Skip to main content
Tropical Montane Cloud Forests
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 6
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bahar, Nur H. A. Ishida, F. Yoko Weerasinghe, Lasantha K. Guerrieri, Rossella O'Sullivan, Odhran S. Bloomfield, Keith J. Asner, Gregory P. Martin, Roberta E. Lloyd, Jon Malhi, Yadvinder Phillips, Oliver L. Meir, Patrick Salinas, Norma Cosio, Eric G. Domingues, Tomas F. Quesada, Carlos A. Sinca, Felipe Escudero Vega, Alberto Zuloaga Ccorimanya, Paola P. del Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon Quispe Huaypar, Katherine Cuba Torres, Israel Butrón Loayza, Rosalbina Pelaez Tapia, Yulina Huaman Ovalle, Judit Long, Benedict M. Evans, John R. and Atkin, Owen K. 2016. Leaf-level photosynthetic capacity in lowland Amazonian and high-elevation Andean tropical moist forests of Peru. New Phytologist,

    Prada, Cecilia M. and Stevenson, Pablo R. 2016. Plant composition associated with environmental gradients in tropical montane forests (Cueva de Los Guacharos National Park, Huila, Colombia). Biotropica, p. n/a.

    Ledo, Alicia Cayuela, Luis Manso, Rubén Condés, Sonia and Roxburgh, Stephen 2015. Recruitment patterns and potential mechanisms of community assembly in an Andean cloud forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 26, Issue. 5, p. 876.

    Gehrig-Downie, Christine Obregon, André Bendix, Jörg and Gradstein, Robbert 2013. Diversity and vertical distribution of epiphytic liverworts in lowland rain forest and lowland cloud forest of French Guiana. Journal of Bryology, Vol. 35, Issue. 4, p. 243.

    Ledo, Alicia Burslem, David F.R.P. Condés, Sonia Montes, Fernando and De Cáceres, Miquel 2013. Micro-scale habitat associations of woody plants in a neotropical cloud forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 24, Issue. 6, p. 1086.

    Cleveland, Cory C. Townsend, Alan R. Taylor, Philip Alvarez-Clare, Silvia Bustamante, Mercedes M. C. Chuyong, George Dobrowski, Solomon Z. Grierson, Pauline Harms, Kyle E. Houlton, Benjamin Z. Marklein, Alison Parton, William Porder, Stephen Reed, Sasha C. Sierra, Carlos A. Silver, Whendee L. Tanner, Edmund V. J. and Wieder, William R. 2011. Relationships among net primary productivity, nutrients and climate in tropical rain forest: a pan-tropical analysis. Ecology Letters, Vol. 14, Issue. 9, p. 939.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Tropical Montane Cloud Forests
    • Online ISBN: 9780511778384
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This volume represents a uniquely comprehensive overview of our current knowledge on tropical montane cloud forests. 72 chapters cover a wide spectrum of topics including cloud forest distribution, climate, soils, biodiversity, hydrological processes, hydrochemistry and water quality, climate change impacts, and cloud forest conservation, management, and restoration. The final chapter presents a major synthesis by some of the world's leading cloud forest researchers, which summarizes our current knowledge and considers the sustainability of these forests in an ever-changing world. This book presents state-of-the-art knowledge concerning cloud forest occurrence and status, as well as the biological and hydrological value of these unique forests. The presentation is academic but with a firm practical emphasis. It will serve as a core reference for academic researchers and students of environmental science and ecology, as well as practitioners (natural resources management, forest conservation) and decision makers at local, national, and international levels.


‘The editors and authors have done a tremendous job in assembling a comprehensive volume on the past and present of the biological diversity, hydrology, conservation and sustainable management of the Tropics' montane cloud forests. This book provides us with a wealth of knowledge that underscores the urgency to save the world's tropical highland cloud forests.'

Maarten Kappelle - University of Tennessee, Knoxville and Lead Scientist, Nature Conservancy Science Program, Latin America

‘This book contains the most up-to-date synthesis of the scientific understanding of tropical montane cloud forests. It is global and long-term in scope and is authored by the top scientific minds working on the subject. It will be essential reading for those interested in a holistic understanding of an ecosystem type at the cross hairs of climate and global environmental change.'

Ariel E. Lugo - Director of the Institute of Tropical Forestry, Puerto Rico - US Department of Agriculture

‘Representing a compilation of the currently available scientific knowledge by the most important cloud forest specialists of the world, this book provides conservationists and forest managers all the arguments and tools to convince policy-makers they should protect these forests. Use it!'

Willem Ferwerda - Director of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), National Committee of The Netherlands

'This is an incredibly rich assemblage of work by leaders in an important field, and deserves to be on the shelves of all libraries of natural resource institutions … It is also an exceptionally good launch pad for all further work on cloud forests that remains to be done … I am very glad I shall have this book to hand as I attempt to conserve my forest for the future.'

Jeff Sayer Source: International Forestry Review

'… attractively designed … offers a presentation of copious themes and a vast collection of references, and thus should be considered an important source for experts to enlarge their knowledge of TMCF ecosystems.'

Source: Frontiers of Biogeography

'… this book provides a valuable platform on which to base future research, and certainly no one active in cloud forest research can afford to be without a copy.'

Adrian Newton Source: Mountain Research and Development

'… an extraordinary compilation of individual studies that will be of value to all working on this precious ecosystem … many contributions provide extensive lists of references …'

David L. Hawksworth Source: Biodiversity and Conservation

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 3

Page 1 of 3

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

P. S. Ashton , (2003). Floristic zonation of tree communities on wet tropical mountains revisited. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 6: 87–104.

L. A. Bruijnzeel , and J. Proctor (1995). Hydrology and biogeochemistry of tropical montane cloud forests: What do we really know? In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 38–78. New York: Springer-Verlag.

R. Campanella (1995). The role of GIS in evaluating contour-based limits of cloud forest reserves in Honduras. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 116–124. New York: Springer-Verlag.

C. Doumenge , D. A. Gilmour , M. Ruiz-Perez , and J. Blockhus (1995). Tropical montane cloud forests: conservation status and management issues. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 24–37. New York: Springer-Verlag.

P. J. Grubb , and T. C. Whitmore (1966). A comparison of montane and lowland rain forest in Ecuador. II. The climate and its effects on the distribution and physiognomy of the forests. Journal of Ecology 54: 303–333.

V. Kapos , J. Rhind , M. Edwards , and M. F. Price (2000). Developing a map of the world's mountain forests. In Forests in Sustainable Mountain Development: A State-of-Knowledge Report for 2000, eds. M. F. Price and N. Butt , pp. 4–9. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Also available at

A. Markham (1998). Potential impacts of climate change on tropical forest ecosystems (guest editorial). Climate Change 39: 141–143.

P. H. Martin , R. E. Sherman , and T. J. Fahey (2007). Tropical montane ecotones: climate gradients, natural disturbance, and vegetation zonation in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic. Journal of Biogeography 34: 1792–1806.

D. A. Nullet , and J. O. Juvik (1994). Generalised mountain evaporation profiles for tropical and subtropical latitudes. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 15: 17–24.

S. R. Penafiel (1995). The biological and hydrological values of the mossy forests in the Central Cordiller Mountains, Philippines. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 266–273. New York: Springer-Verlag.

A. J. Pounds , M. Bustamante , L. A. Coloma , et al. (2006). Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439: 161–167.

J. Proctor , I. D. Edwards , R. W. Payton and L. Nagy (2007). Zonation of forest vegetation and soils of Mount Cameroon, West Africa. Plant Ecology 192: 251–269.

J. A. Vázquez-García (1995). Cloud forest archipelagos: preservation of fragmented montane ecosystems in tropical America. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 314–332. New York: Springer-Verlag.

P. L. Weaver (1995). The Colorado and dwarf forests of Puerto Rico's Luquillo Mountains. In Tropical Forests: Management and Ecology, eds. A. E. Lugo and C. Lowe , pp. 109–141. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

G. Zotz , and M. Y. Bader (2009). Epiphytic plants in a changing world: global change effects on vascular and non-vascular epiphytes. Progress in Botany 70: 147–170.

A. Hildebrandt , M. Al Aufi , M. Amerjeed , M. Shammas , and E. A. B. Eltahir (2007). Ecohydrology of a seasonal cloud forest in Dhofar. I. Field experiment. Water Resources Research 43, W10411, doi:10.1029/2006WR005261.

M. Leo (1995). The importance of tropical montane cloud forest for preserving vertebrate endemism in Peru: the Rio Abiseo National Park as a case study. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 198–211. New York: Springer-Verlag.

M. G. Letts , and M. Mulligan (2005). The impact of light quality and leaf wetness on photosynthesis in north-west Andean tropical montane cloud forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 21: 549–557.

A. Long (1995). Restricted-range and threatened bird species in tropical montane cloud forests. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 79–106. New York: Springer-Verlag.

D. P. Wylie , W. P. Menzel , H. M. Woolf , and K. I. Strabala (1994). Four years of global cirrus cloud statistics using HIRS. Journal of Climate 7: 1972–1986.

R. Hijmans , S. Cameron , J. Parra , P. J. Jones , and A. Jarvis (2005). Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25: 1965–1978.

C. G. Markham (1970). Seasonality of precipitation in the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 60: 593–597.

M. Meybeck , P. Green , and C. Vörösmarty (2001). A new typology for mountains and other relief classes. Mountain Research and Development 21: 34–45.

M. R. Allen , and W. J. Ingram (2002). Constraints on future changes in climate and the hydrological cycle. Nature 419: 224–232.

S. J. Brown , D. E. Parker , C. K. Folland , and I. Macadam (2000). Decadal variability in the lower-tropospheric lapse rate. Geophysical Research Letters 27: 997–1000.

J. Chen , B. E. Carlson , and A. D. Del Genio (2002). Evidence for strengthening of the tropical general circulation in the 1990s. Science 295: 838–841.

T. -C. Chen , J. -H. Yoon , K. J. St. Croix , and E. S. Takle (2001). Suppressing impacts of Amazonian deforestation by the global circulation change. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82: 2209–2216.

I. V. Chernykh , O. A. Alduchov , and R. E. Eskridge (2001). Trends in low and high cloud boundaries and errors in height determination of cloud boundaries. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82: 1941–1947.

