Skip to main content
×
×
Home
War, Women, and Power

Book description

Rwanda and Bosnia both experienced mass violence in the early 1990s. Less than ten years later, Rwandans surprisingly elected the world's highest level of women to parliament. In Bosnia, women launched thousands of community organizations that became spaces for informal political participation. The political mobilization of women in both countries complicates the popular image of women as merely the victims and spoils of war. Through a close examination of these cases, Marie E. Berry unpacks the puzzling relationship between war and women's political mobilization. Drawing from over 260 interviews with women in both countries, she argues that war can reconfigure gendered power relations by precipitating demographic, economic, and cultural shifts. In the aftermath, however, many of the gains women made were set back. This book offers an entirely new view of women and war, and includes concrete suggestions for policy makers, development organizations, and activists supporting women's rights.

Reviews

‘Berry's War, Women, and Power is a true tour de force. We know that periods of war are often followed by increases in women's political participation, but prior to this book, we didn't understand why. Combining careful historical analyses, with more than 260 interviews with political actors in Rwanda and Bosnia, Berry traces the process by which the destruction of war pushed women to develop new network ties, new community organizations, and new collective humanitarian projects, which in turn institutionalized new forms of women's political participation. Sadly, however, she also finds that these gains are relatively short lived. More than just a patriarchal backlash, Berry demonstrates how well-meaning international humanitarian assistance had the surprising and unanticipated consequence of flattening out women's nascent political gains. Engaging, heart wrenching, and original, War, Women, and Power is a must read for everyone interested in gender, war, and the necessity of building equitable post-war societies.'

Jocelyn Viterna - Harvard University, Massachusetts

‘This fascinating and important book examines the processes through which war facilitates women's grassroots mobilization through demographic, economic, and cultural transformations. It makes an original contribution to the study of gender and conflict. Moreover, it is well-written and nuanced, backed by strong evidence, drawing on a rich body of fieldwork in Rwanda and Bosnia.'

Aili Mari Tripp - Wangari Maathai Professor of Political Science and Gender and Women's Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison

‘In this exceptional and often surprising book, Marie E. Berry shows how in disrupting power and gender relations, wars in Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina created political and cultural openings that allowed women to mobilize in significant and surprising ways. An altogether extraordinary contribution to the literatures on war, contentious politics, and women's political participation.'

Doug McAdam - Ray Lyman Wilbur Professor of Sociology, Stanford University, California

‘Can something good come of war? Looking deeply into the processes involved in the 1990s civil wars of Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina, Marie E. Berry faces up to an uncomfortable contradiction. A period of death and destruction may be transformative for women, bringing them increased opportunities and political mobilization, both in the community and in the postwar power structures. Stopping to explore, rather than brush aside, such contradiction when you meet it, as the wisest social analysts know, is highly productive. Berry's unflinching investigation teaches us a lot about patriarchal gender power-relations - which turn out to have as much resilience as do women when it comes to surviving war.'

Cynthia Cockburn - Centre for the Study of Women and Gender, University of Warwick, and City University London

‘Marie E. Berry's book is a passionately engaged, yet scientifically embedded account of how women came to be politically empowered - yet ultimately remained vulnerable - activists and political actors in two post-violence countries. Her paired comparison shows how political opportunities often arose in the midst of social disorganization, as women turned the search for survival into the creation of new roles and responsibilities. Her well-crafted narratives shine a new light on the relationships among gender, war, and political mobilization.'

Sidney Tarrow - Author of Power in Movement

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
Abramowitz, S. A. (2009). Psychosocial Liberia: Managing suffering in post-conflict life. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Abu-Lughod, L. (1990). The romance of resistance: Tracing transformations of power through Bedouin women. American Ethnologist, 17(1), 4155.
African Rights. (1995a). Rwanda: Death, despair and defiance. London: African Rights.
African Rights. (1995b). Rwanda: Not So Innocent: When women become killers. London: African Rights.
African Rights. (2004). Broken Bodies, Torn Spirits: Living with genocide, rape and HIV/AIDS. Kigali, Rwanda: African Rights.
Aganović, A., Miftari, E., and Veličković, M.. (2015). Women and Political Life in Post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina: 1995-2015. Sarajevo: Sarajevo Open Center.
Agarwal, B. (1992). The gender and environment debate: Lessons from India. Feminist Studies, 18(1), 119158.
Agency for Gender Equality of BiH. (2013). Prevalence and Characteristics of Violence against Women in BiH 2013. Gender Equality Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Edited by Samra Filipović – Hadžiabdić. Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of BiH. Sarajevo, BiH.
Ali, Daniel Ayalew, Deininger, Klaus, and Goldstein, Markus (2014). Environmental and gender impacts of land tenure regularization in Africa: Pilot evidence from Rwanda. Journal of Development Economics, 110, 262275.
Amnesty International. (1993). Bosnia-Herzegovina: Rape and sexual abuse by armed forces (No. 63). London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International. (1994). Rwanda: Reports of killings and abductions by the Rwandese Patriotic Army, April–August 1994 (No. 47). London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International. (1995a). Burundi and Rwanda Crisis Response: Army killings in Kibeho Camp, Rwanda. London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International. (1995b). Rwanda: Arming the perpetrators of genocide (No. 2). London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International. (1995c). Rwanda: Crying out for justice (No. 47). London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International. (1996a). Rwanda: Alarming resurgence of killings (No. 47). London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International. (1996b). Rwanda and Burundi: The return home – rumors and realities (No. 2). London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International. (1997). “Who’s Living in My House?” Obstacles to the safe return of refugees and internally displaced people (No. EUR 63/01/97). London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International. (2004). Rwanda: The enduring legacy of the genocide and war (No. 47). London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International. (2009). “Whose Justice?” The women of Bosnia and Herzegovina are still waiting. London: Amnesty International.
Anderson, K. (1981). Wartime Women: Sex roles, family relations, and the status of women during World War II. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Anderson, M. B. (1999). Do No Harm: How aid can support peace – or war. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Andjelkovic, B. (1998). Reflections on nationalism and its impact on women in Serbia. In Rueschemeyer, M (Ed.), Women in the Politics of Postcommunist Eastern Europe (pp. 235248). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
André, C. and Platteau., J. (1998). Land relations under unbearable stress: Rwanda caught in the Malthusian trap. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 34(1), 147.
Andreas, P. (2004). The clandestine political economy of war and peace in Bosnia. International Studies Quarterly, 48(1), 2952.
Andreas, P. (2008). Blue Helmets and Black Markets: The business of survival in the siege of Sarajevo. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Annan, J., Blattman, C., Mazurana, D., and Carlson, K.. (2011). Civil war, reintegration and gender in northern Uganda. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(6), 877908.
Ansoms, A. (2008). Striving for growth, bypassing the poor? A critical review of Rwanda’s rural sector policies. Journal of Modern African Studies, 46(1), 132.
Ansoms, A. (2009). Re-engineering rural society: The visions and ambitions of the Rwandan elite. African Affairs, 108(431), 289309.
Apthorpe, R. (2011). With Alice in Aidland: A seriously satirical allegory. In Mosse, D. (Ed.), Adventures in Aidland: The anthropology of professionals in international development (pp. 199219). New York; Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Aretxaga, B. (1997). Shattering Silence: Women, nationalism, and political subjectivity in Northern Ireland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Athanasiou, A. (2013). The poetics of dissent and the political courage of Women in Black. In Zajović, S., Stojanović, S., and Urošević, M. (Ed.), Women in Black (pp. 4766). Belgrade, Serbia.
Autesserre, S. (2009). Hobbes and the Congo: Frames, local violence, and international intervention. International Organization, 63(2), 249280.
Autesserre, S. (2014). Peaceland: Conflict resolution and the everyday politics of international intervention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Baaz, M. E. and Stern., M. (2009). Why do soldiers rape? Masculinity, violence, and sexuality in the armed forces in the Congo (DRC). International Studies Quarterly, 53(2), 495518.
Bagić, A. (2004). Talking about donors. Ethnographies of aid – exploring development texts and encounters. Roskilde University Occasional Paper in International Development Studies, 24, 222.
Bagić, A. (2006). Women’s organizing in post-Yugoslav countries: Talking about “donors.” In Ferree, M. M. and Tripp, A. M. (Eds.), Global Feminism: Transnational women’s activism, organizing, and human rights (pp. 141165). New York: New York University Press.
Balcells, L. (2012). The consequences of victimization on political identities: Evidence from Spain. Politics & Society, 40(3), 311347.
Barker, G. and Schulte., J. (2010). Engaging Men as Allies in Women’s Economic Empowerment: Strategies and recommendations for CARE country offices. Edited by Norway, C.. Oslo: International Center for Research on Women.
Barnett, M. (2011). Empire of Humanity: A history of humanitarianism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Bassuener, K. (2012). Statement for the Oireachtas, Joint Committee on EU Affairs. Edited by D. P. Council, . Sarajevo, BiH: Democratization Policy Council.
Bauer, G. and Britton., H. E. (2006). Women in African Parliaments. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Baumel, J. T. (1999). Women’s agency and survival strategies during the Holocaust. Women’s Studies International Forum, 22(3), 329347.
Bayat, A. (1997). Street Politics: Poor people’s movements in Iran. New York: Columbia University Press.
