Skip to main content
Transformations in Slavery
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Marnewick, Carl Erasmus, Wikus and Joseph, Nazeer 2018. Infusing African management philosophy into project management. Acta Commercii, Vol. 18, Issue. 1,

    Gyllenbok, Jan 2018. Encyclopaedia of Historical Metrology, Weights, and Measures. Vol. 57, Issue. , p. 983.

    Wuepper, David and Sauer, Johannes 2017. Moving Forward in Rural Ghana: Investing in Social and Human Capital Mitigates Historical Constraints. Economic History of Developing Regions, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 177.

    Allina, Eric 2017. Para Compreender a “Escravidão Moderna”: Vozes dos arquivos. Cadernos de Estudos Africanos, p. 131.

    Armange, Roseline and Mullet, Etienne 2016. Slave descendants’ views regarding national policies on reparations: A Martinican perspective. Social Science Information, Vol. 55, Issue. 4, p. 511.

    Lewis, David M. 2016. On Human Bondage. p. 31.

    Miller, Clark A. 2015. Modeling risk in complex bioeconomies. Journal of Responsible Innovation, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 124.

    Dalton, John T. and Leung, Tin Cheuk 2014. Why Is Polygyny More Prevalent in Western Africa? An African Slave Trade Perspective. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 62, Issue. 4, p. 599.

    Graham, Mark and Mann, Laura 2013. Imagining a Silicon Savannah? Technological and Conceptual Connectivity in Kenya's BPO and Software Development Sectors. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, Vol. 56, Issue. 1, p. 1.


Book description

This history of African slavery from the fifteenth to the early twentieth centuries examines how indigenous African slavery developed within an international context. Paul E. Lovejoy discusses the medieval Islamic slave trade and the Atlantic trade as well as the enslavement process and the marketing of slaves. He considers the impact of European abolition and assesses slavery's role in African history. The book corrects the accepted interpretation that African slavery was mild and resulted in the slaves' assimilation. Instead, slaves were used extensively in production, although the exploitation methods and the relationships to world markets differed from those in the Americas. Nevertheless, slavery in Africa, like slavery in the Americas, developed from its position on the periphery of capitalist Europe. This new edition revises all statistical material on the slave trade demography and incorporates recent research and an updated bibliography.


'As with all good history, Transformations in Slavery makes us see the present in the new light it casts on the past. This clear narrative is charged with philosophical sophistication and enlivened by well-placed anecdote.'

