Skip to main content
Top Predators in Marine Ecosystems
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 21
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Cury, Philippe Bertrand, Arnaud Bertrand, Sophie Coll, Marta Gros, Philippe Kifani, Souad Loch, François Le Maury, Olivier Menard, Frédéric Renaud, Florent Shannon, Lynn and Shin, Yunne-Jai 2016. Tools for Oceanography and Ecosystemic Modeling.

    Wege, Mia Etienne, Marie-Pierre Chris Oosthuizen, W. Reisinger, Ryan R. Bester, Marthán N. and de Bruyn, P. J. Nico 2016. Trend changes in sympatric Subantarctic and Antarctic fur seal pup populations at Marion Island, Southern Ocean. Marine Mammal Science, Vol. 32, Issue. 3, p. 960.

    Golet, WJ Record, NR Lehuta, S Lutcavage, M Galuardi, B Cooper, AB and Pershing, AJ 2015. The paradox of the pelagics: why bluefin tuna can go hungry in a sea of plenty. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 527, p. 181.

    Jones, EL McConnell, BJ Smout, S Hammond, PS Duck, CD Morris, CD Thompson, D Russell, DJF Vincent, C Cronin, M Sharples, RJ and Matthiopoulos, J 2015. Patterns of space use in sympatric marine colonial predators reveal scales of spatial partitioning. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 534, p. 235.

    Piroddi, C Coll, M Steenbeek, J Macias Moy, D and Christensen, V 2015. Modelling the Mediterranean marine ecosystem as a whole: addressing the challenge of complexity. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 533, p. 47.

    Johnston, Alison Cook, Aonghais S. C. P. Wright, Lucy J. Humphreys, Elizabeth M. Burton, Niall H. K. and Frederiksen, Morten 2014. Modelling flight heights of marine birds to more accurately assess collision risk with offshore wind turbines. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 51, Issue. 1, p. 31.

    Olson, RJ Duffy, LM Kuhnert, PM Galván-Magaña, F Bocanegra-Castillo, N and Alatorre-Ramírez, V 2014. Decadal diet shift in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares suggests broad-scale food web changes in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 497, p. 157.

    Priede, Imants G. 2014. Biogeography of the Oceans: a Review of Development of Knowledge of Currents, Fronts and Regional Boundaries from Sailing Ships in the Sixteenth Century to Satellite Remote Sensing. Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 171, Issue. 6, p. 1013.

    Cronin, M. Pomeroy, P. and Jessopp, M. 2013. Size and seasonal influences on the foraging range of female grey seals in the northeast Atlantic. Marine Biology, Vol. 160, Issue. 3, p. 531.

    Paiva, VH Geraldes, P Marques, V Rodríguez, R Garthe, S and Ramos, JA 2013. Effects of environmental variability on different trophic levels of the North Atlantic food web. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 477, p. 15.

    Xavier, J. C. Louzao, M. Thorpe, S. E. Ward, P. Hill, C. Roberts, D. Croxall, J. P. and Phillips, R. A. 2013. Seasonal changes in the diet and feeding behaviour of a top predator indicate a flexible response to deteriorating oceanographic conditions. Marine Biology, Vol. 160, Issue. 7, p. 1597.

    Bertrand, Sophie Joo, Rocío Arbulu Smet, Claude Tremblay, Yann Barbraud, Christophe Weimerskirch, Henri and Frederiksen, Morten 2012. Local depletion by a fishery can affect seabird foraging. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 49, Issue. 5, p. 1168.

    Buren, AD Koen-Alonso, M and Montevecchi, WA 2012. Linking predator diet and prey availability: common murres and capelin in the Northwest Atlantic. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 445, p. 25.

    Dias, MP Granadeiro, JP and Catry, P 2012. Working the day or the night shift? Foraging schedules of Cory’s shearwaters vary according to marine habitat. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 467, p. 245.

    Ito, Motohiro Kazama, Kentaro Niizuma, Yasuaki Minami, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yuzan and Watanuki, Yutaka 2012. Prey Resources used for Producing Egg Yolks in Four Species of Seabirds: Insight from Stable-Isotope Ratios. Ornithological Science, Vol. 11, Issue. 2, p. 113.

    Dänhardt, Andreas Fresemann, Tido and Becker, Peter H. 2011. To eat or to feed? Prey utilization of Common Terns Sterna hirundo in the Wadden Sea. Journal of Ornithology, Vol. 152, Issue. 2, p. 347.

    Kirkman, SP Oosthuizen, WH Meÿer, MA Seakamela, SM and Underhill, LG 2011. Prioritising range-wide scientific monitoring of the Cape fur seal in southern Africa. African Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 33, Issue. 3, p. 495.

    LOUZAO, M. ARCOS, J. M. GUIJARRO, B. VALLS, M. and ORO, D. 2011. Seabird-trawling interactions: factors affecting species-specific to regional community utilisation of fisheries waste. Fisheries Oceanography, Vol. 20, Issue. 4, p. 263.

    Quillfeldt, P Schroff, S van Noordwijk, HJ Michalik, A Ludynia, K and Masello, JF 2011. Flexible foraging behaviour of a sexually dimorphic seabird: large males do not always dive deep. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 428, p. 271.


  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Top Predators in Marine Ecosystems
    • Online ISBN: 9780511541964
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The sustainable exploitation of the marine environment depends upon our capacity to develop systems of management with predictable outcomes. Unfortunately, marine ecosystems are highly dynamic and this property could conflict with the objective of sustainable exploitation. This book investigates the theory that the population and behavioural dynamics of predators at the upper end of marine food chains can be used to assist with management. Since these species integrate the dynamics of marine ecosystems across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, they offer new sources of information that can be formally used in setting management objectives. This book examines the current advances in the understanding of the ecology of marine predators and will investigate how information from these species could be used in management.


‘Each section of the volume has an extensive bibliography which may be one of its most valuable contents allowing an easy access to the many published sources on the subject. It is indexed in a detailed fashion and will be a valuable addition to a botanical library… an invaluable contribution to the marine conservation literature … I would strongly recommend this book to all biologists to rectify any imbalance that may have occurred in their scientific education’

Source: Biologist

' … an interesting and important book … packed with scientific knowledge …'

Source: Fish and Fisheries

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

C. W.Fowler, & J. A.MacMahon, (1982). Selective extinction and speciation: their influence on the structure and functioning of communities and ecosystems. Am. Nat., 119, 480–98.

D.Garlaschelli, , G.Calderelli, & L.Pietronero, (2003). Universal scaling relations in food webs. Nature, 423, 165–8.

Y.Mori, & I. L.Boyd, (2004). The behavioral basis for nonlinear functional responses and optimal foraging in Antarctic fur seals. Ecology, 85, 398–410.

D.Pauly, , V.Christensen, , S.Guénette, et al. (2002). Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature, 418, 689–95.

E. E.Plaganyi, & D. S.Butterworth, (2004). A critical look at the potential of Ecopath with Ecosim to assist in practical fisheries management. Afr. J. Mar. Sci., 26, 261–87.

A.Punt, & D. S.Butterworth, (1995). The effects of future consumption by the Cape fur seal on catches and catch rates of the Cape hakes. 4. Modelling the biological interaction between Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus and the Cape hake Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci., 16, 255–85.

W. J.Sydeman, , M. M.Hester, , J. A.Thayer, et al. (2001). Climate change, reproductive performance and diet composition of marine birds in the southern California Current system, 1969–1997. Prog. Oceanogr., 49, 309–29.

T.Agardy, (2000). Effects of fisheries on marine ecosystems: a conservationist's perspective. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 761–5.

S. H.Alonzo, , P. V.Switzer, & M.Mangel, (2003). An ecosystem-based approach to management: using individual behaviour to predict the indirect effects of Antarctic krill fisheries on penguin foraging. J. Appl. Ecol., 40, 692–702.

J. E.Arias-Gonzalez, , E.Nunez-Lara, , C.Gonzalez-Salas, & R.Galzin, (2004). Trophic models for investigation of fishing effect on coral reef ecosystems. Ecol. Model., 172, 197–212.

A. J.Benson, & A. W.Trites, (2002). Ecological effects of regime shifts in the Bering Sea and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Fish Fisher., 3, 95–113.

G.Bianchi, , Gislason, H., Graham, K. et al. (2000). Impact of fishing on size composition and diversity of demersal fish communities. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 558–71.

L. W.Botsford, , J. C.Castilla, & C. H.Peterson, (1997). The management of fisheries and marine ecosystems. Science, 277, 509–15.

J. F.Caddy, (2000). Marine catchment basin effects versus impacts of fisheries on semi-enclosed seas. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 628–40.

V.Christensen, (1998). Fishery-induced changes in a marine ecosystem: insight from models of the Gulf of Thailand. J. Fish Biol., 53, 128–42.

V.Christensen, & C. J.Walters, (2004). Ecopath with Ecosim: methods, capabilities and limitations. Ecol. Model., 172, 109–39.

V.Christensen, , Guénette, S., Heymans, J. J. et al. (2003b). Hundred-year decline of North Atlantic predatory fishes. Fish Fisher., 4, 1–24.

J. E.Cohen, , F.Briand, & C. M.Newman, (1990). Community Food Webs: Data and Theory. New York: Springer-Verlag.

S. P.Cox, , Essington, T. E., Kitchell, J. F. et al. (2002). Reconstructing ecosystem dynamics in the central Pacific Ocean, 1952–1998. II. A preliminary assessment of the trophic impacts of fishing and effects on tuna dynamics. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 59, 1736–47.

G. M.Daskalov, (2002). Overfishing drives a trophic cascade in the Black Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 225, 53–63.

A. M.Doroff, , J. A.Estes, , M. T.Tinker, , D. M.Burn, & T. J.Evans, (2003). Sea otter population declines in the Aleutian archipelago. J. Mamm., 84, 55–64.

J. A.Estes, , M. T.Tinker, , T. M.Williams, & D. F.Doak, (1998). Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science, 282, 473–6.

L. P.Garrison, & J. S.Link, (2000). Fishing effects on spatial distribution and trophic guild structure of the fish community in the Georges Bank region. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 723–30.