Bayat, A. (2007). Making Islam Democratic: Social movements and the post-Islamist turn. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bayat, A. (2010). Life as Politics: How ordinary people change the Middle East. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bećirević, E. (2014). Genocide on the Drina River. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Bellows, J. and Miguel., E. (2009). War and local collective action in Sierra Leone. Journal of Public Economics, 93(11–12), 11441157.
Benderly, J. (1997). Women’s movements in Yugoslavia, 1978–1992. In Bokovoy, M. K., Irvine, J. A., and Lilly, C. S. (Eds.), State–Society Relations in Yugoslavia 1945–1992 (pp. 183209). New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Benford, R. D. and Snow, D. A.. (2000). Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 611639.
Berry, M. E. (2015a). From violence to mobilization: War, women, and threat in Rwanda. Mobilization: An International Quarterly, 20(2), 135156.
Berry, M. E. (2015b). When “bright futures” fade: Paradoxes of women’s empowerment in Rwanda. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 41(1), 127.
Berry, M. E. (2017). Barriers to Women’s Progress After Atrocity: Evidence from Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Gender & Society, 31(6): 830–853.
Berry, M. E. and Lake, M. (2017). Thematic review: Gender politics after war: Mobilizing opportunity in post-conflict Africa. Politics & Gender, 13(2), 336349.
Beswick, D. (2011). Democracy, identity and the politics of exclusion in post-genocide Rwanda: The case of the Batwa. Democratization, 18(2), 490511.
Bijleveld, C., Morssinkhof, A., and Smeulers, A.. (2009). Counting the countless rape victimization during the Rwandan genocide. International Criminal Justice Review, 19.
Björkdahl, A. (2012). A gender-just peace? Exploring the post-Dayton peace process in Bosnia. Peace & Change, 37(2), 286317.
Blalock, H. M. (1967). Toward a Theory of Minority–Group Relations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Blattman, C. (2009). From violence to voting: War and political participation in Uganda. American Political Science Review, 103(2), 231247.
Booth, D. and Golooba-Mutebi., F. (2012). Developmental patrimonialism? The case of Rwanda. African Affairs, 111(444), 379403.
Bop, C. (2001). Women in conflict: Their gains and their losses. In Meintjes, S., Turshen, M., and Pillay, A. (Eds.), The Aftermath: Women in post-conflict transformation. London: Zed Books.
Bose, S. (2002). Bosnia after Dayton: Nationalist partition and international intervention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bougarel, X. (2006). The shadow of heroes: Former combatants in post-war Bosnia Herzegovina. International Social Science Journal, 58(189), 479490.
Bougarel, X., Helms, E., and Duijzings., G. (2007). The New Bosnian Mosaic: Identities, memories and moral claims in a post-war society. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate Press.
Bouka, Y. A. F. (2013). In the shadow of prison: Power, identity, and transitional justice in post-genocide Rwanda. PhD Dissertation, American University, Washington, DC.
Bradol, J. and Le Pape, M. (2017). Humanitarian Aid, Genocide and Mass Killings: The Rwandan experience. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bringa, T. (1995). Being Muslim the Bosnian Way: Identity and community in a central Bosnian village. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Brown, S. E. (2014). Female perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 16(3), 448–469.
Brown, W. (2000). Suffering rights as paradoxes. Constellations, 7, 208229.
Brownmiller, S. (1994). Making female bodies the battlefield. In Stiglmayer, A. (Ed.), Mass Rape: The war against women in Bosnia-Herzegovina (pp. 180182). Lincoln; London: University of Nebraska Press.
Burg, S. L. and Shoup., P. (1999). The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic conflict and international intervention. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Burnet, J. E. (2008). Gender balance and the meanings of women in governance in post-genocide Rwanda. African Affairs, 107(428), 361386.
Burnet, J. E. (2012). Genocide Lives in Us: Women, memory, and silence in Rwanda. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Burnet, J. E. (2017). Sorting and suffering: Social classification in post-genocide Rwanda. In Jan Shetler (Ed.) Gendering Ethnicity in African Women’s Lives (pp. 206–230). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Buss, D. E. (2007). The curious visibility of wartime rape: Gender and ethnicity in international criminal law. Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice, 25(1), 3.
Buss, D. E. (2009). Rethinking “rape as a weapon of war.” Feminist Legal Studies, 17, 145163.
Capoccia, G. and Kelemen., R. D. (2007). The study of critical junctures: Theory, narrative, and counterfactuals in historical institutionalism. World Politics, 59(3), 341369.
Carnegie Commission. (1997). Preventing Deadly Conflict: Final Report. New York: Carnegie Corporation.
Carpenter, R. C. (2006). Recognizing gender-based violence against civilian men and boys in conflict situations. Security Dialogue, 37(1), 83103.
Celestino, M. R. and Gleditsch., K. S. (2013). Fresh carnations or all thorn, no rose? Nonviolent campaigns and transitions in autocracies. Journal of Peace Research, 50(3), 385400.
Census Bureau of Bosnia-Herzegovina (2013). Preliminary Census Report. www.bhas.ba/obavjestenja/Preliminarni_rezultati_bos.pdf.
Chakravarty, A. (2015). Investing in Authoritarian Rule: Punishment and patronage in Rwanda’s gacaca courts for genocide crimes. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Chalk, F. R. and Jonassohn, K.. (1990). The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and case studies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Chandler, D. (2000). Bosnia: Faking democracy after Dayton. London; Sterling, VA: Pluto Press.
Charney, I. W. (1994). The Widening Circle of Genocide, Vol. 3. New Brunswick, NJ; London: Transaction Publishers.
Chinchilla, N. S. (1983). Women in Revolutionary Movements: The case of Nicaragua. East Lansing: Michigan State University.
Chinchilla, N. S. (1992). Marxism, feminism, and the struggle for democracy in Latin America. In Escobar, A. and Alvarez, S. E. (Eds.) The Making of Contemporary Social Movements in Latin America (pp. 37–51). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Cigar, N. L. (1995). Genocide in Bosnia: The policy of “ethnic cleansing.” College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
Clark, J. N. (2010). Bosnia’s success story? Brčko district and the “view from below.” International Peacekeeping, 17(1), 6779.
Clemens, E. S. (1993). Organizational repertoires and institutional change: Women’s groups and the transformation of U.S. politics, 1890–1920. American Journal of Sociology, 98(4), 755798.
Clemens, E. S. (1996). Organizational form as frame: Collective identity and political strategy in the American labor movement, 1880–1920. In McAdam, D., et al. (Eds.) Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements (pp. 205226). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clemens, E. S. (1999). Securing political returns to social capital: Women’s associations in the United States, 1880s–1920s. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 29(4), 613638.
Cockburn, C. (1998). The Space between Us: Negotiating gender and national identities in conflict. London; New York: Zed Books.
Cockburn, C. (2007). From Where We Stand: War, women’s activism and feminist analysis. Zed Books.
Cockburn, C. (2013a). Against the odds: Sustaining feminist momentum in post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina. Women’s Studies International Forum, 37(1), 2635.
Cockburn, C. (2013b). Sexual violence in Bosnia: How war lives on in everyday life. 50.50 Inclusive Democracy, Open Democracy. www.opendemocracy.net/5050/cynthia-cockburn/sexual-violence-in-bosnia-how-war-lives-on-in-everyday-life. Accessed March 2015.
Cockburn, C., with Stakic-Domuz, R. and Hubic, M.. (2001). Women Organizing for Change: A study of women’s local integrative organizations and the pursuit of democracy in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Zenica, BiH: Medica Women’s Association.
Codere, H. (1973). The Biography of an African Society: Rwanda 1900–1960: Based on forty-eight Rwandan autobiographies. Tervuren: Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale.
Cohen, L. J. (1993). Broken Bonds: The disintegration of Yugoslavia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Cohen, M. H., d’Adesky, A., and Anastos., K. (2005). Women in Rwanda: Another world is possible. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(5), 613615.
Cole, A. (2010). International criminal law and sexual violence: An overview. In McGlynn, C. and Munro, V. (Eds.), Rethinking Rape Law: International and comparative perspectives (pp. 4760). London: Routledge.
Collier, P. and Hoeffler., A. (2004). Greed and grievance in civil war. Oxford Economic Papers, 56(4), 563595.
Collier, R. B. and Collier., D. (1991). Shaping the Political Arena. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Connell, R. W. and Messerschmidt., J. W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829859.
Cramer, C. (2006). Civil War Is Not a Stupid Thing: Accounting for violence in developing countries. London: Hurst & Co.
Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 12411299.
Crisafulli, P. and Redmond., A. (2012). Rwanda, Inc.: How a devastated nation became an economic model for the developing world. London: Macmillan.
Dallaire, R. (2003). Shake Hands with the Devil: The failure of humanity in Rwanda. New York: Carroll & Graf.
Davenport, C. and Stam., A. (2007). Rwandan Political Violence in Space and Time. Unpublished manuscript, available online: https://bc.sas.upenn.edu/system/files/Stam_03.26.09.pdf.
De Alwis, M. (1998). Women’s political participation in contemporary Sri Lanka. In Jeffery, P. and Basu, A. (Eds.), Appropriating Gender: Women’s activism and politicized religion in South Asia (pp. 185–202). New York; London: Routledge.
De Luca, G. and Verpoorten, M.. (2015). Civil war and political participation: Evidence from Uganda. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 64(1), 113141.