J. P. Craven , R. E. Jewell , and H. E. Brooks (2002). Comparison between observed convective cloud-base heights and lifting condensation level for two different lifted parcels. Weather and Forecasting 17: 885–890.

A. Dai (2006). Recent climatology, variability and trends in global surface humidity, Journal of Climate 19: 3589–3606.

J. H. C. Gash , and C. A. Nobre (1997). Climatic effects of Amazonian deforestation: some results from ABRACOS. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 78: 823–830.

A. Hildebrandt , and E. A. B. Eltahir (2008). Using a horizontal precipitation model to investigate the role of turbulent cloud deposition in survival of a seasonal cloud forest in Dhofar. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, G04028, doi:10.1029/2008JG000727.

J. Lean , and D. A. Warrilow (1989). Simulation of the regional climatic impact of Amazon deforestation. Nature 342: 411–413.

B. G. Liepert , J. Feichter , U. Lohmann , and E. Roeckner (2004). Can aerosols spin down the water cycle in a warmer and moister world? Geophysical Research Letters 31: L06207.

U. Lohmann , and J. Feichter (2005). Global indirect aerosol effects: a review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5: 715–737.

P. Lopez (2007). Cloud and precipitation parameterizations in modeling and variational data assimilation: a review. Journal of Atmospheric Science 64: 3766–3784.

J. Molinari , and M. Dudek (1992). Parameterization of convective precipitation in mesoscale numerical models: a critical review. Monthly Weather Review 120: 326–344.

U. S. Nair , R. O. Lawton , R. M. Welch , and R. A. Pielke . (2003). Impact of land use on Costa Rican tropical montane cloud forests: sensitivity of cumulus cloud field characteristics to lowland deforestation. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (D7): 4206–4218.

C. A. Nobre , P. J. Sellers , and J. Shukla (1991). Amazonian deforestation and regional climate change. Journal of Climate 4: 957–988.

R. T. Peirrehumbert (2002). The hydrological cycle in deep time climate problems. Nature 419: 191–198.

D. K Ray , U. S. Nair , R. M. Welch , et al. (2003). Effects of land use in Southwest Australia. I. Observations of cumulus cloudiness and energy fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research 108: 4414–4433.

J. M. Slingo (1987). The development and verification of a cloud prediction scheme for the ECMWF model. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 113: 899–927.

F. N. Sperling , R. Washington , and R. J. Whittaker (2004). Future climate change of the subtropical north Atlantic: implications for the cloud forests of Tenerife. Climatic Change 65: 103–123.

P. A. Stott (2003). Attribution of regional-scale temperature changes to anthropogenic and natural causes. Geophysical Research Letters 30: 1728–1731.

M. Tiedtke (1993). Representation of clouds in large-scale models. Monthly Weather Review 121: 3040–3061.

K. E. Trenberth , B. A. Wielicki , A. D. Del Genio , et al. (2002). Changes in tropical clouds and radiation. Science 296: 2095.

K. E. Trenberth , J. Fasullo , and L. Smith (2005). Trends and variability in column integrated atmospheric water vapor. Climate Dynamics 24: 741–758.

G. K. Walker , Y. C. Sud , and R. Atlas (1995). Impact of the ongoing Amazonian deforestation on local precipitation: a GCM simulation study. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 76: 346–361.

J. Wang , R. L. Bras , and E. A. B. Eltahir (2000). The impact of observed deforestation on the mesoscale distribution of rainfall and clouds in Amazonia. Journal of Hydrometeorology 1: 267–286.

B. A. Wielicki , T. Wong , R. P. Allen , et al. (2002). Evidence for large decadal variability in the tropical mean radiative energy budget. Science 295: 841–844.

F. Yang , A. Kumar , M. E. Schlesinger , and W. Wang (2003). Intensity of hydrological cycles in warmer climates. Journal of Climate 16: 2419–2423.

E. Ball , J. Hann , M. Kluge , et al. (1991). Ecophysiological comportment of the tropical CAM-tree Clusia in the field. I. Growth of Clusia rosea Jacq. on St John, US Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles. New Phytologist 117: 473–481.

J. W. Benner , and P. M. Vitousek (2007). Development of a diverse epiphyte community in response to phosphorus fertilization. Ecology Letters 10: 628–636.

J. W. Benner , S. Conroy , C. K. Lunch , N. Toyoda , and P. M. Vitousek (2007). Phosphorus fertilization increases the abundance and nitrogenase activity of the cyanolichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata in Hawaiian montane forests. Biotropica 39: 400–405.

D. H. Benzing , J. Seemann , and A. Renfrow (1978). The foliar epidermis in Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) and its role in habitat selection. American Journal of Botany 65: 359–365.

E. L. Breazeale , W. T. McGeorge , and J. F. Breazeale (1950). Moisture absorption by plants from an atmosphere of high humidity. Plant Physiology 25: 413–419.

S. S. O. Burgess , and T. E. Dawson (2004). The contribution of fog to the water relations of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don): foliar uptake and prevention of dehydration. Plant, Cell and Environment 27: 1023–1034.

C. L. Cardelús , R. K. Colwell , and J. E. Watkins (2006). Vascular epiphyte distribution patterns: explaining the mid-elevation richness peak. Journal of Ecology 94: 144–156.

M. J. Earnshaw , K. Winter , H. Ziegler , et al. (1987). Altitudinal changes in the incidence of crassulacean acid metabolism in vascular epiphytes and related life forms in Papua New Guinea. Oecologia 73: 566–572.

A. Flores-Palacios , and J. G. García-Franco (2003). Effect of isolation on the structure and nutrient budget of oak epiphyte communities. Plant Ecology 173: 259–269.

R. T. T. Forman (1975). Canopy lichens with blue–green algae: a nitrogen source in a Colombian rain forest. Ecology 56: 1176–1184.

A. H. Gentry (1992). Tropical forest biodiversity: distributional patterns and their conservational significance. Oikos 63: 19–28.

A. H. Gentry , and C. H. Dodson (1987a). Diversity and biogeography of neotropical vascular epiphytes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74: 205–233.

S. Helbsing , M. Riederer , and G. Zotz (2000). Cuticles of vascular epiphytes: efficient barriers for water loss after stomatal closure? Annals of Botany 86: 765–769.

A. Hemp (2001). Ecology of the pteridophytes on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. II. Habitat selection. Plant Biology 3: 493–523.

P. Hietz (1997). Population dynamics of epiphytes in a Mexican humid montane forest. Journal of Ecology 85: 767–775.

P. Hietz , and O. Briones (1998). Correlation between water relations and within-canopy distribution of epiphytic ferns in a Mexican cloud forest. Oecologia 114: 305–316.

P. Hietz , and O. Briones (2001). Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and within-canopy distribution of epiphytic ferns in a Mexican cloud forest. Plant Biology 3: 279–287.

P. Hietz , and U. Hietz-Seifert (1995). Composition and ecology of vascular epiphyte communities along an altitudinal gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico. Journal of Vegetation Science 6: 487–498.

P. Hietz , and W. Wanek (2003). Size-dependent variation of carbon and nitrogen isotope abundances in epiphytic bromeliads. Plant Biology 5: 137–142.

P. Hietz , W. Wanek , R. Wania , and N. M. Nadkarni (2002). Nitrogen-15 natural abundance in a montane cloud forest canopy as an indicator of nitrogen cycling and epiphyte nutrition. Oecologia 131: 350–355.

S. Laube , and G. Zotz (2003). Which abiotic factors limit vegetative growth in a vascular epiphyte? Functional Ecology 17: 598–604.

U. Lüttge (1989). Vascular Plants as Epiphytes: Evolution and Ecophysiology. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

N. M. Nadkarni , and T. J. Matelson (1991) Fine litter dynamics within the tree canopy of a tropical cloud forest. Ecology 72: 2071–2082.

J. T. Ngai , and D. S. Srivastava (2006). Predators accelerate nutrient cycling in a bromeliad ecosystem. Science 314: 963.

S. C. Rabatin , B. R. Stinner , and M. G. Paoletti (1993). Vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, particularly Glomus tenue, in Venezuelan bromeliad epiphytes. Mycorrhiza 4: 17–20.

E. J. Veneklaas (1990). Nutrient fluxes in bulk precipitation and throughfall in two montane tropical rain forests, Colombia. Journal of Ecology 78: 974–992.

D. J. Yates , and L. B. Hutley (1995). Foliar uptake of water by wet leaves of Sloanea woollsii, an Australian subtropical rainforest tree. Australian Journal of Botany 43: 157–167.

G. Zotz (2004). The resorption of phosphorus is greater than that of nitrogen in senescing leaves of vascular epiphytes from lowland Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20: 693–696.

G. Zotz (2005). Vascular epiphyte in the temperate zones: a review. Plant Ecology 176: 173–183.

G. Zotz , and A. Richter (2006). Changes in carbohydrate and nutrient contents throughout a reproductive cycle indicate that phosphorus is a limiting nutrient in the epiphytic bromeliad, Werauhia sanguinolenta. Annals of Botany 97: 745–754.

G. Zotz , P. Hietz , and G. Schmidt (2001). Small plants, large plants: the importance of plant size for the physiological ecology of vascular epiphytes. Journal of Experimental Botany 52: 2051–2056.

G. Alvarez Arteaga , N. E. Garcia Calderon , P. V. Krasilnikov , et al. (2008). Soil altitudinal sequence on base-poor parent material in a montane cloud forest in Sierra Juarez, Southern Mexico. Geoderma 144: 593–612.

A. T. Austin (2002). Differential effects of precipitation on production and decomposition along a rainfall gradient in Hawai'i. Ecology 83: 328–338.

A. Bautista-Cruz , and R. F. del Castillo (2005). Soil changes during secondary succession in a tropical montane cloud forest area. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 906–914, doi:10.2136/sssaj2004.0130

J. Cavelier , and M. C. Peñuela (1990). Soil respiration in the cloud forest and dry deciduous forest of Serrania de Macuira, Colombia. Biotropica 22: 346–352.

D. S. Coxson , D. D. McIntyre , and H. J. Vogel (1992). Pulse release of sugars and polyols from canopy bryophytes in tropical montane rain forest (Guadeloupe, French West Indies). Biotropica 24: 121–133.

