change, eds. Saris, Willem and Sniderman, Paul, 133–165, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sniderman, Paul, Brody, Richard, and Tetlock, Philip. 1991. Reasoning and Choice: Explorations in Political Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sniderman, Paul, Piazza, Thomas, Tetlock, Philip, and Kendrick, Ann. 1991. “The New Racism.” American Journal of Political Science 35 (2): 423–447.
Sniderman, Paul, and Tetlock, Philip, and Carmines, Edward G., eds. 1993. Prejudice, Politics and the American Dilemma. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Solomon, Robert. 2003a. Not Passion's Slave: Emotions and Choice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Solomon, Robert. 2003b. What is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary Readings (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Sroufe, Alan. 1979. “The Coherence of Individual Development: Early Care, Attachment, and Subsequent Development.” American Psychologist 34 (10): 834–841.
Stagner, Richard. 1942. “Some Factors Related to Attitude toward War.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 16, 131–142.
Steele, Claude, and Aronson, Joshua. 1995. “Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African-Americans.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69: 797–811.
Steenbergen, Marco, and Lodge, Milton. 2003. “Process Matters: Cognitive Models of Candidate Evaluation.” In Electoral Democracy, eds. MacKuen, Michael and Rabinowitz, George, 125–171. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stevens, Laura, and Fiske, Susan. 1995. “Motivation and Cognition in Social Life: A Social Survival Guide.” Social Cognition 13 (3): 189–214.
Strack, Fritz, Martin, Leonard, and Stepper, Sabine. 1988. “Inhibiting and Facilitating Conditions of the Human Smile; A Nonobtrustive Test of the Facial Feedback Hypothesis.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54 (5): 768–777.
Strathman, Alam, Gleicher, Faith, Boninger, David, and Edwards, Scott. 1994. “The Consideration of Future Consequences: Weighing Immediate and Distant Outcomes of Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66 (4): 742–752.
Stroud, Natalie Jomini. 2008. “Media Use and Political Predispositions: Revisiting the Concept of Selective Exposure.” Political Behavior 30: 341–366.
Taber, Charles. 2003. “Information Processing and Public Opinion.” In The Handbook of Political Psychology, eds. Sears, David, Huddy, Leonie, and Jervis, Robert, 433–476, New York: Oxford University Press.
Taber, Charles, and Steenbergen, Marco. 1995. “Computational Experiments in Electoral Behavior.” In Political Judgment: Structure and Process, eds. Lodge, Milton and McGraw, Kathleen, 141–178. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Taber, Charles, and Timpone, Richard. 1996. Computational Modeling. Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Taber, Charles, and Lodge, Milton. 2006. “Motivated Skepticism in the Evaluation of Political Beliefs.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (3): 755–769.
Taber, Charles, Lodge, Milton, and Glather, Jill. 2001. “The Motivated Construction of Political Judgments.” In Citizens and Politics: Perspectives from Political Psychology, eds. Kuklinski, James, 198–226, London: Cambridge University Press.
Taber, Charles, Cann, Damon, and Kucsova, Simona. 2009. “The Motivated Processing of Political Arguments.” Political Behavior 31 (2): 137–155.
Tajfel, Henri. 1981. Human Groups and Social Categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, Shelly. 1981. “A Categorization Approach to Stereotyping.” In Cognitive Processes in Stereotyping and Intergroup Behavior, ed. Hamilton, David, 145–182, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Taylor, Shelly. 1982. “The Availability Bias in Social Perception and Interaction.” In Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, eds. Kahneman, Daniel, Slovic, Paul, and Tversky, Amos, 190–200. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah, Klauer, Karl, and Sherman, Jeffery. 2010. “A Practical Guide to Implicit Association Tests and Related Tasks.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 117–139, New York: Guilford.
Tesser, Abraham. 1986. “Some Effects of Self-Evaluation Maintenance on Cognition and Action.” In The Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior, eds. Sorrentino, Richard and Higgins, Tory, 435–464, New York: Guilford Press.
Thagard, Paul. 2000. Coherence in Thought and Action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Thagard, Paul. 2005. Mind: Introduction to Cognitive Science. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Thagard, Paul. 2006. Hot Thought: Mechanisms as Applications of Emotional Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Thomas, Eliot Stearns. 1925. “The Hollow Men.” In Collected Poems, 1909–1962.1991. 77–82. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Thompson, Erik, Roman, Robert, Moskowitz, Gordon, Chaiken, Shelly, and Bargh, John. 1994. “Accuracy Motivation Attenuates Covert Priming: The Systematic Reprocessing of Social Information.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66 (3): 474–489.