R.Goni, (1998). Ecosystem effects of marine fisheries: an overview. Ocean Coastal Managmt, 40, 37–64.

J. A.Gulland, (1987). The impact of seals on fisheries. Mar. Policy, 11, 196–204.

J. M.Hermsen, , J. S.Collie, & P. C.Valentine, (2003). Mobile fishing gear reduces benthic megafaunal production on Georges Bank. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 260, 97–108.

J. A.Hutchings, (2000). Collapse and recovery of marine fishes. Nature, 406, 882–5.

J. A.Hutchings, (2004). The cod that got away. Nature, 428, 899–900.

W. F.Hutchinson, , Oosterhout, C. van, S. I.Rogers, & G. R.Carvalho, (2003). Temporal analysis of archived samples indicates marked genetic changes in declining North Sea cod (Gadus morhua). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 270, 2125–32.

S.Jennings, & K. J.Warr, (2003). Smaller predator–prey body size ratios in longer food chains. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 270, 1413–17.

S.Jennings, , T. A.Dinmore, , D. E.Duplisea, , K. J.Warr, & J. E.Lancaster, (2001). Trawling disturbance can modify benthic production processes. J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 459–75.

J. A.Koslow, , Boehlert, G. W., Gordon, J. D. M. et al. (2000). Continental slope and deep-sea fisheries: implications for a fragile ecosystem. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 548–57.

R.Law, (2000). Fishing, selection, and phenotypic evolution. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 659–68.

R. L.Lindeman, (1942). The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology, 23, 399–418.

N. D.Martinez, (1991). Artifacts or attributes? Effects of resolution on the Little Rock Lake food web. Ecol. Monogr., 61, 367–92.

R. A.Myers, & B.Worm, (2003). Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature, 423, 280–3.

E. M.Olsen, , Heino, M., Lilly, G. R. et al. (2004). Maturation trends indicative of rapid evolution preceded the collapse of northern cod. Nature, 428, 932–5.

D.Pauly, , Alder, J., Bennett, E. et al. (2003). The future for fisheries. Science, 302, 1359–61.

S. L.Pimm, (1982). Food Webs. London: Chapman and Hall.

J. G.Pope, , J. G.Shepherd, & J.Webb, (1994). Successful surf-riding on size spectra: the secret of survival in the sea. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 343, 41–9.

G.Power, & J.Gregoire, (1978). Predation by freshwater seals on the fish community of Lower Seal Lake, Quebec. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 35, 844–50.

M. J.Reiss, (1989). The Allometry of Growth and Reproduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

M. J.Rochet, (1998). Short-term effects of fishing on life-history traits of fishes. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 55, 371–91.

F.Sanchez, & I.Olaso, (2004). Effects of fisheries on the Cantabrian Sea shelf ecosystem. Ecol. Model., 172, 151–74.

A. M.Springer, , J. A.Estes, , G. BVliet, , vanet al. (2003). Sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: an ongoing legacy of industrial whaling? Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 100, 12 223–8.

M. L.Tasker, , Camphuysen, C. J., Cooper, J. et al. (2000). The impacts of fishing on marine birds. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 531–47.

E. A.Trippel, (1995). Age at maturity as a stress indicator in fisheries. Bioscience, 45, 759–71.

A. W.Trites, , V.Christensen, & D.Pauly, (1997). Competition between fisheries and marine mammals for prey and primary production in the Pacific Ocean. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., 22, 173–87.

C.Walters, & J. F.Kitchell, (2001). Cultivation/depensation effects on juvenile survival and recruitment: implications for the theory of fishing. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 58, 39–50.

C.Walters, & J. J.Maguire, (1996). Lessons for stock assessment from the northern cod collapse. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish., 6, 125–37.

C. J.Walters, , V.Christensen, & D.Pauly, (1997). Structuring dynamic models of exploited ecosystems from trophic mass-balance assessments. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish., 7, 139–72.

R.Watson, & D.Pauly, (2001). Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature, 414, 534–6.

K. C. T.Zwanenburg, (2000). The effects of fishing on demersal fish communities of the Scotian Shelf. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 503–9.

I. L.Boyd, , J. P.Croxall, , N. J.Lunn, , & K.Reid, (1995). Population demography of Antarctic fur seals: the costs of reproduction and implications for life-histories. J. Anim. Ecol., 64, 505–18.

A. S.Brierley, & D. N.Thomas, (2002). Ecology of Southern Ocean pack ice. Adv. Mar. Biol., 43, 171–814.

A. S.Brierley, , D. A.Demer, , J. L.Watkins, & R. P.Hewitt, (1999). Concordance of interannual fluctuations in acoustically estimated densities of Antarctic krill around South Georgia and Elephant Island: biological evidence of same year teleconnections across the Scotia Sea. Mar. Biol., 134, 675–81.

A. S.Brierley, , P. G.Fernandes, , M. A.Brandon, et al. (2002). Antarctic krill under sea ice: elevated abundance in a narrow band just south of ice edge. Science, 295, 1890–2.

P. J.Brockwell, & R. A.Davis, (1991). Time Series: Theory and Methods. New York: Springer-Verlag.

M.Christoph, , T. P.Barnett, & E.Roeckner, (1998). The Antarctic Circumpolar Wave in a coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM. J. Clim., 11, 1659–72.

W. M.Connolley, (2002). Long term variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. J. Geophys., 108, article 8076.

J. P.Croxall, & P. A.Prince, (1979). Antarctic seabird and seal monitoring studies. Polar Rec., 19, 573–95.

J. P.Croxall, & P. A.Prince, (1980). The food of Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua and Macaroni Penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus at South Georgia. Ibis, 122, 245–53.

Croxall, J. P., Prince, P. A. & Ricketts, C. (1985). Relationships between prey life-cycles and the extent, nature and timing of seal and seabird predation in the Scotia Sea. In Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs, eds. W. R. Siegfried, P. R. Condy & R. M. Laws. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 516–33.

Everson, I. (2000). Role of krill in marine food webs: the Southern Ocean. In Krill: Biology, Ecology and Fisheries, ed. I. Everson. Oxford UK: Blackwell Science, pp. 194–201.

V.Fedorov, & S. G.Philander, (2000). Is El Niño changing? Science, 288, 1997–2002.

E. E.Hofmann, , J. M.Klinck, , R. O.Locarnini, , B.Fach, & E. J.Murphy, (1998). Krill transport in the Scotia Sea and environs. Antarct. Sci., 10, 406–15.

G. L.Hunt, , P.Stabeno, , G.Walters, et al. (2002). Climate change and control of the southeastern Bering Sea pelagic ecosystem. Deep-Sea Res. Part II, 49, 5821–53.

G. A.Jacobs, & J. L.Mitchell, (1996)., Ocean circulation variations associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2947–50.

P.Lemke, , E. W.Trinkl, & K.Hasselmann, (1980). Stochastic dynamic analysis of polar sea ice variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10, 2100–20.

N. J.Lunn, & I. L.Boyd, (1993). Effects of maternal age and condition on parturition and the perinatal period of Antarctic fur seals. J. Zool. Lond., 229, 55–67.

D. J.McCafferty, , I. L.Boyd, , T. R.Walker, & R. I.Taylor, (1998). Foraging responses of Antarctic fur seals to changes in the marine environment. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 166, 285–99.

J. A.McGowan, , D. R.Cayan, & L. M.Dorman, (1998). Climate–ocean variability and ecosystem response in the northeast Pacific. Science, 281, 210–7.

E. J.Murphy, , A.Clarke, , C. J.Symon, & J.Priddle, (1995). Temporal variation in Antarctic sea-ice: analysis of a long-term fast-ice record from the South Orkney Islands. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 42, 1045–62.

E. J.Murphy, , J. L.Watkins, , K.Reid, et al. (1998). Interannual variability of the South Georgia marine ecosystem: Biological and physical sources of variation in the abundance of krill. Fish. Oceanogr., 7, 381–90.

S.Nicol, , T.Pauly, , N. L.Bindoff, et al. (2000). Ocean circulation off east Antarctica affects ecosystem structure and sea-ice extent. Nature, 406, 504–7.

R. G.Peterson, & W. B.White, (1998). Slow oceanic teleconnections linking the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave with the tropical El Niño-Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 24 573–83.

K.Reid, , J. L.Watkins, , J. P.Croxall, & E. J.Murphy, (1999). Krill population dynamics at South Georgia 1991–1997, based on data from predators and nets. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 177, 103–14.

R. W.Reynolds, & T. M.Smith, (1994). Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation. J. Clim. Res., 7, 929–48.

I. J.Staniland, , R. I.Taylor, & I. L.Boyd, (2003). An enema method for obtaining fecal material from known individual seals on land. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 19, 363–70.

A.Stössel, & S.-J.Kim, (1998). An interannual Antarctic sea-ice–ocean model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1007–10.

J. L.Tanton, , K.Reid, , J. P.Croxall, & P. N.Trathan, (2004). Winter distribution and behaviour of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua at South Georgia. Polar Biol., 27, 299–303.

P. N.Trathan, & E. J.Murphy, (2002). Sea surface temperature anomalies near South Georgia: relationships with the Pacific El Niño regions. J. Geophys Res., 108, article 8075.

P. N.Trathan, , A. S.Brierley, , M. A.Brandon, et al. (2003). Oceanographic variability and changes in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) abundance at South Georgia. Fish. Oceanogr., 12, 569–83.

K. E.Trenberth, & T. L.Hoar, (1996). The 1990–1995 El Niño Southern Oscillation event: longest on record. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 57–60.

C. T.Tynan, (1998). Ecological importance of the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Nature, 392, 708–10.

S. A.Venegas, , L. A.Mysak, & D. N.Straub, (1997). Evidence for interannual and interdecadal climate variability in the South Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2673–6.

C. M.Waluda, , P. N.Trathan, & P. G.Rodhouse, (1999). Influence of oceanographic variability on recruitment in the Illex argentinus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) fishery in the South Atlantic. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 183, 159–67.

C. M.Waluda, , P. N.Trathan, & P. G.Rodhouse, (2004). Synchronicity in southern hemisphere squid stocks and the influence of the Southern Oscillation and Trans Polar Index. Fish. Oceanogr., 13, 1–12.

