Skip to main content
Tinnitus Retraining Therapy
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 90
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Durai, Mithila and Searchfield, Grant D. 2017. A Mixed-Methods Trial of Broad Band Noise and Nature Sounds for Tinnitus Therapy: Group and Individual Responses Modeled under the Adaptation Level Theory of Tinnitus. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, Vol. 9,

    Fackrell, Kathryn Potgieter, Iskra Shekhawat, Giriraj S. Baguley, David M. Sereda, Magdalena and Hoare, Derek J. 2017. Clinical Interventions for Hyperacusis in Adults: A Scoping Review to Assess the Current Position and Determine Priorities for Research. BioMed Research International, Vol. 2017, p. 1.

    Stockdale, David McFerran, Don Brazier, Peter Pritchard, Clive Kay, Tony Dowrick, Christopher and Hoare, Derek J 2017. An economic evaluation of the healthcare cost of tinnitus management in the UK. BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 17, Issue. 1,

    Fuller, Thomas Cima, Rilana Langguth, Berthold Mazurek, Birgit Waddell, Angus Hoare, Derek J Vlaeyen, Johan WS and Fuller, Thomas 2017. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

    Maldonado Fernández, Miguel Shin, Jennifer Scherer, Roberta W Murdin, Louisa and Maldonado Fernández, Miguel 2017. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

    Noorain Alam, Md. Gupta, Manish Munjal, Sanjay and Panda, Naresh K. 2017. Efficacy of TRT Using Noise Presentation from Mobile Phone. Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Vol. 69, Issue. 3, p. 333.

    Shabana, MohamedI Dabbous, AbeirO and Abdelkarim, AymanM.M. 2017. Sound therapy for tinnitus patients. Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy Journal, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Rouw, Romke and Erfanian, Mercede 2017. A Large-Scale Study of Misophonia. Journal of Clinical Psychology,

    Cima, Rilana F.F. van Breukelen, Gerard and Vlaeyen, Johan W.S. 2017. Tinnitus-related fear: Mediating the effects of a cognitive behavioural specialised tinnitus treatment. Hearing Research,

    Wrzosek, Małgorzata Szymiec, Eugeniusz Klemens, Wiesława Kotyło, Piotr Schlee, Winfried Modrzyńska, Małgorzata Lang-Małecka, Agnieszka Preis, Anna and Bulla, Jan 2016. Polish Translation and Validation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and the Tinnitus Functional Index. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

    Allman, Brian L. Schormans, Ashley L. Typlt, Marei and Lobarinas, Edward 2016. Translational Research in Audiology, Neurotology, and the Hearing Sciences. Vol. 58, Issue. , p. 165.

    Aazh, Hashir Moore, Brian C. J. Lammaing, Karen and Cropley, Mark 2016. Tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy in a UK National Health Service audiology department: Patients’ evaluations of the effectiveness of treatments. International Journal of Audiology, Vol. 55, Issue. 9, p. 514.

    Person, Osmar C Puga, Maria ES da Silva, Edina MK Torloni, Maria R and Person, Osmar C 2016. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

    Li, Yang Zeng, Rui Feng Zheng, Decai and Li, Yang 2016. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

    Hall, Amanda J. Humphriss, Rachel Baguley, David M. Parker, Melanie and Steer, Colin D. 2016. Prevalence and risk factors for reduced sound tolerance (hyperacusis) in children. International Journal of Audiology, Vol. 55, Issue. 3, p. 135.

    Imsuwansri, Thanarath Hoare, Derek J Phaisaltuntiwongs, Wanasri Srisubat, Attasit Snidvongs, Kornkiat and Imsuwansri, Thanarath 2016. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

    Fioretti, Alessandra Barbara Varakliotis, Theodoros Poli, Otello Cantagallo, Manuela and Eibenstein, Alberto 2016. Severe Hyperacusis, Photophobia, and Skin Hypersensitivity. Case Reports in Otolaryngology, Vol. 2016, p. 1.

    Ghodratitoostani, Iman Zana, Yossi Delbem, Alexandre C. B. Sani, Siamak S. Ekhtiari, Hamed and Sanchez, Tanit G. 2016. Theoretical Tinnitus Framework: A Neurofunctional Model. Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol. 10,

    Greenwell, Kate Sereda, Magdalena Coulson, Neil El Refaie, Amr and Hoare, Derek J. 2016. A systematic review of techniques and effects of self-help interventions for tinnitus: Application of taxonomies from health psychology. International Journal of Audiology, Vol. 55, Issue. sup3, p. S79.

    Maldonado Fernández, Miguel Shin, Jennifer Scherer, Roberta W Murdin, Louisa and Maldonado Fernández, Miguel 2015. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Tinnitus Retraining Therapy
    • Online ISBN: 9780511544989
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Tinnitus and oversensitivity to sound are common and hitherto incurable, distressing conditions that affect a substantial number of the population. Pawel Jastreboff's discovery of the mechanisms by which tinnitus and decreased sound tolerance occur has led to a new and effective treatment called Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT). Audiologists, ENT specialists, psychologists and counsellors around the world currently practise this technique, with very high success rates. TRT, the treatment developed by the authors from the model, has already proved to be the most effective and most widely practised worldwide. This book presents a definitive description and justification for the Jastreboff neurophysiological model of tinnitus, outlining the essentials of TRT, reviewing the research literature justifying their claims, and providing an expert critique of other therapeutic practices.


Review of the hardback:'This book provides a comprehensive guide to Tinnitus retraining therapy … Not only does this book give a very detailed description of this type of therapy, it links the theory to clinical practice and offers practical advice for implementation … a text that is both rigorous and practical … Very readable Good value for money.'

Source: British Society of Audiology News

Review of the hardback:'One of the nice things about being asked to review a book is that you get to keep a copy if it - and this is certainly a book well worth keeping. This is a thought-provoking and stimulating book for dipping into, for referring to, for speed-reading and for reading thoroughly from cover to cover. It will be a useful addition to the shelves of professionals who work with people with tinnitus.'