Tony Voss Source: African Studies Quarterly

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Select Bibliography
Abaka, Edmund 2011 House of Slaves and “Door of No Return”: Gold Coast Castles and Forts of the Atlantic Slave TradeTrenton, NJAfrica World Press.
Afigbo, A. E. 1981 Ropes of Sand: Studies in Igbo History and CultureIbadanUniversity Press in association with Oxford University Press.
Akurang-Perry, Kwabena 2011 Abolition of Slavery and Pawnship in Colonial Southern Ghana, 1874–1940Trenton, NJAfrica World Press
Alagoa, E. J. 1972 A History of the Niger DeltaIbadanUniversity of Ibadan Press.
Alpers, E. A. 1967 The East African Slave TradeNairobiEast African Publishing Co
Alpers, E. A. 1975 Ivory and Slaves in East Central Africa: Changing Patterns of International Trade to the Later Nineteenth CenturyBerkeleyUniversity of California Press.
Alpers, E. A. 2009 East Africa and the Indian OceanPrincetonMarkus Wiener.
Alpers, EdwardCampbell, GwynSalmon, Michael 2007 Resisting Bondage in the Indian Ocean, Africa and AsiaNew YorkRoutledge.
Asiegbu, Johnson U. J. 1969 Slavery and the Politics of Liberation, 1787–1861: A Study of Liberated African Emigration and British Anti-Slavery PolicyLondonLongmans.
Austin, Gareth 2005 Labour, Land and Capital in Ghana. From Slavery to Free Labour in Asante, 1807–1956Rochester, NYUniversity of Rochester Press.
Barry, Boubacar 1998 Senegambia and the Atlantic Slave TradeCambridgeCambridge University Press.
Baum, Robert M. 1999 Shrines of the Slave Trade: Diola Religion and Society in Precolonial SenegambiaNew YorkOxford University Press.
Bazémo, Maurice 2007 Esclaves et esclavage dans les anciens pays du Burkino FasoParisLHarmattan.
Behrendt, Stephen D.Latham, A. J. H.Northrup, David 2010 The Diary of Antera Duke: An Eighteenth-Century African Slave TraderOxfordOxford University Press.
Bellagamba, AliceGreen, SandraKlein, Martin A. 2011 African Slavery/African VoicesCambridgeCambridge University Press
Boahen, Adu 1964 Britain, the Sahara, and the Western Sudan 1788–1861OxfordClarendon.
Bouche, Denise 1968 Les villages de liberté en Afrique noire française, 1887–1910HayeMouton.
Brooks, George 1972
Brooks, George 2003 Euroafricans in Western Africa: Commerce, Social Status, Gender, and Religious Observance from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth CenturyAthensOhio University Press.
Brooks, George 2010 Western Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s–1830s. Symbiosis of Slave and Legitimate TradesBloomington, INAuthorhouse.
Brown, CarolynLovejoy, Paul E. 2010 Repercussions of the Atlantic Slave Trade: The Interior of the Bight of Biafra and the African DiasporaTrenton, NJAfrica World Press.
Campbell, Gwyn 2005 Abolition and Its Aftermath in Indian Ocean Africa and AsiaLondonFrank Cass.
Campbell, Gwyn 2008 An Economic History of Imperial Madagascar, 1750–1895: The Rise and Fall of an Island EmpireCambridgeCambridge University Press
Campbell, GwynMiers, SuzanneMiller, Joseph C. 2007 Women and Slavery: Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval North AtlanticAthensOhio University Press.
Campbell, GwynMiers, SuzanneMiller, Joseph C. 2007 Women and Slavery: The Modern AtlanticAthensOhio University Press.
Campbell, GwynMiers, SuzanneMiller, Joseph C. 2009 Children in Slavery through the AgesAthensOhio University Press.
Candido, Mariana 2011 Fronteras de la Esclavización: Esclavitud, Comercio e Identidad en Benguela, 1780–1850MexicoColegio de Mexico Press.
Candido, Mariana 2011 An African Slaving Port in the Atlantic World: Benguela and Its HinterlandCambridgeCambridge University Press
Cooper, Frederick 1977 Plantation Slavery on the East African CoastNew Haven, CTYale University Press.
Cooper, Frederick 1980 From Slaves to Squatters: Plantation Labor and Agriculture in Zanzibar and Coastal Kenya, 1908–1925New Haven, CTYale University Press.