W. B.White, & N. J.Cherry, (1999). The influence of the Antarctic circumpolar wave upon New Zealand temperature and precipitation during autumn–winter. J. Clim., 12, 960–76.

W. B.White, & R. G.Peterson, (1996). An Antarctic circumpolar wave in surface pressure, wind, temperature and sea-ice extent. Nature, 380, 699–702.

M. J.Whitehouse, , J.Priddle, & C.Symon, (1996). Seasonal and annual change in seawater temperature, salinity, nutrient and chlorophyll a distributions around South Georgia, South Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res., 43, 435–43.

T. D.Williams, (1991). Foraging ecology and diet of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua at South Georgia during winter and an assessment of their winter prey consumption. Ibis, 133, 3–13.

H. J.Zwally, , C. L.Parkinson, & J. C.Comiso, (1983). Variability of Antarctic sea ice and changes in carbon dioxide. Science, 220, 1005–12.

N. J.Aebischer, , J. C.Coulson, & J. M.Colebrook, (1990). Parallel long-term trends across four marine trophic levels and weather. Nature, 347, 753–5.

D. F.Bertram, , D. L.Mackas, & S. M.McKinnell, (2001). The seasonal cycle revisited: interannual variation and ecosystem consequences. Prog. Oceanogr., 49, 283–307.

V. M.Canuto, , A.Howard, , Y.Cheng, & M. S.Dubovikov, (2001). Ocean turbulence. Part I: one-point closure model – momentum and heat vertical diffusivities. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1413–26.

M.Edwards, , G.Beaugrand, , P. C.Reid, , A. A.Rowden, & M. B.Jones, (2002). Ocean climate anomalies and the ecology of the North Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 239, 1–10.

P. J. S.Franks, (1992). New models for the exploration of biological processes at fronts. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54, 161–7.

M.Frederiksen, , S.Wanless, , M. P.Harris, , P.Rothery, & L. J.Wilson, (2004). The role of industrial fishery and oceanographic change in the decline of North Sea black-legged kittiwakes. J. Appl. Ecol., 41, 1129–39.

R. W.Furness, & M. L.Tasker, (2000). Seabird–fishery interactions: quantifying the sensitivity of seabirds to reductions in sandeel abundance, and identification of key areas for sensitive seabirds in the North Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 202, 354–64.

C.Gjerdrum, , A. M. J.Vallee, , St C. C.Clair, et al. (2003). Tufted puffin reproduction reveals ocean climate variability. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 100, 9377–82.

H.Haren, Van, D. KMills, & L. P. M. J.Wetsteyn, (1998). Detailed observations of the phytoplankton spring bloom in the stratifying central North Sea. J. Mar. Res., 56, 655–80.

M. P.Harris, & S.Wanless, (1985). Fish fed to young guillemots, Uria aalge, and used in display on the Isle of May, Scotland. J. Zool. Lond., 207, 441–58.

H.Jensen, , P. J.Wright, & P.Munk, (2003). Vertical distribution of pre-settled sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea in relation to size and environmental variables. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 60, 1342–51.

P.Monaghan, (1992). Seabirds and sandeels: the conflict between exploitation and conservation in the northern North Sea. Biodiversity Conserv., 1, 98–111.

D. M.Monteleone, & W. T.Peterson, (1986). Feeding ecology of American sand lance Ammodytes americanus larvae from Long Island Sound. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 30, 133–43.

P.Munk, , P. J.Wright, & N. J.Pihl, (2002). Distribution of the early larval stages of cod, plaice and lesser sandeel across haline fronts in the North Sea. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 55, 139–49.

W. H.Pearson, , D. L.Woodruff, & P. C.Sugarmann, (1984). The burrowing behaviour of sand lance, Ammodytes hexapterus: effects of oil-contaminated sediment. Mar. Environ. Res., 11, 17–32.

Pingree, R. D., Bowman, M. J. & Esaias, W. E. (1978). Headland fronts. In Oceanic Fronts in Coastal Processes, eds. M. J. Bowman & W. E. Esaias. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 78–86.

T.Platt, , C.Fuentes-Yaco, & K. T.Frank, (2003). Spring algal bloom and larval fish survival. Nature, 423, 398–9.

J.Sharples, (1999). Investigating the seasonal vertical structure of phytoplankton in shelf seas. Mar. Models, 1, 3–38.

J.Simpson, & D.Bowers, (1981). Models of stratification and frontal movement in shelf seas. Deep-Sea Res. Part I, 28, 727–38.

W. R.Turrell, (1992). New hypotheses concerning the circulation of the northern North Sea and its relation to North Sea fish stock recruitment. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 49, 107–23.

J. J.Waniek, (2003). The role of physical forcing in the initiation of spring blooms in the northeast Atlantic. J. Mar. Syst., 39, 57–82.

P.Winslade, (1974b). Behavioural studies on the lesser sand eel Ammodytes marinus (Raitt) II. The effect of light intensity on activity. J. Fish Biol., 6, 577–86.

P.Winslade, (1974c). Behavioural studies on the lesser sand eel Ammodytes marinus (Raitt) III. The effect of temperature on activity and environmental control of the annual cycle of activity. J. Fish Biol., 6, 587–99.

D.Austin, , J. I.McMillan, & W. D.Bowen, (2003). A three-stage algorithm for filtering erroneous Argos satellite locations. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 19, 371–83.

D.Austin, , W. D.Bowen, & J. I.McMillan, (2004). Intraspecific variation in movement patterns: modeling individual behaviour in a large marine predator. Oikos, 105, 15–30.

C. A.Beck, , W. D.Bowen, , J. I.McMillan, & S. J.Iverson, (2003a). Sex differences in the foraging behaviour of a size dimorphic capital breeder: the grey seal. Anim. Behav., 66, 777–89.

C. A.Beck, , W. D.Bowen, , J. I.McMillan, & S. J.Iverson, (2003b). Sex differences in diving at multiple temporal scales in a size-dimorphic capital breeder. J. Anim. Ecol., 72, 979–93.

C. A.Beck, , W. D.Bowen, & S. J.Iverson, (2003c). Seasonal energy storage and expenditure in a phocid seal: evidence of sex-specific trade-offs. J. Anim. Ecol., 72, 280–91.

Bengtson, J. L. (1988). Long-term trends in the foraging patterns of female Antarctic fur seals at South Georgia. In Antarctic Ocean Resource Variability, ed. D. Sahrhage. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 286–91.

W. D.Bowen, & G. D.Harrison, (1994). Offshore diet of grey seals Halichoerus grypus near Sable Island, Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 112, 1–11.

W. D.Bowen, , J. W.Lawson, & B.Beck, (1993). Seasonal and geographic variation in the species composition and size of prey consumed by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on the Scotian shelf. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 50, 1768–78.

W. D.Bowen, , D.Tully, , D. J.Boness, , B.Bulheier, & G.Marshall, (2002). Prey-dependent foraging tactics and prey profitability in a marine mammal. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 244, 235–45.

W. D.Bowen, , J. I.McMillan, & R.Mohn, (2003). Sustained exponential population growth of the grey seal on Sable Island. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 60, 1265–374.

I. L.Boyd, , I. J.Staniland, & A. R.Martin, (2002). Distribution of foraging by female Antarctic fur seals. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 242, 285–94.

J. A.Estes, , M. L.Riedman, , M. M.Staedler, , M. T.Tinker, & B. E.Lyon, (2003). Individual variation in prey selection by sea otters: patterns, causes and implications. J. Anim. Ecol., 72, 144–55.

S. J.Iverson, , W. D.Bowen, , D. J.Boness, & O. T.Oftedal, (1993). The effect of maternal size and milk energy output on pup growth in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Physiol. Zool., 66, 61–88.

S. J.Iverson, , S.Lang, & M.Cooper, (2001). Comparison of the Bligh and Dyer and Folch methods for total lipid determination in a broad range of marine tissue. Lipids, 36, 1283–7.

S. J.Iverson, , C.Field, , W. D.Bowen, & W.Blanchard, (2004). Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis: a new method of estimating predator diets. Ecol. Monogr., 74, 211–35.

S. A.Levin, (1992). The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology, 73, 1943–67.

R.Mahon, , S. K.Brown, , K. C. T.Zwanenburg, et al. (1998). Assemblages and biogeography of demersal fishes of the east coast of North America. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 55, 1704–38.

I. A.McLaren, (1993). Growth in pinnipeds. Biol. Rev., 68, 1–79.

J.-A. E.Mellish, , S. J.Iverson, & W. D.Bowen, (1999). Individual variation in maternal energy allocation and milk production in grey seals and consequences for pup growth and weaning characteristics. Physiol. Biochem. Zool., 72, 677–90.

R.Mohn, & W. D.Bowen, (1996). Grey seal predation on the eastern Scotian Shelf: modelling the impact on Atlantic cod. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 53, 2722–38.

P. P.Pomeroy, , M. A.Fedak, , P.Rothery, & S.Anderson, (1999). Consequences of maternal size for reproductive expenditure and pupping success of grey seals at North Rona, Scotland. J. Anim. Ecol., 68, 235–53.

J. C.Rice, (2000). Evaluating fishery impacts using metrics of community structure. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 682–8.

K.Sherman, , A.Solow, J.Jossi, & J.Kane, (1998). Biodiversity and abundance of the zooplankton of the Northeast Shelf ecosystem. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 55, 730–8.

D. P.Swain, & A. F.Sinclair, (2000). Pelagic fishes and the cod recruitment dilemma in the Northwest Atlantic. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 57, 1321–5.

V. E.Brock, & R. H.Riffenburg, (1959). Fish schooling: a possible factor in reducing predation. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer., 25, 307–17.

M.Edwards, & A. J.Richardson, (2004). Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatch. Nature, 430, 881–4.

R. W.Furness, (1990). A preliminary assessment of the quantities of Shetland sandeels taken by seabirds, seals, predatory fish and the industrial fishery in 1981–83. Ibis, 132, 205–17.

S.Garthe, , S.Benvenuti, & W. A.Montevecchi, (2000). Pursuit plunging by northern gannets (Sula bassana) feeding on capelin (Mallotus villosus). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 267, 1717–22.