Source: Tinnitus Focus

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Adour, K. K. & Wingerd, J. (1974) Idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell’s palsy): factors affecting severity and outcome in 446 patients. Neurology, 24, 1112–1116.
Alberts, D. S. & Noel, J. K. (1995) Cisplatin-associated neurotoxicity: can it be prevented?Anticancer Drugs, 6, 369–383.
Alster, J., Shemesh, Z., Ornan, M. & Attias, J. (1993) Sleep disturbance associated with chronic tinnitus. Biol. Psychiatry, 34, 84–90.
American Heritage Dictionary, 3rd edn (1994) Soft Key International.
American National Standards Institute (1969) Specifications for Audiometers. pp. S3.6 New York: ANSI.
Anari, M., Axelsson, A., Elies, W. & Magnusson, L. (1999) Hypersensitivity to sound: questionnaire data, audiometry and classification. Scand. Audiol., 28, 219–230.
Anderson, H., Wagstaff, J., Crowther, D., et al. (1988) Comparative toxicity of cisplatin, carboplatin (CBDCA) and iproplatin (CHIP) in combination with cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Eur. J. Cancer Clin. Oncol., 24, 1471–1479.
Andersson, G. & Lyttkens, L. (1996) Acupuncture for tinnitus: time to stop?Scand. Audiol., 25, 273–275.
Andersson, G. & Lyttkens, L. (1999) Effects of psychological treatment for tinnitus: a meta-analytic review. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 125–127. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Andersson, G., Kinnefors, A., Ekvall, L. & Rask-Andersen, H. (1997) Tinnitus and translabyrinthine acoustic neuroma surgery. Audiol. Neurootol., 2, 403–409.
Andersson, G., Lyttkens, L., Hirvela, C., Furmark, T., Tillfors, M. & Fredrikson, M. (2000) Regional cerebral blood flow during tinnitus: a PET case study with lidocaine and auditory stimulation. Acta Otolaryngol., 120, 967–972.
anon. (1981a) Definition and classification of tinnitus. Tinnitus. CIBA Foundation Symposium 85, ed. Evered, D. & Lawrenson, G., pp. 300–302. London: Pitman.
anon. (1981b) Doctors’ discussion. Am. J. Otol., 2, 291–293.
Aran, J. M. & Cazals, Y. (1981) Electrical suppression of tinnitus. CIBA Found. Symp., 85, 217–231.
Axelsson, A., Andersson, S. & Gu, L. D. (1996) Acupuncture in the management of tinnitus: a placebo-controlled study. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 71–73. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Baguley, D. M. & Andersson, G. (2003) Factor analysis of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. Am. J. Audiol., 12, 31–34.
Baguley, D. M., Moffat, D. A. & Hardy, D. G. (1992) What is the effect of translabyrinthine acoustic schwannoma removal upon tinnitus?J. Laryngol. Otol., 106, 329–331.
Baguley, D. M., Beynon, G. J., Grey, P. L., Hardy, D. G. & Moffat, D. A. (1997) Audio-vestibular findings in meningioma of the cerebello–pontine angle: a retrospective review. J. Laryngol. Otol., 111, 1022–1026.
Barkats, M., Venault, P., Christen, Y. & Cohen-Salmon, C. (1994) Effect of long-term treatment with EGb 761 on age-dependent structural changes in the hippocampi of three inbred mouse strains. Life Sci., 56, 213–222.
Bartnik, G., Fabijanska, A. & Rogowski, M. (1999) Our experience in treatment of patients with tinnitus and/or hyperacusis using the habituation method. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 415–417. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Bartoshuk, L. M., Kveton, J. F., Yanagisawa, K. & Catalanotto, F. C (1994) Taste loss and taste phantoms: a role of inhibition in the taste system. In Olfaction and Taste XI, Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste, 1993, ed. Kurihara, K., Suzuki, N. & Ogawa, H., pp. 557–560. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.
Basheer, R., Magner, M., McCarley, R. W. & Shiromani, P. J. (1998) REM sleep deprivation increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter mRNA in the locus coeruleus. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res., 57, 235–240.
Bast, T., Zhang, W. N. & Feldon, J. (2001) The ventral hippocampus and fear conditioning in rats. Different anterograde amnesias of fear after tetrodotoxin inactivation and infusion of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol. Exp. Brain Res., 139, 39–52.
Beasley, N. J. & Jones, N. S. (1996) Ménière’s disease: evolution of a definition. J. Laryngol. Otol., 110, 1107–1113.
Beckers, T., Wagemans, J., Boucart, M. & Giersch, A. (2001a) Different effects of lorazepam and diazepam on perceptual integration. Vision Res., 41, 2297–2303.
Beckers, T., Wagemans, J., Boucart, M. & Giersch, A. (2001b) Different effects of lorazepam and diazepam on perceptual integration. Vision Res., 41, 2297–2303.
Berliner, K. I. & Cunningham, J. K. (1987) Tinnitus suppression in cochlear implantation. In Tinnitus, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., London: Churchill Livingstone.
Berliner, K. I., Shelton, C., Hitselberger, W. E. & Luxford, W. M. (1992) Acoustic tumors: effect of surgical removal on tinnitus. Am. J. Otol., 13, 13–17.
Berrios, G. E. (1991) Musical hallucinations: a statistical analysis of 46 cases. Psychopathology, 24, 356–360.
Berrios, G. E. & Rose, G. S. (1992) Psychiatry of subjective tinnitus: conceptual, historical and clinical aspects. Neurol. Psychol. Brain Res., 1, 76–82.
Berry, J. A., Gold, S. L., Frederick, E. A., Gray, W. C. & Staecker, H. (2002) Patient-based outcomes in patients with primary tinnitus undergoing tinnitus retraining therapy. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 128, 1153–1157.
Bertran, J. M. & Alvarez, D.C. (1999) [Results of surgery of the endolymphatic sac.]Acta Otorrinolaringol. Esp., 50, 179–183.
Bian, L. & Chertoff, M. E. (2001) Distinguishing cochlear pathophysiology in 4-aminopyridine and furosemide treated ears using a nonlinear systems identification technique. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, 671–685.
Black, F. O. & Homer, L. (1996) Platform posturography. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 112, 1273–1274.
Bobbin, R. P., Jastreboff, P. J., Fallon, M. & Littman, T. (1990) Nimodipine, an L-channel Ca2+ antagonist, abolishes the negative summating potential recorded from the guinea pig cochlea. Hearing Res., 46, 277–288.
Boettcher, F. A. & Salvi, R. J. (1993) Functional changes in the ventral cochlear nucleus following acute acoustic overstimulation. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 94, 2123–2134.
Bohne, B. A. & Clark, W. W. (1982) Growth of hearing loss and cochlear lesion with increasing duration of noise exposure. In New Perspectives on Noise-induced Hearing Loss, ed. Hamernik, R. P., Henderson, D. & Salvi, R., pp. 283–302. New York: Raven Press.
Bolanos-Jimenez, F., Manhaes de Castro, R., Sarhan, H., Prudhomme, N., Drieu, K. & Fillion, G. (1995) Stress-induced 5-HT1A receptor desensitization: protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol., 9, 169–174.
Brennan, J. F. & Jastreboff, P. J. (1991) Generalization of conditioned suppression during salicylate-induced phantom auditory perception in rats. Acta Neurobiol. Exp., 51, 15–27.
Brooks, C. M. (1987) Autonomic nervous systems, nature and functional role. In Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, ed. Adelman, G., pp. 96–98. Boston, MA: Birkhauser.
Brooks, D. N. & Bulmer, D. (1981) Survey of binaural hearing aid users. Ear Hear., 2, 220–224.
Brummett, R. E. (1995) A mechanism for tinnitus? In Mechanisms of Tinnitus, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Moller, A. R., pp. 7–10. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Buchel, C. & Dolan, R. J. (2000) Classical fear conditioning in functional neuroimaging. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 10, 219–223.
Budd, R. J. & Pugh, R. (1996) Tinnitus coping style and its relationship to tinnitus severity and emotional distress. J. Psychosom. Res., 41, 327–335.
Busto, U. E. (1999) Benzodiazepines: the science and the myths. Can. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 6, 185–186.
Busto, U. E., Sellers, E. M., Naranjo, C. A., Cappell, H., Sanchez-Craig, M. & Sykora, K. (1986) Withdrawal reaction after long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines. N. Engl. J. Med., 315, 854–859.
Butefisch, C. M., Davis, B. C., Wise, S. P., et al. (2000) Mechanisms of use-dependent plasticity in the human motor cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 3661–3665.
Cabrera, I. N. & Lee, M. H. (2000) Reducing noise pollution in the hospital setting by establishing a department of sound: a survey of recent research on the effects of noise and music in health care. Prev. Med., 30, 339–345.
Cacace, A. T., Lovely, T. J., Winter, D. F., Parnes, S. M. & McFarland, D. J. (1994) Auditory perceptual and visual-spatial characteristics of gaze-evoked tinnitus. Audiology, 33, 291–303.
Cacace, A. T., Cousins, J. P., Parnes, S. M., et al. (1999a) Cutaneous-evoked tinnitus II. Review of neuroanatomical, physiological and functional imaging studies. Audiol. 4, 258–268.
Cacace, A. T., Cousins, J. P., Parnes, S. M., et al. (1999b) Cutaneous-evoked tinnitus I. Phenomenology, psychophysics and functional imaging. Audiol. Neuro-Otology, 4, 247–257.
Candy, P. J. & Pareson, D. C. (1990) A 10 year review of union and non-union with an implanted bone growth stimulator. Clin. Orthop., 259, 216–222.
Cardinaal, R. M., De Groot, J. C., Huizing, E. H., Veldman, J. E. & Smoorenburg, G. F. (2000) Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity: morphological evidence of spontaneous outer hair cell recovery in albino guinea pigs?Hear. Res., 144, 147–156.
Carrick, D. G., Davies, W. M., Fielder, C. P. & Bihari, J. (1986) Low-powered ultrasound in the treatment of tinnitus: a pilot study. Br. J. Audiol., 20, 153–155.
Catalano, P. J. & Post, K. D. (1996) Elimination of tinnitus following hearing preservation surgery for acoustic neuromas. Am. J. Otol., 17, 443–445.
Causse, J. B., Causse, J. R., Bel, J., et al. (1985) [Prognosis for tinnitus after surgery for otospongiosis.]Ann. Otolaryngol. Chir. Cervicofac., 102, 407–413.
Champlin, C. A., Muller, S. P. & Mitchell, S. A. (1990) Acoustic measurements of objective tinnitus. J. Speech Hear. Res., 33, 816–821.
Chen, G. D. & Fechter, L. D. (2003) The relationship between noise-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in rats. Hear. Res., 177, 81–90.
Chen, G. D. & Jastreboff, P. J. (1995) Salicylate-induced abnormal activity in the inferior colliculus of rats. Hear. Res., 82, 158–178.
Cirelli, C. & Tononi, G. (1999) Differences in brain gene expression between sleep and waking as revealed by mRNA differential display and cDNA microarray technology. J. Sleep Res., 8 (Suppl. 1), 44–52.
Clemis, J. D. & McBrien, M. M. (1996) The therapeutic use of histamine in cochleovestibular disorders and tinnitus. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 203–209. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Cloninger, C. R., Martin, R. L., Guze, S. B. & Clayton, P. J. (1985) Diagnosis and prognosis in schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 42, 15–25.
Coles, R. (1988) Trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) for tinnitus and hearing loss. Clin. Otolaryngol., 13, 501–502.
Coles, R., Bradley, P., Donaldson, I. & Dingle, A. (1991) A trial of tinnitus therapy with ear-canal magnets. Clin. Otolaryngol., 16, 371–372.