P. J. Edwards (1982). Studies of mineral cycling in a montane rain forest in New Guinea. V. Rates of cycling in throughfall and litter fall. Journal of Ecology 70: 807–827.

J. P. Frahm , and S. R. Gradstein (1991). An altitudinal zonation of tropical rain forests using bryophytes. Journal of Biogeography 18: 669–676.

S. Hättenschwiler , and P. M. Vitousek (2000). The role of polyphenols in terrestrial ecosystem nutrient cycling. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 238–243.

C. E. Johnson , A. H. Johnson , and T. G. Huntington (1991). Sample pool requirements for the determinations of change in soil nutrient pools. Soil Science 150: 637–644.

V. Kapos , and E. V. J. Tanner (1985). Water relations of Jamaican upper montane rain forest trees. Ecology 66: 241–250.

K. Kitayama (1992). An altitudinal transect study of the vegetation on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Vegetatio 102: 149–171.

D. Liebermann , M. Liebermann , R. Peralta , and G. S. Hartshorn (1996). Tropical forest structure and composition on a large-scale altitudinal gradient in Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 84: 137–152.

R. Marrs , J. Proctor , A. Heaney , and M. Mountford (1988). Changes in soil nitrogen mineralization and nitrification along an altitudinal transect in tropical rain forest in Costa Rica, Journal of Ecology 76: 466–482.

N. M. Nadkarni , and J. T. Longino (1990). Invertebrates in canopy and ground organic matter in a Neotropical montane forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 22: 286–289.

N. M. Nadkarni , and T. J. Matelson (1992). Biomass and nutrient dynamics of fine litter of terrestrially rooted material in a Neotropical montane forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 24: 113–120.

R. Northup , R. A. Dahlgren , and Z. Yu (1995). Intraspecific variation of conifer phenolic concentration on a marine terrace soil acidity gradient: a new interpretation. Plant and Soil 171: 255–262.

M. G. Paoletti , R. A. J. Taylor , B. R. Stinner , D. H. Stinner , and D. H. Benzing (1991). Diversity of soil fauna in the canopy and forest floor of a Venezuelan cloud forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 7: 373–383.

J. Proctor , Y. F. Lee , A. M. Langley , W. R. C. Munro , and T. Nelson (1988). Ecological studies on Gunung Silam, a small ultrabasic mountain in Sabah, Malaysia. I. Environment, forest structure, and floristics. Journal of Ecology 76: 320–340.

W. H. Schlesinger , L. A. Bruijnzeel , M. B. Bush , et al. (1998). The biogeochemistry of phosphorus after the first century of soil development on Rakata island, Krakatau, Indonesia. Biogeochemistry 40: 37–55.

P. Sollins (1998). Factors influencing species composition in tropical lowland rain forests: does soil matter? Ecology 79: 23–30.

E. D. Vance , and N. M. Nadkarni (1990). Microbial biomass and activity in canopy organic matter and the forest floor of a tropical cloud forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22: 677–684.

P. M. Vitousek (1984). Litterfall, nutrient cycling, and nutrient limitation in tropical forests. Ecology 65: 285–298.

P. L. Weaver , E. Medina , D. Pool , et al. (1986). Ecological observations in the dwarf cloud forest of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico. Biotropica 18: 79–85.

G. Williams-Linera (2002). Tree species richness, complementarity, disturbance and fragmentation in a Mexican tropical montane cloud forest. Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 1825–1843.

L. A. Bruijnzeel , M. J. Waterloo , J. Proctor , A. T. Kuiters , and B. Kotterink (1993). Hydrological observations in montane rain-forests on Gunung-Silam, Sabah, Malaysia, with special reference to the ‘Massenerhebung’ effect. Journal of Ecology 81: 145–167.

J. H. Carrillo , M. G. Hastings , D. M. Sigman , and B. J. Huebert (2002). Atmospheric deposition of inorganic and organic nitrogen and base cations in Hawaii. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16: 24: 1–16.

J. Cavelier , D. Solis , and M. A. Jaramillo (1996). Fog interception in montane forests across the central cordillera of Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12: 357–369.

O. A. Chadwick , L. A. Derry , P. M. Vitousek , B. J. Huebert , and L. O. Hedin (1999). Changing sources of nutrients during four million years of ecosystem development. Nature 397: 491–497.

S. Cordell , G. Goldstein , F. Meinzer , and P. Vitousek (2001). Regulation of leaf life-span and nutrient-use efficiency of Metrosideros polymorpha trees at two extremes of a long chronosequence in Hawaii. Oecologia 127: 198–206.

T. E. Crews (1999). The presence of nitrogen fixing legumes in terrestrial communities: evolutionary vs. ecological considerations. Biogeochemistry 46: 233–246.

N. Fetcher , B. L. Haines , R. A. Cordero , et al. (1996). Responses of tropical plants to nutrients and light on a landslide in Puerto Rico. Journal of Ecology 84: 331–341.

J. R. Flenley (1995). Cloud forest, the Massenerhebung effect, and ultraviolet insolation. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 150–155. New York: Springer-Verlag.

E. Freiberg (1998). Microclimatic parameters influencing nitrogen fixation in the phyllosphere in a Costa Rican premontane rain forest. Oecologia 117: 9–18.

I. C. Grieve , J. Proctor , and S. A. Cousins (1990). Soil variation with altitude on Volcan Barva, Costa Rica. Catena 17: 525–534.

P. J. Grubb (1971). Interpretation of the Massenerhebung effect on tropical mountains. Nature 229: 44.

M. R. Guariguata (1990). Landslide disturbance and forest regeneration in the upper Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico. Journal of Ecology 78: 814–832.

R. A. Harrington , J. H. Fownes , and P. M. Vitousek (2001). Production and resource use efficiencies in N- and P-limited tropical forests: a comparison of responses to long-term fertilization. Ecosystems 4: 646–657.

L. O. Hedin , J. Armesto , and A. Johnson (1995). Patterns of nutrient loss from unpolluted, old growth temperate forests: evaluation of biogeochemical theory. Ecology 76: 493–509.

D. A. Herbert , J. A. Fownes , and P. M. Vitousek (1999). Hurricane damage to a Hawaiian forest: nutrient supply rate affects resistance and resilience. Ecology 80: 908–920.

S. E. Hobbie (1992). Effects of plant species on nutrient cycling. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7: 336–339.

S. E. Hobbie , and P. Vitousek (2000). Nutrient limitation of decomposition in Hawaiian forests. Ecology 81: 1867–1877.

G. Hoch , and C. Körner (2005). Growth, demography and carbon relations of Polylepis trees at the world's highest treeline. Functional Ecology 19: 941–951.

M. J. Jaffe (1980). Morphogenetic responses of of plants to mechanical stimuli or stress. BioScience 30: 239–243.

G. T. Jane , and T. G. A. Green (1985). Patterns of stomatal conductance in six evergreen tree species from a New Zealand cloud forest. Botanical Gazette 146: 413–420.

H. Jenny , S. P. Gessel , and F. T. Bingham (1949). Comparative study of decomposition rates in temperate and tropical regions. Soil Science 68: 419–432.

E. Jobbagy , and R. Jackson (2000). The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation. Ecological Applications 10: 423–436.

K. Kitayama , N. Majalap-Lee , and S. Aiba (2000). Soil phosphorus fractionation and phosphorus-use efficiencies of tropical rainforests along altitudinal gradients of Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Oecologia 123: 342–349.

K. Kitayama , E. Schuur , D. Drake , and D. Mueller-Dombois (1997). Fate of a wet montane forest during soil ageing in Hawaii. Journal of Ecology 85: 669–679.

Ch. Körner (2003). Carbon limitation in trees. Journal of Ecology 91: 4–17.

Ch. Leuschner , G. Moser , C. Bertsch , M. Röderstein , and D. Hertel (2007). Large altitudinal increase in tree root/shoot ratio in tropical mountain forests of Ecuador. Basic and Applied Ecology 8: 219–230.

W. Y. Liu , J. E. D. Fox , and Z. F. Xu (2003). Nutrient budget of a montane evergreen broad-leaved forest at Ailao Mountain National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, southwest China. Hydrological Processes 17: 1119–1134.

D. J. Lodge , F. N. Scatena , C. E. Asbury , and M. J. Sánchez (1991). Fine litterfall and related nutrient inputs resulting from Hurricane Hugo in subtropical wet and lower montane rain forests of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23: 336–342.

D. J. Lodge , W. H. McDowell , and C. P. McSwiney (1994). The importance of nutrient pulses in tropical forests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 384–387.

L. A. Martinelli , M. C. Piccolo , A. R. Townsend , et al. (1999). Nitrogen stable isotopic composition of leaves and soil: tropical versus temperate forests. Biogeochemistry 46: 45–65.

T. J. Matelson , N. M. Nadkarni , and R. Solano (1995). Tree damage and annual mortality in a montane forest in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Biotropica 27: 441–447.

V. Matzek , and P. Vitousek (2003). Nitrogen fixation in bryophytes, lichens, and decaying wood along a soil-age gradient in Hawaiian montane rain forest. Biotropica 35: 12–19.

A. J. Miller , E. A. G. Schuur , and O. A. Chadwick (2001). Redox control of phosphorus pools in montane forest soils in Hawaii. Geoderma 102: 219–237.

D.C. Nepstad , C.R. Carvalho , E.A. Davidson , et al. (1994). The role of deep roots in the hydrological and carbon cycles of Amazonian forests and pastures. Nature 372: 666–669.

L. P. Olander , and P. M. Vitousek (2000). Regulation of soil phosphatase and chitinase activity by N and P availability. Biogeochemistry 49: 175–190.

L. P. Olander , and P. M. Vitousek (2004). Biological and geochemical sinks for phosphorus in soil from a wet tropical forest. Ecosystems 7: 404–419.

R. Ostertag (2001). The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus availability on fine root dynamics in Hawaiian montane forests. Ecology 82: 485–499.

R. Ostertag , F. N. Scatena , and W. L. Silver (2003). Forest floor decomposition following hurricane litter inputs in several Puerto Rican forests. Ecosystems 6: 261–273.