Coquery-Vidrovitch, CatherineLovejoy, Paul E. 1985 Workers of African TradeBeverly Hills, CASage.
Cordell, Dennis 1985 Dar al-Kuti and the Last Years of the Trans-Saharan Slave TradeMadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press.
Curtin, Philip D. 1967 Africa Remembered: Narratives of West Africans from the Era of the Slave TradeMadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press.
Curtin, Philip D 1969 The Atlantic Slave Trade: A CensusMadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press.
Curtin, Philip D. 1975 Economic Change in Precolonial Africa: Senegambia in the Era of the Slave TradeMadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press.
Curto, José C. 2004 Enslaving Spirits: The Portuguese–Brazilian Alcohol Trade at Luanda and Its Hinterland, c. 1550–1830LeidenBrill.
Curto, José C.Lovejoy, Paul E. 2004 Enslaving Connections: Changing Cultures of Africa and Brazil during the Era of SlaveryAmherst, NYHumanity Books.
Curto, José C.Soulodre-La France, Renée 2005 Africa and the Americas: Interconnections during the Slave TradeTrenton, NJAfrica World Press
Daaku, Kwame Yeboa 1970 Trade and Politics on the Gold Coast, 1600–1720: A Study of the African Reaction to European TradeOxfordClarendon Press.
DeCorse, Christopher R. 2001 West Africa during the Atlantic Slave Trade: Archaeological PerspectivesLondonLeicester University Press.
Deutsch, J.G. 2006 Emancipation without Abolition in German East Africa, c. 1884–1914OxfordClarendon Press.
Dike, Kenneth Onwuka 1956 Trade and Politics in the Niger Delta 1830–1885OxfordOxford University Press
Dike, Kenneth OnwukaEkejuiba, Felicia 1990 The Aro of South-Eastern Nigeria, 1650–1980IbadanUniversity of Ibadan Press
Diouf, Mamadou 1990 Le Kajoor au XIXe siecle. Pouvoir ceddo et conquete colonialeParisKarthala
Diouf, Sylviane A. 2003 Fighting the Slave Trade: West African StrategiesAthensOhio University Press
Eldredge, ElizabethMorton, Fred 1994 Slavery in South Africa: Captive Labor on the Dutch FrontierBoulder, COWestview Press
Eltis, David 2002 Coerced and Free Labor: Global PerspectivesStanford, CAStanford University Press
Eltis, David 1987 Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave TradeNew York and OxfordOxford University Press
Eltis, DavidRichardson, David 2010 Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave TradeNew Haven, CTYale University Press
Eltis, DavidRichardson, DavidBehrendt, StephenFlorentino, Manolo 2009
Eltis, DavidRichardson, DavidBehrendt, StephenKlein, Herbert S. 1999 The Atlantic Slave Trade. A database on CD-ROMCambridgeCambridge University Press
Ennaji, Mohammed 1999 Serving the Master: Slavery and Society in Nineteenth-Century MoroccoNew YorkSt. Martins Press
Etherington, Norman 2001 The Great Treks: The Transformation of Southern Africa, 1815–1854New YorkLongman
Ewald, Janet 1990 Soldiers, Traders, and Slaves: State Formation and Economic Transformation in the Greater Nile Valley, 1700–1885MadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Falola, Toyin 1984 The Political Economy of a Pre-colonial African State, Ibadan, 1830–1900IbadanUniversity of Ibadan Press
Falola, ToyinChilds, Matt D. 2004 The Yoruba Diaspora in the Atlantic WorldBloomingtonIndiana University Press
Falola, ToyinLaw, Robin 1992 Warfare and Diplomacy in Precolonial NigeriaMadisonAfrican Studies Program
Falola, ToyinOgundiran, Akinwumi 2010 Archaeology of Atlantic Africa and the African DiasporaBloomingtonIndiana University Press
Falola, ToyinOguntomisin, Dare 2001 Yoruba Warlords of the Nineteenth CenturyTrenton, NJAfrica World Press
Fisher, H. J. 2001 Slavery in the History of Muslim Black AfricaLondonHurst and Co
Fyfe, Christopher 1962 A History of Sierra LeoneLondonOxford University Press
Fyfe, Christopher 1991 Our Children Free and Happy. Letters from Black Settlers in Africa in the 1790sEdinburghEdinburgh University Press