De Vlaming, F. and Clark., K. (2014). War reparations in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Individual stories and collective interests. In Žarkov, D. and Glasius, M. (Eds.), Narratives of Justice In and Out of the Courtroom: Former Yugoslavia and beyond (pp. 172194). London: Springer.
De Waal, A. (1997). Famine Crimes: Politics & the disaster relief industry in Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
De Walque, D. and Verwimp., P. (2010). The demographic and socio-economic distribution of excess mortality during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Journal of African Economies, 19(2), 141162.
Del Zotto, A. C. (2002). Weeping women, wringing hands: How the mainstream media stereotyped women’s experiences in Kosovo. Journal of Gender Studies, 11(2), 141150.
Des Forges, A. (1999). “Leave None to Tell the Story”: Genocide in Rwanda. New York; Paris: Human Rights Watch.
Des Forges, A. (2011). Defeat Is the Only Bad News: Rwanda under Musinga, 1896–1931. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Di John, J. and Putzel., J. (2009). Political settlements: Issues paper. Discussion Paper. University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
Dickemann, M. (1997).The Balkan sworn virgin: A cross-gendered female role. Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature, 197203.
DiMaggio, P. J. and Powell., W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147160.
Dizdarevic, Z. (1993). Sarajevo: A war journal. New York: Fromm International.
Djokic, D. (2007). Elusive Compromise: A history of interwar Yugoslavia. New York: Columbia University Press.
Donahoe, A. (2017). Peacebuilding through Women’s Community Development: Wee women’s work in Northern Ireland. New York: Palgrave.
Dowling, J. (2013). Facing the past in Prijedor: A case study of local transitional justice initiatives. Master’s Thesis: University of Sarajevo–University of Bologna, Sarajevo.
Dušanić, S. (2013). Man and Gender Relations in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Results of “IMAGES” Research. In collaboration with Promundo. Banja Luka, Bosnia.
Easterly, W. (2001). Can institutions resolve ethnic conflict? Economic Development and Cultural Change, 49(4), 687706.
Eastmond, M. (2006). Transnational returns and reconstruction in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina. International Migration, 44(23), 141166.
Einhorn, B. (1993). Cinderella Goes to Market: Citizenship, gender, and women’s movements in East Central Europe. London; New York: Verso Press.
El-Bushra, J. (2000). Transforming conflict: Some thoughts on a gendered understanding of conflict processes. In Jacobs, S, Jacobson, R, and Marchban, J(Eds.), States of Conflict: Gender, violence and resistance (pp. 6686). London: Zed Books.
El-Bushra, J. (2008). The culture of peace or the culture of the sound-bite? Development practice and the “tyranny of policy.” In Žarkov, D. (Ed.), Gender, Violent Conflict, and Development. New Delhi: Zubaan.
El-Bushra, J. and Mukarubuga., C. (1995). Women, war and transition. Gender & Development, 3(3), 1622.
Elshtain, J. B. (1981). Public Man, Private Woman: Women in social and political thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Elshtain, J. B. (1987). Women and War. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Eltringham, N. (2004). Accounting for Horror: Post-genocide debates in Rwanda. London: Pluto Press.
Engle, K. (2005). Feminism and its (dis)contents: Criminalizing wartime rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The American Journal of International Law, 99(4), 778816.
Enloe, C. (1989). Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making feminist sense of international politics. Los Angeles; Berkeley: University of California Press.
Enloe, C. (1993). The Morning After: Sexual politics at the end of the Cold War. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Enloe, C. (2000). Maneuvers: The international politics of militarizing women’s lives. Oakland: University of California Press.
Epstein, C. F. (1997). The multiple realities of sameness and difference: Ideology and practice. Journal of Social Issues, 53(2), 259277.
Epstein, C. F. (2007). Great divides: The cultural, cognitive, and social bases of the global subordination of women. American Sociological Review, 72(1), 1.
Eriksson, J. (1996). The international response to conflict and genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda experience. In Dabelstein, N. (Ed.) Joint Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda. (pp. 1–205). London: Overseas Development Institute.
Evans-Kent, B. and Bleiker., R. (2003). NGOs and reconstructing civil society in Bosnia and Herzegovina. International Peacekeeping, 10(1), 103119.
Fearon, J. and Laitin, D.. (2003). Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war. American Political Science Review (APSR), 97(1), 75–90.
Fechter, A. and Hindman, H.. (2011). Inside the Everyday Lives of Development Workers: The challenges and futures of Aidland. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.
Fein, H. (1993). Accounting for genocide after 1945: Theories and some findings. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 1(2), 79106.
Femenía, N. A. (1987). Argentina’s Mothers of Plaza de Mayo: The mourning process from junta to democracy. Feminist Studies, 13(1), 918.
Finnof, C. R. (2010). Gendered vulnerabilities after genocide: Three essays on post-conflict Rwanda. PhD Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA.
Foucault, M. (1980). Power/Knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon.
Fox, N. (2011). “Oh, did the women suffer, they suffered so much”: Impacts of gendered based violence on kinship networks in Rwanda. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 37(2), 279–305.
Frank Chalk, K. J. (1990). The History and Sociology of Genocide. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Franks, E. (1996). Women and resistance in East Timor: The centre, as they say, knows itself by the margins. Women’s Studies International Forum, 19(1–2), 155168.
Fuest, V. (2008). “This is the time to get in front”: Changing roles and opportunities for women in Liberia. African Affairs, 107(427), 201224.
Fujii, L. A. (2009). Killing Neighbors: Webs of violence in Rwanda. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Funk, J. (2015). Sowing trust in minefields: Women’s peace activism in postwar BiH. Paper presented at the Women in Peace and Conflict Conference, Archbishop Desmond Tutu Center for War and Peace Studies.
Gagnon, V. P. (2006). The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia and Croatia in the 1990s (2nd edn.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Gal, S. (2002). A semiotics of the public/private distinction. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 13(1), 7795.
Gal, S. and Kligman., G. (2000). The Politics of Gender after Socialism: A comparative-historical essay. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, peace, and peace research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167191.
Geisler, G. (1995). Troubled sisterhood: Women and politics in southern Africa: Case studies from Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana. African Affairs, 94(377), 545578.
George, A. and Bennett., A. (2005). Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: Belfer Center, Harvard University.
George, P. (2004). Hotel Rwanda. Lionsgate.
Gerring, J. (2007). Is there a (viable) crucial-case method? Comparative Political Studies, 40(3), 231253.
Gervais, M. (2003). Human security and reconstruction efforts in Rwanda: Impact on the lives of women. Development in Practice, 13(5), 542551.
Gibbs, D. (2015). The Srebrenica precedent. Jacobin Magazine. www.jacobinmag.com/2015/07/bosnian-war-nato-bombing-dayton-accords/. Accessed May 2016.
Gilbert, A. (2012). Black Patriots and Loyalists: Fighting for emancipation in the war for independence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gjelten, T. (1995). Sarajevo Daily: A city and its newspaper under siege. New York: HarperCollins.
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goldstein, J. (2001). War and Gender: How gender shapes the war system and vice versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Goldstone, J. A. (1991). Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Goluboff, R. L. (2007). The Lost Promise of Civil Rights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goodfellow, T. and Smith, A.. From urban catastrophe to “model” city? Politics, security and development in post-conflict Kigali. Urban Studies, 50(15) (2013), 3185–3202.
Gourevitch, P. (1998). We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed with Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. New York: International Publishers.
Gready, P. (2010). “You’re either with us or against us”: Civil society and policy making in post-genocide Rwanda. African Affairs, 109(437), 637657.
Guichaoua, A. (2010). Rwanda, de la guerre au genocide: Les politiques criminelles au Rwanda (1990–1994). Paris: La D’couverte.
Gutman, R. (1993). A Witness to Genocide: The 1993 Pulitzer Prize–winning dispatches on the “ethnic cleansing” of Bosnia. New York: Macmillan.
Habermas, J. (1989). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
Hale, S. (1993). Gender, religious identity, and political mobilization in Sudan. In Moghadam, V. M. (Ed.), Identity Politics and Women: Cultural reassertions and feminisms in international perspectives (pp. 125–146). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Hansen, L. (2000). Gender, nation, rape: Bosnia and the construction of security. Feminist Journal of Politics, 3(1), 5575.
Harff, B. an Gurr, T. R. (1988). Toward empirical theory of genocides and politicides: Identification and measurement of cases since 1945. International Studies Quarterly, 32(3), 359–371.
Hartmann, S. M. (1982). The Home Front and Beyond: American women in the 1940s. Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers.
Heath, R. M., Schwindt-Bayer, L. A., and Taylor-Robinson., M. M. (2005). Women on the sidelines: Women’s representation on committees in Latin American legislatures. American Journal of Political Science, 49(2), 420436.
Helman, S. and Rapoport., T. (1997). Women in Black: Challenging Israel’s gender and socio-political orders. British Journal of Sociology, 48(4), 681700.
Helms, E. (2002). Women as agents of ethnic reconciliation? Women’s NGOs and international intervention in postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina. Women’s Studies International Forum, 26(1), 1533.