S. Perakis , and L. Hedin (2001). Fluxes and fates of nitrogen in soil of an unpolluted old-growth temperate forest, southern Chile. Ecology 82: 2245–2260.

S. Perakis , and L. Hedin (2002). Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds. Nature 415: 416–419.

J. Pett-Ridge and W. L. Silver (2002). Survival, growth and ecosystem dynamics of displaced bromeliads in a montane tropical forest. Biotropica 34: 211–224.

J. W. Raich , R. H. Riley , and P. M. Vitousek (1994). Use of root ingrowth cores to assess nutrient limitations in forest ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 2135–2138.

J. W. Raich , A. R. Russell , T. E. Crews , H. Farrington , and P. M. Vitousek (1996). Both nitrogen and phosphorus limit plant production on young Hawaiian lava flows. Biogeochemistry 32: 1–14.

J. W. Raich , A. E. Russell , and P. M. Vitousek (1997). Primary productivity and ecosystem development along an elevational gradient on Mauna Loa, Hawai'i. Ecology 78: 707–721.

J. W. Raich , A. E. Russell , K. Kitayama , W. J. Parton , and P. M. Vitousek (2006). Temperature influences carbon accumulation in moist tropical forests. Ecology 87: 76–87.

P. B. Reich , M. B. Walters , and D. S. Ellsworth (1997). From tropics to tundra: Global convergence in plant functioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA94: 13 730–13 734.

E. Schuur (2001). The effect of water on decomposition dynamics in mesic to wet Hawaiian montane forests. Ecosystems 4: 259–273.

P. G. Scowcroft , D. R. Turner , and P. M. Vitousek (2000). Decomposition of Metrosideros polymorpha leaf litter along elevational gradients in Hawaii. Global Change Biology 6: 73–85.

R. C. Sidle , A. D. Ziegler , J. N. Negishi , et al. (2006). Erosion processes in steep terrain: truths, myths, and uncertainties related to forest management in Southeast Asia. Forest Ecology and Management 224: 199–225.

N. Soethe , J. Lehmann , and C. Engels (2006). The vertical pattern of rooting and nutrient uptake at different altitudes of a southern Ecuadorian montane forest. Plant Soil 286: 287–299.

A. R. Townsend , P. M. Vitousek , and S. E. Trumbore (1995). Soil organic matter dynamics along gradients in temperature and land use on the island of Hawaii. Ecology 76: 721–733.

K. Treseder , and P. Vitousek (2001). Effects of soil nutrient availability on investment in acquisition of N and P in Hawaiian rain forests. Ecology 82: 946–954.

I. M. Turner (1994). Sclerophylly: primarily protective? Functional Ecology 8: 669–675.

P. Vitousek , and H. Farrington (1997). Nutrient limitation and soil development: experimental test of a biogeochemical theory. Biogeochemistry 37: 63–75.

P. M. Vitousek , L. R. Walker , L. D. Whiteaker , D. Mueller-Dombois , and P. A. Matson (1987). Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii. Science 238: 802–804.

P. Vitousek , P. Matson , and D. Turner (1988). Elevational and age gradients in Hawaiian montane rainforest: foliar and soil nutrients. Oecologia 77: 565–570.

P. M. Vitousek , D. R. Turner , W. J. Parton , and R. L. Sanford (1994). Litter decomposition on the Mauna Loa environmental matrix, Hawaii: patterns, mechanisms, and models. Ecology 75: 418–429.

L. R. Walker , J. K. Zimmerman , D. J. Lodge , and S. Guzmán-Grajales (1996). An altitudinal comparison of growth and species composition in hurricane-damaged forests in Puerto Rico. Journal of Ecology 84: 877–889.

K. Weathers , G. Lovett , G. Likens , and N. Caraco (2000). Cloudwater inputs of nitrogen to forest ecosystems in southern Chile: forms, fluxes, and sources. Ecosystems 3: 590–595.

P. L. Weaver , M. Byer , and D. Bruck (1973). Transpiration rates in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 5: 123–133.

W. Wilcke , S. Yasin , U. Abramowski , C. Valarezo , and W. Zech (2002). Nutrient storage and turnover in organic layers under tropical montane rain forest in Ecuador. European Journal of Soil Science 53: 15–27.

J. K. Zimmerman , W. M. Pulliam , D. J. Lodge , et al. (1995). Nitrogen immobilization by decomposing woody debris and the recovery of tropical wet forest from hurricane damage. Oikos 72: 314–322.

T. M. Aide , J. K. Zimmerman , J. Pascarella , J. Marcano-Vega , and L. Rivera (2000). Forest regeneration in a chronosequence of tropical abandoned pastures: implications for restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 8: 328–338.

C. W. Berish , and J. J. Ewel (1988). Root development in simple and complex tropical successional ecosystems. Plant and Soil 106: 73–84.

J. Cavelier (1995). Reforestation with the native tree Alnus acuminata: effects on phytodiversity and species richness in the upper montane rain forest area of Colombia. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N Scatena , pp. 125–137. New York: Springer-Verlag.

J. Cavelier and A. Tobler (1998). The effect of abandoned plantations of Pinus patula and Cupressus lusitanica on soils and regeneration of a tropical montane rain forest in Colombia. Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 335–347.

A. Cubiñá , and T. M. Aide (2001). The effect of distance from forest edge on seed rain and soil seed bank in a tropical pasture. Biotropica 33: 260–267.

J. W. Dalling and E. V. J. Tanner (1995). An experimental study of regeneration on landslides in montane forests in Jamaica. Journal of Ecology 83: 55–64.

R. S. Duncan and C. A. Chapman (2003a). Tree–shrub interactions during early forest succession in Uganda. Restoration Ecology 11: 198–207.

R. S. Duncan and C. A. Chapman (2003b). Consequences of plantation harvest during tropical forest restoration in Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management 173: 235–250.

R. R. Dunn (2004). Managing the tropical landscape: a comparison of the effects of logging and forest conversion to agriculture on ants, birds, and lepidoptera. Forest Ecology and Management 191: 215–224.

H. R. Grau and T. T. Veblen (2000). Rainfall, fire, and vegetation dynamics in subtropical montane ecosystems in northwestern Argentina. Journal of Biogeography 27: 1107–1121.

H. R. Grau , T. M. Aide , J. K. Zimmerman , et al. (2003). The ecological consequences of socioeconomic and land-use changes in post-agriculture Puerto Rico. BioScience 53: 1159–1168.

H. P. Griscom , B. W. Griscom , and M. S. Ashton (2008). Forest regeneration from pasture in the dry tropics of Panama: effects of cattle, exotic grasses, and forest riparia. Restoration Ecology 17: 117–126.

M. R. Guariguata and R. Ostertag (2001). Neotropical secondary forest succession: changes in structural and functional characteristics. Forest Ecology and Management 148: 185–206.

C. Harden (1996). Interrelationships between land abandonment and land degradation: a case from the Ecuadorian Andes. Mountain Research and Development 16: 274–280.

C. Harvey (2000). Windbreaks enhance seed dispersal into agricultural landscapes in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Ecological Applications 10: 155–173.

K. D. Holl (1999). Factors limiting tropical moist forest regeneration in agricultural land: soil, microclimate, vegetation, and seed rain. Biotropica 31: 229–242.

K. D. Holl , and M. E. Lulow (1997). Effects of species, habitat, and distance from edge on post-dispersal seed predation in a tropical rainforest. Biotropica 29: 459–468.

S. P. Horn , L. M. Kennedy , and K. H. Orvis . (2001). Vegetation recovery following a high elevation fire in the Dominican Republic. Biotropica 33: 701–708.

J. Lichstein , H. R. Grau , and M. R. Aragon (2004). Recruitment limitation in secondary forests dominated by an exotic tree. Journal of Vegetation Science 15: 721–728.

M. E. Loik , and K. D. Holl (1999). Photosynthetic responses to light for rainforest seedlings planted in abandoned pasture, Costa Rica. Restoration Ecology 7: 382–391.

A. E. Lugo (1992). Comparison of tropical tree plantations with secondary forest of similar age. Ecological Monographs 62: 1–41.

C. A. Medina , F. Escobar , and G. H. Kattan (2002). Diversity and habitat use of dung beetles in a restored Andean landscape. Biotropica 34: 181–187.

C. Murcia (1997). Evaluation of Andean alder as a catalyst for the recovery of tropical cloud forests in Colombia. Forest Ecology and Management 99: 163–170.

M. Oosterhoorn , and M. Kappelle (2000). Vegetation structure and composition along an interior–edge–exterior gradient in a Costa Rican montane cloud forest. Forest Ecology and Management 126: 291–307.

J. A. Parrotta (1992). The role of plantation forests in rehabilitating degraded tropical ecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 41: 115–133.

J. M. Posada , T. M. Aide , and J. Cavelier (2000). Cattle and weedy shrubs as restoration tools of tropical montane rainforest. Restoration Ecology 8: 370–379.

J. A. Pounds , and R. Puschendorf . (2004). Clouded futures. Nature 427: 107–109.

D. Preston , M. Macklin , and J. Warburton (1997). Fewer people, less erosion: the 20th century in southern Bolivia. Geographical Journal 163: 198–205.

C. C. Rhoades , G. E. Eckert , and D. C. Coleman (1998). Effect of pastures trees on soil nitrogen and organic matter: implications for tropical montane forest restoration. Restoration Ecology 6: 262–270.

J. Rosales , G. Cuenca , N. Ramírez , and Z. Andrade (1997). Native colonizing species and degraded land restoration in La Gran Sabana, Venezuela. Restoration Ecology 5: 147–155.

T. K. Rudel (2002). Paths of destruction and regeneration: globalization and forests in the tropics. Rural Sociology 67: 622–636.

T. K. Rudel , M. Perez-Lugo , and H. Zichal (2000). When fields revert to forest: development and spontaneous reforestation in post-war Puerto Rico. Professional Geographer 52: 386–397.

M. C. Ruiz-Jaén , and T. M. Aide (2005). Restoration success: how is it being measured? Restoration Ecology 13: 569–577.

F. O. Sarmiento (1997b). Landscape regeneration by seeds and succcesional pathways to restore fragile tropandean slopelands. Mountain Research and Development 17: 239–252.