Coles, R. R., Thompson, A. C. & O’Donoghue, G. M. (1992) Intra-tympanic injections in the treatment of tinnitus. Clin. Otolaryngol., 17, 240–242.
Coles, R. R. A. (1984) Epidemiology of tinnitus: (1) prevalence. J. Laryngol. Otol. Suppl. 9: 7–15.
Coles, R. R. A. (1987) Epidemiology of tinnitus. In Tinnitus, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 46–70. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
Coles, R. R. A. (1996) Epidemiology, aetiology and classification, In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 25–30. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Coles, R. R. A. (1998) Therapeutic blind alleys. In Tinnitus Treatment and Relief ed. Vernon, J. A. pp. 8–19. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Costen, J. B. (1937) Summary of neuralgias and ear symptoms associated with the mandibular joint. Mississippi Doctor, 15, 33.
Coull, J. T., Frith, C. D. & Dolan, R. J. (1999) Dissociating neuromodulatory effects of diazepam on episodic memory encoding and executive function. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 145, 213–222.
Culebras, A. (1992) Update on disorders of sleep and the sleep–wake cycle. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 15, 467–489.
Dauman, R. (2000) Electrical stimulation for tinnitus suppression. In Tinnitus Handbook, ed. Tyler, R., pp. 377–398. San Diego, CA: Singular, Thomson Learning.
Dauman, R. & Tyler, R. S. (1993) Tinnitus suppression in cochlear implant users. Adv. Otorhinolaryngol., 48, 168–173.
Dauman, R., Tyler, R. S. & Aran, J. M. (1993) Intracochlear electrical tinnitus reduction. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.), 113, 291–295.
Davies, E., Knox, E. & Donaldson, I. (1994) The usefulness of nimodipine, an L-calcium channel antagonist, in the treatment of tinnitus. Br. J. Audiol., 28, 125–129.
Davis, A. (1996) The aetiology of tinnitus: risk factors for tinnitus in the UK population – a possible role for conductive pathologies? In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 38–45. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Davis, A. & El Refaie, A. (2000) Epidemiology of tinnitus. In Tinnitus Handbook, ed. Tyler, R., pp. 1–23. San Diego, CA: Singular, Thomson Learning.
Davis, M. & Whalen, P. J. (2001) The amygdala: vigilance and emotion. Mol. Psychiatry, 6, 13–34.
Deberdt, W. (1994) Interaction between psychological and pharmacological treatment in cognitive impairment. Life Sci., 55, 2057–2066.
de Las, C. C., Sanz, E. J., de la Fuente, J. A., Padilla, J. & Berenguer, J. C. (2000) The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) as screening test for benzodiazepine dependence: SDS validation study. Addiction, 95, 245–250.
den Hartigh, J., Hilders, C. G., Schoemaker, R. C., Hulshof, J. H., Cohen, A. F. & Vermeij, P. (1993) Tinnitus suppression by intravenous lidocaine in relation to its plasma concentration. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 54, 415–420.
Denk, D. M., Heinzl, H., Franz, P. & Ehrenberger, K. (1997) Caroverine in tinnitus treatment. A placebo-controlled blind study. Acta Otolaryngol., 117, 825–830.
Dobie, R. A. (1999) A review of randomized clinical trials in tinnitus. Laryngoscope, 109, 1202–1211.
Dobie, R. A., Hoberg, K. E. & Rees, T. S. (1986) Electrical tinnitus suppression: a double-blind crossover study. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 95, 319–323.
Dobie, R. A., Sakai, C. S., Sullivan, M. D., Katon, W. J. & Russo, J. (1993) Antidepressant treatment of tinnitus patients: report of a randomized clinical trial and clinical prediction of benefit. Am. J. Otol., 14, 18–23.
Donaldson, I. (1978) Tinnitus: a theoretical view and a therapeutic study using amylobarbitone. J. Laryngol. Otol., 92, 123–130.
Donaldson, I. (1981) Tegretol: a double blind trial in tinnitus. J. Laryngol. Otol., 95, 947–951.
Drew, S. & Davies, E. (2001) Effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating tinnitus: double blind, placebo controlled trial. Br. Med. J., 322, 73.
Duckert, L. G. & Rees, T. S. (1983) Treatment of tinnitus with intravenous lidocaine: a double-blind randomized trial. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 91, 550–555.
Duckert, L. G. & Rees, T. S. (1984) Placebo effect in tinnitus management. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 92, 697–699.
Duverger, D., De Feudis, F. V. & Drieu, K. (1995) Effects of repeated treatment with an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on cerebral glucose utilization in the rat: an autoradiographic study. Gen. Pharmacol., 26, 1375–1383.
Eggermont, J. J. (1990) On the pathophysiology of tinnitus; a review and a peripheral model. Hear. Res., 48, 111–123.
Ehrenberger, K. & Brix, R. (1983) Glutamic acid and glutamic acid diethylester in tinnitus treatment. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.), 95, 599–605.
Einfeld, S. L., Tonge, B. J., Florio, T., Van Borsel, J., Curfs, L. M. & Fryns, J. P. (1997) Behavioral and emotional disturbance in individuals with Williams syndrome hyperacusis in Williams syndrome: a sample survey study. Am. J. Ment. Retard., 8, 121–126.
Elliott, B. (2000) Diagnosing and treating hypothyroidism. Nurse Pract., 25, 92–105.
Emmerich, E., Richter, F., Reinhold, U., Linss, V. & Linss, W. (2000) Effects of industrial noise exposure on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and hair cell loss of the cochlea: long term experiments in awake guinea pigs. Hear. Res., 148, 9–17.
Emmett, J. R. & Shea, J. J. (1980) Treatment of tinnitus with tocainide hydrochloride. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 88, 442–446.
Engelberg, M. & Bauer, W. (1985) Transcutaneous electrical stimulation for tinnitus. Laryngoscope, 95, 1167–1173.
Erlandsson, S., Ringdahl, A., Hutchins, T. & Carlsson, S. G. (1987) Treatment of tinnitus: a controlled comparison of masking and placebo. Br. J. Audiol., 21, 37–44.
Erlandsson, S. I., Rubinstein, B. & Carlsson, S. G. (1991) Tinnitus: evaluation of biofeedback and stomatognathic treatment. Br. J. Audiol., 25, 151–161.
Estes, W. K. & Skinner, B. F. (1941) Some quantitative properties of anxiety. J. Exp. Psychol., 29, 390–400.
Fallon, B. A., Nields, J. A., Burrascano, J. J., Liegner, K., Del Bene, D. & Liebowitz, M. R. (1992) The neuropsychiatric manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. Psychiatr. Q., 63, 95–117.
Fattori, B., De Iaco, G., Vannucci, G., Casani, A. & Ghilardi, P. L. (1996) Alternobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the immediate and long-term treatment of Ménière’s disease. Audiology, 35, 322–334.
Feldmann, H. (1969a) [Studies on the masking of subjective tinnitus: a contribution to the pathophysiology of tinnitus.]Z. Laryngol. Rhinol. Otol., 48, 528–545.
Feldmann, H. (1969b) [Homolateral and contralateral masking of subjective tinnitus by broad spectrum noise, narrow spectrum noise and pure tones.]Arch. Klin. Exp. Ohren. Nasen. Kehlkopfheilkd., 194, 460–465.
Feldmann, H. (1971) Homolateral and contralateral masking of tinnitus by noise-bands and by pure tones. Audiology, 10, 138–144.
Feldmann, H. (1992) Mechanisms of tinnitus. Medical and audiometric investigation. In Audiology in Europe, an Academic Conference, Cambridge, 1992, abstract 18.
Fisch, U. (1970) Transtemporal surgery of the internal auditory canal. Report of 92 cases, technique, indications and results. Adv. Otorhinolaryngol., 17, 203–240.
Fleishaker, J. C., Garzone, P. D., Chambers, J. H., Sirocco, K. & Weingartner, H. (1995) Comparison of the spectrum of cognitive effects of alprazolam and adinazolam after single doses in healthy subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 120, 169–176.
Freeman, S., Plotnik, M., Elidan, J. & Sohmer, H. (1999) Differential effect of the loop diuretic furosemide on short latency auditory and vestibular-evoked potentials. Am. J. Otol., 20, 41–45.
Fucci, M. J., Sataloff, R. T. & Myers, D. L. (1994) Vestibular nerve section. Am. J. Otolaryngol., 15, 180–189.
Fukaya, T. & Nomura, Y. (1988) Audiological aspects of idiopathic perilymphatic fistula. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. (Stockh.), 456, 68–73.
Gananca, M. M., Mangabeira Albernaz, P. L., Caovilla, H. H. & Ito, Y. I. (1988) Controlled clinical trial of pentoxifylline versus cinnarizine in the treatment of labyrinthine disorders. Pharmatherapeutica, 5, 170–176.
George, R. N. & Kemp, S. (1991) A survey of New Zealanders with tinnitus. Br. J. Audiol., 25, 331–336.
Gerak, L. R., Woolverton, W. L., Nader, M. A., et al. (2001) Behavioral effects of flunitrazepam: reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects in rhesus monkeys and prevention of withdrawal signs in pentobarbital-dependent rats. Drug Alcohol Depend., 63, 39–49.
Gerken, G. M. (1979) Central denervation hypersensitivity in the auditory system of the cat. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 66, 721–727.
Gerken, G. M. (1992) Central auditory temporal processing: alterations produced by factors involving the cochlea. In Effect of Noise on the Auditory System, ed. Dancer, A., Henderson, D., Salvi, R. & Hamernik, R., pp. 146–155. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby.
Gerken, G. M. (1993) Alteration of central auditory processing of brief stimuli: a review and a neural model. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 93, 2038–2049.
Gerken, G. M. (1996) Central tinnitus and lateral inhibition: an auditory brainstem model. Hear. Res., 97, 75–83.
Gerken, G. M., Saunders, S. S. & Paul, R. E. (1984) Hypersensitivity to electrical stimulation of auditory nuclei follows hearing loss in cats. Hear. Res., 13, 249–259.
Gerken, G. M., Saunders, S. S., Simhadri-Sumithra, R. & Bhat, K. H. V. (1985) Behavioral thresholds for electrical stimulation applied to auditory brainstem nuclei in cat are altered by injurious and noninjurious sound. Hear. Res., 20, 221–231.
Gerken, G. M., Simhadri-Sumithra, R. & Bhat, K. H. V. (1986) Increase in central auditory responsiveness during continuous tone stimulation or following hearing loss. In Basic and Applied Aspects of Noise-induced Hearing Loss, ed. Salvi, R. J., Henderson, D., Hamernik, R. P. & Colletti, V., pp. 195–211. New York: Plenum.
Gersdorff, M., Robillard, T., Stein, F., Declaye, X. & van der Bemden, S. (1987a) [The zinc sulfate overload test in patients suffering from tinnitus associated with low serum zinc. Preliminary report.]Acta Otorhinolaryngol. (Belg.), 41, 498–505.
Gersdorff, M., Robillard, T., Stein, F., Declaye, X. & van der Bemden, S. (1987b) A clinical correlation between hypozincemia and tinnitus. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol., 244, 190–193.
Giordano, C., Bona Galvagno, M., Brosio, R., Schieroni, M. P. & Revello, M. P. (1987) [Treatment of tinnitus with the TENS stimulator in cervico-arthrosis patients. Preliminary results.]Minerva Med., 78, 861–864.
Goebel, G., Rubler, D., Stepputat, F., Hiller, W., Heuser, J. & Ficher, M. M. (1999) Controlled prospective study of tinnitus retraining therapy compared to tinnitus coping therapy and broad-band noise generator therapy. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 302–306. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Good, M. (1996) Effects of relaxation and music on postoperative pain: a review. J. Adv. Nurs., 24, 905–914.
Goodwin, P. E. (1980) Tinnitus and auditory imagery. Am. J. Otol., 2, 5–9.