Thompson, Megan, Zanna, Mark, Griffin, Dale. 1995. “Let's Not Be Indifferent About Attitudinal Ambivalence.” In Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequence, eds. Petty, Richard and Krosnick, Jon, 361–386, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tiedens, Larissa, and Linton, Susan. 2001. “Judgment under Uncertainty: The Effects of Specific Emotions on Information Processing.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (6): 973–988.
Todd, Peter, and Gigerenzer, Gerd. 2000. “Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23 (5): 727–741.
Todorov, Alexander, Mandisodza, Anesu, Goren, Amir, and Hall, Crystal. 2005. “Inferences of Competence from Faces Predict Electoral Outcomes.” Science 308 (5729): 1623–1626.
Todorov, Alexander, Baron, Sean, and Oosterhof, Nikolaas. 2008. “Evaluating Face Trustworthiness: A Model Based Approach.” Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience 3 (2): 119–127.
Tourangeau, Roger, Rips, Lance, and Rasinski, Kenneth. 2000. The Psychology of the Survey Response. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Trawalter, Sophie, and Shapiro, Jenessa. 2010. “Racial Bias and Stereotyping: Interpersonal Processes.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 375–406. New York: Guilford.
Trungpa, Chogyam. 1983. First Thought, Best Thought. 108 Poems. Boston: Shambhala Publications.
Turner, John. 1987. Rediscovering the Social Group: A Self-Categorization Theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Turner, John, and Ortony, Andrew. 1992. “Basic Emotions: Can Conflicting Criteria Converge?Psychological Review 99 (3): 566–571.
Tursky, Bernard, Lodge, Milton, and Reeder, Richard. 1979. “Psychophysical and Psychophysiological Evaluation of the Direction, Intensity, and Meaning of Race-Related Stimuli.” Psychophysiology 16 (5): 452–462.
Tversky, Amos, and Kahneman, Daniel. 1973. “Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability.” Cognitive Psychology 5 (2): 207–232.
Tversky, Amos, and Kahneman, Daniel. 1974. “Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.” Science 185 (4157): 1124–1131.
Uhlmann, Eric, Pizarro, David, Tannenbaum, David, and Ditto, Peter. 2009. “The Motivated Use of Moral Principles.” Judgment and Decision Making 4 (6): 476–491.
Uleman, James. 1999. “Spontaneous Versus Intentional Inferences in Impression Formation.” In Dual Process Theories in Social Psychology, eds. Chaiken, Shelly, and Trope, Yaacov, 141–160, New York: Guilford.
Uleman, James, and Bargh, John. 1989. Unintended Thought. New York: Guilford Press.
Uleman, James, Newman, Leonard, and Moskowitz, Gordon. 1996. “People as Flexible Interpreters: Evidence and Issues from Spontaneous Trait Inference.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, ed. Zanna, Mark, 211–279, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Valentino, Nicholas, Banks, Antoine, Hutchings, Vincent, and Davis, Anne. 2009. “Selective Exposure in the Internet Age: The Interaction between Anxiety and Information Utility.” Political Psychology 30 (4): 591–613.
Valentino, Nicholas, Gregorowicz, Krysha, and Groenendyk, Eric. 2008. “Efficacy, Emotions, and the Habit of Participation.” Political Behavior 31 (3): 307–330.
Valentino, Nicholas, Hutchings, Vincent, Banks, Antoine, and Davis, Anne. 2008. “Is a Worried Citizen a Good Citizen? Emotions, Political Information Seeking, and Learning via the Internet.” Political Psychology 29 (2): 247–273.
Valentino, Nicholas, Hutchings, Vincent, and White, Ismail. 2002. “Cues That Matter: How Political Ads Prime Racial Attitudes During Campaigns.” American Political Science Review 96 (1): 91–110.
Valentino, Nicholas A., Brader, Ted, Gregorowicz, Krysha, Groenendyk, Eric W., and Hutchings, Vincent. 2011. “Election Night's Alright for Fighting: The Participatory Impact of Negative Emotions.” Journal of Politics. In Press.
Van Veen, Vincent, Krug, Marie, Schooler, Jonathan, and Carter, Cameron. 2009. ”Neural Activity Predicts Attitude Change in Cognitive Dissonance.” Nature Neuroscience 12 (11): 1469–1474.
Verbruggen, Frederick, and De Houwer, Jan. 2007. “Do Emotional Stimuli Interfere with Response Inhibition? Evidence From the Stop Signal Paradigm.” Cognition and Emotion. 21 (2): 391–403.