P. G. Scowcroft and J. Jeffrey (1999). Potential significance of frost, topographic relief, and Acacia koa stands to restoration of mesic Hawaiian forests on abandoned rangeland. Forest Ecology and Management 114: 447–458.

P. G. Scowcroft , F. C. Meinzer , G. Goldstein , P. J. Melcher , and J. Jeffrey (2000). Moderating night radiative cooling reduces frost damage to Metrosideros polymorpha seedlings used for forest restoration in Hawaii. Restoration Ecology 8: 161–169.

A. B. Shields , and R. F. Walker (2003). Bird perches increase forest seeds on Puerto Rican landslides. Restoration Ecology 11: 457–465.

M. G. Slocum , and C. C. Horvitz (2000). Seed arrival under different genera of trees in a neotropical pasture. Plant Ecology 149: 51–62.

M. Slocum , T. M. Aide , J. K. Zimmerman , and L. Navarro (2004). Natural regeneration of subtropical montane forest after clearing fern thickets in the Dominican Republic. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20: 483–486.

J. Southworth , and C. Tucker (2001). The influence of accessibility, local institutions, and socioeconomic factors on forest cover change in the mountains of western Honduras. Mountain Research and Development 21: 276–283.

C. G. Stewart (2000). A test of nutrient limitation in two tropical montane forest using root ingrowth cores. Biotropica 32: 369–373.

W. L. Werner , and T. Santisuk (1993). Conservation and restoration of montane forest communities in Thailand. In Restoration of Tropical Forest Ecosystems, eds. H. Lieth and M. Lohmann , pp. 193–202. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.

K. Young (1994). Roads and the environmental degradation of tropical montane forests. Conservation Biology 8: 972–976.

R. A. Zahawi , and C. K. Augspurger (1999). Early plant succession in abandoned pastures in Ecuador. Biotropica 31: 540–552.

A. Zanne and C. A. Chapman (2001). Expediting reforestation in tropical grasslands: distance and isolation from seed sources in plantations. Ecological Applications 11: 1610–1621.

J. K. Zimmerman , J. Pascarella , and T. M. Aide (2000). Barriers to forest regeneration in an abandoned pasture in Puerto Rico. Restoration Ecology 8: 350–360.

B. Zimmermann , and H. Elsenberger (2008). Spatial and temporal variability of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity in gradients of disturbance. Journal of Hydrology 361: 78–95.

M. O. Zweifler , M. A. Gold , and R. N. Thomas (1994). Land-use evolution in hill regions of the Dominican Republic. Professional Geographer 46: 39–53.

S. Aiba , and K. Kitayama (1999). Structure, composition and species diversity in an altitude-substrate matrix of rain forest tree communities on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Plant Ecology 140: 139–157.

J. D. Holloway (1970). Biogeographical analysis of a transect sample of the moth fauna of Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, using numerical methods. Biology Journal of the Linnean Society 2: 259–286.

K. Kitayama (1995). Biophysical conditions of the montane cloud forests of Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 183–197. New York: Springer-Verlag.

K. Kitayama , and K. Iwamoto (2001). Patterns of natural 15N abundance in the leaf-to-soil continuum of tropical rain forests differing in N availability on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Plant and Soil 229: 203–212.

K. Kitayama , S. Aiba , N. Majalap-Lee , and M. Ohsawa (1998). Soil nitrogen mineralization rates of rainforests in a matrix of elevations and geological substrates on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Ecological Research 13: 301–312.

R. G Moyle . M. Schilthuizen , M. A. Rahman , and F. H. Sheldon (2005). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the white-crowned forktail Enicurus leschenaulti in Borneo. Journal of Avian Biology 36: 96–101.

J. Proctor , C. Phillips , G. K. Duff , A. Heaney , and F. M. Robertson (1988b). Ecological studies on Gunung Silam, a small ultrabasic mountain in Sabah, Malaysia. II. Some forest processes. Journal of Ecology 77: 317–331.

M. Takyu , S. I. Aiba , and K. Kitayama (2003). Changes in biomass, productivity and decomposition along topographical gradients under different geological conditions in tropical lower montane forests on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Oecologia 134: 397–404.

H. C. Thang , and N. A. Chappell (2005). Minimising the hydrological impact of forest harvesting in Malaysia's rainforests. In Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics, eds. M. Bonell and L. A. Bruijnzeel , pp. 852–865, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

C. G. G. J. Steenis (1964). Plant geography of the mountain flora of Mount Kinabalu. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 161: 7–38.

M. D. Merlin , and J. O. Juvik (1995). Montane cloud forest in the tropical Pacific: some aspects of their floristics, biogeography, ecology, and conservation. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 234–253. New York: Springer-Verlag.

J.-Y. Meyer (2004). Threat of invasive alien plants on native flora and forest vegetation of Eastern Polynesia. Pacific Science 58: 357–375.

J.-Y. Meyer , and J. Florence (1996). Tahiti's native flora endangered by the invasion of Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae). Journal of Biogeography 23: 775–781.

D. Mueller-Dombois , and F. R. Fosberg (1998). Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands. New York: Springer-Verlag.

B. Raynor (1995). Montane cloud forests in Micronesia: status and future management. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 274–283. New York: Springer-Verlag.

D. Watling and A. N. Gillison (1995). Endangered species in low elevation cloud forest on Gau island, Fiji. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. (333–342). New York: Springer-Verlag.

W. A. Whistler (1995). The cloud forest of Samoa. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 353–362. New York: Springer-Verlag.

C. Acebey , S. R. Gradstein , and T. Krömer (2003). Species richness and habitat diversification of bryophytes in submontane rain forest and fallows of Bolivia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19: 9–18.

L. A. Bruijnzeel , W. Eugster , and R. Burkard (2005). Fog as an input to the hydrological cycle. In Encyclopaedia of Hydrological Sciences, eds. M. G. Anderson and J. J. McDonnell , pp. 559–582. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

J. H. Cornelissen , and H. Steege (1989). Distribution and ecology of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens in dry evergreen forest of Guyana. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 131–150.

T. E. Dawson (1998). Fog in the California redwood forest: ecosystem inputs and use by plants. Oecologia 117: 476–485.

L. D. Gignac (2001). Bryophytes as indicators of climate change. The Bryologist 104: 410–420.

I. Holz , and S. R. Gradstein (2005). Cryptogamic epiphytes in primary and recovering upper montane oak forests of Costa Rica: species richness, community composition and ecology. Plant Ecology 178: 89–109.

M. Kessler (2001). Pteridophyte species richness in Andean forests in Bolivia. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 1473–1495.

N. M. Nöske , N. Hilt , F. Werner , et al. (2007). Disturbance effects on diversity in montane forest of Ecuador: sessile epiphytes versus mobile moths. Basic and Applied Ecology 9: 4–12.

G. B. A. Reenen , and S. R. Gradstein (1983). Studies on Colombian cryptogams. XX. A transect analysis of the bryophyte vegetation along an altitudinal gradient on the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 32: 163–175.

J. Braun-Blanquet (1964). Pflanzensoziologie. Vienna: Springer-Verlag.

R. K. Colwell , and G. C. Hurtt (1994). Nonbiological gradients in species richness and a spurious Rapoport effect. American Naturalist 144: 570–595.

R. K. Colwell , and D. C. Lees (2000). The mid-domain effect: geometric constraints on the geography of species richness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 70–76.

H. H. Coutts (1969). Rainfall of the Kilimanjaro area. Weather 24: 66–69.

R. Daubenmire (1966). Vegetation: identification of typal communities. Science 151: 291–298.

P. J. Grubb (1977). Control of forest growth and distribution on wet tropical mountains: with special reference to mineral nutrition. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8: 83–107.

A. C. Hamilton , and R. A. Perrott (1981). A study of altitudinal zonation in the montane forest belt of Mt. Elgon, Kenya/Uganda. Vegetatio 45: 107–125.

A. Hemp (2002). Ecology of the pteridophytes on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. I. Altitudinal distribution. Plant Ecology 159: 211–239.

A. Hemp (2005b). Climate change-driven forest fires marginalize the impact of ice cap wasting on Kilimanjaro. Global Change Biology 11: 1013–1023.

A. Hemp (2006c). The banana forests of Kilimanjaro: biodiversity and conservation of the agroforestry system of the Chagga Home Gardens. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 1193–1217.

C. Hemp (2001). Aerotegmina, a new genus of African Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae, Listroscelidinae, Hexacentrini). Journal of Orthoptera Research 10: 125–132.

P. Legendre , S. Dallot , and L. Legendre (1985). Succession of species within a community: chronological clustering, with applications to marine and freshwater zooplankton. American Naturalist 125: 257–288.

L. G. Thompson , E. Mosley-Thompson , M. E. Davis , et al. (2002). Kilimanjaro ice-core records: evidence of Holocene climate change in tropical Africa. Science 298: 589–593.

R. A. Fisher , A. S. Corbet , and C. B. Williams (1943). The relations between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. Journal of Animal Ecology 12: 42–58.

M. Freiberg (1996). Spatial distribution of vascular epiphytes on three emergent canopy trees in French Guiana. Biotropica 28: 345–355.

A. H. Gentry , and C. H. Dodson (1987a). Contribution of non-trees to species richness of a tropical rain forest. Biotropica 19: 149–156.

D. Gomez-Perlata , S. F. Oberbauer , M. E. McClain , and T. E. Philippi (2008). Rainfall and cloud-water interception in tropical montane forests in the Eastern Andes of Central Peru. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 1315–1325.

J. Nieder , S. Engwald , M. Klawun , and W. Barthlott (2000). Spatial distribution of vascular epiphytes (including hemiepiphytes) in a lowland Amazonian rain forest (Surumoni Crane Plot) of Southern Venezuela. Biotropica 32: 385–396.

E. H. Simpson (1949). Measurement of diversity. Nature 163: 688.

H. Werff , and T. Consiglio (2004). Distribution and conservation significance of endemic species of flowering plants in Peru. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 1699–1713.

C. Y. Weng , M. B. Bush , and M. R. Silman (2004). An analysis of modern pollen rain on an elevational gradient in Southern Peru. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20: 113–124.

J. H. D. Wolf , and A. Flamenco (2003). Patterns in species richness and distribution of vascular epiphytes in Chiapas, Mexico. Journal of Biogeography 30: 1689–1707.