A. R.Martin, (1989). The diet of Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica and northern gannet Sula bassana chicks at a Shetland colony during a period of changing prey availability. Bird Study, 36, 170–80.

L.Otto, , J. T. F.Zimmerman, , G. K.Furnes, et al. (1990). Review of the physical oceanography of the North Sea. Neth. J. Sea Res., 26, 161–238.

R. D.Pingree, & D. K.Griffiths, (1978). Tidal fronts on the shelf seas around the British Isles. J. Geophys. Res., 83, 4615–22.

M. B.Santos, , G. J.Pierce, , J. A.Learmonth, et al. (2004). Variability in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Scottish waters 1992–2003. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 20, 1–27.

J. H.Simpson, (1981). The shelf-sea fronts: implications of their existence and behaviour. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 302, 531–46.

S. C.Amstrup, , G. M.Durner, , I.Stirling, , N.Lunn, & F.Messier, (2000). Movements and distribution of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea. Can. J. Zool., 78, 948–66.

S. M.Budge, , S. J.Iverson, , W. D.Bowen, & R. G.Ackman, (2002). Among- and within-species variation in fatty acid signatures of marine fish and invertebrates on the Scotian Shelf, Georges Bank and southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 59, 886–98.

M. H.Cooper, , S. J.Iverson, & H.Heras, (2005). Dynamics of blood chylomicron fatty acids in a marine carnivore: implications for lipid metabolism and quantitative estimation of predator diets. J. Comp. Physiol., 175, 133–45.

A. E.Derocher, , D.Andriashek, & I.Stirling, (1993). Terrestrial foraging by polar bears during the ice-free period in western Hudson Bay. Arctic, 46, 251–4.

A. E.Derocher, , Ø.Wiig, & G.Bangjord, (2000). Predation of Svalbard reindeer by polar bears. Polar Biol., 23, 675–8.

Estes, J. A. (1995). Top level carnivores and ecosystem effects: questions and approaches. In Linking Species and Ecosystems, eds. C. G. Jones & J. H. Lawton. Toronto, Canada: Chapman and Hall, pp. 151–8.

M.Holst, , I.Stirling, & W.Calvert, (1999). Age structure and reproductive rates of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) on the northwestern coast of Hudson Bay in 1991 and 1992. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 15, 1357–64.

S. J.Iverson, , J. P. Y.Arnould, & I. L.Boyd, (1997). Milk fatty acid signatures indicate both major and minor shifts in diet of lactating Antarctic fur seals. Can. J. Zool., 75, 188–97.

S. J.Iverson, , J.MacDonald, & L. K.Smith, (2001b). Changes in diet of free-ranging black bears in years of contrasting food availability revealed through milk fatty acids. Can. J. Zool., 79, 2268–79.

S. J.Iverson, , K. J.Frost, & S.Lang, (2002). Fat content and fatty acid composition of forage fish and invertebrates in Prince William Sound, Alaska: factors contributing to among and within species variability. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 241, 161–81.

D.Paetkau, , S. C.Amstrup, , E. W.Born, et al. (1999). Genetic structure of the world's polar bear populations. Mol. Ecol., 8, 1571–85.

M. A.Ramsay, & I.Stirling, (1988). Reproductive biology and ecology of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). J. Zool. Lond., 214, 601–34.

T. G.Smith, (1980). Polar bear predation of ringed and bearded seals in the land-fast sea ice habitat. Can. J. Zool., 58, 2201–9.

T. G.Smith, & B.Sjare, (1990). Predation of belugas and narwhals by polar bears in nearshore areas of the Canadian High Arctic. Arctic, 43, 99–102.

I.Stirling, (1974). Midsummer observations on the behavior of wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Can. J. Zool., 52, 1191–8.

I.Stirling, (2002). Polar bears and seals in the Eastern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf: a synthesis of population trends and ecological relationships over three decades. Arctic, 55 (Suppl. 1), 59–76.

I.Stirling, & W. R.Archibald, (1977). Aspects of predation of seals by polar bears. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 34, 1126–9.

I.Stirling, & A. E.Derocher, (1993). Possible impacts of climatic warming on polar bears. Arctic, 46, 240–5.

I.Stirling, & N. A.Øritsland, (1995). Relationships between estimates of ringed seal and polar bear populations in the Canadian Arctic. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 52, 2594–612.

I.Stirling, , N. J.Lunn, & J.Iacozza, (1999). Long-term trends in the population ecology of polar bears in western Hudson Bay in relation to climatic change. Arctic, 52, 294–306.

M.Taylor, & J.Lee, (1995). Distribution and abundance of Canadian polar bear populations: a management perspective. Arctic, 48, 147–54.

C. T.Tynan, & D. P.DeMaster, (1997). Observations and predictions of Arctic climatic change: potential effects on marine mammals. Arctic, 50, 308–22.

A.Ancel, , Kooyman, G. L., Ponganis, P. J. et al. (1992). Foraging behaviour of emperor penguins as a resource detector. Nature, 360, 336–9.

P. J.Anderson, & J. F.Piatt, (1999). Community reorganization in the Gulf of Alaska following ocean climate regime shift. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 189, 117–23.

P. H.Baird, (1990). Influence of abiotic factors and prey distribution on diet and reproductive success of three seabird speices in Alaska. Ornis Scand., 21, 224–35.

R. T.Barrett, (2002). Puffin and guillemot chick food and growth as indicators of fish stocks in the Barents Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 230, 275–87.

S.Benvenuti, , F.Bonadonna, , L.Dall'Antonia, & G. A.Gudmundsson, (1998). Foraging flights of breeding thick-billed murres carrying direction recorders. Auk, 115, 57–66.

V.Birt-Friesen, , W. A.Montevecchi, , D. K.Cairns, & S. A.Macko, (1989). Activity specific metabolic rates of free living seabirds with emphasis on Northern Gannets Sula bassanus. Ecology, 70, 357–67.

D. K.Cairns, (1989). Regulation of seabird colony size: a hinterland model. Am. Nat., 134, 141–6.

F. P.Chavez, , J.Ryan, , Lluch-Cota, S. E. & C. M.Ñiquen, (2004). From anchovies to sardines and back: multi-decadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science, 299, 217–21.

P.Cury, & L.Shannon, (2004). Regime shifts in upwelling ecosystems: observed changes and possible mechanisms in the northern and southern Benquela. Prog. Oceanogr., 60, 223–43.

P.Cury, , Bakun, A., CrawFord, R. J. M. et al. (2000). Small pelagics in upwelling systems: patterns of interaction and structural changes in ‘wasp-waist’ ecosystems. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 603–18.

G. K.Davoren, , W. A.Montevecchi, & J.Anderson, (2002). Scale-dependent associations of predators and prey: constraints imposed by flightlessness of murres. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 245, 259–72.

G. K.Davoren, , W. A.Montevecchi, & J.Anderson, (2003). Search strategies of a pursuit-diving seabird. Ecol. Monogr., 73, 463–81.

K.Drinkwater, (1996). Atmospheric and oceanic variability in the northwest Atlantic during the 1980s and early 1990s. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., 18, 77–97.

S. D.Emslie, , P. A.Berkman, , D. G.Ainley, , L.Coats, & M.Pollito, (2003). Late Holocene initiation of ice-free ecosystems in the southern Ross Sea, Australia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 262, 19–25.

D. Grémillet , G.Dell'Omo, , P. G.Ryan, et al. (2004). Offshore diplomacy, or how seabirds mitigate intra-specific competition: a case study based on GPS tracking of cape gannets from neighbouring colonies. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 268, 265–79.

S.Hare, & N.Mantua, (2000). Empirical evidence of North Pacific regime shifts in 1977 and 1989. Prog. Oceanogr., 47, 103–45.

S. A.Hatch, & G. A.Sanger, (1992). Puffins as predators on juvenile pollock and forage fish in the Gulf of Alaska. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 80, 1–14.

C.Holling, & G.Meffe, (1996). Command, control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conserv. Biol., 10, 328–37.

S. K.Hooker, , I. L.Boyd, , M.Jessop, et al. (2002). Monitoring the prey-field of marine predators: combining digital imaging with datalogging tags. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 18, 680–7.

J.Jouventin, & H.Weimerskirch, (1990). Satellite tracking of wandering albatrosses. Nature, 343, 746–8.

A. S.Kitaysky, & E. G.Golubova, (2000). Climate change causes contrasting trends in reproductive performance of planktivorous and piscivorous alcids. J. Anim. Ecol., 69, 248–69.

A. K.Miller, & W. J.Sydeman, (2004). Rockfish response to low-frequency ocean climate change as revealed by the diet of a marine bird over multiple time scales. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 281, 207–16.

W. A.Montevecchi, & R. A.Myers, (1995). Seabird prey harvests reflect pelagic fish and squid abundance on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 117, 1–9.

W. A.Montevecchi, & R. A.Myers, (1996). Dietary changes of seabirds reflect shifts in pelagic food webs. Sarsia, 80, 313–22.

W. A.Montevecchi, & R. A.Myers, (1997). Centurial and decadal oceanographic influences on changes in northern gannet populations and diets in the Northwest Atlantic: implications for climate change. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54, 608–14.

F.Mowbray, (2003). Changes in the vertical distribution of capelin off Newfoundland. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 59, 942–9.

H.Regehr, & W. A.Montevecchi, (1997). Effects of food shortage and predation on breeding failure of kittiwakes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 155, 249–60.

R.Russell, , G. L.Hunt, , K.Coyle, & K.Cooney, (1992). Foraging in a fractal environment: spatial patterns in a marine predator–prey system. Landscape Ecol., 7, 195–209.

M.Scheffer, , S.Carpenter, , J. A.Foley, , C.Folke, & B.Walker, (2001). Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature, 413, 591–6.

K.Schmidt, (1997). ‘No take’ zones spark fisheries debate. Science, 277, 489–91.

H.Skov, , J.Durinck, & P.Andell, (2000). Associations between wintering avian predators and schooling fish. J. Avian Biol., 31, 135–43.

A. M.Springer, , D. G.Roseneau, , E. C.Murphy, & M. I.Springer, (1984). Environmental controls of marine food webs: food habits of seabirds in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 41, 1202–15.