Helms, E. (2007). “Politics is a whore”: Women, morality, and victimhood in post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina. In Bougarel, X., Helms, E, and Duijzings, G. (Eds.), The New Bosnian Mosaic (pp. 235–254). Hampshire, UK, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
Helms, E. (2013). Innocence and Victimhood: Gender, nation, and women’s activism in postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Hilhorst, D. and Van Leeuwen., M. (2000). Emergency and development: The case of imidugudu, villagization in Rwanda. Journal of Refugee Studies, 13(3), 264280.
Hintjens, H. (2008). Post-genocide identity politics in Rwanda. Ethnicities, 8(1), 541.
Hughes, M. (2009). Armed conflict, international linkages, and women’s parliamentary representation in developing nations. Social Problems, 56(1), 174204.
Hughes, M. and Tripp., A. M. (2015). Civil war and trajectories of change in women’s political representation in Africa, 1985–2010. Social Forces, 93(4), 15131540.
Human Rights Watch. (1992). War Crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (1994a). Bosnia-Hercegovina: “Ethnic cleansing” continues in northern Bosnia. (No. 6). New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (1994b). Bosnia-Herzegovina: Sarajevo. (No. 6). New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (1994c). War Crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina: Bosanski Samac. (No. 6). New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (1994d). Bosnia-Hercegovina “Ethnic Cleansing” Continues in Northern Bosnia. 6(16). New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (1995). The Fall of Srebrenica and the Failure of UN Peacekeeping. (No. 7(13)). New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (2000). Rwanda: The search for security and human rights abuses. (No. 12). New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (2002). Hopes Betrayed: Trafficking of women and girls to post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina for forced prostitution. (No. 14). New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (2004). Struggling to Survive: Barriers to justice for rape victims in Rwanda. (No. 16). New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (2005). Liberia at a Crossroads: Human rights challenges for the new government. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (2007). Killings in Eastern Rwanda. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (2009). Human Rights Watch Mourns Loss of Alison Des Forges. New York: Human Rights Watch. www.hrw.org/news/2009/02/13/human-rights-watch-mourns-loss-alison-des-forges. Accessed October 2017.
Human Rights Watch. (2013). Rwanda: Takeover of rights groups. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (2015). Iraq: ISIS escapees describe systematic rape. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch. (2017). All thieves must be killed: Extrajudicial executions in western Rwanda. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Hunt, S. (2004). This Was Not Our War: Bosnian women reclaiming the peace. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Hunt, S. and Posa., C. (2001). Women waging peace. Foreign Policy, (124), 3847.
Hunter, K. (2017). Taking women to war: Understanding variation in women’s integration into democratic militaries. Paper presented at Southern Political Science Association Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA.
IDEA. (2017). Gender quotas database. Bosnia and Herzegovina. www.idea.int/data-tools/data/gender-quotas/country-view/57/35. Accessed November 2017.
Independent Bureau for Humanitarian Issues (IBHI). (1998). The Local NGO Sector within Bosnia-Herzegovina: Problems, analysis and recommendations. Sarajevo, BiH: IBHI.
Ingelaere, B. (2010). Peasants, power and ethnicity: A bottom-up perspective on Rwanda’s political transition. African Affairs, 109(435), 273292.
Ingelaere, B. (2011). The ruler’s drum and the people’s shout: Accountability and representation on Rwanda’s hills. In Straus, S. and Waldorf, L. (Eds.), Remaking Rwanda: State building and human rights after mass violence (pp. 67–78). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Ingelaere, B. (2016). Inside Rwanda's Gacaca Courts: Seeking justice after genocide. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
International Crisis Group. (1997). Going Nowhere Fast: Refugees and internally displaced persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Washington, DC: International Crisis Group.
International Crisis Group. (1998). Whither Bosnia? Washington, DC: International Crisis Group.
International Crisis Group. (2000). Bosnia’s Municipal Elections 2000: Winners and losers. Sarajevo, BiH/Washington, DC/Brussels: International Crisis Group.
International Labor Organization. (1991). ILOSTAT: Unemployment, general level. www.ilo.org/ilostat.
International Labor Organization. (1998). Gender Guidelines for Employment and Skills Training in Conflict-Affected Countries. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labor Organization.
Inter-Parliamentary Union. (2008, 2009, 2014, 2017). Women in parliaments: World and regional averages, online database. www.ipu.org/parline/: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
Iraq Body Count. (2015). www.iraqbodycount.org/.
Isaksson, A. (2013). Manipulating the rural landscape: Villagisation and income generation in Rwanda. Journal of African Economies, 22(3), 394436.
Jancar-Webster, B. (1990). Women & Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945. Denver, CO: Arden Press.
Jansen, S. (2006). The privatisation of home and hope: Return, reforms and the foreign intervention in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Dialectical Anthropology, 30(3–4), 177199.
Jefremovas, V. (1991). Loose women, virtuous wives, and timid virgins: Gender and the control of resources in Rwanda. Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines, 25(3), 378395.
Jefremovas, V. (2002). Brickyards to Graveyards: From production to genocide in Rwanda. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Jessee, E. (2012). Conducting fieldwork in Rwanda. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d'études du développement, 33(2), 266–274.
Jessee, E. (2017). Negotiating Genocide in Rwanda: The politics of history. Palgrave Macmillan.
Jessee, E. and Watkins., S. E. (2014). Good kings, bloody tyrants, and everything in between: Representations of the monarchy in post-genocide Rwanda. History in Africa, 41, 3562.
Joint Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda. (1996). Study 3: Humanitarian aid and effects. London: Overseas Development Institute.
Jones, W. (2012). Between Pyongyang and Singapore: The Rwandan state, its rulers, and the military. In Campioni, M. and Noack, P. (Eds.), Rwanda Fast Forward: Social, economic, military and reconciliation prospects. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jones, W. (2014). Murder and create: State reconstruction in Rwanda since 1994. PhD dissertation, Oxford University.
Justino, P. and Verwimp., P. (2008). Poverty dynamics, violent conflict and convergence in Rwanda. MICROCON Research Working Paper No. 4.
Kagame, P. (2014). Keynote Address by President Paul Kagame at the Women in Parliaments Global Forum – Joint session with MDG advocacy group. Kigali, Rwanda: Office of the President.
Kaldor, M. (2013). New and Old Wars: Organised violence in a global era. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Kalyvas, S. N. and Sambanis., N. (2005). Bosnia’s civil war: Origins and violence dynamics. In Collier, P and Sambanis, N (Eds.), Understanding Civil War: Europe, Central Asia, and other regions (pp. 191230). Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Kampwirth, K. (2004). Feminism and the Legacy of Revolution: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chiapas. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Kangura, . (1990). Appeal to the Bahutu conscience. No. 6, December. www.rwandafile.com/Kangura/k06a.html. Accessed May 2017.
Kapiteni, A. (1996). La premiere estimation du nombre des victimes du genocide des Batutsi du Rwanda de 1994, commune par commume. www.rwasta.net/uploads/media/1996-estimation-nombre-victimes-genocide-.
Kaplan, T. (1982). Female consciousness and collective action: The case of Barcelona, 1910–1918. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 7(3), 545566.
Kelsall, T. (2013). Business, Politics, and the State in Africa: Challenging the orthodoxies on growth and transformation. London; New York: Zed Books.
Keenan, T. (2002). Publicity and indifference (Sarajevo on television). Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 104116.
Kenworthy, L. and Malami., M. (1999). Gender inequality in political representation: A worldwide comparative analysis. Social Forces, 78(1), 235268.
Kestnbaum, M. (2002). Citizen-soldiers, national service and the mass army: The birth of conscription in revolutionary Europe and North America. Comparative Social Research, 20, 117144.
Key, E. (1909). The Century of the Child. Bingley, West Yorkshire: G. P Putnam’s Sons.
Kiernan, B. (2007). Blood and Soil: A world history of genocide and extermination from Sparta to Darfur. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Kinzer, S. (2008). A Thousand Hills: Rwanda’s rebirth and the man who dreamed it. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Kleiman, M. (2007). Challenges of Activism and Feminism in Creation of Women’s Space: Work of Žene Ženama in local, national and regional context. Sarajevo, BiH: Žene Ženama.
Kligman, G. and Limoncelli., S. (2005). Trafficking women after socialism: From, to, and through Eastern Europe. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society , 12(1), 118140.
Kondracki, L., Weisz, R., Strathairn, D., Kaas, N., Anissimova, A., Condurache, R., ... and Bellucci, M. (2010). The Whistleblower (Film). Impulse Home Entertainment.
Koomen, J. (2014). “Without these women, the tribunal cannot do anything”: The politics of witness testimony on sexual violence at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 38(2), 253277.
Korac, M. (1998). Ethnic-nationalism, wars and the patterns of social, political and sexual violence against women: The case of post-Yugoslav countries. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 5(2), 153181.
Kristeva, J. (1982). Powers of Horror: An essay on abjection. New York: Columbia University Press.
Krook, M. L. (2015). Empowerment versus backlash: Gender quotas and critical mass theory. Politics, Groups, and Identities, 3(1), 184188.
Kubai, A. (2007). Walking a tightrope: Christians and Muslims in post-genocide Rwanda. Islam–Christian Muslim Relations, 18(2), 219235.
Kumar, Krishna, ed. (2001). Women and civil war: Impact, organizations, and action. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Kuper, L. (1981). Genocide: Its political use in the twentieth century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Kuperman, A. J. (2004). The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, DC, Brookings Institution Press.
