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The United Nations, Peace and Security
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  • Ramesh Thakur, Australian National University, Canberra

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    The United Nations, Peace and Security
    • Online ISBN: 9781316819104
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316819104
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Book description

Ending humanitarian atrocities has become as important for the United Nations as preventing interstate war. This book examines the transformation of UN operations, analysing its changing role and structure. Ramesh Thakur asks why, when and how force may be used, and argues that the growing gulf between legality and legitimacy is evidence of an eroded sense of international community. He considers the tension between the United States, with its capacity to use force and project power, and the United Nations, as the centre of the international law enforcement system. He asserts the central importance of the rule of law and a rules-based order focused on the United Nations as the foundation of a civilised system of international relations. This book will be of interest to students of the United Nations and international organisations in politics, law and international relations departments, as well as policymakers in governmental and non-governmental international organisations.

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.


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Ramesh Thakur , ‘How Representative Are BRICS?’, Third World Quarterly 35:10 (2014), pp. 1791–808

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Gregory Chin and Ramesh Thakur , ‘Will China Change the Rules of Global Order?’, Washington Quarterly 33:4 (2010), pp. 119–38

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Adam P. Liff and G. John Ikenberry , ‘Racing toward Tragedy?: China’s Rise, Military Competition in the Asia Pacific, and the Security Dilemma’, International Security 39:2 (2014), pp. 5291

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Ramesh Thakur , ‘From Peacekeeping to Peace-Enforcement: The UN Operation in Somalia’, Journal of Modern African Studies 32:3 (1994), pp. 387410

Sara E. Davies , ‘Pursuing Women’s Peace and Security, and Justice’, Australian Journal of International Affairs 67:4 (2013), pp. 540–8

Mary Louise Roberts , What Soldiers Do: Sex and the American GI in World War II France (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2013

Lise Morjé Howard , UN Peacekeeping in Civil Wars (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008

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Pippa Norris , Driving Democracy: Do Power-sharing Institutions Work? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008

Roland Paris , At War’s End (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004

Ramesh Thakur , ‘India and the United Nations’, Strategic Analysis 35:6 (2011), p. 900

Ramesh Thakur , ‘From Peacekeeping to Peace Enforcement: The UN Operation in Somalia’, Journal of Modern African Studies 32:3 (1994), pp. 387410

Robert Keohane , ‘Reciprocity in International Relations’, International Organization 40:1 (1986), pp. 127

Kanti Bajpai , ‘The Idea of Human Security’, International Studies 40 (2003), pp. 207–16

Ramesh Thakur , ‘Threats without Enemies, Security without Borders: Environmental Security in East Asia’, Journal of East Asian Studies 1:2 (2001), pp. 161–89

Jakkie Cilliers , Human Security in Africa: A Conceptual Framework for Review (Pretoria: African Human Security Initiative, 2004

Edward Newman , ‘Human Security and Constructivism’, International Studies Perspectives 2:3 (2001), pp. 239–51

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Johannes Morsink , The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting and Intent (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999

Micheline R. Ishay , The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalization Era (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004

David P. Forsythe , ‘The UN Security Council and Human Rights: Promising Developments, Persistent Problems’, Journal of Human Rights 13:2 (2014), pp. 121–45

Monica Bouman , ‘Dag Hammarskjöld and the Politics of Hope’, in Carsten Stahn and Henning Melber , eds., Peace Diplomacy, Global Justice and International Agency: Rethinking Human Security and Ethics in the Spirit of Dag Hammarskjöld (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp. 77105

Andrew Gilmour , ‘The Future of Human Rights: A View from the United Nations’, Ethics & International Affairs 28:2 (2014), p. 244

George Williams , ‘The Legal Assault on Australian Democracy’, QUT Law Review (16:2 (2016), pp. 1941)

Ramesh Thakur , ‘Human Rights: Amnesty International and the United Nations’, Journal of Peace Research 31:2 (1994), pp. 143–60

Amanda Murdie , Help or Harm: The Human Security Effects of International NGOs (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014

Jack Donnelly , ‘International Human Rights: A Regime Analysis’, International Organization 40:3 (1986), p. 614

David P. Forsythe , The Humanitarians: The International Committee of the Red Cross (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005

Wiktor Osiatynski , Human Rights and Their Limits (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009