J.Steele, (1996). Regime shifts in fisheries management. Fish., Res., 25, 19–23.

J.Steele, (1998). Regime shifts in marine ecosystems. Ecological Applic., 8, S33–6.

S.Wanless, , P. J.Wright, , M. P.Harris, & D. A.Elston, (2004). Evidence for a decrease in size of lesser sandeels Ammodytes marinus in a North Sea aggregation over a 30-yr period. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 279, 237–46.

R. P.Wilson, , Grémillet, D., Syder, D. et al. (2002). Remote-sensing systems and seabirds: use, abuse and potential for measuring environmental variables. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 228, 241–61.

P.Yodzis, (1994). Predator–prey theory and management of multispecies fisheries. Ecological Applic., 4, 51–8.

J. P. Y.Arnould, , I. L.Boyd, & J. R.Speakman, (1996). The relationship between foraging behaviour and energy expenditure in Antarctic fur seals. J. Zool. Lond., 239, 769–82.

I. L.Boyd, (1996). Temporal scales of foraging in a marine predator. Ecology, 77, 426–34.

I. L.Boyd, (2002). Estimating food consumption of marine predators: Antarctic fur seals and Macaroni penguins. J. Appl. Ecol., 39, 103–19.

I. L.Boyd, & J. P.Croxall, (1996). Dive durations in pinnipeds and seabirds. Can. J. Zool., 74, 1696–705.

I. L.Boyd, & A. W. A.Murray, (2001). Monitoring a marine ecosystem using responses of upper trophic level predators. J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 747–60.

J. P.Croxall, , I.Everson, , G. L.Kooyman, , C.Ricketts, & R. W.Davis, (1985). Fur seal diving behaviour in relation to vertical distribution of krill. J. Anim. Ecol., 54, 1–8.

J. A.Green, , P. J.Butler, , A. J.Woakes, & I. L.Boyd, (2002). Energy requirements of female Macaroni penguins breeding at South Georgia. Funct. Ecol., 16, 671–81.

J. A.Green, , P. J.Butler, , A. J.Woakes, & I. L.Boyd, (2003). Energetics of diving in Macaroni penguins. J. Exp. Biol., 206, 43–57.

D. G. M.Miller, & I.Hampton, (1989). Krill aggregation characteristics: spatial distribution patterns from hydroacoustic observations. Polar Biol., 10, 125–34.

D. G. M.Miller, , M.Barange, , H.Klindt, et al. (1993). Antarctic krill aggregation characteristics from acoustic observations in the South West Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Biol., 117, 171–83.

I. J.Staniland, & I. L.Boyd, (2003). Variation in the foraging location of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), the effects on diving behaviour. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 19, 331–43.

I. J.Staniland, , I. L.Boyd, & K.Reid, (2004). Comparing individual and spatial influences on foraging behaviour in Antarctic fur seals. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 275, 263–74.

P. N.Trathan, , J. P.Croxall, , E. J.Murphy, & I.Everson, (1998). Use of at-sea data to derive potential foraging ranges of Macaroni penguins during the breeding season. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 169, 263–75.

R. C.Allen, & I.Keay, (2001). The first great whale extinction: the end of the bowhead whale in the eastern arctic. Explor. Econ. Hist., 38, 448–77.

C.Barbraud, , H.Weimerskirch, , C.Guinet, & P.Jouventin, (2000). Effect of sea-ice extent on adult survival of an Antarctic top predator: the snow petrel Pagodroma nivea. Oecologia, 125, 483–8.

G.Beaugrand, , P. C.Reid, , F.Ibanez, , J. A.Lindley, & M.Edwards, (2002). Reorganization of North Atlantic marine copepod biodiversity and climate. Science, 296, 1692–4.

R. G. B.Brown, (1970). Fulmar distribution: a Canadian perspective. Ibis, 112, 44–51.

T. M.Burg, , J.Lomax, , R.Almond, , M. D.Brooke, & W.Amos, (2003). Unravelling dispersal patterns in an expanding population of a highly mobile seabird, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 270, 979–84.

C. J.Camphuysen, & S.Garthe, (1997). An evaluation of the distribution and scavenging habits of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in the North Sea. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54, 654–83.

G. M.Dunnet, (1991). Population studies of the Fulmar on Eynhallow, Orkney Islands. Ibis, 133, 24–7.

J.Fisher, (1966). The fulmar population of Britain and Ireland, 1959. Bird Study, 13, 334–54.

J.Fisher, & G.Waterston, (1941). The breeding distribution, history and population of the Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in the British Isles. J. Anim. Ecol., 10, 204–72.

R. W.Furness, & C. M.Todd, (1984). Diets and feeding of Fulmars, Fulmarus glacialis, during the breeding-season: a comparison between St Kilda and Shetland colonies. Ibis, 126, 379–87.

S.Gordon, (1936). The fulmar petrel. Nature, 137, 173–6.

K. C.Hamer, , D. R.Thompson, & C. M.Gray, (1997). Spatial variation in the feeding ecology, foraging ranges, and breeding energetics of northern fulmars in the north-east Atlantic Ocean. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54, 645–53.

S. A.Hatch, (1991). Evidence for color phase effects on the breeding and life-history of Northern Fulmars. Condor, 93, 409–17.

K. A.Hobson, (1993). Trophic relationships among High Arctic seabirds: insights from tissue-dependent stable-isotope models. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 95, 7–18.

K. A.Hobson, (1999). Tracing origins and migration of wildlife using stable isotopes: a review. Oecologia, 120, 314–26.

D. A.Hodgson, , N. M.Johnston, , A. P.Caulkett, & V. J.Jones, (1998). Palaeolimnology of Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella populations and implications for Antarctic management. Biol. Conserv., 83, 145–54.

S.Jenouvrier, , C.Barbraud, & H.Weimerskirch, (2003). Effects of climate variability on the temporal population dynamics of southern fulmars. J. Anim. Ecol., 72, 576–87.

I. L.Jones, , F. M.Hunter, & G. J.Robertson, (2002). Annual adult survival of Least Auklets (Aves, Alcidae) varies with large-scale climatic conditions of the North Pacific Ocean. Oecologia, 133, 38–44.

W. A.Montevecchi, & A. K.Hufthammer, (1990). Zooarchaeological implications for prehistoric distributions of seabirds along the Norwegian coast. Arctic, 43, 110–4.

J. M.O'Connell, & V.Tunnicliffe, (2001). The use of sedimentary fish remains for interpretation of long-term fish population fluctuations. Mar. Geol., 174, 177–95.

J.Ollason, & G.Dunnet, (1978). Age, experience and other factors affecting the breeding success of the Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis in Orkney. J. Anim. Ecol., 47, 961–76.

J.Ollason, & G.Dunnet, (1983). Modelling annual changes in numbers of breeding Fulmars, Fulmarus glacialis, at a colony in Orkney. J. Anim. Ecol., 52, 185–98.

R. A.Phillips, , M. K.Petersen, , K.Lilliendahl, et al. (1999). Diet of the northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis: reliance on commercial fisheries? Mar. Biol., 135, 159–70.

A.Rindorf, , S.Wanless, & M. P.Harris, (2000). Effects of changes in sandeel availability on the reproductive output of seabirds. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 202, 241–52.

J.Roman, & S. R.Palumbi, (2003). Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic. Science, 301, 508–10.

F.Salomonsen, (1965). The geographical variation of the fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) and the zones of marine environment in the North Atlantic. Auk, 82, 327–55.

H.Skov, & J.Durinck, (2000). Seabird distribution in relation to hydrography in the Skagerrak. Cont. Shelf Res., 20, 169–87.

S. J.Smith, , S. J.Iverson, & W. D.Bowen, (1997). Fatty acid signatures and classification trees: new tools for investigating the foraging ecology of seals. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 54, 1377–86.

I. J.Stenhouse, & W. A.Montevecchi, (1999). Increasing and expanding populations of breeding Northern Fulmars in Atlantic Canada. Waterbirds, 22, 382–91.

D. R.Thompson, , R. W.Furness, & S. A.Lewis, (1995). Diets and long-term changes in delta-N-15 and delta-C-13 values in Northern Fulmars Fulmarus glacialis from two Northeast Atlantic colonies. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 125, 3–11.

P. M.Thompson, & J. C.Ollason, (2001). Lagged effects of ocean-climate change on fulmar population dynamics. Nature, 413, 417–20.

A. W.Trites, & C. P.Donnelly, (2003). The decline of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus in Alaska: a review of the nutritional stress hypothesis. Mamm. Rev., 33, 3–28.

R. D.Wooller, , J. S.Bradley, & J. P.Croxall, (1992). Long-term population studies of seabirds. Trends Ecol. Evol., 7, 111–14.

D. G.Ainley, , W. J.Sydeman, & J.Norton, (1995). Upper trophic level predators indicate interannual negative and positive anomalies in the Californian Current food web. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 118, 69–79.

I. L.Boyd, (1993). Pup production and distribution of breeding Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at South Georgia. Antarct. Sci., 5, 17–24.

I. L.Boyd, , J. P. Y.Arnould, , T.Barton, & J. P.Croxall, (1994). Foraging behaviour of Antarctic fur seals during periods of contrasting prey abundance. J. Anim. Ecol., 63, 703–13.

J. P.Croxall, (1992). Southern Ocean environmental change: effects on seabird, seal and whale populations. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 338, 319–28.

J. P.Croxall, & S.Nicol, (2004). Management of Southern Ocean resources: global forces and future sustainability? Antarct. Sci., 16, 569–84.

R. W.Furness, & C. J.Camphuysen, (1997). Seabirds as monitors of the marine environment. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54, 726–37.

M. P.Harris, & S.Wanless, (1990). Breeding success of kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla in 1986–88: evidence for changing conditions in the northern North Sea. J. Appl. Ecol., 27, 172–87.

N.J.Lunn, , I. L.Boyd, , T.Barton, & J. P.Croxall, (1993). Factors affecting the growth rate and mass at weaning of Antarctic fur seal pups, at Bird Island, South Georgia. J. Mammalogy, 74, 908–19.