Verhulst, Brad, Lodge, Milton, and Lavine, Howard. 2010. “The Attractiveness Halo: Why Some Candidates Are Perceived More Favorably Than Others.” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 34 (2): 111–117.
Verhulst, Brad, Lodge, Milton, and Taber, Charles. 2010. “The Effect of Unnoticed Cues and Cognitive Deliberation on Candidate Evaluation.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Warshaw, Paul, and Davis, Fred. 1985. “Disentangling Behavioral Intention and Behavioral Expectation.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 21 (3): 213–228.
Watson, David, and Tellegen, Auke. 1985. “Towards a Consensual Structure of Mood.” Psychological Bulletin 98 (2): 219–235.
Wattenberg, Brend, Judd, Charles, and Park, Bernadette. 1997. “Evidence for Racial Prejudice at the Implicit Level and Its Relationship With Questionnaire Measures.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72 (2): 262–274.
Watts, Duncan. 2011. Everything is Obvious Once You Know the Answer. New York: Crown Press.
Webb, Eugene, Campbell, Donald, Schwartz, Richard, and Sechrest, Lee. 1966. Unobtrusive Measures: Nonreactive Research in the Social Sciences. New York: Rand McNally.
Wegener, Duane, Downing, John, Krosnick, Jon, and Petty, Richard. 1995 “Measures and Manipulations of Strength-related Properties of Attitudes: Current Practice and Future Directions.” In Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences, eds. Petty, Richard and Krosnick, Jon, 1–24, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wegner, Daniel, and Bargh, John. 1998. “Control and Automaticity in Social Life.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, eds. Gilbert, Daniel, Fiske, Susan, and Lindzey, Gardner, 446–496, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wegner, Daniel, Ansfield, Matthew, and Pilloff, Dianiel. 1998. “The Putt and the Pendulum: Ironic Effects of the Mental Control of Action.” Psychological Science 9 (3): 196–199.
Wegner, Daniel. 2002. The Illusion of Conscious Will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Weinberger, Joel, and Westen, Drew. 2008. “RATS, We Should Have Used Clinton: Subliminal Priming in Political Campaigns.” Political Psychology 29 (5): 631–651.
Wentura, Dirk. 1999. “Activation and Inhibition of Affective Information: Evidence for Negative Priming in the Evaluation Task.” Cognition and Emotion 13: 65–91.
Wentura, Dirk, and Degner, Juliane. 2010a. “Automatic Evaluation Isn't that Crude! Moderation of Masked Affective Priming by Type of Valence.” Cognition and Emotion 24 (4): 609–628.
Wentura, Dirk, and Degner, Juliane. 2010b. “A Practical Guide to Sequential Priming and Related Tasks.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications, eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 95–116, New York: Guilford.
Wentura, Dirk, and Otten, Sabine. 1999. “About the Impact of Automaticity in the Minimal Group Paradigm: Evidence From Affective Priming Tasks.” European Journal of Social Psychology 9 (8): 1049–1071.
Westen, Drew. 2008. The Political Brain: The Role of Emotion in Deciding the Fate of the Nation. New York: Public Affairs.
Westen, Drew, and Blagov, Pavel, 2007. “A Clinical-Empirical Model of Emotion Regulation: From Defense and Motivated Reasoning to Emotion Constraint Satisfaction.” In Handbook of Emotion Regulation, ed. Gross, James, 373–392, New York: Guilford Press.
Westen, Drew, Blagov, Pavel, Harenski, Kieth, Kilts, Clint, and Hamann, Stephan. 2006. “Neural Bases of Motivated Reasoning: An fMRI Study of Emotional Constraints on Partisan Political Judgment in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18 (11): 1974–1958.
Whalen, Paul, Shin, Lisa, McInerney, Sean, Fischer, Hakan, Wright, Christopher, and Rauch, Scott. 2001. “A Functional MRI Study of Human Amygdala Responses to Facial Expressions of Fear vs. Anger.” Emotion 1 (1): 70–83.
Wicklund, Robert, and , Jack. Brehm, . 1976. Perspectives on Cognitive Dissonance. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wiers, Reinout, Houben, Katrijn, Roefs, Anne, de Jong, Peter, Hofmann, Wilheim, and Stacy, Alan. 2010. “Implicit Cognition in Health Psychology: Why Common Sense Goes Out the Window.” In Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications. eds. Gawronski, Bertram and Payne, Keith, 462–488, New York: Guilford.
Wilson, James. 1996. “Forward.” In Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities, eds. George, and Kelling, and Coles, Catherine, i–xiii, New York: Touchstone.
Wilson, Paul. 1968. “Perceptual Distortion of Height as a Function of Ascribed Academic Status.” Journal of Social Psychology 74 (1): 97–102.