David P. Forsythe , Human Rights in International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012

Beth A. Simmons , Mobilising for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009

Kingsley Chiedu Moghalu , Rwanda’s Genocide: The Politics of Global Justice (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005

William A Schabas , An Introduction to the International Criminal Court (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001

Michael Humphrey , ‘International Intervention, Justice and National Reconciliation: The Role of the ICTY and ICTR in Bosnia and Rwanda’, Journal of Human Rights 2:4 (2003), pp. 495505

Yves Beigbeder and Theo van Boven , Judging War Criminals: The Politics of International Justice (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999

Julie Flint and Alex de Waal , ‘Case Closed: A Prosecutor without Borders’, World Affairs, Spring (2009

Mary Kimani , ‘Pursuit of Justice or Western Plot? International Indictments Stir Angry Debate’, Africa Renewal, 25 November 2009

Kenneth Anderson , ‘The Rise of International Criminal Law: Intended and Unintended Consequences’, European Journal of International Law 20:2 (2009), pp. 331–58

Catherine Gegout , ‘The International Criminal Court: Limits, Potential and Conditions for the Promotion of Justice and Peace’, Third World Quarterly 34:5 (2013), pp. 800–18

Huw Bennett , Fighting the Mau Mau: The British Army and Counter-Insurgency in the Kenya Emergency (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012

Yuki Tanaka , Tim McCormack and Gerry Simpson , eds., Beyond Victors’ Justice? The Tokyo War Crimes Trial Revisited (Leiden: Brill, 2011

Jonathan Graubart and Latha Varadarajan , ‘Taking Milosevic Seriously: Imperialism, Law, and the Politics of Global Justice’, International Relations 27:4 (2013), pp. 439–60

Victor Peskin , ‘Beyond Victors’ Justice? The Challenge of Prosecuting the Winners at the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda’, Journal of Human Rights 4:2 (2005), pp. 213–31

David P. Forsythe , The Politics of Prisoner Abuse: The United States and Enemy Prisoners after 9/11 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011

Jonathan Graubart and Arturo Jimenez-Bacardi , ‘David in Goliath’s Citadel: Mobilizing the Security Council’s Normative Power for Palestine’, European Journal of International Relations 22:1 (2016), pp. 2448.

Neha Jain , ‘A Separate Law for Peacekeepers: The Clash between the Security Council and the International Criminal Court’, European Journal of International Law 16:2 (2005), p. 247

Eric A. Posner , The Perils of Global Legalism (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2009

Andrea Charron and Clara Portela , ‘The UN, Regional Sanctions and Africa’, International Affairs 91:6 (2015), pp. 1369–85

Lee Jones , Societies under Siege: Exploring How International Economic Sanctions (Do Not) Work (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015

Meghan L. O’Sullivan , ‘Iran and the Great Sanctions Debate’, Washington Quarterly 33:4 (2010), pp. 721

Johan Galtung , ‘On the Effects of International Economic Sanctions: With Examples from the Case of Rhodesia’, World Politics 19:3 (1967), pp. 378416

Robert A. Pape , ‘Why Economic Sanctions Do Not Work’, International Security 22:2 (1997), pp. 91–3

A. Cooper Drury , ‘Revisiting Economic Sanctions Reconsidered, Journal of Peace Research 35:4 (1998), pp. 495509

Ramesh Thakur , ‘To Stop Iran Getting the Bomb, Must We Learn to Live with Its Nuclear Capability?’, Strategic Analysis 36:2 (2012), pp. 328–34

George W. Baer , ‘Sanctions and Security: The League of Nations and the Italian-Ethiopian War, 1935–1936’, International Organization 27:2 (1973), p. 179

Ray Takeyh and Suzanne Maloney , ‘The Self-Limiting Success of Iran Sanctions’, International Affairs 87:6 (2011), pp. 1297–312

Ramesh Thakur , ‘How Representative Are BRICS?’, Third World Quarterly 35:10 (2014), pp. 1791–808

John Mueller and Karl Mueller , ‘Sanctions of Mass Destruction’, Foreign Affairs 78:3 (1999), pp. 4353

Joy Gordon , ‘A Peaceful, Silent, Deadly Remedy: The Ethics of Economic Sanctions’, Ethics & International Affairs 13:1 (1999), p. 124

Mohamed M. Ali and Iqbal H. Shah , ‘Sanctions and Childhood Mortality in Iraq’, Lancet 355 (May 2000), pp. 1837–57

A. Ascherio et al., ‘Effect of the Gulf War on Infant and Child Mortality in Iraq’, New England Journal of Medicine 327:13 (1992), pp. 931–6

George A. Lopez and David Cortright , ‘Containing Iraq: Sanctions Worked’, Foreign Affairs 83:4 (2004), pp. 90103.