N.J.Lunn, , I. L.Boyd, & J. P.Croxall, (1994). Reproductive performance of female Antarctic fur seals: the influence of age, breeding experience, environmental variation and individual quality. J. Anim. Ecol., 63, 827–40.

P.Monaghan, (1996). Relevance of the behaviour of seabirds to the conservation of marine environments. Oikos, 77, 227–37.

K.Reid, & J. P.Croxall, (2001). Environmental response of upper trophic-level predators reveals a system change in an Antarctic marine ecosystem. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 268, 377–84.

K.Reid, , P. N.Trathan, , J. P.Croxall, & H. J.Hill, (1996). Krill caught by predators and nets: differences between species and techniques. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 140, 13–20.

K.Reid, , K.Barlow, , J. P.Croxall, & R.Taylor, (1999a). Predicting changes in the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba population at South Georgia. Mar. Biol., 135, 647–52.

K.Reid, , J. P.Croxall, , D.Briggs, & E.Murphy, (2005). Antarctic ecosystem monitoring: quantifying the response of ecosystem indicators to variability in Antarctic krill ICES J. Mar. Sci., 62, 366–73.

H.Weimerskirch, , P.Inchausti, , C.Guinet, & C.Barbraud, (2003). Trends in bird and seal populations as indicators of a system shift in the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci., 15, 249–56.

T. D.Williams, & P.Rothery, (1990). Factors affecting variation in foraging and activity patterns of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua during the breeding season at Bird Island, South Georgia. J. Appl. Ecol., 27, 1042–54.

W. E.Barraclough, , LeBrasseur, R. J. & Kennedy, O. D. (1969). Shallow scattering layer in the subarctic Pacific Ocean: detection by high-frequency echo sounder. Science, 166, 611–13.

G.Beaugrand, (2004). The North Sea regime shift: evidence, causes, mechanisms and consequences. Prog. Oceanogr., 60, 245–62.

I. L.Boyd, & T.Arnbom, (1991). Diving behavior in relation to water temperature in the Southern elephant seal: foraging implications. Polar Biol., 11, 259–66.

K. O.Coyle, , Hunt, G. L., Decker, M. B. & Weingartner, T. J. (1992). Murre foraging, epibenthic sound scattering and tidal advection over a shoal near St George Island, Bering Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 83, 1–14.

F.Daunt, , Benvenuti, S., Harris, M. P. et al. (2002). Foraging strategies of the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla at a North Sea colony: evidence for a maximum foraging range. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 245, 239–47.

F.Daunt, , Peters, G., Scott, B., Grémillet, D. & Wanless, S. (2003). Rapid response recorders reveal interplay between marine physics and seabird behaviour. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 255, 283–8.

G. K.Davoren, , Montevecchi, W. A. & Anderson, J. T. (2003). Distribution patterns of a marine bird and its prey: habitat selection based on prey and conspecific behaviour. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 256, 229–42.

P. J. S.Franks, (1992). Sink or swim: accumulation of biomass at fronts. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 82, 1–12.

B. W.Frost, & S. M.Bollens, (1992). Variability of diel vertical migrations in the marine planktonic copepod Pseudocalanus newmani in relation to its predators. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 49, 1137–41.

S.Garthe, (1997). Influence of hydrography, fishing activity, and colony location on summer seabird distribution in the south-eastern North Sea. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54, 566–77.

D.Grémillet, , Argentin, G., Schulte, B. & Culik, B. M. (1998). Flexible foraging techniques in breeding cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo and shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis: benthic or pelagic feeding? Ibis, 140, 113–19.

W.Harder, (1968). Reactions of plankton organisms to water stratification. Limnol. Oceanogr., 13, 156–68.

M. P.Harris, & S. Wanless (1991). The importance of the lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus in the diet of the shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis. Ornis Scand., 22, 375–82.

D. B.Irons, (1998). Foraging area fidelity of individual seabirds in relation to tidal cycles and flock feeding. Ecology, 79, 647–55.

S.Lewis, , Wanless, S., Wright, P. J. et al. (2001). Diet and breeding performance of black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at a North Sea colony. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 221, 277–84.

J. K.Parrish, & S. G.Zador, (2003). Seabirds as indicators: an exploratory analysis of physical forcing in the Pacific Northwest coastal environment. Estuaries, 26, 1044–57.

R.Pingree, , Pugh, P. R., Holligan, P. M. & Forster, G. R. (1975). Summer phytoplankton blooms and red tides in the approaches to the English Channel. Nature, 258, 672–7.

R. W.Russell, , N. M.Harrison, & G. L.HuntJr, , (1999). Foraging at a front: hydrography, zooplankton, and avian planktivory in the northern Bering Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 182, 77–93.

R. M.Sibly, , Nott, H. M. R. & Fletcher, D. J. (1990). Splitting behaviour into bouts. Anim. Behav., 39, 63–9.

S.Wanless, , T.Corfield, , M. P.Harris, , S. T.Buckland, & J. A.Morris, (1993). Diving behaviour of the shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Aves: Pelicaniformes) in relation to water depth and prey size. J. Zool. Lond., 231, 11–25.

D. C.Bennet, & L. E.Hart, (1993). Metabolizable energy of fish when fed to captive great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Can. J. Zool., 71, 1767–71.

D. M.Bryant, & R. W.Furness, (1995). Basal metabolic rates of North Atlantic seabirds. Ibis, 137, 219–26.

J.Cooper, (1978). Energetic requirements for growth and maintenance of the cape gannet (Aves: Sulidae). Zool. Afr., 13, 305–17.

D. A.Croll, & E.McLaren, (1993). Diving metabolism and thermoregulation in common and thick-billed murres. J. Comp. Physiol. B, 163, 160–6.

M. R.Enstipp, , D.Grémillet, & S.-H.Lorentsen, (2005). Energetic costs of diving and thermal status in European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). J. Exp. Biol., 208, 3451–61.

D.Grémillet, , G.Wright, , A.Lauder, , D. N.Carss, & S.Wanless, (2003). Modelling the daily food requirements of wintering great cormorants: a bioenergetics tool for wildlife management. J. Appl. Ecol., 40, 266–77.

M. P.Harris, & S.Wanless, (1997). Breeding success, diet, and brood neglect in the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) over an 11 year period. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54, 615–23.

G. M.Hilton, , R. W.Furness, & D. C.Houston, (2000b). A comparative study of digestion in North Atlantic seabirds. J. Avian Biol., 31, 36–46.

J. R. G.Hislop, , M. P.Harris, & J. G. M.Smith, (1991). Variation in the calorific value and total energy content of the lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) and other fish preyed on by seabirds. J. Zool. Lond., 224, 501–17.

S.Lewis, , K. C.Hamer, , L.Money, et al. (2004). Brood neglect and contingent foraging behaviour in a pelagic seabird. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 56, 81–8.

Montevecchi, W. A. (1993). Birds as indicators of change in marine prey stocks. In Birds as Monitors of Environmental Change, eds. R. W. Furness & J. J. D. Greenwood. London: Chapman and Hall, pp. 217–65.

D.Pauly, , V.Christensen, , J.Dalsgaard, , R.Froese, & T.Torres, , Jr (1998). Fishing down marine food webs. Science, 279, 860–3.

J.Pedersen, & J. R. G.Hislop, (2001). Seasonal variations in the energy density of fishes in the North Sea. J. Fish Biol., 59, 380–9.

S.Wanless, , D.Grémillet, & M. P.Harris, (1998). Foraging activity and performance of shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis in relation to environmental characteristics. J. Avian Biol., 29, 49–54.

S.Wanless, , S. K.Finney, , M. P.Harris, & D. J.McCafferty, (1999). Effect of the diel light cycle on the diving behaviour of two bottom feeding marine birds: the blue-eyed shag Phalacrocorax atriceps and the European shag P. aristotelis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 188, 219–24.

J.Weiner, (1992). Physiological limits to sustainable energy budgets in birds and mammals: ecological implications. Trends Ecol. Evol. 7, 384–8.

T. W.Anderson, (2001). Predator responses, prey refuges, and density-dependent mortality of a marine fish. Ecology, 82, 245–57.

R. T.Barrett, & J. V.Krasnov, (1996). Recent responses to changes in fish stocks of prey species by seabirds breeding in the southern Barents Sea. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 53, 713–22.

S.Bearhop, , Thompson, D. R., Phillips, R. A. et al. (2001). Annual variation in great skua diets: the importance of commercial fisheries and predation on seabirds revealed by combining dietary analyses. Condor, 103, 802–9.

C. R.Brown, (1989). Energy requirements and food consumption of Eudyptes penguins at the Prince Edward Islands. Antarct. Sci., 1, 15–21.

R. W. G.Caldow, & R. W.Furness, (2000). The effect of food availability on the foraging behaviour of breeding great skuas Catharacta skua and Arctic skuas Stercorarius parasiticus. J. Avian Biol., 31, 367–75.

R. W. G.Caldow, & R. W.Furness, (2001). Does Holling's disc equation explain the functional response of a kleptoparasite? J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 650–62.

J. M.Durant, , Anker-Nilssen, T. & Stenseth, N. C. (2003). Trophic interactions under climate fluctuations: the Atlantic puffin as an example. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 270, 1461–6.

P.Fauchald, & K. E.Erikstad, (2002). Scale-dependent predator–prey interactions: the aggregative response of seabirds to prey under variable prey abundance and patchiness. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 231, 279–91.

P.Fauchald, , K. E.Erikstad, & H.Skarsfjord, (2000). Scale-dependent predator–prey interactions: the hierarchical spatial distribution of seabirds and prey. Ecology, 81, 773–83.

R. W.Furness, (1978). Energy requirements of seabird communities: a bioenergetics model. J. Anim. Ecol., 47, 39–53.

R. W.Furness, (1994). An estimate of the quantity of squid consumed by seabirds in the eastern North Atlantic and adjoining seas. Fish. Res., 21, 165–77.

R. W.Furness, (2003). Impacts of fisheries on seabird communities. Sci. Mar., 67 (Suppl. 2), 33–45.

S.Garthe, , Camphuysen, C. J. & Furness, R. W. (1996). Amounts of discards by commercial fisheries and their significance as food for seabirds in the North Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 136, 1–11.