K. R. Young , and B. León (1995). Distribution and conservation of Peru's montane forests: interactions between the biota and human society. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , F. N. Scatena , and J.O. Juvik , pp. 363–376. New York: Springer-Verlag.

F. Hallé , R. A. A. Oldeman , and P. B. Tomlinson (1978). Tropical Trees and Forests: An Architectural Analysis. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Z. Kikvidze , and M. Ohsawa (2001). Richness of Colchic vegetation: comparison between refugia of south-western and East Asia. BMC Ecology 1: 1–10.

I. Nitta , and M. Ohsawa (1998). Bud structure and shoot architecture of canopy and understory evergreen broad-leaved trees at their northern limit in East Asia. Annals of Botany 81: 115–129.

I. Nitta , and M. Ohsawa (2001). Geographical transition of sylleptic/proleptic branching in three Cinnamomum species with different bud types. Annals of Botany 87: 35–45.

M. Ohsawa (1993). Latitudinal pattern of mountain vegetation zonation in southern and eastern Asia. Journal of Vegetation Science 4: 13–18.

M. Ohsawa , and I. Nitta (1997). Patterning of subtropical/warm-temperate evergreen broad-leaved forests in east Asian mountains with special reference to shoot phenology. Tropics 6: 317–334.

L. Pijl (1982). Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants, 3rd revised and expanded edn. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

J. A. Romberger , Hejnowicz , and J. F. Hill (1993). Plant Structure: Function and Development. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

A. F. W. Schimper (1903). Plant Geography upon a Physiological Basis. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

C. Q. Tang , and M. Ohsawa (1999). Altitudinal distribution of evergreen broad-leaved trees and their leaf-size pattern on a humid subtropical mountain, Mt. Emei, Sichuan, China. Plant Ecology 145: 211–233.

H. Walter (1985). Vegetation of the Earth and Ecological Systems of the Geo-biosphere, 3rd edn. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

I. C. Baillie , D. Tshering , Tshering Dorji , H. B. Tamang , and T. Dorji (2004). Regolith and soils in Bhutan, Eastern Himalayas. European Journal of Soil Science 55: 9–27.

Z. Kikvidze , and M. Ohsawa (2002). Measuring the number of co-dominants in ecological communities. Ecological Research 17: 519–525.

M. Ohsawa (1984). Differentiation of vegetation zones and species strategies in the subalpine region of Mt. Fuji. Vegetatio 57: 15–52.

M. Ohsawa (1990). An interpretation of latitudinal patterns of forest limits in south and East Asian mountains. Journal of Ecology 78: 326–339.

M. Ohsawa (1995). The montane cloud forest and its gradational changes in South-East Asia. In Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, eds. L. S. Hamilton , J. O. Juvik , and F. N. Scatena , pp. 254–265. New York: Springer-Verlag.

U. Schweinfurth (1992). Mapping mountains: vegetation in the Himalaya. GeoJournal 27: 73–83.

P. Wangda , and M. Ohsawa (2006a). Gradational forest change along the climatically dry valley slopes of Bhutan in the midst of humid eastern Himalaya. Plant Ecology 186: 109–178.

P. Wangda , and M. Ohsawa (2006b). Structure and regeneration dynamics of dominant tree species along altitudinal gradient in dry valley slopes of the Bhutan Himalaya. Forest Ecology and Management 230: 136–150.

D. M. Olson , and E. Dinerstein (1998). The global 200: a representation approach to conserving the Earth's most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biology 12: 502–515.

S. N. Stuart , J. S. Chanson , N. A. Cox , et al. (2004). Status and trends of amphibian declines worldwide. Science 306: 1783–1786.

H. Acosta , J. Cavelier , and S. Londoño (1996). Aportes al conocimiento de la biología de la danta de montaña, Tapirus pinchaque, en los Andes Centrales de Colombia. Biotropica 28: 258–266.

M. V. Ashley , J. E. Norman , and L. Stross (1996). Phylogenetic analysis of the perissodactylan family Tapiridae using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COII) sequences. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 3: 315–326.

G. Brehm , L. M. Pitkin , N. Hilt , and K. Fiedler (2005). Montane Andean rain forests are a global diversity hotspot of geometrid moths. Journal of Biogeography 32:1621–1627.

T. M. Brooks , R. A. Mittermeier , C. G. Mittermeier , et al. (2002). Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16: 909–923.

C. C. Downer (1996). The mountain tapir, endangered “flagship” species of the high Andes. Oryx 30: 45–58.

C. C. Downer (2001). Observations on the diet and habitat of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque). Journal of Zoology, London 254: 279–291.

W. E. Duellman (1988). Patterns of species diversity in the anuran amphibians in the American tropics. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: 79–104.

C. R. Foerster , and C. Vaughan (2002). Home range, habitat use, and activity of Baird's tapir in Costa Rica. Biotropica 34: 423–437.

G. C. Frison (1998). Paleoindian large mammal hunters on the plains of North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95: 14 576–14 583.

I. Goldstein (1991). Spectacled bear predation and feeding behavior on livestock in Venezuela. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 26: 231–235.

A. S. Harestad , and F. L. Bunnel (1979). Home range and body weight: a re-evaluation. Ecology 60: 389–402.

P. Hershkovitz (1954). Mammals of northern Colombia, preliminary report No. 7: Tapirs (genus Tapirus), with a systematic review of American species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 103 (3329): 465–496.

L. T. Holbrook (1999). The phylogeny and classification of tapiromorph perissodactyls (Mammalia). Cladistics 15: 331–350.

G. H. Kattan , and P. Franco (2004). Bird diversity along elevational gradients in the Andes of Colombia: area and mass effects. Global Ecology and Biogeography 13: 451–458.

G. H Kattan , O. L. Hernández , I. Goldstein , et al. (2004). Range fragmentation in the spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus in the northern Andes. Oryx 38: 155–163.

T. Krömer , M. Kessler , S. R. Gradstein , and A. Acebey (2005). Diversity patterns of vascular epiphytes along an elevational gradient in the Andes. Journal of Biogeography 32: 1799–1809.

D. J. Lizcano , and J. Cavelier (2000b). Daily and seasonal activity of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in the Central Andes of Colombia. Journal of Zoology, London 252: 429–435.

D. J. Lizcano , V. Pizarro , J. Cavelier , and J. Carmona . (2002). Geographic distribution and population size of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Colombia. Journal of Biogeography 29: 7–15.

E. Mondolfi (1989). Notes on the distribution, habitat, food habits, status and conservation of the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier) in Venezuela. Mammalia 53: 525–544.

W. G. Nash , and S. J. O'Brien (1987). A comparative chromosome banding analysis of the Ursidae and their relationship to other carnivores. Cytogenetics Cell Genetics 45: 206–212.

S. J. O'Brien , W. G. Nash , D. E. Wildt , M. E. Bush , and R. E. Benveniste (1985). A molecular solution to the riddle of the giant panda's phylogeny. Nature 317: 140–144.

S. Paisley , and D. L. Garshelis (2006). Activity patterns and time budgets of Andean bears (Tremarctos ornatus) in the Apolobamba Range of Bolivia. Journal of Zoology, London 268: 25–34.

B. Peyton (1980). Ecology, distribution and food habits of spectacled bears, Tremarctos ornatus in Peru. Journal of Mammalogy 61: 639–652.

B. Peyton (1981). Spectacled bears in Peru. Oryx 16: 48–56.

C. Rahbek , and G. Graves (2001). Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 4534–4539.

J. Robinson , and K. Redford . (1986) Body size, diet and population density of Neotropical forest mammals. American Naturalist 128: 665–680.

M. Ruiz-García , P. Orozco-terWengel , A. Castellanos , and L. Arias (2005). Microsatellite analysis of the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) across its range distribution. Genes and Genetic Systems 80: 57–69.

P. Schauenberg (1969). Contribution à l'étude du Tapir pinchaque, Tapirus pinchaque Roulin 1829. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 76: 211–256.

L. H. Soibelzon , E. P. Tonni , and M. Bond (2005). The fossil record of South American short-faced bears (Ursidae, Tremarctinae). Journal of South American Earth Sciences 20: 105–113.

S. Talbot , and G. Shields (1996). A phylogeny of the bears (Ursidae) inferred from complete sequences of three mitochondrial genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5: 567–575.

J. C. Axmacher , H. Tünte , M. Schrumpf , et al. (2004). Diverging diversity patterns of vascular plants and geometrid moths during forest regeneration on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Journal of Biogeography 31: 895–904.

P. Barker , and F. Gasse (2003). New evidence for a reduced water balance in East Africa during the Last Glacial Maximum: implication for model-data comparison. Quarternary Science Reviews 22: 823–837.

P. Menocal , J. Ortiz , T. Guilderson , et al. (2000). Abrupt onset and termination of the African Humid Period: rapid climate responses to gradual insolation forcing. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 347–361.

S. V. Green (1998). Revision of the African grasshopper genus Parepistaurus Karsch 1896 (Orthoptera Acrididae Coptacridinae). Tropical Zoology 11: 259–332.

C. Hemp (2006). Aerotegmina shengenae, a new species of Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from the Eastern Arc mountains of East Africa. Journal of Orthoptera Research: 15: 99–103.

C. Hemp , O. Schultz , A. Hemp , and W. Wägele (2007). New Lentulidae species from East Africa (Orthoptera: Saltatoria). Journal of Orthoptera Research 16: 85–96.

N. D. Jago (1994). Odontomelus I. Bolivar 1890 (Orthoptera Acridoidea Acrididae Acridinae): savanna–woodland grasshoppers with a major radiation of flightless species in Eastern Africa. Tropical Zoology 7: 367–450.

J. E. Kutzbach , and F. A. Street-Perrott (1985). Milankovitch forcing of fluctuations in the level of tropical lakes from 18 to 0 kyr BP. Nature 317: 130–134.

A. C. Mix , E. Bard , and R. Schneider (2001). Environmental processes of the Ice Age: land, oceans, glaciers (EPILOPG). Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 627–657.

W. D. Newmark , and R. B. M. Senzota (2003). Power to detect trends in ecological indicators in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 41: 294–298.