Michael Brzoska , ‘International Sanctions Before and Beyond UN Sanctions’, International Affairs 91:6 (2015), pp. 1344–6

Marcos Tourinho , ‘Towards a World Police? The Implications of Individual UN Targeted Sanctions’, International Affairs 91:6 (2015), pp. 1399–412

Grégoire Mallard , Fallout: Nuclear Diplomacy in an Age of Global Fracture (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2014

Denise Garcia , ‘Global Norms on Arms: The Significance of the Arms Trade Treaty for Security in World Politics’, Global Policy 5:4 (2014), pp. 425–32

Maria Rost Rublee , ‘Fantasy Counterfactual: A Nuclear-Armed Ukraine’, Survival 57:2 (2015), pp. 145–56

Joseph Cirincione , Nuclear Nightmares: Securing the World before It Is Too Late (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013

Nina Tannenwald , The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons since 1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007

Steven Lee , ‘The Morality of Nuclear Deterrence: Hostage Holding and Consequences’, Ethics 95:3 (1985), pp. 549–66

Ramesh Thakur , ‘The Ethical Imperatives and Possible Means to Nuclear Peace’, Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 28:3 (2016

Gareth Evans , ‘Nuclear Deterrence in Asia and the Pacific’, Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies 1:1 (2014), pp. 91111

Jaswant Singh , ‘Against Nuclear Apartheid’, Foreign Affairs 77:5 (1998), p. 46

Ramesh Thakur , ed., Nuclear Weapons-Free Zones (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998

Ramesh Thakur , ‘The Inconsequential Gains and Lasting Insecurities of India’s Nuclear Weaponization’, International Affairs 90:5 (2014), pp. 1101–24

Edward C. Luck , ‘Another Reluctant Belligerent: The United Nations and the War on Terrorism’, in Richard M. Price and Mark W. Zacher , eds., The United Nations and Global Security (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), pp. 96–7

George Perkovich and Toby Dalton , ‘Modi’s Strategic Choice: How to Respond to Terrorism from Pakistan’, Washington Quarterly 38:1 (2015), pp. 2345

Ramesh Thakur , ‘The Inconsequential Gains and Lasting Insecurities of India’s Nuclear Weaponization’, International Affairs 90:5 (2014), pp. 1101–24

Katerina Dalacoura , Islamist Terrorism and Democracy in the Middle East (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011

Michael Ignatieff , The Lesser Evil: Political Ethics in an Age of Terror (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004

David P. Forsythe , The Politics of Prisoner Abuse: The United States and Enemy Prisoners (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011

Christopher Kutz , ‘How Norms Die: Torture and Assassination in American Security Policy’, Ethics & International Affairs 28:4 (2014), pp. 425–49

Peter Bergen and Jennifer Rowland , ‘Drone Wars’, Washington Quarterly 36:3 (2013), pp. 726

Patrick B. Johnston , ‘Does Decapitation Work? Assessing the Effectiveness of Leadership Targeting in Counterinsurgency Campaigns’, International Security 36:4 (2012), pp. 4779

Christopher C Joyner , ‘The United Nations and Terrorism: Rethinking Legal Tension between National Security, Human Rights, and Civil Liberties’, International Studies Perspectives 5 (2004), pp. 241–2

Robert A. Pape and James K. Feldman , Cutting the Fuse: The Explosion of Global Suicide Terrorism and How to Stop It (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2010

Max Abrahms , ‘Why Terrorism Does Not Work’, International Security 31:2 (2006), pp. 4278

Sumit Ganguly and S. Paul Kapur , ‘The Sorcerer’s Apprentice: Islamist Militancy in South Asia’, Washington Quarterly 33:1 (2010), pp. 4759

Marc Sageman , ‘The Stagnation in Terrorism Research’, Terrorism and Political Violence 26 (2014), pp. 565–80