A. B.Hollowed, , J. N.Ianelli, & P.Livingston, (2000). Including predation mortality in stock assessments: a case study for Gulf of Alaska walleye pollock. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 279–293.

G. L.Hunt, (1997). Physics, zooplankton, and the distribution of least auklets in the Bering Sea: a review. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54, 600–7.

N. I.Klomp, & R. W.Furness, (1992). Non-breeders as a buffer against environmental stress: declines in numbers of great skuas on Foula, Shetland, and prediction of future recruitment. J. Appl. Ecol., 29, 341–8.

F.Mehlum, , Hunt, G. L., Jr, Klusek, Z. & Decker, M. B. (1999). Scale-dependent correlations between the abundance of Brunnich's guillemots and their prey. J. Anim. Ecol., 68, 60–72.

S. A.Murawski, (2000). Definitions of overfishing from an ecosystem perspective. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 649–58.

D.Oro, & R. W.Furness, (2002). Influences of food availability and predation on survival of kittiwakes. Ecology, 83, 2516–28.

R. A.Phillips, , Caldow, R. W. G. & Furness, R. W. (1996). The influence of food availability on the breeding effort and reproductive success of Arctic skuas Stercorarius parasiticus. Ibis, 138, 410–9.

R. A.Phillips, , Catry, P., Thompson, D. R., Hamer, K. C. & Furness, R. W. (1997). Inter-colony variation in diet and reproductive performance of great skuas Catharacta skua. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 152, 285–93.

N.Ratcliffe, , Catry, P., Hamer, K. C., Klomp, N. I. & Furness, R. W. (2002). The effect of age and year on the survival of breeding adult great skuas Catharacta skua in Shetland. Ibis, 144, 384–92.

D.C.Schneider, , Hunt, G. L., Jr & Harrison, N. M. (1986). Mass and energy transfer to seabirds in the southeastern Bering Sea. Cont. Shelf Res., 5, 241–57.

D. W.Sims, (2000). Can threshold foraging responses of basking sharks be used to estimate their metabolic rate? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 200, 289–96.

S. C.Votier, , Furness, R. W., Bearhop, S. et al. (2004). Changes in fisheries discard rates and seabird communities. Nature, 427, 727–30.

S. A.Arnott, & G. D.Ruxton, (2002). Sandeel recruitment in the North Sea: demographic, climatic and trophic effects. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 238, 199–210.

S. A.Arnott, , G. D.Ruxton, & E. S.Poloczanska, (2002). Stochastic dynamic population model of North Sea sandeels, and its application to precautionary management procedures. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 235, 223–34.

B.Bogstad, & H.Gj⊘sæter, (2001). Predation by cod (Gadus morhua) on capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the Barents Sea: implications for capelin stock assessment. Fish. Res., 53, 197–209.

N.Daan, , P. J.Bromley, , J. R. G.Hislop, & N. A.Nielsen, (1990). Ecology of North Sea fish. Neth. J. Sea Res., 26, 343–86.

R. W.Furness, (2002). Management implications of interactions between fisheries and sandeel dependent seabirds and seals in the North Sea. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 59, 261–9.

S. P. R.Greenstreet, , J. A.McMillan, & F.Armstrong, (1998). Seasonal variation in the importance of pelagic fish in the diet of piscivorous fish in the Moray Firth, NE Scotland: a response to variation in prey abundance? ICES J. Mar. Sci., 55, 121–33.

R.Jones, (1974). The rate of elimination of food from the stomachs of haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, cod Gadus morhua, and whiting Merlangius merlangus. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer, 35, 225–43.

R.Jones, (1978). Estimates of the food consumption of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and cod (Gadus morhua). J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer., 38, 18–27.

R. L.Naylor, , R. J.Goldburg, , J. H.Primavera, et al. (2000). Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature, 405, 1017–24.

S. A.Pedersen, , P.Lewy, & P.Wright, (1999). Assessments of the lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea based on revised stock divisions. Fish. Res., 41, 221–41.

R.Proctor, , P. J.Wright, & A.Everitt, (1998). Modelling the transport of larval sandeels on the north west European shelf. Fish. Oceanogr., 7, 347–54.

H.Sparholt, (1990). An estimate of the total biomass of fish in the North Sea. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer, 46, 200–10.

S.Wanless, , M. P.Harris, & S. P. R.Greenstreet, (1998). Summer sandeel consumption by seabirds breeding in the Firth of Forth, southeast Scotland. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 55, 1141–51.

J.Yang, (1982). An estimate of the fish biomass in the North Sea. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer, 40, 161–72.

S.Garthe, , D.Gremillet, & R. W.Furness, (1999). At-sea activity and foraging efficiency in chick-rearing northern gannets Sula bassana: a case study in Shetland. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 185, 93–9.

K. C. Hamer , R. A.Phillips, , J. K.Hill, , S.Wanless, & A. G.Wood, (2001). Contrasting foraging strategies of gannets Morus bassanus at two North Atlantic colonies: foraging trip duration and foraging area fidelity. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 224, 283–90.

K. C.Hamer, , R. A.Phillips, , S.Wanless, , M. P.Harris, & A. G.Wood, (2000). Foraging ranges, diets and feeding locations of gannets in the North Sea: evidence from satellite telemetry. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 200, 257–64.

S.Lewis, , T. N.Sherratt, , K. C.Hamer, & S.Wanless, (2001). Evidence for intra-specific competition for food in a pelagic seabird. Nature, 412, 816–19

S.Lewis, , S.Benvenuti, , L.Dall'Antonia, et al. (2002). Sex-specific foraging behaviour in a monomorphic seabird. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 269, 1687–93.

I. L.Boyd, , N. J.Lunn, & T.Barton, (1991). Time budgets and foraging characteristics of lactating Antarctic fur seals. J. Anim. Ecol., 60, 577–92.

M. R. Broeke, van den (2000). On the interpretation of Antarctic temperature trends. J. Clim., 13, 3885–9.

J. P.Croxall, , K.Reid, & P.Prince, (1999). Diet, provisioning and productivity responses of marine predators to differences in availability of Antarctic krill. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 177, 115–31.

I.Everson, , K. H.Kock, & G.Parkes, (1997). Interannual variation in condition of the mackerel icefish. J. Fish Biol., 51, 146–54.

S. F.Harmer, (1931). Southern whaling. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., 142, 85–163.

R. P.Hewitt, , D. A.Demer, & J. H.Emery, (2003). An 8-year cycle in krill biomass density inferred from acoustic surveys conducted in the vicinity of the South Shetland Islands during the austral summers of 1991–1992 through 2001–2002. Aquat. Living Resour., 16, 205–13.

H. J.Hill, (1990). A new method for the measurement of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba Dana from predator food samples. Polar Biol., 10, 317–20.

H. J.Hill, , P. N.Trathan, , J. P.Croxall, & J. L.Watkins, (1996). A comparison of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba caught in nets and taken by macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus: evidence for selection? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 140, 1–11.

M. J.Jessopp, , JForcada, , K.Reid, , P. N.Trathan, & E. J. Murphy (2004). Winter dispersal of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx): environmental factors influencing demographics and seasonal abundance. J. Zool. Lond., 263, 251–8.

J. C.King, (1994). Recent climate variability in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula. Int. J. Climat., 14, 357–69.

V.Loeb, , V.Siegel, , O.Holm-Hansen, et al. (1997). Effects of sea-ice extent and krill or salp dominance on the Antarctic food web. Nature, 387, 897–900.

E. J.Murphy, & K.Reid, (2001). Modelling Southern Ocean krill population dynamics: biological processes generating fluctuations in the South Georgia ecosystem. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 217, 175–89.

K.Reid, (1995). The diet of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella Peters 1875) during winter at South Georgia. Antarct. Sci., 7, 241–9.

K.Reid, (2001). Growth of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba at South Georgia. Mar. Biol., 138, 57–62.

K.Reid, & J.Measures, (1998). Determining the sex of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba using carapace measurements. Polar Biol., 19, 145–7.

K.Reid, , E. J.Murphy, , V.Loeb, & R. P.Hewitt, (2002). Krill population dynamics in the Scotia Sea: variability in growth and mortality within a single population. J. Mar. Syst., 36, 1.

R. W.Reynolds, , N. A.Rayner, , T. M.Smith, , D. C.Stokes, & W. Q.Wang, (2002). An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Clim., 15, 1609–25.

V.Siegel, (1987). Age and growth of Antarctic Euphausiacea (Crustacea) under natural conditions. Mar. Biol., 96, 483–95.

I. J.Staniland, (2002). Investigating the biases in the use of hard prey remains to identify diet composition using Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) in captive feeding trials. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 18, 223–43.

J. L.Watkins, , A. W. A.Murray, & H. I.Daly, (1999). Variation in the distribution of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba around South Georgia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 188, 149–60.

X. J.Yuan, & D. G.Martinson, (2000). Antarctic sea ice extent variability and its global connectivity. J. Clim., 13, 1697–717.

Aqorau, T. (2003). Obligations to protect marine ecosystems under international conventions and other legal instruments. In Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, eds. M. Sinclair & G. Valdimarsson. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, pp. 25–41.

J.Beddington, , Hassell, M. P. & Lawton, J. H. (1976). The components of arthropod predation. II. The predator rate of increase. J. Anim. Ecol., 45, 165–86.

G. K.Davoren, & W. A.Montevecchi, (2003). Signals from seabirds indicate changing biology of capelin stocks. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 258, 253–61.

W.Gentleman, , Leising, A., Frost, B., Strom, S. & Murray, J. W. (2003). Functional responses for zooplankton feeding on multiple resources: a review of assumptions and biological dynamics. Deep-Sea Res. II, 50, 2847–75.

H. F.Geromont, , de Oliveira, J. A. A., Johnston, S. J. & Cunningham, C. L. (1999). Development and application of management procedures for fisheries in southern Africa. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 56, 952–66.

L. R.Ginzburg, (1998). Assuming reproduction to be a function of consumption raises doubts about some popular predator–prey models. J. Anim. Ecol., 67, 325–7.