W. A. Rodgers , and K. M. Homewood (1982). Species richness and endemism in the Usambara mountain forests, Tanzania, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 18: 197–242.

Y. Yokoyama , K. Lambeck , P. Deckker , P. Johnston , and L. K. Fifield (2000). Timing of the Last Glacial Maximum from observed sea-level minima. Nature 406: 713–716.

D. Armenteras , F. Gast , and H. Villareal (2003). Andean forest fragmentation and the representativeness of protected natural areas in the eastern Andes, Colombia. Biological Conservation 113: 245–256.

J. Axmacher , G. Holtmann , L. Scheuermann , et al. (2004). Diversity of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) along an Afrotropical elevational rainforest transect. Diversity and Distributions 10: 293–302.

H. S. Barlow , and I. P. Woiwod (1989). Moth diversity of a tropical forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 37–50.

J. G. Blake , and B. A. Loiselle (2000). Diversity of birds along an elevational gradient in the Cordillera Central, Costa Rica. The Auk 117: 663–686.

G. Brehm , and J. C. Axmacher (2006). A comparison of manual and automatic moth sampling methods (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Geometridae) in a rain forest in Costa Rica. Environmental Entomology 35: 754–764.

G. Brehm , and K. Fiedler (2003). Faunal composition of geometrid moths changes with altitude in an Andean montane rain forest. Journal of Biogeography 30: 431–440.

G. Brehm , and K. Fiedler (2004). Ordinating tropical moth ensembles from an elevational gradient: a comparison of common methods. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20: 165–172.

G. Brehm , J. Homeier , and K. Fiedler (2003a). Beta diversity of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in an Andean montane rainforest. Diversity and Distributions 9: 351–366.

G. Brehm , D. Süssenbach , and K. Fiedler (2003b). Unique elevational diversity patterns of geometrid moths in an Andean montane rainforest. Ecography 26: 456–466.

G. Brehm , R. K. Colwell , and J. Kluge (2007). The role of environment and mid-domain effect on moth species richness along a tropical elevational gradient. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 205–219.

N. Brummitt and E. N. Lughada (2003). Biodiversity: where's hot and where's not. Conservation Biology 17: 1442–1448.

J. F. Grassle , and W. Smith (1976). A similarity measure sensitive to the contribution of rare species and its use in investigation of variation in marine benthic communities. Oecologia 25: 13–22.

A. Heaney , and J. Proctor (1990). Preliminary studies on forest structure and floristics on Volcan Barva, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6: 307–320.

N. Hilt , G. Brehm , and K. Fiedler (2006), Diversity and ensemble composition of geometrid moths along a successional gradient in the Ecuadorian Andes. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22: 155–166.

N. Hilt , G. Brehm , and K. Fiedler (2007). Temporal dynamics of rich moth ensembles in the montane forest zone in southern Ecuador. Biotropica 39: 94–104.

S. H. Hurlbert (1971). The nonconcept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology 52: 577–586.

N. Myers , R. A. Mittermaier , C. G. Mittermaier , G A. B. da Fonseca , and J. Kent (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.

L. A. Bruijnzeel , and E. J. Veneklaas (1998). Climatic conditions and tropical montane forest productivity: the fog has not lifted yet. Ecology 79: 3–9.

C. Garcia-Nunez , A. Azocar , and F. Rada (1995). Photosynthetic acclimation to light in juveniles of two cloud forest tree species. Trees 10: 114–124.

M. Kappelle , J. G. Uffelen , and A. M. Cleef (1995). Altitudinal zonation of montane Quercus forests along two transects in the Chirripó National Park, Costa Rica. Vegetatio 119: 119–154.

M. Kessler (2000). Elevational gradients in species richness and endemism of selected plant groups in the central Bolivian Andes. Plant Ecology 149: 181–193.

C Körner (1982). CO2 exchange in the alpine sedge Carex curvula as influenced by canopy structure, light and temperature. Oecologia 53: 98–104.

C. A. Pendry , and J. Proctor (1996). The causes of altitudinal zonation of rain forests on Bukit Belalong, Brunei. Journal of Ecology 84: 407–418.

W. Silver , A. E. Lugo , and M. Keller (1999). Soil oxygen availability and biogeochemistry along rainfall and topographic gradients in upland wet tropical forest soils. Biogeochemistry 44: 301–328.

W. Tanner , and H. Beevers (1990). Does transpiration have an essential function in long-distance ion transport in plants? Plant, Cell and Environment 13: 745–750.

E. J. Veneklaas , and R. Ek (1990). Rainfall interception in two tropical montane rain forests, Colombia. Hydrological Processes 4: 311–326.

M. Vis (1986). Interception, drop size distributions and rainfall kinetic energy in four Colombian forest ecosystems. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 11: 591–570.

S. Harrison , S. J. Ross , and J. H. Lawton (1992). Beta diversity on geographic gradients in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology 61: 151–158.

R. O. Lawton , and F. E. Putz (1988). Natural disturbance and gap-phase regeneration in a wind-exposed tropical cloud forest. Ecology 69: 764–777.

N. M. Nadkarni (1984). Epiphyte biomass and nutrient capital of a neotropical elfin forest. Biotropica 16: 249–256.

J. A. Pounds , M. P. L. Fogden , and J. H. Campbell (1999). Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature 398: 611–615.

R. Avissar , and R. A. Pielke (1989). A parameterization of heterogeneous land surfaces for atmospheric models and its impact on regional meteorology. Monthly Weather Review 117: 2113–2136.

T. Berendes , S. K. Sengupta , R. M. Welch , B. A. Wielicki , and M. Navar (1992). Cumulus cloud base height estimation from high spatial resolution Landsat data: a Hough transform approach. IEEE Transactions in Geosciences and Remote Sensing 30: 430–443.

J. L. Brenguier , H. Pawlowska , L. Schuller , et al. (2000). Radiative properties of boundary layer clouds: droplet effective radius versus number concentration. Journal of Atmospheric Science 57: 803–821.

I. V. Chernykh , and R. E. Eskridge (1996). Determination of cloud amount and level from radiosonde soundings. Journal of Applied Meteorology 35: 1362–1369.

J. Chou , R. C. Weger , J. M. Ligtenberg , et al. (1994). Segmentation of polar scenes using multispectral texture measures and morphological filtering. International Journal of Remote Sensing 15: 1019–1036.

Q. Han , W. B. Rossow , and A. A. Lacis (1994). Near-global survey of effective droplet radii. I. Liquid water clouds using ISCCP data. Journal of Climate 7: 465–497.

K. D. Hutchinson (2002). The retrieval of cloud base height from MODIS and three-dimensional cloud fields from NASA's EOS Aqua mission. International Journal of Remote Sensing 23: 5249–5265.

K. S. Kuo , R. M. Welch , and R. C. Weger (1993). The three-dimensional structure of cumulus clouds over the ocean. I. Structural analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research 98: 20 685–20 711.

R. O. Lawton (1990). Canopy gaps and light penetration into a wind-exposed tropical lower montane rain forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20: 659–667.

J. S. Malkus (1955). The effects of a large island upon the trade-wind air stream. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 81: 538–550.

A. D. Richardson , E. G. Denny , T. G. Siccama , and X. Lee (2002). Evidence for a rising cloud ceiling in eastern North America. Journal of Climate 16: 2093–2098.

G. B. Allison , C. J. Barnes , and M. W. Hughes (1983). Distribution of deuterium and oxygen-18 in dry soils. II. Experimental. Journal of Hydrology 64: 377–397.

C. J. Barnes , and G. B. Allison (1983). The distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in dry soils. I. Theory. Journal of Hydrology 60: 141–156.

C. J. Barnes , and J. V. Turner (1998). Isotopic exchange in soil water. In Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, eds. C. Kendall and J. J. McDonnell , pp. 137–163. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

C. Brodersen , S. Pohl , M. Lindenlaub , C. Leibundgut , and K. Wilpert (2000). Influence of vegetation structure on isotope content of throughfall and soil water. Hydrological Processes 14: 1439–1448.

R. Burkard , P. Bützberger , and W. Eugster (2003). Vertical fogwater flux measurements above an elevated forest canopy at the Lägeren research site, Switzerland. Atmospheric Environment 37: 2979–2990.

J. M. Buttle (1998). Fundamentals of small catchment hydrology. In Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, eds. C. Kendall and J. J. McDonnell , pp. 1–49. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

J. D. Corbin , M. A. Thomsen , T. E. Dawson , and C. M. D'Antonio (2005). Summer water use by California coastal prairie grasses: fog, drought, and community composition. Oecologia 145: 511–521.

H. Craig (1961). Isotopic variations in meteoric waters. Science 133: 1702–1703.

T. E. Dawson (1993). Water sources of plants as determined from xylem-water isotopic composition: perspectives on plant competition, distribution, and water relations. In Stable Isotopes and Plant Carbon–Water Relations, eds. J. R. Ehleringer , A. E. Hall , and G. D. Farquhar , pp. 465–496. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

T. E. Dawson , and J. R. Ehleringer (1998). Plants, isotopes and water use: a catchment-scale perspective. In Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, eds. C. Kendall and J. J. McDonnell , pp. 165–202. Amsterdam, Elsevier.

B. Federer , N. Brichet , and J. Jouzel (1982). Stable isotopes in hailstones. I. The isotopic cloud model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 39: 1323–1335.

D. T. Fischer , and C. J. Still (2007). Evaluating patterns of fog water deposition and isotopic composition on the California Channel Islands. Water Resources Research 43: W04420, doi:101029/2006WR005124.

D. T. Fischer , C. J. Still , and A. P. Williams (2009). Significance of summer fog and overcast for drought stress and ecological functioning of coastal California endemic plant species, Journal of Biogeography 36: 783–799.

J. R. Gat (2000). Atmospheric water balance: the isotopic perspective. Hydrological Processes 14: 1357–1369.

S. D. Gedzelman , and R. Arnold (1994). Modeling the isotopic composition of precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research 99: 10 455–10 471.

R. Gonfiantini , and A. Longinelli (1962). Oxygen isotopic composition of fogs and rains from the North Atlantic. Experientia 18: 222–223.