Ramesh Thakur , ‘Ayodhya and the Politics of India’s Secularism: A Double-Standards Discourse’, Asian Survey 33 (1993), pp. 645–64

Karin von Hippel , Democracy by Force: US Military Intervention in the post-Cold War World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999

J.L. Holzgrefe and Robert O. Keohane , eds., Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal and Political Dilemmas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003

Ramesh Thakur , The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006

Javier Solana , ‘NATO’s Success in Kosovo’, Foreign Affairs 78:6 (1999), p. 114

Michael J. Glennon , ‘The New Interventionism: The Search for a Just International Law’, Foreign Affairs 78:3 (1999), p. 7

Christine M. Chinkin , ‘Kosovo: A “Good” or “Bad” War?’, American Journal of International Law 93:4 (1999), pp. 841–7

Louis Henkin , ‘Kosovo and the Law of “Humanitarian Intervention”’, American Journal of International Law 93:4 (1999), pp. 824–8

Ruth Wedgwood , ‘NATO’s Campaign in Yugoslavia’, American Journal of International Law 93:4 (1999), pp. 828–34

Michael McGwire , ‘Why Did We Bomb Belgrade?’, International Affairs 76:1 (2000), pp. 124

Chaim Kaufmann , ‘Threat Inflation and the Failure of the Marketplace of Ideas: The Selling of the Iraq War’, International Security 29:1 (2004), pp. 548

Gilbert Burnham , Riyadh Lafta , Shannon Doocy and Les Roberts , ‘Mortality after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: A Cross-sectional Cluster Sample Survey’, Lancet (11 October 2006

Les Roberts , Riyadh Lafta , Richard Garfield , Jamal Khudhairi and Gilbert Burnham , ‘Mortality before and after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: Cluster Sample Survey’, Lancet (30 October 2004). The team was from Johns Hopkins University’s Bloomberg School of Public Health and was assisted by doctors from al-Mustansiriya University Medical School in Baghdad. Coalition governments disputed the findings, but failed to provide numbers of civilian casualties themselves whose accuracy can be assessed against the Lancet article’s. The methodology employed is called clustered sampling, which is the rule in public health studies, for example of epidemics. The alternative technique, called passive-surveillance systems, relies on waiting for reports of deaths to come in, which tends to seriously under-count mortality, in epidemics as in violence. Experts consulted by The Economist – not one’s average left-wing antiwar propaganda tract – confirmed that the study had been carried out to the standard professional level; ‘Counting the casualties’, The Economist, 6 November 2004, pp. 80–1

Robert W. Tucker and David C. Hendrickson , ‘The Sources of American Legitimacy’, Foreign Affairs 83:6 (2004), p. 31

Justin Morris , ‘Libya and Syria: R2P and the Spectre of the Swinging Pendulum’, International Affairs 89:5 (2013), pp. 1265–83

Amin Saikal , ‘The UN and Afghanistan: Contentions in Democratization and Statebuilding’, International Peacekeeping 19:2 (2012), p. 223

Antonio Donini , ‘An Elusive Quest: Integration in the Response to the Afghan Crisis’, Ethics & International Affairs 18:2 (2004), pp. 21–7

Astri Suhrke , ‘A Contradictory Mission? NATO from Stabilization to Combat in Afghanistan’, International Peacekeeping 15:2 (2008), pp. 214–36

Ian Martin , ‘The United Nations’ Role in the First Year of the Transition’, in Peter Cole and Brian McQuinn , eds., The Libyan Revolution and Its Aftermath (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), pp. 127–52

Jeffrey Bachman , ‘R2P’s “Ulterior Motive” Exemption and the Failure to Protect in Libya’, Politics and Governance 3:4 (2015), pp. 5667

Roy Allison , Russia, the West, and Military Intervention (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013

Derek Averre and Lance Davis , ‘Russia, Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: The Case of Syria’, International Affairs 91:4 (2015), pp. 813–34

Nicola P. Contessi , ‘Multilateralism, Intervention and Norm Contestation: China’s Stance on Darfur in the UN Security Council’, Security Dialogue 41:3 (2010), pp. 323–44

Gareth Evans and Mohamed Sahnoun , ‘The Responsibility to Protect’, Foreign Affairs 81:6 (2002), pp. 99110