Getz, Trevor 2004 Slavery and Reform in West Africa. Toward Emancipation in Nineteenth Century Senegal and the Gold CoastAthensOhio University Press
Glassman, Jonathon 1995 Feasts and Riot, Revelry, Rebellion, and Popular Consciousness on the Swahili Coast, 1856–1868LondonJames Currey
Grace, John 1975 Domestic Slavery in West AfricaNew YorkBarnes & Noble
Green, Sandra E. 2011 West African Narratives of Slavery Texts from late 19th and early 20th Century GhanaBloomington, INIndiana University Press
Hall, Bruce 2011 A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600–1960CambridgeCambridge University Press.
Harms, Robert 1981 River of Wealth, River of SorrowNew Haven, CTYale University Press
Harms, Robert 1999 Games against Nature: An Eco-Cultural History of the Nunu of Equatorial AfricaNew YorkCambridge University Press
Havik, Philip 2004 Silences and Soundbythes: The Gendered Dynamics of Trade and Brokerage in the Pre-Colonial Bissau RegionMunsterLit. Verlag
Hawthorne, Walter 2003 Planting Rice and Harvesting Slaves: Transformations along the Guinea-Bissau Coast, 1400–1900Portsmouth, NHHeinemann
Hernaes, Per O. 1995 Slaves, Danes, and African Coast Society. The Danish Slave Trade from West Africa and Afro-Danish Relations on the Eighteenth-Century Gold CoastTrondheimUniversity of Trondheim Press
Heywood, Linda 2002 Central Africans and Cultural Transformations in the American DiasporaCambridgeCambridge University Press
Hogendorn, JanJohnson, Marion 1986 The Shell Money of the Slave TradeCambridgeCambridge University Press
Hopkins, A. G. 1973 An Economic History of West AfricaLondonLongmans
Hunwick, JohnHarrak, Fatima 2000 Mi‘raj al-Su‘ud. Ahmad Baba’s Replies on SlaveryRabatInstitute of African Studies
Hunwick, JohnLawler, Nancy 1996 The Cloth of Many Colored Silks. Papers on History and Society Ghanaian and Islamic in Honor of Ivor WilksEvanston, ILNorthwestern University Press
Hunwick, JohnTroutt Powell, Eve 2002 The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of IslamPrincetonMarcus Wiener Publishers
Inikori, J. E. 1982 Forced Migration: The Impact of the Export Slave Trade on African SocietiesNew YorkAfricana Publishing
Isaacman, Allen F. 1972 Mozambique: The Africanization of a European Institution: The Zambesi Prazos, 1750–1902MadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Isaacman, AllenIsaacman, Barbara 2004 Slavery and Beyond: The Making of Men and Chikunda Ethnic Identities in the Unstable World of South-Central Africa, 1750–1920PortsmouthHeinemann
Jones, G. I. 1989 From Slaves to Palm Oil: Slave Trade and Palm Oil Trade in the Bight of BiafraCambridgeAfrican Studies Centre
Kanya-Forstner, A. S.Lovejoy, Paul E. 1994 Slavery and Its Abolition in French West AfricaMadison WIAfrican Studies Program
Kea, Raymond A. 1982 Settlements, Trade, and Politics in the Seventeenth-Century Gold CoastBaltimoreJohns Hopkins University Press
Klein, Martin 1998 Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West AfricaCambridgeCambridge University Press
Klein, MartinMiers, Suzanne 1999 Slavery and Colonial Rule in AfricaLondonFrank Cass
Korieh, Chima J.Kolapo, Femi J. 2007 The Aftermath of Slavery: Transitions and Transformations in Southeastern NigeriaTrenton NJAfrica World Press
Kriger, Colleen E. 2006 Cloth in West African HistoryLanham, MDAltaMira Press
Laband, John 2007 Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Africa: From Slavery Days to Rwandan GenocideWestport, CTGreenwood Press
Larson, P. M. 2000 History and Memory in the Age of Enslavement. Becoming Merina in Highland Madagascar 1770–1822Portsmouth, NHHeinemann
Latham, A. J. H. 1973 Old Calabar, 1600–1891: The Impact of the International Economy upon a Traditional SocietyOxfordClarendon Press
Law, Robin 1977 The Oyo Empire, c. 1600–c. 1836: A West African Imperialism in the Era of the Atlantic Slave TradeOxfordClarendon Press
Law, Robin 1980 The Horse in West African HistoryOxfordClarendon Press