N. L. Ingraham , and R. E. Criss (1993). Effects of surface area and volume on the rate of isotopic exchange between water and water vapor. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres) 98: 20 547–20 553.

N. L. Ingraham , and A. F. Mark (2000). Isotopic assessment of the hydrological importance of fog deposition on tall snow tussock grass on southern New Zealand uplands. Austral Ecology 25: 402–408.

N. L. Ingraham , and R. A. Matthews (1990). A stable isotope study of fog: the Point Reyes Peninsula, California, U.S.A. Chemical Geology (Isotope Geoscience Section) 80: 281–290.

J. Jouzel , L. Merlivat , and E. Roth (1975). Isotopic study of hail. Journal of Geophysical Research 80: 5015–5030.

M. K. Landon , G. N. Delin , S. C. Komor , and C. P. Regan (1999). Comparison of the stable-isotopic composition of soil water collected from suction lysimeters, wick samplers, and cores in a sandy unsaturated zone, Journal of Hydrology 224: 45–54.

W. J. Liu , Y. P. Zhang , H. M. Li , and H. M. Liu (2005). Fog drip and its relation to groundwater in the tropical seasonal rain forest of Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. Water Research 39: 787–794.

W. J. Liu , W. Y. Liu , P. J. Li , et al. (2007). Using stable isotopes to determine sources of fog drip in a tropical seasonal rain forest of Xishuangbanna, SW China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 143: 80–91.

P. Maloszewski , and A. Zuber (1982). Determining the turnover time of groundwater systems with the aid of environmental tracers. I. Models and their applicability. Journal of Hydrology 57: 207–231.

L. A. Martinelli , R. L. Victoria , L. S. L. Sternberg , A. Ribeiro , and M. Z. Moreira (1996). Using stable isotopes to determine sources of evaporated water to the atmosphere in the Amazon basin. Journal of Hydrology 183: 191–204.

J. J. McDonnell , M. Bonell , M. K. Stewart , and A. J. Pearce (1990). Deuterium variations in storm rainfall: implications for stream hydrograph separation. Water Resources Research 26: 455–458.

K. J. McGuire , D. R. DeWalle , and W. J. Gburek (2002). Evaluation of mean residence time in subsurface waters using oxygen-18 fluctuations during drought conditions in the mid-Appalachians. Journal of Hydrology 261: 132–149.

F. C. Meinzer , J. L. Andrade , G. Goldstein , et al. (1999). Partitioning of soil water among canopy trees in a seasonally dry tropical forest. Oecologia 121: 293–301.

K. Revesz , and P. H. Woods (1990). A method to extract soil water for stable isotope analysis. Journal of Hydrology 115: 397–406.

K. Rozanski , L. Araguas-Araguas , and R. Gonfiantini (1993). Isotopic patterns in modern global precipitation. In Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Records, eds. P. K. Swart , K. C. Lohman , J. McKenzie , and S. Savin , pp. 1–36. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.

E. Salati , A. Dall'Olio , E. Matsui , and J. R. Gat (1979). Recycling of water in the Amazon basin: an isotopic study. Water Resources Research 15: 1250–1258.

M. A. Scholl , T. W. Giambelluca , S. B. Gingerich , M. A. Nullet , and L. L. Loope (2007). Cloud water in windward and leeward mountain forests: the stable isotope signature of orographic cloud water. Water Resources Research 43: W12411, doi:101029/2007WR006011.

U. Siegenthaler , and H. Oeschger (1980). Correlation of 18O in precipitation with temperature and altitude. Nature 285: 314–317.

M. G. Sklash , and R. N. Farvolden (1979). The role of groundwater in storm runoff. Journal of Hydrology 43: 45–65.

M. G. Sklash , R. N. Farvolden , and P. Fritz (1976). A conceptual model of watershed response to rainfall, developed through the use of oxygen-18 as a natural tracer. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 13: 271–283.

E. Thalmann , R. Burkard , T. Wrzesinsky , W. Eugster , and O. Klemm (2002). Ion fluxes from fog and rain to an agricultural and a forest ecosystem in Europe. Atmospheric Research 64: 147–158.

P. J. Thorburn , T. J. Hatton , and G. R. Walker (1993a). Combining measurements of transpiration and stable isotopes of water to determine groundwater discharge from forests. Journal of Hydrology 150: 563–587.

P. J. Thorburn , G. R. Walker , and J. -P. Brunel (1993b). Extraction of water from Eucalyptus trees for analysis of deuterium and oxygen-18: laboratory and field techniques. Plant, Cell, and Environment 16: 269–277.

X. -F. Wang , and D. Yakir (2000). Using stable isotopes of water in evapotranspiration studies. Hydrological Processes 14: 1407–1421.

A. G. West , S. J. Patrickson , and J. R. Ehleringer (2006). Water extraction times for plant and soil materials used in stable isotope analysis. Rapid Commmunications in Mass Spectrometry 20: 1317–1321.

J. W. C. White , E. R. Cook , J. R. Lawrence , and W. S. Broecker (1985). The D/H ratios of sap in trees: implications for water sources and tree ring D/H ratios. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 49: 237–246.

R. Aravena , O. Suzuki , and A. Pollastri (1989). Coastal fog and its relation to groundwater in the IV region of northern Chile. Chemical Geology (Isotope Geoscience Section) 79: 83–91.

W. Dansgaard (1964). Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus 16: 436–468.

S. Epstein , and T. Mayeda (1953). Variation of O18 content of waters from natural sources. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 4: 213–224.

J. Gat , and E. Matsui (1991). Atmospheric water balance in the Amazon Basin: an isotopic evapotranspiration model. Journal of Geophysical Research 96:13 179–13 188.

N. Ingraham , and R. Matthews (1988). Fog drip as a source of ground water recharge in northern Kenya. Water Resources Research 24: 1406–1410.

N. Ingraham , and R. Matthews (1995). The importance of fog-drip water to vegetation: Point Reyes Peninsula, California. Journal of Hydrology 164: 269–285.

M. Lachniet , and W. Patterson (2002). Stable isotope values of Costa Rican surface waters. Journal of Hydrology 260: 135–150.

J. Morrison , T. Brockwell , T. Merren , F. Fourel , and A. M. Phillps (2001). On-line high-precision stable hydrogen isotopic analyses on nanoliter water samples. Analytical Chemistry 73: 3570–3575.

A. L. Rhodes , A. J. Guswa , and S. E. Newell (2006). Seasonal variation in the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in the tropical montane forests of Monteverde, Costa Rica. Water Resources Research 42, W11402, doi:10.1029/2005WR004535.

M. Scholl , S. Ingebritsen , C. Janik , and J. Kauahikaua (1996). Use of precipitation and groundwater isotopes to interpret regional hydrology on a tropical volcanic island: Kilauea volcano area, Hawaii. Water Resources Research 32: 3525–3537.

M. Scholl , S. Gingerich , and G. Tribble (2002). The influence of microclimates and fog on stable isotope signatures used in interpretation of regional hydrology: East Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Hydrology 264: 170–184.

B. McCune (1994). Using epiphyte litter to estimate epiphyte biomass. Bryologist 97: 396–401.

R. A. Merriam (1973). Fog drip from artificial leaves in a fog wind tunnel. Water Resources Research 9: 1591–1597.

M. E. O'Neal , D. A. Landis , and R. Isaacs (2002). An inexpensive, accurate method for measuring leaf area and defoliation through digital image analysis. Journal of Economic Entomology 95: 1190–1194.

E. J. Veneklaas , R. J. Zagt , A. Leerdam , et al. (1990). Hydrological properties of the epiphyte mass of a montane tropical rain forest, Colombia. Vegetatio 89: 183–192.

S. -C. Chang , I. L. Lai , and J. Wu (2002). Estimation of fog on epiphytic bryophytes in a subtropical montane forest ecosystem in north-eastern Taiwan. Atmospheric Research 64: 159–167.

G. M. Lovett (1984). Rates and mechanisms of cloud water deposition to a subalpine balsam fir forest. Atmospheric Environment 18: 361–371.

S. Murakami (2006). A proposal for a new forest canopy interception mechanism: splash droplet evaporation. Journal of Hydrology 319: 72–82.

A. J. Shaw , and B. Goffinet (2000). Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

J. Wolf (1993). Diversity patterns and biomass of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens along an altitudinal gradient in the northern Andes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80: 928–960.

P. J. Edwards , and P. J. Grubb (1977). Studies of mineral cycling in a montane rain forest in New Guinea. I. The distribution of organic matter in the vegetation and soil. Journal of Ecology 65: 943–969.

M. Freiberg , and E. Freiberg (2000). Epiphyte diversity and biomass in the canopy of lowland and montane forests in Ecuador. Journal of Tropical Ecology 16: 673–688.

T. W. Giambelluca (2002). Hydrology of altered tropical forest. Hydrological Processes 16: 1665–1669.

E. H. Helmer (2000). The landscape ecology of tropical secondary forest in montane Costa Rica. Ecosystems 3: 98–114.

I. Holz , S. R. Gradstein , J. Heinrichs , and M. Kappelle (2002). Bryophyte diversity, microhabitat differentiation and distribution of life forms in Costa Rican upper montane Quercus forest. The Bryologist 105: 334–348.

L. Köhler , D. Hölscher , and C h. Leuschner (2006). Above-ground water and nutrient fluxes in three successional stages of Costa Rican montane oak forest with contrasting of epiphyte abundance. In Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Oak Forests, ed. M. Kappelle , pp. 271–282. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

L. Köhler , C. Tobón , K. F. A. Frumau , and L. A. Bruijnzeel (2007). Biomass and water storage of epiphytes in old-growth and secondary montane rain forest stands in Costa Rica. Plant Ecology 193: 171–184.

D. R. Perry (1978). A method of access into the crowns of emergent and canopy trees. Biotropica 10: 155–157.

E. V. J. Tanner (1985). Jamaican montane forests: nutrient capital and cost of growth. Journal of Ecology 73: 553–568.

K. M. Beswick , K. J. Hargreaves , M. W. Gallagher , T. W. Choularton , and D. Fowler (1991). Size-resolved measurements of cloud droplet deposition velocity to a forest canopy using an eddy-correlation technique. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 117: 623–645.

J. Goodman (1985). The collection of fog drip. Water Resources Research 21: 392–394.