La Mattina, G. (2012). When all the good men are gone: Sex ratio and domestic violence in post-genocide Rwanda. Boston, MA: Institute for Economic Development DP223, Boston University.
Lampe, J. R. (2000). Yugoslavia as History: Twice there was a country. London; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lake, M., Muthaka, I., and Walker., G. (2016). Gendering justice in humanitarian spaces: Opportunity and (dis) empowerment through gender-based legal development outreach in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Law & Society Review, 50(3), 539574.
Landes, J. B. (1988). Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Landes, J. B. (1998). Feminism, the Public and the Private. New York: Oxford University Press.
Leed, E. J. (1981). No Man’s Land: Combat and identity in World War I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leitenberg, M. (2006). Death in Wars and Conflicts in the 20th Century (3rd edn.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Peace Studies Program.
Lemarchand, R. (1970). Rwanda and Burundi. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Lemarchand, R. (2009). The Dynamics of Violence in Central Africa. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Lewis, J. (2000). The Batwa Pygmies of the Great Lakes Region. London: Minority Rights Group International.
Lohani-Chase, R. S. (2014). Protesting women in the people’s war movement in Nepal. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 40(1), 2936.
Longman, T. (2005). Rwanda’s paradox: Gender equality or emerging authoritarianism? In Bauer, G. and Britton, H. (Eds.), Women in African Parliaments (pp. 210233). Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers.
Longman, T. (2006). Rwanda: Achieving equality or serving an authoritarian state? In Bauer, G. and Britton, H. (Eds.), Women in African Parliaments (pp. 133150). Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Longman, T. (2011). Limitations to political reform: The undemocratic nature of transition in Rwanda. In Straus, S and Waldorf, L (Eds.), Remaking Rwanda: State building and human rights after mass violence (pp. 2547), Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Lorber, J. (1994). Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lorentzen, L. A. and Turpin., J. E. (1998). The Women and War Reader. New York: New York University Press.
Lovenduski, J. and Norris., P. (1993). Gender and Party Politics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Luciak, I. A. (2001). After the Revolution: Gender and democracy in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Luft, A. Toward a dynamic theory of action at the micro-level of genocide: Killing, desistance, and saving in 1994 Rwanda. Sociological Theory, 33(2): 148172.
Maček, I. (2009). Sarajevo under Siege: Anthropology in wartime. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Mageza-Barthel, R. (2015). Mobilizing Transnational Gender Politics in Post-Genocide Rwanda. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Mahoney, J. (2000). Path dependence in historical sociology. Theory and Society, 29(4), 507548.
Mahoney, J. and Rueschemeyer (Eds.)., D. (2003). Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Malcolm, N. (1996). Bosnia: A short history. New York: New York University Press.
Mamdani, M. (2001). When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, nativism, and the genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Mamdani, M. (2010). Responsibility to protect or right to punish? Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 4(1), 5367.
Mann, L. and Berry., M. (2016). Understanding the political motivations that shape Rwanda’s emergent developmental state. New Political Economy, 21(1), 119144.
Mann, M. (1986). The Sources of Social Power, Vol. 1. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mann, M. (1993). The Sources of Social Power: The rise of the classes and nation-states, 1760–1914, Vol. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mann, M. (2005). The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining ethnic cleansing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mann, M. (2012). The Sources of Social Power: Global empires and revolution, 1890–1945, Vol. 3. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mann, M. (2013). The Sources of Social Power: Globalizations, 1945–2011, Vol. 4. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Markoff, J. (1996). Waves of Democracy: Social movements and political change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Marx Ferree, M. (1992). The political context of rationality: Rational choice theory and resource mobilization. In Morris, A. D. A and Mueller, C. M. (Eds.), Frontiers in Social Movement Theory (pp. 2952). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Massey, G., Hahn, K., and Sekulić., D. (1995). Women, men, and the “second shift” in socialist Yugoslavia. Gender & Society, 9(3), 359379.
Matland, R. E. (1998). Women’s representation in national legislatures: Developed and developing countries. Legislative Studies Quarterly, 23(1), 109125.
McAdam, D. and Sewell, W. H. Jr. (2001). It’s about time: Temporality in the study of social movements and revolutions. In Aminzade, R (Ed.), Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics (pp. 89125). New York: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, D., Tarrow, S. G., and Tilly., C. (2001). Dynamics of Contention. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McMahon, P. C. (2004). Rebuilding Bosnia: A model to emulate or to avoid? Political Science Quarterly, 119(4), 569593.
Meier, V. (2005). Yugoslavia: A history of its demise (2nd edn.). London: Routledge.
Meintjes, S., Pillay, A., and Turshen., M. (2001). The Aftermath: Women in post-conflict transformation. New York: Zed Books.
Melvern, L. (2000). A People Betrayed: The role of the West in Rwanda’s genocide. New York: Zed Books.
Melvern, L. (2006). Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan genocide. Brooklyn, NY: Verso Press.
Mertus, J. (1994). Woman in the service of national identity. Hastings Women’s Law Journal, 5(5).
Mertus, J. (2000). War’s Offensive on Women: Humanitarian action in Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan. San Francisco, CA: Kumarian Press.
Mertus, J. (2004). Women’s participation in the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY): Transitional justice for Bosnia and Herzegovina. In Anderlini, S. N. (Ed.), Women Waging Peace (pp. 148). Washington, DC: Hunt Alternatives Fund.
Meznaric, S. and Zlatkovic Winter., J. (1992). Forced migration and refugee flows in Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina: Early warning, beginning and current state of flows. Refuge, 12(7), 35.
Miles, A. R. (1996). Integrative Feminisms: Building global visions, 1960s–1990s. New York: Routledge.
Milićević, A. S. (2006). Joining the war: Masculinity, nationalism and war participation in the Balkans war of secession, 1991–1995. Nationalities Papers, 34(3), 265287.
Milkman, R. (1987). Gender at Work: The dynamics of job segregation by sex during World War II. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Mohanty, C. T. (1988). Under Western eyes: Feminist scholarship and colonial discourses. Feminist Review, 30, 6188.
Moll, N. (2015). Sarajevo’s Best Known Public Secret. Sarajevo, BiH. Available online: www.fes.ba/files/fes/pdf/publikationen/2014/2015/Moll_Final_Web_Version.pdf.
Molyneux, M. (1985). Mobilization without emancipation? Women’s interests, the state, and revolution in Nicaragua. Feminist Studies, 11(2), 227254.
Moore, A. (2013). Peacebuilding in Practice: Local experiences in two Bosnian towns. Ithaca, NY; London: Cornell University Press.
Moore, B. (1966). Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and peasant in the making of the modern world. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Moran, M. (2012). “Our mothers have spoken”: Synthesizing old and new forms of women’s political authority in Liberia. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 13(4), 5166.
Moran, M. H. (2010). Gender, militarism, and peace-building: Projects of the postconflict moment. Annual Review of Anthropology, 39, 261274.
Morokvasic, M. (1986). Being a woman in Yugoslavia: Past, present and institutional equality. In Gadant, M. (Ed.), Women of the Mediterranean (pp. 120138). London: Zed Books.
Mosse, D. (2011). Adventures in Aidland: The anthropology of professionals in international development. New York: Berghahn Books.
Mostov, J. (1995). “Our womens”/”their womens” symbolic boundaries, territorial markers, and violence in the Balkans. Peace & Change, 20(4), 515529.
Mrvic-Petrovic, N. and Stevanovic, I.. (2000). Life in Refuge – changes in socio-economic and familial status. Women, Violence and War: Wartime victimization of refugees in the Balkans. Budapest: Central European Press.
Mueller, J. (2000). The banality of “ethnic war.International Security, 25(1), 4270.
Mukamana, D. and Brysiewicz., P. (2008). The lived experience of genocide rape survivors in Rwanda. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(4), 379384.
Mulinda, C. K. (2010). A space for genocide: Local authorities, local population and local histories in Gishamvu and Kibayi (Rwanda). PhD Dissertation, University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
Musto, J. L. (2009). What’s in a name? Conflations and contradictions in contemporary U.S. discourses of human trafficking. Women’s Studies International Forum, 32(4), 281287.
Nelson, B. S. (2003). Post-war trauma and reconciliation in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Observations, experiences, and implications for marriage and family therapy. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(4), 305316.
Newbury, C. (1980). Ubureetwa and Thangata: Catalysts to peasant political consciousness in Rwanda and Malawi. Canadian Journal of African Studies, 14(1), 97111.
Newbury, C. (1988). The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and ethnicity in Rwanda, 1860–1960. New York: Columbia University Press.
Newbury, C. (1995). Background to genocide: Rwanda. Issue: A Journal of Opinion, 23(2), 1217.
Newbury, C. (1998). Ethnicity and the politics of history in Rwanda. Africa Today (no vol.), 724.
Newbury, C. and Baldwin., H. (2000). Aftermath: Women in postgenocide Rwanda. Working Paper No. 303, USAID Center for Development Information and Evaluation.
Newbury, C. and Baldwin., H. (2001). Profile: Rwanda. In K. Kumar (Ed.) Women & Civil War (pp. 27–38). Boulder, CO: Lynn Rienner Publishers.
Newbury, C. and Newbury., D. (1999). A Catholic mass in Kigali: Contested views of the genocide and ethnicity in Rwanda. Canadian Journal of African Studies, 33(2–3), 292328.