Wilson, Timothy. 2002. Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wilson, Timothy. 2011. Redirect. New York: Little Brown.
Wilson, Timothy, and Schooler, Jonathan. 1991Thinking Too Much: Introspection Can Reduce the Quality of Preferences and Decisions.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60 (2): 181–192.
Wilson, Timothy, and Hodges, Sara. 1992. “Attitudes as Temporary Constructs.” In Construction of Social Judgments, eds. Martin, Leonard and Tesser, Abraham, 37–65, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wilson, Timothy, and Brekke, Nancy. 1994. “Mental Contamination and Mental Correction: Unwanted Influences on Judgments and Evaluations.” Psychological Bulletin 116 (1): 117–142.
Wilson, Timothy, Lindsey, Samuel, and Schooler, Tonya. 2000. “A Model of Dual Attitudes.” Psychological Review 107 (1): 101–126.
Wilson, Timothy, Lisle, Douglas, Schooler, Jonathan, Hodges, Sara, Klaaren, Kristen, and LaFleur, Suzanne. 1993. “Introspecting about Reasons Can Reduce Post-Choice Satisfaction.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19 (3): 331–339.
Winkielman, Piort, and Berridge, Kent. 2004. “Unconscious Emotion.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 13 (3): 120–123.
Winkielman, Piotr, Zajonc, Robert, and Schwarz, Norbert. 1997. “Subliminal Affective Priming Resists Attributional Interventions.” Cognition and Emotion 11: 433–465.
Wittenbrink, Bernd. 2007. “Measuring Attitudes Through Priming.” In Implicit Measures of Attitudes, eds. Wittenbrink, Bernd and Schwarz, Norbert, 17–58, New York: Guilford.
Wittenbrink, Bernd, Judd, Charles, and Park, Bernadette. 1997. “Evidence for Racial Prejudice at the Implicit Level and Its Relationship with Questionnaire Measures.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72 (2): 262–274.
Wittenbrink, Bernd, Judd, Charles and Park, Bernadette. 2001. “Spontaneous Prejudice in Context: Variability in Automatically Activated Attitudes.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (5): 815–827.
Wyer, Natalie, Sherman, Jeffrey, and Stroessner, Steven. 2000. “The Roles of Motivation and Ability in Controlling the Consequences of Stereotype Suppression.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26 (1): 13–25.
Wyer, Robert. 2007. “Principles of Mental representation.” In Handbook of Basic Principles. (2nd ed.), eds. Kruglanski, Arie and Higgins, Tori, 285–331, New York, Guilford.
Wyer, Robert, and Srull, Thomas. 1989. Memory and Cognition in its Social Context. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Yzerbyt, Vincent, Judd, Charles, and Corneille, Olivier, eds. 2004. The Psychology of Group Perception: Perceived Variability, Entitativity and Essentialism. New York: Psychology Press.
Zajonc, Robert. 1980. “Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences. “ America Psychologist 35 (2): 117–123.
Zajonc, Robert. 1984. “On the Primacy of Affect.” American Psychologist 39 (2): 117–123.
Zajonc, Robert. 2000. “Feeling and Thinking: Closing the Debate Over the Independence of Affect.” In Feeling and Thinking: The Role of Affect in Social Cognition, ed. Forgas, Joseph, 31–58, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Zajonc, Robert, and McIntosh, Daniel. 1992. “Emotions Research: Some Promising Questions and Some Questionable Promises.” Psychological Science 3 (1): 70–74.
Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zaller, John, and Feldman, Stanley. 1992. “A Simple Theory of Survey Response: Answering Questions versus Revealing Preferences.” American Journal of Political Science 36 (3): 579–616.
Zanna, Mark. 1990. “Attitude Function: Is it Related to Attitude Structure?Advances in Consumer Research 17 (1): 98–100.
Zebrowitz, Leslie. 2004. “The Origin of First Impressions.” Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology 2 (2): 93–108.
Zebrowitz, Leslie, and McDonald, Susan. 1991. “The Impact of Litigants’ Baby-Facedness and Attractiveness on Adjudications in Small Claims Courts.” Law and Human Behavior 15 (6): 603–623.
Zebrowitz, Leslie, and Montepare, Joann. 2008. “Social Psychological Face Perception: Why Appearance Matters.” Social and Personality Compass 2 (3): 1497–1517.
Zebrowitz, Leslie, Hall, Judith, Murphy, Nora, and Rhodes, Gillian. 2002. “Looking Smart and Looking Good: Facial Cues to Intelligence and Their Origins.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (2): 238–249.