Skip to main content
Understanding Police Use of Force
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 98
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Tankebe, Justice 2018. In their own eyes: an empirical examination of police self-legitimacy. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, p. 1.

    Lawson, Edward 2018. Police Militarization and the Use of Lethal Force. Political Research Quarterly, p. 106591291878420.

    Behr, Rafael 2018. Professionskulturen – Charakteristika unterschiedlicher professioneller Praxen. p. 31.

    Hine, Kelly A. Porter, Louise E. Westera, Nina J. Alpert, Geoffrey P. and Allen, Andrea 2018. What were they thinking? Factors influencing police recruits’ decisions about force. Policing and Society, p. 1.

    Bonner, Heidi S. 2018. The decision process: police officers’ search for information in dispute encounters. Policing and Society, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 90.

    Hine, Kelly A. Porter, Louise E. Westera, Nina J. and Alpert, Geoffrey P. 2018. Too much or too little? Individual and situational predictors of police force relative to suspect resistance. Policing and Society, Vol. 28, Issue. 5, p. 587.

    Willits, Dale W. and Makin, David A. 2018. Show Me What Happened. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 55, Issue. 1, p. 51.

    Noppe, Jannie 2018. Are all police officers equally triggered? A test of the interaction between moral support for the use of force and exposure to provocation. Policing and Society, Vol. 28, Issue. 5, p. 605.

    Hine, Kelly A. Porter, Louise E. Westera, Nina J. and Alpert, Geoffrey P. 2018. The understated ugly side of police–citizen encounters: situation, suspect, officer, decision-making, and force predictors of officer injuries. Policing and Society, Vol. 28, Issue. 6, p. 665.

    Torres, Jose 2018. Predicting law enforcement confidence in going ‘hands-on’: the impact of martial arts training, use-of-force self-efficacy, motivation, and apprehensiveness. Police Practice and Research, p. 1.

    Eski, Yarin 2017. A fear of coercion and accountability? Security officers and the non-use of force. Policing and Society, p. 1.

    McTackett, Laura J. and Thomas, Stuart D. M. 2017. Police Perceptions of Irrational Unstable Behaviours and Use of Force. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 163.

    Skaggs, Sherry Lynn 2017. Understanding arrest in rural police–juvenile interactions: A factorial designed survey approach. Policing and Society, p. 1.

    Sewell, Abigail A. 2017. The Illness Associations of Police Violence: Differential Relationships by Ethnoracial Composition. Sociological Forum, Vol. 32, Issue. , p. 975.

    Terrill, William and Paoline, Eugene A. 2017. Police Use of Less Lethal Force: Does Administrative Policy Matter?. Justice Quarterly, Vol. 34, Issue. 2, p. 193.

    Gerber, Monica M. and Jackson, Jonathan 2017. Justifying violence: legitimacy, ideology and public support for police use of force. Psychology, Crime & Law, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 79.

    Davies, Amanda Jane 2017. Shoot/do not shoot – what are the influences? The police recruit perspective. Policing and Society, Vol. 27, Issue. 5, p. 494.

    Nix, Justin Campbell, Bradley A. Byers, Edward H. and Alpert, Geoffrey P. 2017. A Bird's Eye View of Civilians Killed by Police in 2015. Criminology & Public Policy, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 309.

    Miller, Ted R Lawrence, Bruce A Carlson, Nancy N Hendrie, Delia Randall, Sean Rockett, Ian R H and Spicer, Rebecca S 2017. Perils of police action: a cautionary tale from US data sets. Injury Prevention, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 27.

    Haar, Rohini J. Iacopino, Vincent Ranadive, Nikhil Weiser, Sheri D. and Dandu, Madhavi 2017. Health impacts of chemical irritants used for crowd control: a systematic review of the injuries and deaths caused by tear gas and pepper spray. BMC Public Health, Vol. 17, Issue. 1,


Book description

Whenever police officers come into contact with citizens there is a chance that the encounter will digress to one in which force is used on a suspect. Fortunately, most police activities do not involve the use of force. But those that do reflect important patterns of interaction between the officer and the citizen. This book examines those patterns. It begins with a brief survey of prior research, and then goes on to present data and findings. Among the data are the force factor applied - that is, the level of force used relative to suspect resistance - and data on the sequential order of incidents of force. The authors also examine police use of force from the suspect's perspective. In analyzing this data they put forward a conceptual framework, the Authority Maintenance Theory, for examining and assessing police use of force.


‘This book is a valuable resource. The contents could well be useful for officers, instructors and policy makers as well as academics …‘.

Source: British Journal of Sociology

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed