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Where Did the Revolution Go?
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    Where Did the Revolution Go?
    • Online ISBN: 9781316783467
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316783467
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Book description

Where Did the Revolution Go? considers the apparent disappearance of the large social movements that have contributed to democratization. Revived by recent events of the Arab Spring, this question is once again paramount. Is the disappearance real, given the focus of mass media and scholarship on electoral processes and 'normal politics'? Does it always happen, or only under certain circumstances? Are those who struggled for change destined to be disappointed by the slow pace of transformation? Which mechanisms are activated and deactivated during the rise and fall of democratization? This volume addresses these questions through empirical analysis based on quantitative and qualitative methods (including oral history) of cases in two waves of democratization: Central Eastern European cases in 1989 as well as cases in the Middle East and Mediterranean region in 2011.

Reviews

‘This is a fascinating book exploring democratization processes with an innovative approach: blending social movement studies with the literatures on democratization and on revolutions. Rich in its use of captivating oral history interviews with activists, it asks the question [of] how movements’ characteristics at the time of transition might affect the qualities of the ensuing democracy, and therefore the future dynamics of protest itself. A must-read for scholars and activists alike.’

Laszlo Bruszt - Scuola Normale Superiore, Florence, and Central European University, Budapest

‘Scholars have focused so much on the sources of democratization that they sometimes forget to examine how waves of mobilization end, and with what consequences. Drawing on the literatures on social movements, democratization, and revolutions, della Porta’s sweeping new book identifies common dynamics in democratization cycles. Drawing on a broad range of evidence ranging from Eastern Europe to the Arab Spring, she shows that the forms and pathways of mobilization influence the qualities of the ensuing regime. This is a book that students of comparative democratization, social movements, and revolutions cannot afford to miss.’

Sidney Tarrow - Cornell University

‘Donatella della Porta’s important new book persuasively shows how the complex legacies of the revolutionary pathway to democracy shape the nature of the new democracies that emerge through such dynamics - generally in very positive ways. With a foundation in broadly comparative research, the analysis identifies and disentangles cognitive, emotional and relational consequences of popular mobilizations in the context of regime change.’

Robert M. Fishman - Carlos III University, Madrid

‘Brilliant and illuminating! This book is timely and highly relevant indeed as our world rapidly transforms violently rather than democratically. It speaks as much to academics striving to bring together complex debates in the social sciences dealing with political transformations and pathways to democracy as it speaks to the activist. Donatella della Porta masters the art of critically and productively engaging with social movement and transformation literature alike and pushing for the intellectual limits of these. At the same time, she gives much well-deserved space to the actors, to those who brought the revolutions into life and still struggle to understand where the revolution went. A must-read for democratic revolutionaries, young and old.’

Cilja Harders - Free University of Berlin

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  • Interview CZ1. Before the revolution, an editor of a student newspaper that promoted actions against the regime, in 1989 was spokesperson for University Strike Committee and a founding member of the Civic Forum. After the year 1989, she was a member of the minister’s private office and official spokesperson for the ministry.

  • Interview CZ2, 31.7.2013. Bishop, in 1977 he signed Charta 77 and, since 1979, was active in the Committee for the Defence of the Unjustly Persecuted. In 1981–1982 was also spokesman of Charta 77. He got involved in the events of November 1989 mainly as a moderator of various meetings and as a spokesman for the Civic Forum.

  • Interview CZ3, 13.9.2013. Signed Charta 77 in 1977 and in the year 1979 he became a member of the Committee for the Defence of the Unjustly Persecuted. He also participated in the Movement for Civic Freedom and was a founding member of Civic Forum. He served as deputy interior minister and later the minister of the interior.

  • Interview CZ4, 13.9.2013. Director of People in Need, in 1989 he founded the student movement organization STUHA. During the student protests in early November 1989, he was elected to the presidium of the Student Coordination Centre and also became a member of Civic forum. He also worked for Václav Havel’s presidential administration as a foreign policy specialist.

  • Interview CZ5, 5.8.2013. Lyricist, poet, writer, journalist, and producer, in autumn 1989, he established a civic initiative called MOST (Bridge) that worked to form a platform for eventual talks between the communist government and dissidents. Later he became Civic Forum’s spokesperson for foreign media. When Václav Havel was elected president, he resigned from the leadership of the Civic Forum.

  • Interview CZ6, 19.9.2013. Former dissident, he had focused on editorial and publishing work in samizdat (e.g. Revolver Revue) and on cooperation with opposition groups in Central and Eastern Europe (e.g. Polish-Czechoslovak Solidarity). He later signed Charta 77 and coauthored the petition “A Few Sentences.” During the Velvet Revolution in November 1989, he participated in the foundation of the Civic Forum. After transition, he served as foreign policy advisor to President Vaclav Havel, Czech ambassador to the United States, and senator.