Goosens, K. A. & Maren, S. (2001) Contextual and auditory fear conditioning are mediated by the lateral, basal, and central amygdaloid nuclei in rats. Learn. Mem., 8, 148–155.
Gopal, K. V., Daly, D. M., Daniloff, R. G. & Pennartz, L. (2000) Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on auditory processing: case study. J. Am. Acad. Audiol., 11, 454–463.
Graham, J. M. & Hazell, J. W. (1977) Electrical stimulation of the human cochlea using a transtympanic electrode. Br. J. Audiol., 11, 59–62.
Gu, L. & Axelsson, A. (1996) Acupuncture for tinnitus: a review from 5 years of clinical investigations. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 84–89. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Gukovich, V. A., Avramenko, L. V. & Moroz, B. S. (1974) [Characteristics and dynamics of tinnitis in otosclerosis.] Zh. Ushn. Nos. Gorl. Bolezn., 41–47.
Guth, P., Risey, J., Amedee, R. G. & Norris, C. H. (1992) A pharmacological approach to the treatment of tinnitus. In Tinnitus 91. Proceedings of the Fourth International Tinnitus Seminar, 1991, ed. Aran, J.-M. & Dauman, R., pp. 115–118. Amsterdam: Kugler & Ghedini.
Gutschmidt, K. U., Stenkamp, K., Buchheim, K., Heinemann, U. & Meierkord, H. (1999) Anticonvulsant actions of furosemide in vitro. Neuroscience, 91, 1471–1481.
Halford, J. B. & Anderson, S. D. (1991) Anxiety and depression in tinnitus sufferers. J. Psychosom. Res., 35, 383–390.
Hallam, R. & McKenna, L. (1999) A neuropsychological study of concentration problems in tinnitus patients. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 108–113. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Hallam, R. S., Rachman, S. & Hinchcliffe, R. (1984) Psychological aspects of tinnitus. In Contributions to Medical Psychology, 3rd edn, ed. Rachman, R., pp. 31–34. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Hammeke, T. A., McQuillen, M. P. & Cohen, B. A. (1983) Musical hallucinations associated with acquired deafness. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 46, 570–572.
Hansen, J. E. (1975) Acupuncture in otolaryngology. Am. J. Chin. Med., 3, 281–284.
Harcourt, J., Thomsen, J. & Tos, M. (1997) Translabyrinthine vestibular schwannoma surgery: postoperative tinnitus and cochlear nerve integrity. Auris Nasus Larynx, 24, 21–26.
Harris, S., Brismar, J. & Cronqvist, S. (1979) Pulsatile tinnitus and therapeutic embolization. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.), 88, 220–226.
Haynes, B. F., Pikus, A., Kaiser-Kupfer, M. & Fauci, A. S. (1981) Successful treatment of sudden hearing loss in Cogan’s syndrome with corticosteroids. Arthritis Rheum., 24, 501–503.
Hazell, J. W. P. (1981) A tinnitus synthesizer physiological considerations. J. Laryngol. Otol. Suppl., 10, 187–195.
Hazell, J. W. P. (1989) Tinnitus II: surgical management of conditions associated with tinnitus and somatosounds. Can. J. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 103, 739–742.
Hazell, J. W. P. (1990a) Tinnitus. II: surgical management of conditions associated with tinnitus and somatosounds. J. Otolaryngol., 19, 6–10.
Hazell, J. W. P. (1990b) Tinnitus and disability with ageing: adaptation and management. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. (Stockh.), 1–7.
Hazell, J. W. P. & McKinney, C. J. (1996) Support for a neurophysiological model of tinnitus: research data and clinical experience. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 51–57. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Hazell, J. W. P. & Sheldrake, J. B. (1992) Hyperacusis and tinnitus. In Tinnitus 91. Proceedings of the Fourth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Aran, J.-M. & Dauman, R., pp. 245–248. Amsterdam: Kugler & Ghedini.
Hazell, J. W. P., Wood, S. M., Cooper, H. R., et al. (1985a) A clinical study of tinnitus maskers. Br. J. Audiol., 19, 65–146.
Hazell, J. W. P., Wood, S. M., Cooper, H. R., et al. (1985b) A clinical study of tinnitus maskers. Br. J. Audiol., 19, 65–146.
Hazell, J. W. P., Sheldrake, J. B. & Meerton, L. J. (1987) Tinnitus masking: is it better than counseling alone? In Proceedings of the Third International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Feldmann, H., pp. 239–250. Karlsruhe: Harsch Verlag.
Hazell, J. W. P., Meerton, L. J. & Conway, M. J. (1989) Electrical tinnitus suppression (ETS) with a single channel cochlear implant. J. Laryngol. Otol. Suppl., 18, 39–44.
Hazell, J. W. P., von Schoenberg, M., Meerton, L. J. & Sheldrake, J. B. (1992a) Tinnitus and the unilateral dead ear. In Tinnitus 91. Proceedings of the Fourth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Aran, J.-M. & Dauman, R., pp. 261–264. Amsterdam: Kugler & Ghedini.
Hazell, J. W. P., Fraser, J. G. & Robinson, P. J. (1992b) Positional audiometry in the diagnosis of perilymph fistula. Am. J. Otol., 13, 263–269.
Hazell, J. W. P., Jastreboff, P. J., Meerton, L. E. & Conway, M. J. (1993) Electrical tinnitus suppression: frequency dependence of effects. Audiol., 32, 68–77.
Hazell, J. W. P., McKinney, C. J. & Aleksy, W. (1995) Mechanisms of tinnitus in profound deafness. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. Suppl., 166, 418–420.
Heilbrun, A. B., Jr., Diller, R., Fleming, R. & Slade, L. (1986) Strategies of disattention and auditory hallucinations in schizophrenics. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 174, 265–273.
Heitzmann, T., Rubio, L., Cardenas, M. R. & Zofio, E. (1999) The importance of continuity in TRT patients: results at 18 months. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 509–511. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Heller, M. F. & Bergman, M. (1953) Tinnitus in normally hearing persons. Ann. Otol., 62, 73–93.
Henkin, R. I. & Daly, R. L. (1968) Auditory detection and perception in normal man and in patients with adrenal cortical insufficiency: effect of adrenal cortical steroids. J. Clin. Invest., 47, 1269–1280.
Henry, J. A. & Meikle, M. B. (2000) Psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus. J. Am. Acad. Audiol., 11, 138–155.
Henry, J. A., Jastreboff, M. M., Jastreboff, P. J., Schechter, M. A. & Fausti, S. A. (2003) Guide to conducting Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) initial and follow-up interviews. J. Rehab. Res. Dev., 40, 157–178.
Henry, J. L. & Wilson, P. H. (1999) Cognitive–behavioural therapy for tinnitus-related distress: an experimental evaluation of initial treatment and relapse prevention. In Proceedings of theSixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 118–124. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Hentzer, E. (1968) Objective tinnitus of the vascular type. A follow-up study. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.), 66, 273–281.
Herraiz, C., Hernandez, F. J., Machado, A., De Lucas, P. & Tapia, M. C. (1999) Tinnitus retraining therapy: our experience. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 483–484. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Higson, J. M., Haggard, M. P. & Field, D. L. (1994) Validation of parameters for assessing obscure auditory dysfunction: robustness of OAD status across samples and test methods. Br. J. Audiol., 28, 27–39.
Hochman, D. W., Baraban, S. C., Owens, J. W. & Schwartzkroin, P. A. (1995) Dissociation of synchronization and excitability in furosemide blockade of epileptiform activity. Science, 270, 99–102.
Hoffmann, F., Beck, C., Schutz, A. & Offermann, P. (1994) [Ginkgo extract EGb 761 (tenobin)/HAES versus naftidrofuryl (Dusodril)/HAES. A randomized study of therapy of sudden deafness.] Laryngorhinootologie, 73, 149–152.
Holgers, K. M., Axelsson, A. & Pringle, I. (1994) Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of tinnitus. Audiology, 33, 85–92.
Holgers, K. M., Zöger, S., Svedlund, J. & Erlandsson, S. I. (1999) Psychiatric profile of tinnitus patients referred to an audiological clinic. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, 1999, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 283–285. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
House, J. W. & Brackmann, D. E. (1981) Tinnitus: surgical treatment. Ciba. Found. Symp., 85, 204–216.
House, W. F. (1976) Cochlear implants. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 85, 1–93.
Huguet, F., Drieu, K. & Piriou, A. (1994) Decreased cerebral 5-HT1A receptors during ageing: reversal by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 46, 316–318.
Hulshof, J. H. & Vermeij, P. (1984) The effect of intra-venous lidocaine and several different doses of oral tocainide HCl on tinnitus. A dose-finding study. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.), 98, 231–238.
Hulshof, J. H. & Vermeij, P. (1985) The value of tocainide in the treatment of tinnitus. A double-blind controlled study. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol., 241, 279–283.
Hulshof, J. H. & Vermeij, P. (1986) The value of flunarizine in the treatment of tinnitus. ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec., 48, 33–36.
Hulshof, J. H. & Vermeij, P. (1987) The effect of nicotinamide on tinnitus: a double-blind controlled study. Clin. Otolaryngol., 12, 211–214.
Hultcrantz, E. (1988) Clinical treatment of vascular inner ear diseases. Am. J. Otolaryngol., 9, 317–322.
Huynh, L. & Fields, S. (1995) Alprazolam for tinnitus. Ann. Pharmacother., 29, 311–312.
Israel, J. M., Connelly, J. S., McTigue, S. T., Brummett, R. E. & Brown, J. (1982) Lidocaine in the treatment of tinnitus aurium. A double-blind study. Arch. Otolaryngol., 108, 471–473.
Itoh, K., Kamiya, H., Mitani, A., Yasui, Y., Takada, M. & Mizuno, N. (1987) Direct projections from the dorsal column nuclei and the spinal trigeminal nuclei to the cochlear nuclei in the cat. Brain Res., 400, 145–150.
Jakes, S. C., Hallam, R. S., Chambers, C. & Hinchcliffe, R. (1985) A factor analytical study of tinnitus complaint behaviour. Audiology, 24, 195–206.
Jakes, S. C., Hallam, R. S., Rachman, S. & Hinchcliffe, R. (1986) The effects of reassurance, relaxation training and distraction on chronic tinnitus sufferers. Behav. Res. Ther., 24, 497–507.
Jannetta, P. J. (1980) Neurovascular compression in cranial nerve and systemic disease. Ann. Surg., 192, 518–525.
Jannetta, P. J. (1987) Microvascular decompression of the cochlear nerve as treatment of tinnitus. In Proceedings of the Third International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Feldmann, H., pp. 348–352. Karlsruhe: Harsch Verlag.
Jastreboff, M. M. & Jastreboff, P. J. (2001a) Component of decreased sound tolerance: hyperacusis, misophonia, phonophobia. ITHS News Lett., 2, 5–7.
Jastreboff, M. M. & Jastreboff, P. J. (2001b) Hyperacusis. Audiology On-line, (accessed 18 June 2001).
Jastreboff, M. M. & Jastreboff, P. J. (2002) Decreased sound tolerance and Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT). Aust. N. Z. J. Audiol., 21, 74–81.
Jastreboff, P. J. (1990) Phantom auditory perception (tinnitus): mechanisms of generation and perception. Neurosci. Res., 8, 221–254.
Jastreboff, P. J. (1992) Mechanisms of tinnitus. Experimental animal models, In Audiology in Europe, an Academic Conference, Cambridge, 1992, abstract 19.