Law, Robin 1991 The Slave Coast of West Africa, 1550–1750. The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on an African SocietyOxfordClarendon Press
Law, Robin 1997 The Kingdom of AlladaLeidenBrill
Law, Robin 2001 2006 The English in West Africa, 1685–1688: The Local Correspondence of the Royal African Company of England, 1681–1699LondonFontes Historiae Africanae, Oxford University Press, for the British Academy
Law, Robin 2002
Law, Robin 2004 Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving “Port”, 1727–1892AthensOhio University Press
Law, Robin 1995 From Slave Trade to “Legitimate” Commerce: The Commercial Transition in Nineteenth-Century West AfricaCambridgeCambridge University Press
Law, RobinLovejoy, Paul E. 2007 The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and AmericaPrincetonMarkus Weiner
Law, RobinStrickrodt, Silke 1999 The Ports of the Slave Trade (Bights of Benin and Biafra)StirlingInstitute of Commonwealth Studies.
LeVeen, E. Philip 1977 British Slave Trade Suppression Policies, 1821–1865New YorkArno Press
Lloyd, Christopher 1949 The Navy and the Slave Trade: The Suppression of the African Slave Trade in the Nineteenth CenturyLondonFrank Cass
Lovejoy, Paul E. 1980 Caravans of Kola: The Hausa Kola Trade, 1700–1900ZariaAhmadu Bello University Press
Lovejoy, Paul E. 1981 The Ideology of Slavery in AfricaBeverly Hills, CASage
Lovejoy, Paul E. 1986 Africans in Bondage: Studies in Slavery and the Slave TradeMadison, WIAfrican Studies Program
Lovejoy, Paul E. 1986 Salt of the Desert Sun. A History of Salt Production and Trade in the Central SudanCambridgeCambridge University Press
Lovejoy, Paul E. 2004 Slavery on the Frontiers of IslamPrincetonMarkus Wiener
Lovejoy, Paul E. 2005 Slavery, Commerce and Production in West Africa: Slave Society in the Sokoto CaliphateTrenton, NJAfrica World Press
Lovejoy, Paul E. 2005 Ecology and Ethnography of Muslim Trade in West AfricaTrenton, NJAfrica World Press
Lovejoy, Paul E.Falola, Toyin 2003 Pawnship, Slavery and Colonialism in AfricaTrenton, NJAfrica World Press
Lovejoy, Paul E.Hogendorn, Jan 1993 Slow Death for Slavery. The Course of Abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897–1936CambridgeCambridge University Press
Lovejoy, Paul E.Rogers, Nicolas 1994 Unfree Labour in the Development of the Atlantic WorldLondonFrank Cass
Lydon, Ghislaine 2009 On Trans-Saharan Trails. Islamic Law, Trade Networks, and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Nineteenth-Century Western AfricaCambridgeCambridge University Press
Lynn, Martin 1998 Commerce and Economic Change in West Africa: The Palm Oil Trade in the Nineteenth CenturyCambridgeCambridge University Press
Mann, Kristin 2007 Slavery and the Birth of an African City: Lagos, 1760–1900BloomingtonIndiana University Press
Manning, Patrick 1982 Slavery, Colonialism, and Economic Growth in Dahomey, 1640–1960CambridgeCambridge University Press
Manning, Patrick 1990 Slavery and African Life. Occidental, Oriental and African Slave TradesCambridgeCambridge University Press
Mark, Peter 2003 Portuguese” Style and Luso-African Identity: Precolonial Senegambia, 16th-19th CenturiesBloomingtonIndiana University Press
Marks, ShulaAtmore, Anthony 1980 Economy and Society in Pre-Industrial South AfricaLondonLongmans
Martin, Phyllis 1972 The External Trade of the Loango Coast, 1576–1870OxfordClarendon
Meillassoux, Claude 1971 The Development of Indigenous Trade and Markets in West AfricaLondonInternational African Institute
Meillassoux, Claude 1975 L’Esclavage en Afrique précolonialeParisMaspero
Meillassoux, Claude 1991 The Anthropology of Slavery. The Womb of Iron and GoldChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press
Memel-Fote, Harris 2007 L’esclavage dans les societies lignagères de la forêt ivoirienne (XVIIe–XXe siècle)AbidjanÉditions du CERAP