  • Interview CZ7, 12.9.2013. The son of one of the most active dissidents, he took part in the student movement and, in 1990, was elected to parliament. At the same time he was one of the founding members of the Christian Democratic Party.

  • Interview CZ8, 11.11.2013. A Czech playwright, writer, director, screenwriter, and actor, since 1978 he contributed to the opposition by signing petitions and, especially, through his theater activities. He was one of the key figures of the process of deciding about the strike of theaters during the first days of the revolution and later leader of the theater strike committee.

  • Interview CZ9, 9.10.2013. Participated on various dissident activities, mainly seminars and meetings.

  • Interview CZ10, 6.11.2013. A Czech composer, singer, and political activist, founder of MOST (Bridge). After November 17, he cofounded Civic Forum. Later he was elected MP. He then resigned from the parliament and returned to music. He was also Havel’s external advisor and later became minister of human rights and minorities.

  • Interview CZ11, 22.7.2013. Industrial worker, during the Velvet Revolution, he organized the march of industrial workers on Wenceslas square on November 23. He became a member of Civic Forum and later minister of labour and social affairs.

  • Interview CZ12, a Czech playwright, his work was banned since 1972. In 1977 he signed Charta 77 and became a member of the Movement for Civic Freedom. During the revolution and shortly after it, he participated in Civic Forum. Later he became a member of Civic Democrats (ODS), serving as an MP and as a minister of culture.

  • Interview CZ13, 7.11.2013. A former member of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia since 1960, he left the party after the Prague Spring and started participating in anti-regime activities, signing the Charta 77 petition. During the Velvet Revolution, he was one of the leaders of Civic Forum and later served as an MP and prime minister.

  • Interview CZ14, 15.7.2014. She signed Charta 77, and served as Charta’s spokesperson. Later she was one of the founders of the Committee for the Defence of the Unjustly Prosecuted. After the revolution she remained active in the field of protecting human rights.

  • Interview GDR1, 28.5.2013. Member of the opposition since 1982, within the Protestant Church cofounder of Independent Women’s Association, represented it at the Round Table, member of the Bundestag via the same association as part of Bund 90/Greens.

  • Interview GDR2, 30.5.2013. Founder of Women for Peace since early 1980s, involved with Initiative Peace and Human Rights, and Peace Concrete, in 1989 cofounder of Democracy Now and representative at Round Table and member of Volkskammer (Bund 90).

  • Interview GDR3, 31.5.2013. Since 1984 active within the Protestant Church and founder of an environmental group, was later founder of the Green Party in the GDR, and then member of the Berlin city parliament.

  • Interview GDR4, 3.6.2013. Civil rights and environment activist already in the 1970s, was cofounder of the Environment Library and spokesperson of Green Party (GDR) for which he was at the Round Table and, then, served in the Berlin city parliament.

  • Interview GDR5, 7.6.2013. Expelled from SPD in 1983, after protests against nuclear missile stationing; founder of Peace Circle Pankow as well as members in Church from Below, and the Environment Library. For the Green Party of the GDR was member of the Volkskammer, and then member of Bundestag for the Greens and then the CDU.

  • Interview GDR6, 14.6.2013. Environmental activist before 1989, was later member of European parliament and state parliament for Bund 90/Greens.

  • Interview GDR7, 21.6.2013. Pastor at Thomas Church, Leipzig, he organized the peace prayers at that church.

  • Interview GDR8, 25.6.2013. Member of the Peace Circle in Samariter Church in Berlin, cofounder of Demokratischer Aufbruch (Democratic Beginning), after 1990 member of a borough parliament in Berlin.

  • Interview GDR9, 28.6.2013. In the late 1980s, founder and spokesperson of Democracy Now, represented it at the Round Table; member of the Volkskammer and later on of the Federal Parliament for Bund 90.

  • Interview GDR10, 2.7.2013. Founder of peace seminar at Immanuel Parish Berlin, with a focus on nuclear energy politics; cofounder of New Forum and its representative at the Round Table, minister without portfolio of the GDR government in 1990; later on member of the city parliament of Berlin (New Forum).

  • Interview GDR11, 19.7.2013. Organizer of oppositional activities with a focus on peace since 1977, he was pastor at the Thomas Church in Leipzig, where he initiated the peace prayers.

  • Interview GDR12, 5.6.2013. Active in oppositional circles since 1968, he is one of the initiators of the Initiative Peace and Human Rights and, in 1989 and 1990, its delegate to the Round Table; in 1990 minister without portfolio in the GDR government, party group leader in the Volkskammer and then member of Bundestag (Bund 90/Greens).

  • Interview EGY1, 19.3.2014. Scholar and analyst, participated in the uprising in 2011.

  • Interview EGY2, 22.3.2014. Member of the April 6th movement, and the movement coalition Road to Revolution.