Newman, J. P. (2011). Forging a united kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes: The legacy of the First World War and the “invalid question.” In Djokić, D and Ker-Lindsay, J (Eds.), New Perspectives on Yugoslavia (pp. 46–61). Abington: Routledge.
Nikolić-Ristanović, V. (1998). War, nationalism, and mothers in the former Yugoslavia. In Lorentzen, L. A and Turpin, J (Eds.), The Women and War Reader (pp. 234–239). New York: New York University Press.
Noonan, R. (1995). Women against the state: Political opportunities and collective action frames in Chile’s transition to democracy. Sociological Forum, 10(1), 81111.
Nowrojee, B. (1996). Shattered Lives: Sexual violence during the Rwandan genocide and its aftermath. Human Rights Watch Africa, Women’s Rights Project, NY; Washington, DC; London: Human Rights Watch.
Nyamwasa, K., Karegeya, P., Rudasingwa, T., and Gahima., G. (2010). Rwanda briefing. http://rwandinfo.com/documents/Rwanda_Briefing_August2010_nyamwasa-et-al.pdf.
Nyseth Brehm, H. (2014). Conditions and courses of genocide. PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Nyseth Brehm, H. (2017). Subnational determinants of killing in Rwanda. Criminology, 55(1), 531.
Nyseth Brehm, H., Uggen, C. A., and Gasanabo., J. (2017). Age, sex, and the crime of crimes: Toward a life-course theory of genocide participation. Criminology, 54(4), 713743.
Oosterveld, V. (2005). Prosecution of gender-based crimes in international law. In Mazurana, D., Raven-Roberts, A. and Parpart, J. L. (Eds.), Gender, Conflict, and Peacekeeping (pp. 6782). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). (2007). High-level meeting on victims of terrorism: Background paper. Vienna: OSCE.
Otunnu, O. (1999). Rwandese refugees and immigrants in Uganda. In Adelman, H and Suhrke, A (Eds.), The Path of a Genocide: The Rwanda crisis from Uganda to Zaire (pp. 330). New Brunswick, NJ; London: Transaction Publishers.
Overeem, P. (1995). Investigating the Situation of the Batwa People of Rwanda. La Haye: Rapport de Mission, UNPO.
Oyewumi, O. (1997). The Invention of Women: Making an African sense of Western gender discourses. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Pateman, C. (1988). The Sexual Contract. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.
Paxton, P. (1997). Women in national legislatures: A cross-national analysis. Social Science Research, 26(4), 442464.
Petrovic, D. (1994). Ethnic cleansing: An attempt at methodology. European Journal of International Law, 5, 342–359.
Phillips, A. (1995). The Politics of Presence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pierson, P. (2003). Big, slow-moving, and … invisible: Macrosocial processes in the study of comparative politics. In Mahoney, J. and Rueschemeyer, D. (Eds.), Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences (pp. 177207). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pierson, P. (2004). Politics in Time: History, institutions, and social analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Pierson, P. and Skocpol., T. (2002). Historical institutionalism in contemporary political science. In I. Katznelson and H. V. Milner (Eds.), Political Science: The State of the Discipline, New York: W.W. Norton 3, 693721.
Pottier, J. (1993). Taking stock: Food marketing reform in Rwanda, 1982–89. African Affairs, 92(366), 530.
Pottier, J. (1996). Why aid agencies need better understanding of the communities they assist: The experience of food aid in Rwandan refugee camps. Disasters, 20(4), 324337.
Pottier, J. (2002). Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, survival and disinformation in the late twentieth century. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pottier, J. (2006). Land reform for peace? Rwanda’s 2005 land law in context. Journal of Agrarian Change, 6(4), 509537.
Power, S. (2003). A Problem from Hell: American in the age of genocide (2nd edn.). New York: HarperCollins.
Powley, E. (2003). Rwanda: Women hold up half the parliament. IDEA Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. www.idea.int/publications/wip2/upload/Rwanda.pdf.
Powley, E. (2004). Strengthening governance: The role of women in Rwanda’s transition. In Anderlini, S. N. (Ed.), Women Waging Peace. Washington, DC: Hunt Alternatives Fund.
Powley, E. (2006). Rwanda: The impact of women legislators on policy outcomes affecting children and families. In UNICEF (Ed.), State of the World’s Children Background Paper.
Powley, E. and Pearson., E. (2007). “Gender is society”: Inclusive lawmaking in Rwanda’s parliament. Critical Half (Winter 2007). Women for Women International.
Promundo (Barker, G., Contreras, J. M., Heilman, B., Singh, A. K., Verma, R. K., and Nascimento, M., Eds). 2011. Evolving Men: Initial results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES). Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Promundo.
Prpa-Jovanović, B. (1997). The making of Yugoslavia: 1830–1945. In Udovički, J. and Ridgeway, J. (Eds.), Burn this House: The making and unmaking of Yugoslavia (pp. 43–63). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Prunier, G. (1995). The Rwanda Crisis, 1959–1994: History of a genocide. London: Hurst.
Prunier, G. (2009). Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan genocide, and the making of a continental catastrophe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pugh, M. (2002). Postwar political economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The spoils of peace. Global Governance, 8(4), 467482.
Pugh, M. C., Cooper, N., and Goodhand., J. (2004). War Economies in a Regional Context: Challenges of transformation. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Purdeková, A. (2015). Making Ubumwe: Power, state and camps in Rwanda's unity-building project. Vol. 34. Berghahn Books.
Ragin, C. C. (1999). The distinctiveness of case-oriented research. Health Services Research, 34(5 pt. 2), 11371151.
Ragin, C. C. and Becker., H. S. (1992). What Is a Case? Exploring the foundations of social inquiry. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rahman, M., Hoque, M. A., and Makinoda., S. (2011). Intimate partner violence against women: Is women empowerment a reducing factor? A study from a national Bangladeshi sample. Journal of Family Violence, 26(5), 411420.
Ramet, S. P. (1992). Balkan Babel: Politics, culture and religion in Yugoslavia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ramet, S. P. (1999). Balkan Babel: The disintegration of Yugoslavia from the death of Tito to the war for Kosovo. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ramet, S. P. (2005). Thinking about Yugoslavia: Scholarly debates about the Yugoslav breakup and the wars in Bosnia and Kosovo. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ramet, S. P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-building and legitimation, 1918–2005. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Ray, R. and Korteweg., A. (1999). Women’s movements in the Third World: Identity, mobilization, and autonomy. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 4771.
Republic of Rwanda. (1984). National Agricultural Survey. Kigali, Rwanda: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda.
Republic of Rwanda. (1984, 1989, 1991). National Agricultural Survey. Kigali, Rwanda: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda.
Republic of Rwanda. (1999). Country Progress Report on Implementation of Women’s World Regional and National Action Platforms. Kigali, Rwanda: Ministry of Gender & Women Development.
Republic of Rwanda. (2000). Rwanda Vision 2020. Kigali, Rwanda: Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning.
Republic of Rwanda. (2003). General Census of Population and Housing. Kigali, Rwanda: National Census Service.
Republic of Rwanda. (2004a). Survey of Genocide Deaths. Kigali, Rwanda: Ministry of Local Administration and Community.
Republic of Rwanda. (2004b). Violence against Women. Kigali, Rwanda: Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion (MIGEPROF).
Republic of Rwanda. (2005a). National Unity and Reconciliation Report. Kigali, Rwanda: National Unity and Reconciliation Commission.
Republic of Rwanda. (2005b). The Role of Women in Reconciliation and Peace Building in Rwanda: Ten years after genocide 1994–2004. Kigali, Rwanda: National Unity and Reconciliation Commission.
Republic of Rwanda. (2006). Preliminary Poverty Update Report: Integrated Living Conditions Survey 2005/6 (EICV2). Kigali, Rwanda: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda.
Republic of Rwanda. (2007). National Unity and Reconciliation Report. Kigali, Rwanda: National Unity and Reconciliation Commission.
Republic of Rwanda. (2011). The Third Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey (EICV3): Main Indicators Report. Kigali, Rwanda: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda.
Republic of Rwanda. (2012). Fourth Population and Housing Census. Kigali, Rwanda: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda.
Republic of Rwanda. (2014). Thematic Report: Fertility. Fourth Population and Housing Census. Kigali, Rwanda: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda.
Research and Documentation Center. (2007, 2013). Bosnian Book of the Dead. Sarajevo, BiH: Research and Documentation Center.
Reynolds, A. (1999). Women in the legislatures and executives of the world: Knocking at the highest glass ceiling. World Politics, 51(4), 547572.
Reyntjens, F. (2004). Rwanda, ten years on: From genocide to dictatorship. African Affairs, 103(411), 177210.
Reyntjens, F. (2009). The Great African War: Congo and regional geopolitics, 1996–2006. New York; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reyntjens, F. (2011). Constructing the truth, dealing with dissent, domesticating the world: Governance in post-genocide Rwanda. African Affairs, 110(438), 134.
Reyntjens, F. (2013). Political Governance in Post-Genocide Rwanda. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Reyntjens, F. (2014). Political Governance in Post-genocide Rwanda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rieff, D. (2003). A Bed for the Night: Humanitarianism in crisis. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Roberts, A. (2010). Lives and statistics: Are 90% of war victims civilians? Survival, 52(3), 115136.