J.Harwood, & K.Stokes, (2003). Coping with uncertainty in ecological advice: lessons from fisheries. Trends Ecol. Evol., 18, 617–22.

K. J.Park, , Hurley, M. M. & Hudson, P. J. (2002). Territorial status and survival in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus: hope for the doomed surplus? J. Avian Biol., 33, 56–62.

A. E.Punt, & R.Hilborn, (1997). Fisheries stock assessment and decision analysis: the Bayesian approach. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish., 7, 35–63.

A. E.Punt, & A. D. H.Smith, (1999). Harvest strategy evaluation for the eastern stock of gemfish (Rexea solandri). ICES J. Mar. Sci., 56, 860–75.

L. A.Real, (1977). The kinetics of functional response. Am. Nat., 111, 289–300.

S.Redpath, & S.Thirgood, (1999). Numerical and functional responses in generalist predators: hen harriers and peregrines on Scottish grouse moors. J. Anim. Ecol., 68, 879–92.

K.Reid, & J.Arnould, (1996). The diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella during the breeding season at South Georgia. Polar Biol., 16, 104–14.

P.Yodzis, (1998). Local trophodynamics and the interaction of marine mammals and fisheries in the Benguela ecosystem. J. Anim. Ecol., 67, 635–58.

Andrews, R. D., Calkins, D. G., Davis, R. W. et al. (2002). Foraging behavior and energetics of adult female Steller sea lions. In Steller Sea Lion Decline: Is it Food II, eds. D. DeMaster & S. Atkinson. Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Sea Grant College Program, pp. 19–22.

E. P.Bailey, & N. H.Faust, (1980). Summer distribution and abundance of marine birds and mammals in the Sandman Reefs, Alaska, USA. Murrelet, 61, 6–19.

J. W.Bickham, , T. R.Loughlin, , D. G.Calkins, , J. K.Wickliffe, & J. C.Patton, (1998). Genetic variability and population decline in Steller sea lions from the Gulf of Alaska. J. Mammal., 79, 1390–5.

P. L.Boveng, , J. L.Bengtson, , D. E.Withrow, et al. (2003). The abundance of harbor seals in the Gulf of Alaska. Mar. Mammal Sci., 19, 111–27.

K. P.Burnham, & D. R.Anderson, (1998). Model Selection and Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. New York: Springer-Verlag.

D. G.Calkins, , E. F.Becker, & K. W.Pitcher, (1998). Reduced body size of female Steller sea lions from a declining population in the Gulf of Alaska. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 14, 232–44.

K. J.Frost, , L. F.Lowry, & Ver J. M.Hoef, (1999). Monitoring the trend of harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 15, 494–506.

C. S.Holling, (1959). Some characteristics of simple types of predation and parasitism. Can. Entomol., 91, 385–98.

E. E.Holmes, & A. E.York, (2003). Using age structure to detect impacts on threatened populations: a case study with Steller sea lions. Conserv. Biol., 17, 1794–806.

L. A.Jemison, & B. P.Kelly, (2001). Pupping phenology and demography of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) on Tugidak Island, Alaska. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 17, 585–600.

Mangel, M. & Wolf, N. Predator diet breadth and prey population dynamics: mechanism and modeling. In Whales, Whaling and Ocean Ecosystems, ed. J. Estes. Berkeley, CA: UC Press, in press.

R. L.Merrick, (1997). Current and historical roles of apex predators in the Bering Sea ecosystem. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., 22, 343–55.

R. L.Merrick, , M. K.Chumbley, & G. V.Byrd, (1997). Diet diversity of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and their population decline in Alaska: a potential relationship. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 54, 1342–8.

M. A.Pascual, & M. D.Adkison, (1994). The decline of the Steller sea lion in the northeast Pacific: demography, harvest, or environment? Ecol. Applic., 4, 393–403.

K. W.Pitcher, (1990). Major decline in the number of harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi, on Tugidak Island, Gulf of Alaska. Mar. Mammal Sci., 6, 121–34.

K. W.Pitcher, , D. G.Calkins, & G. W.Pendleton, (1998). Reproductive performance of female Steller sea lions: an energetics-based reproductive strategy? Can. J. Zool., 76, 2075–83.

K. L.Raum-Suryan, , K. W.Pitcher, , D. G.Calkins, , J. L.Sease, & T. R.Loughlin, (2002). Dispersal, rookery fidelity, and metapopulation structure of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in an increasing and decreasing population in Alaska. Mar. Mammal Sci., 18, 746–64.

D. A. S.Rosen, & A. W.Trites, (2000). Pollock and the decline of Steller sea lions: testing the junk-food hypothesis. Can. J. Zool., 78, 1243–50.

E. L.Saulitis, , C. O.Matkin, , K. A.Heise, , L. G.Barrett-Lennard, & G. M.Ellis, (2000). Foraging strategies of sympatric killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Mar. Mammal Sci., 16, 94–109.

R. J.Small, , G. W.Pendleton, & K. W.Pitcher, (2003). Trends in abundance of Alaska harbor seals, 1983–2001. Mar. Mammal Sci., 19, 344–62.

A. E.York, (1994). The population dynamics of northern sea lions, 1975–1985. Mar. Mammal Sci., 10, 38–51.

E. L.Charnov, (1976). Optimal foraging: the marginal value theorem. Theor. Popul. Biol., 9, 129–36.

R. J.Cowie, (1977). Optimal foraging in great tits (Parus major). Nature, 268, 137–9.

Y.Iwasa, , H.Masahiko, & N.Yamamura, (1981). Prey distribution as a factor determining the choice of optimal foraging strategy. Am. Nat., 117, 710–23.

M.Kennedy, & R. D.Gray, (1993). Can ecological theory predict the distribution of foraging animals? Oikos, 68, 158–66.

A.Oaten, (1977). Optimal foraging in patches: a case for stochasticity. Theor. Popul. Biol., 12, 263–85.

J. G.Ollason, (1980). Learning to forage: optimally? Theor. Popul. Biol., 18, 44–56.

J. G.Ollason, (1987). Learning to forage in a regenerating patchy environment: can it fail to be optimal? Theor. Popul. Biol., 31, 13–32.

J. G.Ollason, & N.Ren, (2002). Taking the rough with the smooth: foraging for particulate food in continuous time. Theor. Popul. Biol., 62, 313–27.

J. G.Ollason, & J. M.Yearsley, (2001). The approximately ideal, more or less free distribution. Theor. Popul. Biol., 59, 87–105.

B.Bogstad, , Hiis K.Hauge, & Ø.Ulltang, (1997). MULTISPEC: a multispecies model for fish and marine mammals in the Barents Sea. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., 22, 317–41.

H.Gj⊘sæter, , B.Bogstad, & S.Tjelmeland, (2002). Assessment methodology for Barents Sea capelin, Mallotus villosus (Müller), ICES J. Mar. Sci., 59, 1086–95.

Hagen, G. S., Hatlebakk, E. & Schweder, T. (1998). Scenario Barents Sea. A tool for evaluating fisheries management regimes. In Models for Multi-species Management, ed. T. R⊘dseth. Berlin: Physica-Verlag, pp. 73–226.

J.Hamre, (1994). Biodiversity and exploitation of the main fish stocks in the Norwegian Sea–Barents Sea ecosystem. Biodiversity Conserv., 3, 473–92.

D. Ø.Hjermann, , G.Ottersen, & N. C.Stenseth, (2004). Competition among fishermen and fish causes the collapse of Barents Sea capelin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, 101, 11 679–84.

T.Schweder, & N. L.Hjort, (2002). Confidence and likelihood. Scand. J. Statistics, 29, 309–32.

T.Schweder, , G. S.Hagen, & E.Hatlebakk, (1998). On the effect on cod and herring fisheries of retuning the Revised Management Procedure for Minke whaling in the Greater Barents Sea. Fish. Res., 37, 77–95.

H. J.Skaug, , N.Øien, , G. B⊘thun & T.Schweder, (2004). Abundance of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostata) in the Northeast Atlantic: variability in time and space. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 61, 870–86.

D. J.Agnew, (1997). The CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program. Antarc. Sci., 9, 235–42.

J. R.Beddington, & R. M.May, (1982). The harvesting of interacting species in a natural ecosystem. Sci. Am., 247, 42–9.

I. L.Boyd, (2002). Integrated environment–prey interactions off South Georgia: implications for management of fisheries. Aquat. Conserv., 12, 119–26.

A. J.Constable, , de la Mare, W. K., Agnew, D. J., Everson, I. & Miller, D. (2000). Managing fisheries to conserve the Antarctic marine ecosystem: practical implementation of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 778–91.

J. G.Cooke, (1999). Improvement of fishery-management advice through simulation testing of harvest algorithms. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 56, 797–810.

W. K.Maredela, (1998). Tidier fisheries management requires a new MOP (management- oriented paradigm). Rev. Fish Biol. Fish., 8, 349–56.

B. J., Barmuta, L. A., Fairweather, P. G.Downes, et al. (2002). Monitoring Ecological Impacts: Concepts and Practice in Flowing Waters. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

P. G.Fairweather, (1990). Is predation capable of interacting with other community processes on rocky reefs? Aust. J. Ecol., 15, 453–64.

P. A.Larkin, (1996). Concepts and issues in marine ecosystem management. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish., 6, 139–64.

D., Hilborn, R. & Walters, C.Ludwig, (1993). Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: lessons from history. Science, 260, 17–36.

M., Talbot, L. M., Meffe, G. K.Mangel, et al. (1996). Principles for the conservation of wild living resources. Ecol. Applic., 6, 338–62.

R. M., Beddington, J. R., Clark, C. W., Holt, S. J. & Laws, R. M.May, (1979). Management of multispecies fisheries. Science, 205, 267–77.

R. T.Paine, (1980). Food webs: linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure. J. Anim. Ecol., 49, 667–85.

P. S., Latham, R. E. & Niesenbaum, R. A.Petraitis, (1989). The maintenance of species diversity by disturbance. Q. Rev. Biol., 64, 393–418.

K. J., Punt, A. E. & Smith, A. D. M.Sainsbury, (2000). Design of operational management strategies for achieving fishery ecosystem objectives. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57, 731–41.