Ramesh Thakur , The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 250–1

Roland Paris , ‘Responsibility to Protect: The Debate Continues’, International Peacekeeping 22:2 (2015), pp. 144

Derek Averre and Lance Davies , ‘Russia, Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: The Case of Syria’, International Affairs 91:2 (2015), pp. 813–34

Aidan Hehir , Humanitarian Intervention: An Introduction (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013

Ian Hurd , ‘Is Humanitarian Intervention Legal? The Rule of Law in an Incoherent World’, Ethics & International Affairs 25:3 (2011), pp. 293313

Norrie MacQueen , Humanitarian Intervention and the United Nations (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011

Don E. Scheid , ed., The Ethics of Armed Humanitarian Intervention (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014

Ramesh Thakur , ‘The Responsibility to Protect at 15’, International Affairs 92:2 (2016), pp. 415–34

Ramesh Thakur , ‘Non-Intervention: A Case Study’, Political Science 42:1 (1990), pp. 2661

Brendan Simms and D.B.J. Trim , Humanitarian Intervention: A History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011

Luke Glanville , ‘The Myth of “Traditional Sovereignty”’, International Studies Quarterly 57:1 (2013), pp. 7990

Alex J. Bellamy , ‘Whither the Responsibility to Protect? Humanitarian Intervention and the 2005 World Summit’, Ethics & International Affairs 20:2 (2006), p. 147

Ramesh Thakur , ‘Intervention, Sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect: Experiences from the ICISS’, Security Dialogue 33:3 (2002), p. 227

Charles Sampford and Ramesh Thakur , ‘From the Right to Persecute to the Responsibility to Protect: Feuerbachian Inversions of Rights and Responsibilities in State–Citizen Relations’, in Ramesh Thakur and William Maley , eds., Theorising the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 3858

Anne Orford , International Authority and the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011

Hedley Bull , Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (London: Macmillan, 1977), pp. 200–29

Alicia L. Bannon , ‘The Responsibility to Protect: The U.N. World Summit and the Question of Unilateralism’, The Yale Law Journal 115:5 (2006), pp. 1157–65

Walter Kemp , Vesselin Popovski and Ramesh Thakur , eds., Blood and Borders: The Responsibility to Protect and the Problem of the Kin-State (Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2011

Susan C. Breau , ‘The Impact of the Responsibility to Protect on Peacekeeping’, Journal of Conflict & Security Law 11:3 (2006), pp. 429–64

Lisa Hultman , ‘UN Peace Operations and Protection of Civilians: Cheap Talk or Norm Implementation?’, Journal of Peace Research 50:1 (2013), pp. 5973

Hitoshi Nasu , ‘Operationalizing the Responsibility to Protect in the Context of Civilian Protection by UN Peacekeepers’, International Peacekeeping 18:4 (2011), pp. 364–78

Alex J Bellamy , Responsibility to Protect: A Defense (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014

Ramesh Thakur , ‘Protection Gaps for Civilian Victims of Political Violence’, South African Journal of International Affairs 20:3 (December 2013), pp. 321–38

Alex J. Bellamy , Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009

Alex J. Bellamy and Tim Dunne , eds., The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016

Alex J. Bellamy and Sara Davies , ‘The Responsibility to Protect in the Asia-Pacific Region’, Security Dialogue 40 (2009), pp. 547–74

David Capie , ‘The Responsibility to Protect Norm in Southeast Asia: Framing, Resistance and the Localization Myth’, Pacific Review 25:1 (2012), pp. 7593

Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink , ‘International Norm Dynamics and Political Change’, International Organization 52:4 (1998), pp. 887917

Ramesh Thakur and Thomas G. Weiss , ‘United Nations “Policy”: An Argument with Three Illustrations’, International Studies Perspectives 10:1 (2009), pp. 1835

Ramesh Thakur , ‘The Development and Evolution of R2P as International Policy’, Global Policy 6:3 (2015), pp. 190200

Ramesh Thakur , ‘Non-Intervention in International Relations: A Case Study’, Political Science 42:1 (1990), pp. 2661

Alex J. Bellamy , Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012

Charles Sampford and Ramesh Thakur , ‘From the Right to Persecute to the Responsibility to Protect: Feuerbachian Inversions of Rights and Responsibilities in State–Citizen Relations’, in Ramesh Thakur and William Maley , eds., Theorising the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 3858