Jastreboff, P. J. (1995) Tinnitus as a phantom perception: theories and clinical implications, In Mechanisms of Tinnitus, ed. Vernon, J. & Moller, A. R., pp. 73–94. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Jastreboff, P. J. (1996a) Clinical implications of the neurophysiological model of tinnitus. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 500–507. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Jastreboff, P. J. (1996b) Processing of the tinnitus signal within the brain. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G. pp. 58–68. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Jastreboff, P. J. (1998) Tinnitus. In Current Therapy in Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery, 6th edn, ed. Gates, G. A., pp. 90–95. St Louis, MO: Mosby.
Jastreboff, P. J. (1999a) Categories of the patients and the treatment outcome. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 394–398. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Jastreboff, P. J. (1999b) How TRT derives from the neurophysiological model. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 87–91. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Jastreboff, P. J. (1999c) Optimal sound use in TRT: theory and practice. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 491–494. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Jastreboff, P. J. (1999d) The neurophysiological model of tinnitus and hyperacusis. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 32–38. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Jastreboff, P. J. (2000) Tinnitus habituation therapy (THT) and tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT). In Tinnitus Handbook, ed. Tyler, R., pp. 357–376. San Diego, CA: Singular, Thomson Learning.
Jastreboff, P. J. & Brennan, J. F. (1988) Specific effects of nimodipine on the auditory system. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 522, 716–718.
Jastreboff, P. J. & Brennan, J. F. (1996) Mechanisms of L-type calcium channel antagonist action on tinnitus. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 234–236. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Jastreboff, P. J. & Jastreboff, M. M. (2000a) Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) as a method for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis patients. J. Am. Acad. Audiol., 11, 156–161.
Jastreboff, P. J. & Jastreboff, M. M. (2000b) Potential impact of stochastic resonance on tinnitus and its treatment. In The 23rd Annual Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, p. 5542.
Jastreboff, P. J. & Jastreboff, M. M. (2001c) The neurophysiological model of tinnitus and its practical implementation: Current status. In Advances in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, vol 15, ed. Myers, E. N., Bluestone, C. D., Brackman, D. E., Krause, C. J. & Tutchko, M. J., St. Louis: Mosby.
Jastreboff, P. J. & Jastreboff, M. M. (2003a) Tinnitus and hyperacusis. In Ballenger’s Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 16th edn. ed. Snow, J. B., Jr. & Ballenger, J. J., pp. 456–475. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: BC Decker.
Jastreboff, P. J. & Jastreboff, M. M. (2003b) Tinnitus Retraining Therapy for patients with tinnitus and decreased sound tolerance. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 36, 321.
Jastreboff, P. J. & Sasaki, C. T. (1986) Salicylate-induced changes in spontaneous activity of single units in the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 80, 1384–1391.
Jastreboff, P. J. & Sasaki, C. T. (1994) An animal model of tinnitus: a decade of development. Am. J. Otol., 15, 19–27.
Jastreboff, P. J., Brennan, J. F., Coleman, J. K. & Sasaki, C. T. (1988) Phantom auditory sensation in rats: an animal model for tinnitus. Behav. Neurosci., 102, 811–822.
Jastreboff, P. J., Brennan, J. F. & Sasaki, C. T. (1991) Quinine-induced tinnitus in rats. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 117, 1162–1166.
Jastreboff, P. J., Hazell, J. W. P. & Graham, R. L. (1994) Neurophysiological model of tinnitus: dependence of the minimal masking level on treatment outcome. Hear. Res., 80, 216–232.
Jastreboff, P. J., Gray, W. C. & Gold, S. L. (1996) Neurophysiological approach to tinnitus patients. Am. J. Otol., 17, 236–240.
Jastreboff, P. J., Zhou, S., Jastreboff, M. M., Kwapisz, U. & Gryczynska, U. (1997) Attenuation of salicylate-induced tinnitus by Ginkgo biloba extract in rats. Audiol Neurootol., 2, 197–212.
Jastreboff, P. J., Gray, W. C. & Mattox, D. E. (1998) Tinnitus and Hyperacusis, In Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 3rd edn, ed. Cummings, C. W., Fredrickson, J. M., Harker, L. A., Krause, C. J., Richardson, M. A. & Schuller, D. E., pp. 3198–3222. St Louis, MO: Mosby.
Jastreboff, P. J., Jastreboff, M. M. & Sheldrake, J. B. (1999a) Audiometrical characterization of hyperacusis patients before and during TRT. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 495–498. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Jastreboff, P. J., Jastreboff, M. M., Kwon, O., Shi, J. & Hu, S. (1999) An animal model of noise induced tinnitus. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, 1999, Cambridge, UK, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 198–202. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Jastreboff, P. J., Jastreboff, M. M. & Mattox, D. E. (2001) Statistical analysis of the progress of tinnitus treatment during Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT). In The 24th Annual Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, abstract 21630.
Jeanmonod, D., Magnin, M. & Morel, A. (1996) Low-threshold calcium spike bursts in the human thalamus. Common physiology for sensory, motor and limbic positive systems. Brain, 119, 363–375.
Johnson, J. & Lalwani, A. K. (2003) Ménière’s disease, vestibular neuronitis, paroxysmal positional vertigo, and cerebellopontine angle tumors. In Ballenger’s Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 16th edn, ed. Snow, J. B., Jr & Ballenger, J. J., pp. 408–442. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker.
Johnson, R. M. (1998) The masking of tinnitus. In Tinnitus Treatment and Relief, ed. Vernon, J. A., pp. 164–186. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Johnson, R. M., Brummett, R. & Schleuning, A. (1993) Use of alprazolam for relief of tinnitus. A double-blind study. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 119, 842–845.
Jones, I. H. & Knudsen, V. O. (1928) Certain aspects of tinnitus particularly treatment. Laryngoscope, 38, 597–611.
Juergens, S. (1991) Alprazolam and diazepam: addiction potential. J. Subst. Abuse Treat., 8, 43–51.
Kaada, B., Hognestad, S. & Havstad, J. (1989) Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS) in tinnitus. Scand. Audiol., 18, 211–217.
Kaltenbach, J. A. (2000) Neurophysiologic mechanisms of tinnitus. J. Am. Acad. Audiol., 11, 125–137.
Kaltenbach, J. A. & Afman, C. E. (2000) Hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus after intense sound exposure and its resemblance to tone-evoked activity: a physiological model for tinnitus. Hear. Res., 140, 165–172.
Kaltenbach, J. A., Zhang, J. & Afman, C. E. (2000) Plasticity of spontaneous neural activity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus after intense sound exposure. Hear. Res., 147, 282–292.
Kaltenbach, J. A., Rachel, J., Mathog, T. A. & Zhang, J. (2001) Cisplatin induced hyperactivity in the DCN: relation to outer hair cell loss. In The 24th Annual Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, p. 20653.
Katznell, U. & Segal, S. (2001) Hyperacusis: review and clinical guidelines. Otol. Neurotol., 22, 321–326.
Kau, R. J., Sendtner-Gress, K., Ganzer, U. & Arnold, W. (1997) Effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with acute and chronic cochlear disorders. ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec., 59, 79–83.
Kawamoto, K., Ishimoto, S., Minoda, R., Brough, D. E. & Raphael, Y. (2003) Math1 gene transfer generates new cochlear hair cells in mature guinea pigs in vivo. J. Neurosci., 23, 4395–4400.
Kay, N. J. (1981) Oral chemotherapy in tinnitus. Br. J. Audiol., 15, 123–124.
Kempf, H. G., Roller, R. & Muhlbradt, L. (1993) [Correlation between inner ear disorders and temporomandibular joint diseases.] HNO, 41, 7–10.
Keppel, G. (1991) Design and Analysis: A Researcher’s Handbook, 3rd edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kiessling, J. (1980) [Masking of tinnitus aurium by maskers and hearing aids. HNO, 28, 383–388.
Kilic, C., Curran, H. V., Noshirvani, H., Marks, I. M. & Basoglu, M. (1999) Long-term effects of alprazolam on memory: a 3.5 year follow-up of agoraphobia/panic patients. Psychol. Med., 29, 225–231.
Kimberg, D. Y., Aguirre, G. K. & D’Esposito, M. (2000) Modulation of task-related neural activity in task-switching: an fMRI study. Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res., 10, 189–196.
Kitajima, K., Kitahara, M. & Kodama, A. (1987) Can tinnitus be masked by band erased filtered masker? Masking tinnitus with sounds not covering the tinnitus frequency. Am. J. Otol., 8, 203–206.
Kitano, H., Kitahara, M., Uchida, K. & Kitajima, K. (1987) Treatment of tinnitus with muscle relaxant. In Proceedings of the Third International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Feldmann, H., pp. 327–330. Karlsruhe: Harsch Verlag.
Klein, A. J., Armstrong, B. L., Greer, M. K. & Brown, F. R. (1990) Hyperacusis and otitis media in individuals with Williams syndrome. J. Speech Hear. Disord., 55, 339–344.
Klochoff, I. (1979) Impedance Fluctuation and aTensor Tympani Syndrome”, pp. 69–76. Lisbon: Universidad Nova de Lisboa Ed Penha & Pizarro.
Klostermann, W., Vieregge, P. & Kömpf, D. (1992) Musical pseudo-hallucination in acquired hearing loss. Fortschr. Neurol. Psychiatr., 60, 262–273.
Knox, G. W. & McPherson, A. (1997) Ménière’s disease: differential diagnosis and treatment. Am. Fam. Physician, 55, 1185–1190, 1193–1194.
Konorski, J. (1948) Conditioned Reflexes and Neuronal Organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kopelman, J., Budnick, A. S., Sessions, R. B., Kramer, M. B. & Wong, G. Y. (1988) Ototoxicity of high-dose cisplatin by bolus administration in patients with advanced cancers and normal hearing. Laryngoscope, 98, 858–864.
Kroner-Herwig, B., Hebing, G., van Rijn-Kalkmann, U., Frenzel, A., Schilkowsky, G. & Esser, G. (1995) The management of chronic tinnitus: comparison of a cognitive–behavioural group training with yoga. J. Psychosom. Res., 39, 153–165.
Kveton, J. F. & Bartoshuk, L. M. (1994) The effect of unilateral chorda tympani damage on taste. Laryngoscope, 104, 25–29.
Kwon, O., Jastreboff, M. M., Hu, S., Shi, J. & Jastreboff, P. J. (1999) Modification of single-unit activity related to noise-induced tinnitus in rats. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 459–462. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Lader, M. (1994) Anxiolytic drugs: dependence, addiction and abuse. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacology, 4, 85–91.
Lader, M. (1999) Limitations on the use of benzodiazepines in anxiety and insomnia: are they justified?Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., 9 (Suppl. 6), S399–S405.
Laffrëe, J. B., Vermeij, P. & Hulshof, J. H. (1989) The effect of iontophoresis of lignocaine in the treatment of tinnitus. Clin. Otolaryngol., 14, 401–404.
Lamour, Y., Holloway, H. W., Rapoport, S. I. & Soncrant, T. T. (1992) Ginkgo biloba extract decreases local glucose utilization in the adult rat brain. In Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761) on the Central Nervous System, ed. Christen, Y., Costentin, J. & Lacour, M., pp. 19–25. Paris: Elsevier.