Rombouts, H. (2006). Women and reparations in Rwanda: A long path to travel. In Rubio-Marin, R. (Ed.), What Happened to the Women?: Gender and reparations for human rights violations (pp. 194245). New York: Social Science Research Council.
Ruddick, S. (1989). Maternal Thinking: Towards a politics of peace. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Rwanda Men’s Resource Centre. (2010). Masculinity and Gender Based Violence in Rwanda: Experiences and perceptions of men and women. Kigali, Rwanda: Commissioned by Rwanda Men Engage Network.
Saguy, A. C. (2013). What’s Wrong with Fat? New York: Oxford University Press.
Sambanis, N. (2004). Using case studies to expand economic models of civil war. Perspectives on Politics, 2(2), 259279.
Sarajevo Open Center (2014). Women Documented: Women and public life in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 20th century. Sarajevo: Nacionalna i univerzitetska biblioteka Bosne i Hercegovine.
Sarajevo Survival Guide (No author) (1993). Sarajevo Survival Guide. www.survivalmonkey.com/threads/sarajevo-survival-guide.19312/. Accessed January 14, 2015.
Sardon, J. and Confesson, A. (2004). Childbearing Trends and Prospects in Low-Fertility Countries: A cohort analysis, Vol. 13. New York: European Studies of Population, Springer.
Scott, J. C. (1985). Weapons of the Weak: Everyday forms of peasant resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Scott, J. C. (1990). Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press.
Segal, M. W. (1995). Women’s military roles cross nationally: Past, present, and future. Gender & Society, 9(6), 757775.
Sewell, W. H., Jr. (1992). A theory of structure: Duality, agency, and transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 98(1), 129.
Sewell, W. H., Jr. (1996). Three temporalities: Toward an eventful sociology. In McDonald, T. J. (Ed.), The Historic Turn in the Human Sciences (pp. 245280). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Sharlach, L. (1999). Gender and genocide in Rwanda: Women as agents and objects of genocide. Journal of Genocide Research, 1(3), 387399.
Sharoni, S. (1995). Gender and the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict: The politics of women’s resistance. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Sharoni, S. (2001). Rethinking women’s struggles in Israel-Palestine and in the north of Ireland. In Clark, C. M. A. F. (Ed.), Victims, Perpetrators or Actors: Gender, armed conflict and political violence (pp. 8598). London: Zed Books.
Shaw, M. (2007). What Is Genocide? Cambridge: Polity Press.
Shih, E. (2015). The Price of Freedom: Moral and political economies of the global anti-trafficking movement. PhD Dissertation, Sociology. University of California, Los Angeles.
Sikkink, K. (2011). The Justice Cascade: How human rights prosecutions are changing world politics. The Norton Series in World Politics. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Silber, L. and Little., A. (1997). Yugoslavia: Death of a nation. New York: Penguin Books.
Šiljak, Z. S. (2014). Shining Humanity: Life stories of women in Bosnia and Herzegovina Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Simić, O. (2009). What remains of Srebrenica? Motherhood, transitional justice and yearning for the truth. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 10(4), 220236.
Simmons, C. (2007). Women’s work and the growth of civil society in post-war Bosnia. Nationalities Papers, 35(1), 171186.
Sivac-Bryant, S. (2008). Kozarac school: A window on transitional justice for returnees. International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2(1), 106115.
Sivac-Bryant, S. (2016). Re-making Kozarac: Agency, reconciliation, and contested return in post-war Bosnia. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sjoberg, L. and Gentry., C. E. (2007). Mothers, Monsters, Whores: Women’s violence in global politics. London and New York: Zed Books.
Skjelsbæk, I. (2006). Victim and survivor: Narrated social identities of women who experienced rape during the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Feminism & Psychology, 16(4), 373403.
Skocpol, T. (1979). States and Social Revolutions: A comparative analysis of France, Russia, and China. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Skocpol, T. (1992). Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The political origins of social policy in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Skocpol, T., Munson, Z., Karch, A., and Camp., B. (2002). Patriotic partnerships: Why great wars nourished American civic voluntarism. In Katznelson, I. (Ed.), Shaped by War and Trade: International influences on American political development (pp. 134–80). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Slapšak, S. (2001). The use of women and the role of women in the Yugoslav war. In Skjelsbæk, I. and Smith, D (Eds.), Gender, Peace and Conflict (pp. 161183). Oslo, Norway: International Peace Research Institute (PRIO).
Slegh, H., Barker, G., Kimonyo, A., Ndolimana, P., and Bannerman., M. (2013). “I can do women’s work”: Reflections on engaging men as allies in women’s economic empowerment in Rwanda. Gender & Development, 21(1), 1530.
Small, M. and Singer., J. D. (1982). Resort to Arms: International and civil wars, 1816–1980. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Smillie, I. (1996). Service delivery or civil society? Nongovernmental organizations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A report for CARE Zagreb (original report).
Smillie, I. and Evenson., K. (2003). Sustainable civil society or service delivery agencies? The evolution of non-governmental organizations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In Dijkzeul, D. and Beigbeder, Y. (Eds.), Rethinking International Organizations: Pathology and promise (pp. 287308). New York: Berghahn Books.
Smith, S. (2010). Performativity and civil society. PhD dissertation, Chapter 5. Department of Sociology and Criminology: University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA.
Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. (1991). Census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine – Bilten no.234. Sarajevo, BiH.
Solnit, R. (2016). Hope in the Dark (3rd edn.). Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books.
Sommers, M. (2012). Stuck: Rwandan youth and the struggle for adulthood. Athens; Washington, DC: University of Georgia Press, in association with the United States Institute of Peace.
Spivak, G. C. (1993). Outside in the Teaching Machine. New York: Routledge.
Stanley, L. and Wise., S. (1983). Breaking Out: Feminist consciousness and feminist research. London: Routledge & K. Paul.
Stanton, G. H. (2004). Could the Rwandan genocide have been prevented? Journal of Genocide Research, 6(2), 211228.
Staveteig, S. E. (2011). Genocide, nuptiality, and fertility in Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina. PhD Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Stephen, L. (1997). Women and Social Movements in Latin America: Power from below. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Stiglmayer, A. (1994). The rapes in Bosnia-Herzegovina. In Stiglmayer, A. (Ed.), Mass Rape: The war against women in Bosnia-Herzegovina (pp. 82169). Lincoln; London: University of Nebraska Press.
Straus, S. (2006). The Order of Genocide: Race, power, and war in Rwanda. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Straus, S. and Waldorf., L. (2011). Remaking Rwanda: State building and human rights after mass violence. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Summerfield, D. (1999). A critique of seven assumptions behind psychological trauma programmes in war-affected areas. Social Science & Medicine, 48(10), 14491462.
Swidler, A. (1986). Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American Sociological Review, 51(2), 273286.
Tamale, S. (1999). When Hens Begin to Crow: Gender and parliamentary politics in Uganda. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Tarrow, S. G. (2011). Power in Movement: Social movements, collective action, and politics (2nd edn.). Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, C. C. (1999). Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan genocide of 1994. New York: Oxford University Press.
Taylor, V. (1999). Gender and social movements: Gender processes in women’s self-help movements. Gender & Society, 13(1), 833.
Taylor, V. and Rupp., L. J. (1993). Women’s culture and lesbian feminist activism: A reconsideration of cultural feminism. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 19(1), 3261.
Taylor, V. and Rupp., L. J. (2002). Loving internationalism: The emotion culture of transnational women’s organizations, 1888–1945. Mobilization: An International Journal, 7(2), 141158.
Thelen, K. (1999). Historical institutionalism in Comparative Politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 2, 369–404.
Thomas, J. L. and Bond., K. D. (2015). Women’s participation in violent political organizations. American Political Science Review, 109(3), 488506.
Thomson, S. M. (2011). Reeducation for reconciliation: Participant observations on Ingando. In S. Straus and L. Waldorf (Eds.) Remaking Rwanda: State building and human rights after mass violence (pp. 331–342). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Thomson, S. M. (2013). Whispering Truth to Power: Everyday resistance to reconciliation in post-genocide Rwanda. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Tickner, J. A. (1992). Gender in International Relations: Feminist perspectives on achieving global security. New York: Columbia University Press.
Tilly, C. (1984). Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Tilly, C. (1978). From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Tilly, C. (1986). The Contentious French. Cambridge, MA; London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Tilly, L. A. (1981). Paths of proletarianization: Organization of production, sexual division of labor, and women’s collective action. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 7 (2), 400417.
Tito, J. (1941). Proclamation of the KPJ Central Committee to the People of Yugoslavia. Belgrade, Serbia.
Tomšič, V. (1980). Woman in the Development of Socialist Self-Managing Yugoslavia. Jugoslovenska stvarnost, Newspaper and Publishing House.
Totten, S., Parsons, W., and Charny, I. W.. (1997). Century of Genocide: Eyewitness accounts and critical views. New York: Garland Publishing.
Tripp, A. M. (2000). Women & Politics in Uganda. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Tripp, A. M. (2015). Women and Power in Post-conflict Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tripp, A. M. (2016). Comparative perspectives on concept of gender, ethnicity, and race. Politics, Groups, and Identities, 4(2), 307324.
Turshen, M. (2001). The political economy of rape: An analysis of systematic rape and sexual abuse of women during armed conflict in Africa. In C. Moser and F. Clarke (Eds.), Victors, Perpetrators or Actors: Gender, armed conflict and political violence (pp. 55-68). London: Zed Books.