Miers, Suzanne 1975 Britain and the Ending of the Slave TradeNew York: Longman
Miers, Suzanne 2003 Slavery in the Twentieth Century. The Evolution of a Global ProblemWalnut Creek, CAAltaMira Press
Miers, SuzanneKlein, Martin 1999 Slavery and Colonial Rule in AfricaLondonFrank Cass
Miers, SuzanneKopytoff, Igor 1977 Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological PerspectivesMadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Miers, SuzanneRoberts, Richard 1988 The End of Slavery in AfricaMadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Miller, Joseph C. 1988 Way of Death. Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730–1830MadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Miller, Joseph C. 1999 Slavery and Slaving in World History. A Bibliography, 1900–1996Armon, NYM. E. Sharpe
Montana, Ismael 2011 The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade and Abolition of Slavery in Ottoman Tunisia, 1759–1855Gainesville, FLUniversity Press of Florida
Morton, Fred 1990 Children of Ham. Freed Slaves and Fugitive Slaves on the Kenya Coast, 1873 to 1907BoulderWestview Press
Northrup, David 1978 Trade Without Rulers: Pre-Colonial Economic Development in South-Eastern NigeriaOxfordClarendon Press
Northrup, David 1995 Indentured Labor in the Age of Imperialism, 1834–1922CambridgeCambridge University Press
Nwokeji, G. Ugo 2010 The Slave Trade and Culture: Atlantic Commerce and the Aro Trade Diaspora in the Bight of BiafraNew YorkCambridge University Press
Nwulia, Moses D. E. 1975 Britain and Slavery in East AfricaWashington, DCThree Continents Press
O’ Hear, Ann 1997 Power Relations in Nigeria: Ilorin Slaves and their SuccessorsRochester, NYUniversity of Rochester Press
Perbi, Akosua Adoma 2004 A History of Indigenous Slavery in Ghana from the 15th to the 19th CenturyAccraSub-Saharan Publishers
Peukert, Werner 1978 Der atlantische Sklavenhandel von Dahomey 1740–1797: Wirtshcaftsanthropologie und SozialgeschichteWiesbadenSteiner
Quirk, Joel 2009 Unfinished Business: A Comparative Survey of Historical and Contemporary SlaveryParisUNESCO
Renault, François 1971 Lavigerie, l’esclavage africain, et l’Europe 1868–1892ParisE. de Boccard
Renault, François 1972 L’abolition de l’esclavage au Sénégal. L’attitude de l’administration française, 1848–1905ParisSociété française dhistoire doutre-mer
Renault, François 1976 Libération d’esclaves et nouvelle servitudeAbidjanNouvelles editions africaines
Roberts, Richard 1987 Warriors, Merchants and Slaves: The State and the Economy in the Middle Niger Valley, 1700–1914Palo Alto, CAStanford University Press
Robertson, Claire C.Klein, Martin A. 1983 Women and Slavery in AfricaMadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Rodney, Walter 1966 Slavery and other forms of social oppression on the Upper Guinea Coast in the context of the Atlantic slave tradeJournal of African History 7 43143
Rodney, Walter 1970 A History of the Upper Guinea Coast, 1545–1800OxfordClarendon Press
Röschenthaler, Ute 2011 Purchasing Culture in the Cross River Region of Cameroon and NigeriaTrenton, NJAfrica World Press
Ross, Robert 1983 Cape of Torments: Slavery and Resistance in South AfricaLondonRoutledge & Kegan Paul
Rossi, Benedetta 2009 Reconfiguring Slavery. West African TrajectoriesLiverpoolLiverpool University Press
Salau, Mohammed Bashir 2011 The West African Slave Plantation: A Case StudyNew YorkPalgrave Macmillan
Savage, Elizabeth 1992 The Human Commodity: Perspectives on the Trans-Saharan Slave TradeLondonFrank Cass
Scully, Pamela 1997 Liberating the Family? Gender and British Emancipation in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa, 1823–1853Portsmouth, NHHeinemann and James Curry
Searing, James 1993 West African Slavery and Atlantic CommerceCambridgeCambridge University Press
Shaw, Rosalind 2002 Memories of the Slave Trade: Ritual and the Historical Imagination in Sierra LeoneChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press