Landis, B. & Landis, E. (1992) Is biofeedback effective for chronic tinnitus? An intensive study with seven subjects. Am. J. Otolaryngol., 13, 349–356.
Lenarz, T. (1986) Treatment of tinnitus with lidocaine and tocainide. Scand. Audiol. Suppl., 26, 49–51.
Lenarz, T., Schreiner, C., Snyder, R. L. & Ernst, A. (1993) Neural mechanisms of tinnitus. Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol., 249, 441–446.
Leone, C. A., Edgerton, B., Berliner, K. & House, J. W. (1984) [House cochlear implant for the control of tinnitus: preliminary results.] Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital., 4, 163–170.
Levi, H. & Chisin, R. (1987) Can tinnitus mask hearing? A comparison between subjective audiometric and objective electrophysiological thresholds in patients with tinnitus. Audiology, 26, 153–157.
Levine, R. A. (1999) Somatic (craniocervical) tinnitus and the dorsal cochlear nucleus hypothesis. Am. J. Otolaryngol., 20, 351–362.
Levo, H., Blomstedt, G. & Pyykko, I. (2000) Tinnitus and vestibular schwannoma surgery. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. (Stockh.), 543, 28–29.
Liberman, M. C. & Kiang, N. Y. S. (1978) Acoustic trauma in cats. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. (Stockh.), 358, 1–63.
Lipe, A. W. (2002) Beyond therapy: music, spirituality, and health in human experience: a review of literature. J Music Ther., 39, 209–240.
Longo, L. P. & Johnson, B. (2000) Addiction: Part I. Benzodiazepines: side effects, abuse risk and alternatives. Am. Fam. Physician, 61, 2121–2128.
Longridge, N. S. (1979) A tinnitus clinic. J. Otolaryngol., 8, 390–395.
Longworth, W. & McCarthy, P. W. (1997) A review of research on acupuncture for the treatment of lumbar disk protrusions and associated neurological symptomatology. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 3, 55–76.
Lux-Wellenhof, G. (1999) Treatment history of incoming patients to the Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre in Frankfurt/Main. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 502–506. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Lux-Wellenhof, G. & Hellweg, F. C. (2002) Longterm follow up study of TRT in Frankfurt. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Patuzzi, R., pp. 277–279. Perth, Australia: University of Western Australia.
MacNaughton Jones, H. (1891) Subjective Noises in the Head and Ears: Their Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. London: Baillière, Tindall and Cox.
Man-Son-Hing, M., Wells, G. & Lau, A. (1998) Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps: a meta-analysis including unpublished data. J. Gen. Intern. Med., 13, 600–606.
Mansbach, A. L. & Freyens, P. (1983) [Tinnitus: current data and treatment with sodium valproate.] Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Belg., 37, 697–705.
Marchbanks, R. (1997) Why monitor perilymphatic pressure in Ménière’s disease?Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. (Stockh.), 526, 27–29.
Marks, N. J., Emery, P. & Onisiphorou, C. (1984) A controlled trial of acupuncture in tinnitus. J. Laryngol. Otol., 98, 1103–1109.
Marriage, J. & Barnes, N. M. (1995) Is central hyperacusis a symptom of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) dysfunction?J. Laryngol. Otol., 109, 915–921.
Martin, W. H., Shi, Y.-B., Burchiel, K. J. & Anderson, V. C. (1999) Deep brain stimulation effects on hearing function and tinnitus. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 68–72. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Matthies, C. & Samii, M. (1997) Management of 1000 vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas): clinical presentation. Neurosurgery, 40, 1–9.
McCandless, G. A. & Goering, D. M. (1974) Changes in loudness after stapedectomy. Arch. Otolaryng., 100, 344–350.
McFadden, D. (Chairman of Working Group 89 of CHABA)(1982) Tinnitus: Facts, Theories, and Treatments. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
McIlwain, J. C. (1987) Glutamic acid in the treatment of tinnitus. J. Laryngol. Otol., 101, 552–554.
McKenna, L. (2000) Tinnitus and insomnia. In Tinnitus Handbook, ed. Tyler, R., pp. 59–84. San Diego, CA: Singular, Thomson Learning.
McKenna, L., Hallam, R. S. & Hinchcliffe, R. (1991) The prevalence of psychological disturbance in neurotology outpatients. Clin. Otolaryngol., 16, 452–456.
McKerrow, W. S., Schreiner, C. E., Snyder, R. L., Merzenich, M. M. & Toner, J. G. (1991) Tinnitus suppression by cochlear implants. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 100, 552–558.
McKinney, C. J., Hazel, J. W. P. & Graham, R. L. (1999) An evaluation of the TRT method. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 99–105. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Melcher, J. R., Sigalovsky, I. S., Guinan, J. J., Jr. & Levine, R. A. (2000) Lateralized tinnitus studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging: abnormal inferior colliculus activation. J. Neurophysiol., 83, 1058–1072.
Melin, L., Scott, B., Lindberg, P. & Lyttkens, L. (1987) Hearing aids and tinnitus: an experimental group study. Br. J. Audiol., 21, 91–97.
Melzack, R. (1989) Phantom limbs, the self and the brain (The D. O. Hebb memorial lecture). Can. Psychol., 30, 1–16.
Melzack, R. (1990) Phantom limbs and the concept of a neuromatrix. Trends Neurosci., 13, 88–92.
Melzack, R. (1992) Phantom limbs. Sci. Am., 266, 120–126.
Merchant, S. N., Rauch, S. D. & Nadol, J. B., Jr. (1995) Ménière’s disease. Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol., 252, 63–75.
Meyer, B. (1986) [Multicenter randomized double-blind drug vs. placebo study of the treatment of tinnitus with Ginkgo biloba extract.] Presse Med., 15, 1562–1564.
Mihail, R. C., Crowley, J. M., Walden, B. E., Fishburne, J., Reinwall, J. E. & Zajtchuk, J. T. (1988) The tricyclic trimipramine in the treatment of subjective tinnitus. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 97, 120–123.
Milbrandt, J. C., Holder, T. M., Wilson, M. C., Salvi, R. J. & Caspary, D. M. (2000) GAD levels and muscimol binding in rat inferior colliculus following acoustic trauma. Hear. Res., 147, 251–260.
Miller, M. H. (1981) Tinnitus amplification: the high frequency hearing aid. J. Laryngol. Otol. Suppl., 10, 71–75.
Mirz, F., Zachariae, R., Andersen, S. E., et al. (1999a) The low-power laser in the treatment of tinnitus. Clin. Otolaryngol., 24, 346–354.
Mirz, F., Pedersen, B., Ishizu, K., et al. (1999b) Positron emission tomography of cortical centers of tinnitus. Hear. Res., 134, 133–144.
Mirz, F., Gjedde, A., Ishizu, K. & Pedersen, C. B. (2000a) Cortical networks subserving the perception of tinnitus: a PET study. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl, 543, 241–243.
Mirz, F., Gjedde, A., Sodkilde-Jrgensen, H. & Pedersen, C. B. (2000b) Functional brain imaging of tinnitus-like perception induced by aversive auditory stimuli. Neuro Report, 11, 633–637.
Mitchell, C. R. & Creedon, T. A. (1995) Psychophysical tuning curves in subjects with tinnitus suggest outer hair cell lesions. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 113, 223–233.
Mitchell, C. R., Vernon, J. A. & Creedon, T. A. (1993) Measuring tinnitus parameters: loudness, pitch, and maskability. J. Am. Acad. Audiol., 4, 139–151.
Moffat, D. A. (1997) Endolymphatic mastoid shunt surgery in unilateral Ménière’s disease. Ear Nose Throat J., 76, 642–8, 650.
Moffat, D. A., Baguley, D. M., Beynon, G. J. & Da Cruz, M. (1998) Clinical acumen and vestibular schwannoma. Am. J. Otol., 19, 82–87.
Moller, A. R. (1984) Pathophysiology of tinnitus. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 93, 39–44.
Moller, A. R. (1992) Central neurophysiological processes in tinnitus. In Tinnitus 91. Proceedings of the Fourth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Aran, J.-M. & Dauman, R., pp. 165–179. Amsterdam: Kugler & Ghedini.
Moller, A. R. (1995) Pathophysiology of tinnitus. In Mechanisms of tinnitus, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Moller, A. R., pp. 207–217. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Backon.
Moller, A. R. (1997) Similarities between chronic pain and tinnitus. Am. J. Otol., 18, 577–585.
Moller, A. R., Moller, M. B., Jannetta, P. J. & Jho, H. D. (1992a) Compound action potentials recorded from the exposed eight nerve in patients with intractable tinnitus. Laryngoscope, 102, 187–197.
Moller, A. R., Moller, M. B. & Yokota, M. (1992b) Some forms of tinnitus may involve the extralemniscal auditory pathway. Laryngoscope, 102, 1165–1171.
Mongan, E., Kelly, P., Nies, K., Porter, W. W. & Paulus, H. E. (1973) Tinnitus as an indication of therapeutic serum salicylate levels. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 226, 141–145.
Moore, B. C. J. (1995) An Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing, 3rd edn.
Moroso, M. J. & Blair, R. L. (1983) A review of cis-platinum ototoxicity. J. Otolaryngol., 12, 365–369.
MRC-IHR (Medical Research Council’s Institute of Hearing Research) (1981) Epidemiology of tinnitus. CIBA Found. Symp., 85, 16–34.
Mudford, O. C., Cross, B. A., Breen, S., et al. (2000) Auditory integration training for children with autism: no behavioral benefits detected. Am. J. Ment. Retard., 105, 118–129.
Muhlnickel, W., Elbert, T., Taub, E. & Flor, H. (1998) Reorganization of auditory cortex in tinnitus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 10340–10343.
Munte, T. F., Gehde, E., Johannes, S., Seewald, M. & Heinze, H. J. (1996) Effects of alprazolam and bromazepam on visual search and verbal recognition memory in humans: a study with event-related brain potentials. Neuropsychobiology, 34, 49–56.
Murai, K., Tyler, R. S., Harker, L. A. & Stouffer, J. L. (1992) Review of pharmacologic treatment of tinnitus. Am. J. Otol., 13, 454–464.
Narayan, S. S., Temchin, A. N., Recio, A. & Ruggero, M. A. (1998) Frequency tuning of basilar membrane and auditory nerve fibers in the same cochleae. Science, 282, 1882–1884.
Newman, C. W., Jacobson, G. P. & Spitzer, J. B. (1996) Development of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 122, 143–148.
Nields, J. A., Fallon, B. A. & Jastreboff, P. J. (1999) Carbamazepine in the treatment of Lyme disease-induced hyperacusi. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 11, 97–99.
Nigam, A. & Samuel, P. R. (1994) Hyperacusis and Williams syndrome. J. Laryngol. Otol., 108, 494–496.
Nilsson, S., Axelsson, A. & Li De, G. (1992) Acupuncture for tinnitus management. Scand. Audiol., 21, 245–251.
Norton, S. J., Schmidt, A. R. & Stover, L. J. (1990) Tinnitus and otoacoustic emissions: is there a link?Ear Hear., 11, 159–166.
Ochi, K. & Eggermont, J. J. (1997) Effects of quinine on neural activity in cat primary auditory cortex. Hear. Res., 105, 105–118.
Oen, J. M., Begeer, J. H., Staal-Schreinemachers, A. & Tijmstra, T. (1997) Hyperacusis in children with spina bifida: a pilot-study. Eur. J. Pediatr. Surg., Suppl. 1, 46.
Oestreicher, E., Arnold, W., Ehrenberger, K. & Felix, D. (1999) New approaches for inner ear therapy with glutamate antagonists. Acta Otolaryngol., 119, 174–178.
Ogata, Y., Sekitani, T., Moriya, K. & Watanabe, K. (1993) Biofeedback therapy in the treatment of tinnitus. Auris. Nasus. Larynx, 20, 95–101.