Roland Paris , ‘The “Responsibility to Protect” and the Structural Problems of Preventive Humanitarian Intervention’, International Peacekeeping 21:5 (2014), pp. 569603

Ramesh Thakur , ‘R2P’s “Structural” Problems: A Response to Roland Paris’, International Peacekeeping 22:1 (2015), pp. 1125

Alex J. Bellamy and Paul D. Williams , ‘On the Limits of Moral Hazard: The “Responsibility to Protect”, Armed Conflict and Mass Atrocities’, European Journal of International Relations 18:3 (2012), pp. 539–71

Jon Western , ‘Illusions of Moral Hazard: A Conceptual and Empirical Critique’, Ethnopolitics 4:2 (2005), pp. 225–36

Rama Mani and Thomas Weiss , eds., Responsibility to Protect: Cultural Perspectives in the Global South (London: Routledge, 2011

Ramesh Thakur , ‘How Representative Are BRICS?’, Third World Quarterly 35:10 (2014), pp. 1791–808

Mischa Hansel and Miriam Moller , ‘Indian Foreign Policy and International Humanitarian Norms: A Role-Theoretical Analysis’, Asian Politics & Policy 7:1 (2015), pp. 79104

Roopmati Khandekar , ‘India and the Responsibility to Protect’s Third Pillar’, in Daniel Fiott and Joachim Koops , eds., The Responsibility to Protect and the Third Pillar: Legitimacy and Operationalization (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), pp. 115–29

Mordechai Chaziza and Ogen Goldman , ‘Revisiting China’s Non-Interference Policy towards Intrastate Wars’, Chinese Journal of International Politics 7:1 (2014), pp. 89115

Gregory Chin and Ramesh Thakur , ‘Will China Change the Rules of Global Order?’, Washington Quarterly 33:4 (2010), pp. 119–38

Pichamon Yeophantong , ‘Governing the World: China’s Evolving Conceptions of Responsibility’, Chinese Journal of International Politics 6:4 (2013), pp. 329–64

Cristina Badescu and Thomas G. Weiss , ‘Misrepresenting R2P and Advancing Norms: An Alternative Spiral’, International Studies Perspectives 11:4 (2010), pp. 354–74

Ramesh Thakur , ‘Protection Gaps for Civilian Victims of Political Violence’, South African Journal of International Affairs 20:3 (2013), pp. 321–38

Ramesh Thakur and Thomas G. Weiss , ‘United Nations “Policy”: An Argument with Three Illustrations’, International Studies Perspectives 10:1 (2009), pp. 1835

Sakiko Fukuda-Parr , Alicia Ely Yamin and Joshua Greenstein , ‘The Power of Numbers: A Critical Review of Millennium Development Goal Targets for Human Development and Human Rights’, Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 15:2–3 (2014), pp. 105–17

Ramesh Thakur , ‘Reforming the United Nations: Changing with and for the Times’, International Peacekeeping 10:4 (2003), pp. 4061

Ramesh Thakur , ‘Cambodia, East Timor and the Brahimi Report’, International Peacekeeping 8:3 (Autumn 2001), pp. 115–24

Geoffrey Wiseman , ‘Diplomatic Practices at the United Nations’, Cooperation & Conflict 50:3 (2015), pp. 316–33

Mzukisi Qobo and Mills Soko , ‘The Rise of Emerging Powers in the Global Development Finance Architecture: The Case of the BRICS and the New Development Bank’, South African Journal of International Affairs 22:3 (2015), pp. 277–88

Jose E. Alvarez , ‘Judging the Security Council’, American Journal of International Law 90:1 (1996), pp. 139

Thomas M Franck , ‘The “Powers of Appreciation”: Who Is the Ultimate Guardian of UN Legality?’, American Journal of International Law 86:3 (1992), pp. 519–23

Ian Johnstone , ‘Security Council Deliberations: The Power of the Better Argument’, European Journal of International Law 14:3 (June 2003), p. 460

Ramesh Thakur , The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006

Simon Chesterman , ed., Secretary or General? The UN Secretary-General in World Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007

Leland Goodrich , ‘The Political Role of the Secretary-General’, International Organization 16:4 (1962), pp. 720–35

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