Turshen, M. Algerian women in the liberation struggle and the civil war: From active participants to passive victims? Social Research, 69(3), 889911.
Udovički, J. (1997). The bonds and the fault lines. In Udovički, J. and Ridgeway, J. (Eds.), Burn this House: The making and unmaking of Yugoslavia (pp. 1142). Durham, NC; London: Duke University Press.
Udovički, J. and Ridgeway, J.. (1997). Burn this House: The making and unmaking of Yugoslavia. Durham, NC; London: Duke University Press.
Udovički, J. and Štitkovac, E.. (1997). Bosnia and Herzegovina: The second war. In Udovički, J. and Ridgeway, J. (Eds.), Burn this House: The making and unmaking of Yugoslavia (pp. 174214). Durham, NC; London: Duke University Press.
Umutesi, M. B. (2004). Surviving the Slaughter: The ordeal of a Rwandan refugee in Zaire. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
UNHCR. (1998). Information Notes on Bosnia-Herzegovina and other Republics. Sarajevo, BiH: United Nations.
UNICEF. (2009). Situation Analysis Report on the Status of Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sarajevo, BiH: United Nations.
United Nations, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, Report on the situation of human rights in Rwanda submitted by Mr. René Degni-Ségui, paragraph 20 of resolution S-3/1 (25 May 1994), available from http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/commission/country52/68-rwa.htm.
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) (2007). Turning Vision 2020 into Reality: From recovery to sustainable human development. National Human Development Report. Rwanda: UNDP.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (1998). Refugees and Others of Concern to UNHCR - 1998 Statistical Overview. New York: UNHCR.
Urdang, S. (1989). And Still They Dance: Women, war, and the struggle for change in Mozambique. New York: Monthly Review Press.
USAID. (2000). Aftermath: Women and women’s organizations in post-genocide Rwanda. Washington, DC: USAID Center for Development Information and Evaluation.
USAID. (2001). Civil Society in Rwanda: Assessment and options. (No. 802). Washington, DC: USAID/Rwanda. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacm181.pdf.
Utas, M. (2003). Sweet Battlefields: Youth and the Liberian civil war. Sweden: Uppsala University Dissertations in Cultural Anthropology.
Uvin, P. (1998). Aiding Violence: The development enterprise in Rwanda. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
Uvin, P. (2004). Human Rights and Development. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Uvin, P. (2010). Structural causes, development co-operation and conflict prevention in Burundi and Rwanda. Conflict, Security & Development, 10(1), 161179.
Uwineza, P. and Pearson., E. (2009). Sustaining Women’s Gains in Rwanda: The influence of indigenous culture and post-genocide politics. Washington, DC: Hunt Alternatives Fund.
Van Leeuwen, M. (2001). Rwanda’s imidugudu programme and earlier experiences with villagisation and resettlement in east Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies, 39(4), 623644.
Verpoorten, M. (2005). The death toll of the Rwandan genocide: A detailed analysis for Gikongoro province. Population, 60(4), 331367.
Verpoorten, M. (2014). Rwanda: Why claim that 200,000 Tutsi died in the genocide is wrong. African Arguments, http://africanarguments.org/2014/10/27/rwanda-why-davenport-and-stams-calculation-that-200000-tutsi-died-in-the-genocide-is-wrong-by-marijke-verpoorten/. Accessed May 2017.
Verwimp, P. (2005). An economic profile of peasant perpetrators of genocide: Micro-level evidence from Rwanda. Journal of Development Economics, 77(2), 297323.
Verwimp, P. (2013). Peasants in Power: The political economy of development and genocide in Rwanda. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Vidal, C. (1969). Le Rwanda des anthropologues ou le fétichisme de la vache. Cahiers d’études Africaines, 9(3), 384400.
Vidal, C. (1974). Économie de la société féodale Rwandaise (the economics of Rwanda feudal society). Cahiers d’études Africaines, XIV(53), 5274.
Vidal, C. (2001). Les commémorations du génocide au Rwanda. Temps Modernes, (613), 146.
Viterna, J. (2013). Women in War: The micro-processes of mobilization in El Salvador. New York: Oxford University Press.
Vulliamy, E. (2012). The War Is Dead, Long Live the War: Bosnia: The reckoning. London: The Bodley Head.
Vyas, S. and Watts., C. (2009). How does economic empowerment affect women’s risk of intimate partner violence in low and middle-income countries? A systematic review of published evidence. Journal of International Development, 21(5), 577602.
Walby, S. (2005). Backlash in historical context. In M. Kennedy, C. Lubelska, and V. Walsh (Eds.), Making Connections: Women’s studies, women’s movements, women’s lives (1993). Taylor & Francis, pp. 79–89.
Walby, S. Gender mainstreaming: Productive tensions in theory and practice. Social Politics, 12(3), 321343.
Walsh, M. (1998). Mind the gap: Where feminist theory failed to meet development practice – A missed opportunity in Bosnia and Herzegovina. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 5(3–4), 329343.
Walsh, M. (2000). Aftermath: The impact of conflict on women in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Washington, DC: Center for Development Information and Evaluation. USAID.
Walzer, M. (1977) 2015. Just and Unjust Wars: A moral argument with historical illustrations. New York: Basic Books
Wängnerud, L. (2009). Women in parliaments: Descriptive and substantive representation. Annual Review of Political Science, 12, 5169.
Watkins, S. E. (2014). Iron mothers and warrior lovers: Intimacy, power, and the state in Rwanda, 1796–1912. PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA.
Waugh, C. M. (2004). Paul Kagame and Rwanda: Power, genocide and the Rwandan Patriotic Front. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.
Waylen, G. (2009). What can historical institutionalism offer feminist institutionalists? Political Science, 1, 333356.
Weber, M. ([1922] 1978). Economy and Society: An outline of interpretive sociology. Oakland: University of California Press.
Weitz, E. D. (2003). A Century of Genocide: Utopias of race and nation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. http://necrometrics.com/all20c.htm.
Wimmer, A. (2014). War. Annual Review of Sociology, 40, 173197.
Wimmer, A., Cederman, L. E., and Min, B. (2009). Ethnic politics and armed conflict: A configurational analysis of a new global data set. American Sociological Review, 74(2), 316337.
Wings of Hope (2013). Three Year Report 2010–2012. Fondacija Krila Nade, Bosne i Herzegovina.
Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. (1997). Rwanda’s Women and Children: The long road to reconciliation. New York: Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children.
Women for Women International. (2004). Women Taking a Lead: Progress toward empowerment and gender equity in Rwanda. Washington, DC: Women for Women International.
Woodward, S. L. (1985). The rights of women: Ideology, policy, and social change in Yugoslavia. In Wolchik, S. L. and Meyer, A. G. (Eds.), Women, State, and Party in Eastern Europe (pp. 234256). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Woodward, S. L. (1995). Socialist Unemployment: The political economy of Yugoslavia, 1945–1990. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
World Bank. (1996). The Priority Reconstruction and Recovery Program in Bosnia: The challenges ahead. World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1996/04/696634/bosnia-herzegovina-priority-reconstruction-recovery-program-challenges-ahead-discussion-paper-no-2.
World Bank. (1997). Bosnia and Herzegovina: From recovery to sustainable growth. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1997/05/694839/bosnia-herzegovina-recovery-sustainable-growth.
World Bank. (1999). Implementation Completion Report: Emergency landmines clearance project (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Europe and Central Asia Region: World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1999/06/728373/bosnia-herzegovina-emergency-landmines-clearance-project.
World Bank. (1990–2012). World Development Indicators: Rwanda. The World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/country/rwandap.
World Development Indicators: Bosnia. The World Bank. (1990–2012). www.worldbank.org/en/country/bosniaandherzegovina.
Yuval-Davis, N. (1997). Gender & Nation. London; Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Zajović, S. (2013). Feminist anti-militarism of women in black. In S. Zajović, S. Stojanović, & M. Urošević (Eds.), Women for Peace (pp. 71–108). Belgrade: Women in Black.
Žarkov, Dubrovka. (2001). The body of the other man: Sexual violence and the construction of masculinity, sexuality and ethnicity in Croatian media. In Moser, C. and Clark, F (Eds.), Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, armed conflict and political violence. (pp. 69–72). London; New York: Zed Books.
Žarkov, Dubrovka. (2008). Gender, Violent Conflict, and Development. New Delhi: Zubaan.
Žarkov, Dubrovka. (2014). Ontologies of international humanitarian and criminal law: “Locals” and “internationals” in discourses and practices of justice. In Žarkov, D. and Glasius, M. (Eds.), Narratives of Justice In and Out of the Courtroom: Former Yugoslavia and beyond (pp. 322). London: Springer.
Zimmermann, W. (1995). The last ambassador: A memoir of the collapse of Yugoslavia. Foreign Affairs, 74(2), 220.
Zraly, M. (2008). Bearing: Resilience among genocide-rape survivors in Rwanda. PhD Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University.
Zraly, M. and Nyirazinyoye., L. (2010). Don’t let the suffering make you fade away: An ethnographic study of resilience among survivors of genocide-rape in southern Rwanda. Social Science & Medicine, 70(10), 16561664.
Zraly, M., Rubin-Smith, J., and Betancourt., T. (2011). Primary mental health care for survivors of collective sexual violence in Rwanda. Global Public Health, 6(3), 257270.