Olsen, S. O. (1999) The relationship between the uncomfortable loudness level and the acoustic reflex threshold for pure tones in normally-hearing and impaired listeners: a meta-analysis. Audiology, 38, 61–68.
Olsen, S. O., Rasmussen, A. N., Nielsen, L. H. & Borgkvist, B. V. (1999) The acoustic reflex threshold: not predictive for loudness perception in normally-hearing listeners. Audiology, 38, 303–307.
Oosterveld, W. J. (1984) Betahistine dihydrochloride in the treatment of vertigo of peripheral vestibular origin. A double-blind placebo-controlled study. J. Laryngol. Otol., 98, 37–41.
Overstreet, E. H., Temchin, A. N. & Ruggero, M. A. (2002) Basilar membrane vibrations near the round window of the gerbil cochlea. Jaro, 3, 351–361.
Paaske, P. B., Pedersen, C. B., Kjems, G. & Sam, I. L. (1991) Zinc in the management of tinnitus. Placebo-controlled trial. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 100, 647–649.
Park, J., White, A. R. & Ernst, E. (2000) Efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for tinnitus: a systematic review. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 126, 489–492.
Partheniadis-Stumpf, M., Maurer, J. & Mann, W. (1993) [Soft laser therapy in combination with tebonin i.v. in tinnitus.] Laryngorhinootologie, 72, 28–31.
Penner, M. J. (1992) Linking spontaneous otoacoustic emissions and tinnitus. Br. J. Audiol., 26, 115–123.
Penner, M. J. (1993) Synthesizing tinnitus from sine waves. J. Speech Hear. Res., 36, 1300–1305.
Penner, M. J. & Bilger, R. C. (1989) Adaptation and the masking of tinnitus. J. Speech Hear. Res., 32, 339–346.
Penner, M. J. & Burns, E. M. (1987) The dissociation of SOAEs and tinnitus. J. Speech Hear. Res., 30, 396–403.
Penner, M. J. & Coles, R. R. (1992) Indications for aspirin as a palliative for tinnitus caused by SOAEs: a case study. Br. J. Audiol., 26, 91–96.
Perry, B. P. & Gantz, B. J. (2000) Medical and surgical evaluation and management of tinnitus. In Tinnitus Handbook, ed. Tyler, R., pp. 221–241. San Diego, CA: Singular, Thomson Learning.
Pilgramm, M., Lamm, H. & Schumann, K. (1985) [Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sudden deafness.] Laryngol. Rhinol. Otol. (Stuttg.), 64, 351–354.
Plath, P. & Olivier, J. (1995) Results of combined low-power laser therapy and extracts of Ginkgo biloba in cases of sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Adv. Otorhinolaryngol., 49, 101–104.
Podoshin, L., Ben David, Y., Fradis, M., Gerstel, R. & Felner, H. (1991) Idiopathic subjective tinnitus treated by biofeedback, acupuncture and drug therapy. Ear Nose Throat J., 70, 284–289.
Podoshin, L., Fradis, M. & David, Y. B. (1992) Treatment of tinnitus by intratympanic instillation of lignocaine (lidocaine) 2 per cent through ventilation tubes. J. Laryngol. Otol., 106, 603–606.
Portmann, M., Cazals, Y., Negrevergne, M. & Aran, J. M. (1979) Temporary tinnitus suppression in man through electrical stimulation of the cochlea. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.), 87, 294–299.
Pugh, R., Budd, R. J. & Stephens, S. D. (1995) Patients’ reports of the effect of alcohol on tinnitus. Br. J. Audiol., 29, 279–283.
Pujol, R. (1992) Neuropharmacology of the cochlea and tinnitus. In Tinnitus 91. Proceedings of the Fourth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Aran, J.-M. & Dauman, R., pp. 103–107. Amsterdam: Kugler & Ghedini.
Pujol, R., Puel, J. L., Gervais, A. & Eybalin, M. (1993) Pathophysiology of the glutamatergic synapses in the cochlea. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.), 113, 330–334.
Pulec, J. L. (1995) Cochlear nerve section for intractable tinnitus. Ear Nose J., 74, 468, 470–476.
Rahko, T. & Hakkinen, V. (1979) Carbamazepine in the treatment of objective myoclonus tinnitus. J. Laryngol. Otol., 93, 123–127.
Rahko, T. & Kotti, V. (1997) Tinnitus treatment by transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS). Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. (Stockh.), 529, 88–89.
Rapin, J. R., Lamproglou, I., Drieu, K. & DeFeudis, F. V. (1994) Demonstration of the anti-stress activity of an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) using a discrimination learning task. Gen. Pharmac., 25, 1009–1016.
Rendell, R. J., Carrick, D. G., Fielder, C. P., Callaghan, D. E. & Thomas, K. J. (1987) Low-powered ultrasound in the inhibition of tinnitus. Br. J. Audiol., 21, 289–293.
Rice, C. G. (1994) Annoyance due to low frequency hums. Br. Med. J., 308, 355–356.
Rickels, K., Lucki, I., Schweizer, E., Garcia-Espana, F. & Case, W. G. (1999) Psychomotor performance of long-term benzodiazepine users before, during, and after benzodiazepine discontinuation. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 19, 107–113.
Ridgman, W. J. (1975) Experimentation in Biology. Glasgow: Blackie.
Rigby, P. L., Shah, S. B., Jackler, R. K., Chung, J. H. & Cooke, D. D. (1997) Acoustic neuroma surgery: outcome analysis of patient-perceived disability. Am. J. Otol., 18, 427–435.
Risey, J., Guth, P. S. & Amedee, R. G. (1996) Furosamide distinguishes between central and peripheral tinnitus. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 237–242. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Robles, L. & Ruggero, M. A. (2001) Mechanics of the mammalian cochlea. Physiol. Rev., 81, 1305–1352.
Roche, R. J., Silamut, K., Pukrittayakamee, S., et al. (1990) Quinine induces reversible high-tone hearing loss. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 29, 780–782.
Rodriguez de Turco, E. B., Droy-Lefaix, M. T. & Bazan, N. G. (1993) EGb 761 inhibits stress-induced polydipsia in rats. Physiol. Behav., 53, 1001–1002.
Roland, N. J., Hughes, J. B., Daley, M. B., Cook, J. A., Jones, A. S. & McCormick, M. S. (1993) Electromagnetic stimulation as a treatment of tinnitus: a pilot study. Clin. Otolaryngol., 18, 278–281.
Rosenfeld, R. M. (2001) Evidence, outcomes, and common sense. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 124, 123–124.
Rubinstein, B. & Erlandsson, S. I. (1991a) A stomatognathic analysis of patients with disabling tinnitus and craniomandibular disorders (CMD). Br. J. Audiol., 25, 77–83.
Rubinstein, B. & Erlandsson, S. I. (1991b) Tinnitus and craniomandibular disorders: is there a link? A stomatognathic analysis of patients with disabling tinnitus and craniomandibular disorders (CMD). Swed. Dent. J. Suppl., 25, 77–83.
Rubinstein, B., Axelsson, A. & Carlsson, G. E. (1990) Prevalence of signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders in tinnitus patients. J. Craniomandib. Disord., 4, 186–192.
Rubinstein, J. T., Tyler, R. S., Johnson, A. & Brown, C. J. (2003) Electrical suppression of tinnitus with high-rate pulse trains. Otol. Neurootol., 24, 478–485.
Ruggero, M. A., Narayan, S. S., Temchin, A. N. & Recio, A. (2000) Mechanical bases of frequency tuning and neural excitation at the base of the cochlea: comparison of basilar-membrane vibrations and auditory-nerve-fiber responses in chinchilla. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 11744–11750.
Rush, C. C., Higgins, S. S., Bickel, W. W. & Hughes, J. J. (1994) Acute behavioral effects of lorazepam and caffeine, alone and in combination, in humans. Behav. Pharmacol., 5, 245–254.
Ryan, R. M. & Hazell, J. W. P. (1995) Ménières disease: are investigations of any value? A retrospective study. J. Audiol. Med., 3, 160–170.
Sahley, T. L. & Nodar, R. H. (2001) A biochemical model of peripheral tinnitus. Hear. Res., 152, 43–54.
Sallanon-Moulin, M., Touret, M., Didier-Bazes, M., et al. (1994) Glutamine synthetase modulation in the brain of rats subjected to deprivation of paradoxical sleep. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res., 22, 113–120.
Saltzman, M. & Ersner, M. S. (1947) A hearing aid for the relief of tinnitus aurium. Laryngoscope, 57, 358–366.
Salvi, R. J., Powers, N. L., Saunders, S. S., Boettcher, F. A. & Clock, A. E. (1992) Enhancement of evoked response amplitude and single unit activity after noise exposure. In Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, ed. Dancer, A. L., Henderson, D., Salvi, R. J. & Hamernik, R., pp. 156–171. St Louis, MO: Mosby.
Salvi, R. J., Wang, J. & Powers, N. (1996) Rapid functional reorganization in the inferior colliculus and cochlear nucleus after acute cochlear damage. In Auditory System Plasticity and Regeneration, ed. Salvi, R. J., Henderson, D., Fiorino, F. & Colletti, V., pp. 275–296. New York: Thieme.
Sanchez, T. G., Guerra, G. C. Y., Lorenzi, M. C., Brandao, A. L. & Bento, R. F. (2002) The influence of voluntary muscle contractions upon the onset and modulation of tinnitus. Audiol. Neuro-Otology, 7, 370–375.
Schleuning, A. J., Johnson, R. M. & Vernon, J. A. (1980) Evaluation of a tinnitus masking program: a follow-up study of 598 patients. Ear Hear., 1, 71–74.
Schuknecht, H. (1981) The pathophysiology of Ménière’s Disease. In Ménière’s Disease, ed. Vosteen, K. H., Schuknecht, H., Pfaltz, C. R., et al., pp. 10–15. Stuttgart: Thieme.
Schultz, G. & Melzack, R. (1991) The Charles Bonnet syndrome: “phantom visual images.”Perception, 20, 809–825.
Scott, B., Larsen, H. C., Lyttkens, L. & Melin, L. (1994) An experimental evaluation of the effects of transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS) and applied relaxation (AR) on hearing ability, tinnitus and dizziness in patients with Ménière’s disease. Br. J. Audiol., 28, 131–140.
Seligmann, H., Podoshin, L., Ben-David, J., Fradis, M. & Goldsher, M. (1996) Drug-induced tinnitus and other hearing disorders. Drug Saf., 14, 198–212.
Shailer, M. J., Tyler, R. S. & Coles, R. R. (1981) Critical masking bands for sensorineural tinnitus. Scand. Audiol., 10, 157–162.
Shambaugh, G. E., Jr. (1986) Zinc for tinnitus, imbalance, and hearing loss in the elderly. Am. J. Otol., 7, 476–477.
Shambaugh, G. E., Jr. (1989) Zinc: the neglected nutrient. Am. J. Otol., 10, 156–160.
Shea, J. J. (1981) Otosclerosis and tinnitus. J. Laryngol. Otol. Suppl., 10, 149–150.
Shea, J. J., Jr. & Ge, X. (1996) Dexamethasone perfusion of the labyrinth plus intravenous dexa-methasone for Ménière’s disease. Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am., 29, 353–358.
Shea, J. J. & Xianxi, G. (2000) IV Lidocaine for tinnitus. In Proceedings of the American Otological Society Annual Spring Meeting.
Shea, J. J., Emmett, J. R., Orchik, D. J., Mays, K. & Webb, W. (1981) Medical treatment of tinnitus. Ann. Otol., 90, 601–609.
Sheldrake, J. B., Jastreboff, P. J. & Hazell, J. W. P. (1996) Perspectives for the total elimination of tinnitus perception. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 531–536. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Sheldrake, J. B., Hazell, J. W. P. & Graham, R. L. (1999) Results of tinnitus retraining therapy. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Hazell, J. W. P., pp. 292–296. London: Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Centre.
Shengtai, Z., Kwapisz, U., Jastreboff, M. M., Gryczynska, U. & Jastreboff, P. J. (1996) Evaluation of the effectiveness of EGB 761 in an animal model of tinnitus. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 245–248. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Shiomi, Y., Takahashi, H., Honjo, I., Kojima, H., Naito, Y. & Fujiki, N. (1997) Efficacy of transmeatal low power laser irradiation on tinnitus: a preliminary report. Auris. Nasus. Larynx, 24, 39–42.