Shell, Robert 1994 Children of Bondage. A Social History of the Slave Society at the Cape of Good Hope, 1652–1838Hanover, NHUniversity Press of New England
Sheriff, Abdul 1987 Slaves, Spices and Ivory in ZanzibarLondonJames Currey
Sikainga, Ahmad Alawad 1996 Slaves into Workers. Emancipation and Labor in Colonial SudanAustinUniversity of Texas Press
Smith, Mary F. 1955 Baba of Karo: A Woman of the Moslem HausaLondonFaber and Faber
Sparks, Randy J. 2004 The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic OdysseyCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Stilwell, Sean 2004 Paradoxes of Power. The Kano “Mamluks” and Male Royal Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate, 1804–1903Portsmouth, NHHeinemann
Sundiata, Ibrahim K. 1996 From Slaving to Neoslavery: The Bight of Biafra and Fernando Po in the Era of Abolition, 1827–1930MadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Thornton, John 1983 The Kingdom of Kongo: Civil War and Transition, 1641–1718MadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Thornton, John 1998 Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1800CambridgeCambridge University Press
Thornton, John 1998 The Kongolese Saint Anthony. Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706CambridgeCambridge University Press
Thornton, John 1999 Warfare in Atlantic Africa, 1500–1800LondonUCL Press
Toledano, Ehud R. 1982 The Ottoman Slave Trade and Its SuppressionPrinceton, NJPrinceton University Press
Vansina, Jan 1966 Kingdoms of the SavannaMadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Vansina, Jan 1973 The Tio Kingdom of the Middle Congo, 1880–1892OxfordOxford University Press
Vansina, Jan 1978 The Children of Woot: A History of the Kuba PeoplesMadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Vansina, Jan 1990 Paths in the Rainforests: Toward a History of Political Tradition in Equatorial AfricaMadisonUniversity of Wisconsin Press
Vansina, Jan 2004 How Societies Are Born. Governance in West Central Africa before 1600CharlottesvilleUniversity of Virginia Press
Vaughan, James H.Kirk-Greene, Anthony H. M. 1995 The Diary of Hamman Yaji: Chronicle of a West African Muslim RulerBloomingtonIndiana University Press
Vaughan, Megan 2005 Creating the Creole Island: Slavery in Eighteenth-Century MauritiusDurham, NCDuke University Press
Verger, Pierre 1976 Trade Relations between the Bight of Benin and Brazil, 17th–19th CenturyCrawford, EvelynIbadanUniversity of Ibadan Press
Von Oppen, Achim 1997 Terms of Trade and Terms of Trust: The History and Contexts of Pre-colonial Market Production around the Upper Zambezi and KasaiMunster and HamburgLIT Verlag
Walz, Terence 1978 Trade between Egypt and Bilad As-Sudan, 1700–1820CairoInstitut français darchéologie orientale
Watson, James L. 1980 Asian and African Systems of SlaveryOxfordOxford University Press
Wilks, Ivor 1975 Asante in the Nineteenth century: The Structure and Evolution of a Political OrderCambridgeCambridge University Press
Willis, John Ralph 1985 Slaves and Slavery in Muslim AfricaLondonFrank Cass
Worden, Nigel 1985 Slavery in Dutch South AfricaCambridgeCambridge University Press
Worden, NigelCrais, Clifton 1994 Breaking the Chains. Slavery and Its Legacy in the Nineteenth-Century Cape ColonyJohannesburgWitwtersrand University Press
Wright, Donald 2004 The World and a Very Small Place in Africa: A History of Globalization in Niumi, The GambiaArmonk, NYM. E. Sharp
Wright, John 2007 The Trans-Saharan Slave TradeLondonRoutledge
Wright, Marcia 1993 Strategies of Slaves and Women. Life-Stories from East/Central AfricaNew YorkLilian Barber Press
Zeleza, Paul 1993 A Modern Economic History of Africa: The Nineteenth CenturyDakarCodresia
Zimba, BenignaAlpers, EdwardIsaacman, Allen 2005 Slave Routes and Oral Tradition in Southeastern AfricaMaputoFilsom Entertainment