Shulman, A. (1985) External electrical stimulation in tinnitus control. Am. J. Otol., 6, 110–115.
Shulman, A. (1988) Diagnosis of tinnitus. In Tinnitus: Pathophysiology and Management, ed. Kitahara, M., pp. 53–63. Tokyo: Igaku-Shoin.
Silverstein, H., Haberkamp, T. & Smouha, E. (1986) The state of tinnitus after inner ear surgery. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 95, 438–441.
Silverstein, H., Choo, D., Rosenberg, S. I., Kuhn, J., Seidman, M. & Stein, I. (1996) Intratympanic steroid treatment of inner ear disease and tinnitus (preliminary report). Ear Nose Throat J., 75, 468–474.
Simpson, J. J. & Davies, W. E. (2000) A review of evidence in support of a role for 5-HT in the perception of tinnitus. Hear. Res., 145, 1–7.
Simpson, J. J., Donaldson, I. & Davies, W. E. (1998) Use of homeopathy in the treatment of tinnitus. Br. J. Audiol., 32, 227–233.
Simpson, J. J., Gilbert, A. M., Weiner, G. M. & Davies, W. E. (1999) The assessment of lamotrigine, an antiepileptic drug, in the treatment of tinnitus. Am. J. Otol., 20, 627–631.
Snow, J. B., Doty, R. L., Bartoshuk, L. M. & Getchell, T. V. (1991) Categorization of chemosensory disorders. In Smell and Taste in Health and Disease, ed. Getchell, T. V., Doty, R. L., Snow, J. B. & Bartoshuk, L. M., pp. 445–447. New York: Raven.
Soderman, A. C., Bergenius, J., Bagger-Sjoback, D., Tjell, C. & Langius, A. (2001) Patients’ subjective evaluations of quality of life related to disease-specific symptoms, sense of coherence, and treatment in Ménière’s disease. Otol. Neurootol., 22, 526–533.
Sprengelmeyer, R., Young, A. W., Schroeder, U., et al. (1999) Knowing no fear. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol. Sci., 266, 2451–2456.
Stacey, J. S. (1980) Apparent total control of severe bilateral tinnitus by masking, using hearing aids. Br. J. Audiol., 14, 59–60.
Stanford, S. C. (1996) Prozac: panacea or puzzle. Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 17, 150–154.
Stedman’s Concise Medical Dictionary. (1997) New York: Williams & Wilkins.
Stephens, D., Pugh, R. & Jones, G. (1996) Alcohol and tinnitus: beneficial effects. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 243–244. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Stephens, S. D. (1984) The treatment of tinnitus: a historical perspective. J. Laryngol. Otol., 98, 963–972.
Stephens, S. D. & Hallam, R. S. (1985) The Crown–Crisp experiential index in patients complaining of tinnitus. Br. J. Audiol., 19, 151–158.
Stephens, S. D., Hallam, R. S. & Jakes, S. C. (1986) Tinnitus: a management model. Clin. Otolaryngol., 11, 227–238.
Stopp, P. E. (1983) Effects on guinea pig cochlea from exposure to moderately intense broad-band noise. Hear. Res., 11, 55–72.
Sullivan, M., Katon, W., Russo, J., Dobie, R. & Sakai, C. (1993) A randomized trial of nortriptyline for severe chronic tinnitus. Effects on depression, disability, and tinnitus symptoms. Arch. Intern. Med., 153, 2251–2259.
Sullivan, M., Katon, W., Russo, J., Dobie, R. & Sakai, C. (1994) Coping and marital support as correlates of tinnitus disability. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry, 16, 259–266.
Swanson, L. W. (1987) Limbic system. In Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, ed. Adelman, G., pp. 589–591. Boston, MA: Birkhauser.
Sweetow, R. (2000) Cognitive behavioral modification. In Tinnitus Handbook, ed. Tyler, R., pp. 297–312. San Diego, CA: Singular, Thomson Learning.
Szczepaniak, W. S. & Moller, A. R. (1996) Effects of (-)-baclofen, clonazepam, and diazepam on tone exposure-induced hyperexcitability of the inferior colliculus in the rat: possible therapeutic implications for pharmacological management of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Hear. Res., 97, 46–53.
Tandon, R., Grunhaus, L. & Greden, J. F. (1987) Imipramine and tinnitus. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 48, 109–111.
Terry, A. M. & Jones, D. M. (1986) Preference for potential tinnitus maskers: results from annoyance ratings. Br. J. Audiol., 20, 277–297.
Terry, A. M., Jones, D. M., Davis, B. R. & Slater, R. (1983) Parametric studies of tinnitus masking and residual inhibition. Br. J. Audiol., 17, 245–256.
Tewary, A. K., Riley, N. & Kerr, A. G. (1998) Long-term results of vestibular nerve section. J. Laryngol. Otol., 112, 1150–1153.
Thedinger, B., House, W. F. & Edgerton, B. J. (1985) Cochlear implant for tinnitus. Case reports. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 94, 10–13.
Thedinger, B. S., Karlsen, E. & Schack, S. H. (1987) Treatment of tinnitus with electrical stimulation: an evaluation of the Audimax Theraband. Laryngoscope, 97, 33–37.
Thiel, C. M., Henson, R. N., Morris, J. S., Friston, K. J. & Dolan, R. J. (2001) Pharmacological modulation of behavioral and neuronal correlates of repetition priming. J. Neurosci., 21, 6846–6852.
Thompson, R. F. (1987) Learning and memory, neural mechanisms. In Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, ed. Adelman, G., pp. 574–576. Boston, MA: Birkhauser.
Thomsen, J., Bonding, P., Becker, B., Stage, J. & Tos, M. (1998) The non-specific effect of endolymphatic sac surgery in treatment of Ménière’s disease: a prospective, randomized controlled study comparing “classic” endolymphatic sac surgery with the insertion of a ventilating tube in the tympanic membrane. Acta Otolaryngol., 118, 769–773.
Thormodsen, M., Hjortdahl, P., Farbrot, T., et al. (1999) [From valium to the happy pill?] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen., 119, 2157–2160.
Tonndorf, J. (1980) Acute cochlear disorders: the combination of hearing loss, recruitment, poor speech discrimination, and tinnitus. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 89, 353–358.
Tonndorf, J. (1987) The analogy between tinnitus and pain: a suggestion for a physiological basis of chronic tinnitus. Hear. Res., 28, 271–275.
Tyler, R. (2000) Psychoacoustical measurements. In Tinnitus Handbook, ed. Tyler, R., pp. 149–180. San Diego, CA: Singular, Thomson Learning.
Tyler, R. S. & Baker, L. J. (1983) Difficulties experienced by tinnitus sufferers. J. Speech Hear. Disord., 48, 150–154.
Tyler, R. S. & Kelsay, D. (1990) Advantages and disadvantages reported by some of the better cochlear-implant patients. Am. J. Otol., 11, 282–289.
van Benthem, P. P. G., Klis, S. F. L., Albers, F. W. J., et al. (1994) The effect of nimodipine on cochlear potentials and Na+ / K+ - ATPase activity in normal and hydropic cochleas of the albino guinea pig. Hear. Res., 77, 9–18.
Van Borsel, J., Curfs, L. M. & Fryns, J. P. (1997) Hyperacusis in Williams syndrome: a sample survey study. Genet. Couns., 8, 121–126.
van Leeuwen, J. P., Braspenning, J. C., Meijer, H. & Cremers, C. W. (1996) Quality of life after acoustic neuroma surgery. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 105, 423–430.
Vavrina, J. & Muller, W. (1995) Therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygenation in acute acoustic trauma. Rev. Laryngol. Otol. Rhinol. (Bord)., 116, 377–380.
Vermeij, P. & Hulshof, J. H. (1986) Dose finding of tocainide in the treatment of tinnitus. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. Toxicol., 24, 207–212.
Vernon, J. (1977) Attemps to relieve tinnitus. J. Am. Audiol. Soc., 2, 124–131.
Vernon, J. (1987) Pathophysiology of tinnitus: a special case – hyperacusis and a proposed treatment. Am. J. Otol., 8, 201–202.
Vernon, J. & Schleuning, A. (1978) Tinnitus: a new management. Laryngoscope, 88, 413–419.
Vernon, J., Griest, S. & Press, L. (1990) Attributes of tinnitus and the acceptance of masking. Am. J. Otolaryngol., 11, 44–50.
Verwey, B., Eling, P., Wientjes, H. & Zitman, F. G. (2000) Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 61, 456–459.
Vidailhet, P., Danion, J. M., Chemin, C. & Kazes, M. (1999) Lorazepam impairs both visual and auditory perceptual priming. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 147, 266–273.
Vilholm, O. J., Moller, K. & Jorgensen, K. (1998) Effect of traditional Chinese acupuncture on severe tinnitus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical investigation with open therapeutic control. Br. J. Audiol., 32, 197–204.
Vingen, J. V., Pareja, J. A., Storen, O., White, R. L. & Stovner, L. J. (1998) Phonophobia in migraine. Cephalgia, 18, 243–249.
von Wedel, H., Calero, L., Walger, M., Hoenen, S. & Rutwalt, D. (1995) Soft-laser/Ginkgo therapy in chronic tinnitus. A placebo-controlled study. Adv. Otorhinolaryngol., 49, 105–108.
Vyklicky, L., Keller, O. & Jastreboff, P. J. (1976) Anodal blocking of A delta tooth pulp afferents. Adv. Pain. Res. Ther., 1, 411–414.
Waddell, P. A. & Gronwall, D. M. A. (1984) Sensitivity to light and sound following minor head injury. Acta Neurol. Scand., 69, 270–276.
Walger, M., von Wedel, H., Hoenen, S. & Calero, L. (1996) Transmission of low powered laser rays to the human cochlea. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Vernon, J. A. & Reich, G., pp. 99–100. Portland, OR: American Tinnitus Association.
Wang, Z.-X., Ryan, A. F. & Woolf, N. K. (1987) Pentobarbital and ketamine alter the pattern of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in the central auditory system of the gerbil. Hear. Res., 27, 145–155.
Watanabe, I., Imai, S., Ikeda, M. & Ishida, A. (1997) Time series analysis of the course of Ménière’s disease. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. (Stockh.), 528, 97–102.
Watkins, G. R. (1997) Music therapy: proposed physiological mechanisms and clinical implications. Clin. Nurse Spec., 11, 43–50.
Wayman, D. M., Pham, H. N., Byl, F. M. & Adour, K. K. (1990) Audiological manifestations of Ramsay Hunt syndrome. J. Laryngol. Otol., 104, 104–108.
Welkoborsky, H. J. & Bumb, P. (1988) [Results of tinnitus therapy using lidocaine iontophoresis.] Laryngol. Rhinol. Otol. (Stuttg.), 67, 289–293.
Westerberg, B. D., Roberson, J. B., Jr. & Stach, B. A. (1996) A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of baclofen in the treatment of tinnitus. Am. J. Otol., 17, 896–903.
Wiegand, D. A., Ojemann, R. G. & Fickel, V. (1996) Surgical treatment of acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) in the United States: report from the Acoustic Neuroma Registry. Laryngoscope, 106, 58–66.
Willatt, D., O’Sullivan, G., Stoney, P. J., Jackson, S. R., Pritchard, J. & McCormick, M. S. (1987) A sequential double blind crossover trial of iontophoresis. In Proceedings of the Third International Tinnitus Seminar, ed. Feldmann, H., pp. 316–319. Karlsruhe: Harsch Verlag.
Wyant, G. M. (1979) Chronic pain syndromes and their treatment. II. Trigger points. Can. Anaesth. Soc. J., 26, 216–219.
Zenner, H. P. & Ernst, A. (1993) Cochlear-motor, transduction and signal-transfer tinnitus: models for three types of cochlear tinnitus. Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol., 249, 447–454.
Ziemann, U., Hallett, M. & Cohen, L. G. (1998) Mechanisms of deafferentation-induced plasticity in human motor cortex. J. Neurosci., 18, 7000–7007.
Ziemann, U., Muellbacher, W., Hallett, M. & Cohen, L. G. (2001) Modulation of practice-dependent plasticity in human motor cortex. Brain, 124, 1171–1181.
Zwicker, E. & Schorn, K. (1978) Psychoacoustical tuning curves in audiology. Audiology, 17, 120–140.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 17
Total number of PDF views: 135 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 389 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.