  • Interview EGY3, 25.3.2014. One of the founders of Shayfeen.com, an election monitoring and human rights organization.

  • Interview EGY4, 08.4.2014. Young MB since 2009, joining in 2011 the Strong Egypt party. He also participated in an NGO called Awareness, which aimed at bringing together Egyptians from different ideologies and religions.

  • Interview EGY5, 10.4.2014. A prominent women’s rights activist during and after the uprising.

  • Interview EGY6, 10.4.2014. Activist and student leader, cofounder of Dostour (constitution) party in 2012, headed by Mohamed El Baradei.

  • Interview EGY7, 10.4.2014. Worked in the presidential campaign of Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh; program manager at the Egyptian Democratic Academy, a Cairo-based democracy development NGO.

  • Interview EGY8, 12.4.2014. One of the founders of the April 6th movement.

  • Interview EGY9, 12.4.2014. Member of the Socialist Renewal Current, revolutionary socialists who joined other forces to form a new party, in addition to the other leftist forces: the Popular Alliance Party.

  • Interview EGY10, 15.4.2014. Student at Cairo University, activist from 2011 to 2013.

  • Interview EGY11, 22.4.2014. A member of Al Dustour party, and a political activist in student politics since the uprising.

  • Interview EGY12, 26.4.2014. A former member of the Muslim Brotherhood youth, involved in the revolution, and actually a member of the Strong Egypt party.

  • Interview HU1, 10.6.2013. A writer, teacher, and politician, he was active in the underground press, in the network of Free Initiatives, and the Hungarian Helsinki Committee. He founded the Alliance of Free Democrats and was a MP of the Alliance.

  • Interview HU2, 8.8.2013. He was a legal advisor for civil and environmental organisations in the late 1980s and among the founders of the environmentalist Danube Circle. He was later one of the founders of the Hungarian Democratic Forum and represented that party in the Opposition Roundtable negotiations. Later on he was president of the Constitutional Court of Hungary and then President of Hungary.

  • Interview HU3, 2.7.2013. Former member of the Danube circle.

  • Interview HU4, 9.7.2013. After joining Fidesz during the transition to democracy, she was elected member of parliament in 1990. She left Fidesz in 1994 in critique to the party moving from liberal to conservative position and later joined the Together in 2014.

  • Interview HU5, 9.7.2013. Oppositional activist since the early 1980s, he cofounded the left-wing party Alliance of Free Democrat and then joined the Green Left.

  • Interview HU6, 15.7.2013. One of Fidesz founder and editor of Magyar Narancs.

  • Interview HU7, 1.8.2013. Founder of National Trade Union of Scientific Workers.

  • Interview HU8, 26.6.2013. Fidesz founder, and later member of the Alliance of Free Democrats. After the transition, she was a member of parliament and later leader of Free People for Hungary.

  • Interview HU9, 9.7.2013. Member of Fidesz from 1988 to 1993, he served as minister in the 2000s.

  • Interview HU10, 30.7.2013. Founder of Independent Lawyers’ Forum, he later served as a minister in the national government.

  • Interview HU11, 25.6.2013. A Fidesz founder.

  • Interview HU12, 6.7.2013. One of the founders of Foundation for the Poor.

  • Interview PL1, 17.7.2013. Former dissident and publisher of an underground journal, now editor and publisher of a cultural journal.

  • Interview PL2, 18.7.2013. An oppositional activist, he was chairman of the board of the underground region of Solidarity and a member of the Provisional Coordinating Commission and for this was arrested and sentenced in 1982. Since December 1983, he participated in a hunger strike that lasted for 104 days. A member of the Civic Committee, he took part in the Round Table. Later, he was MP and minister.

  • Interview PL3, 25.7.2013. In 1980 he joined Solidarity, becoming a member of the National Coordination Committee, then the National Committee of the Union, and the chairman of the board of the Region Lower Silesia. In 1981–1982 he led the underground Regional Strike Committee of Lower Silesia. In the years 1982–1986, he was often imprisoned. In 1989, he took part in the Round Table sessions. He was chairman of the Freedom Union and the Democratic Party, and was a MP.

  • Interview PL4, 24.7.2013. An active member of the Linux community, he mobilized in 1989 with youth groups.

  • Interview PL5, 26.7.2013. In the 1980s, he was an activist in the movement Freedom and Peace. Later he cofounded the Anarchist Federation and is a coordinator of the National Trade Union of the Workers’ Initiative, linked to the environment Poznan squat “Rozbrat.”

  • Interview PL6, 26.7.2013. Theater actress, activist of the opposition with the Poznań’s 8th Day Theatre.

  • Interview PL7, 5.8.2013. In the years 1980 to 1989 was an activist of Solidarity and, after the introduction of the martial law in Poland, a leader of underground Solidarity and chairman of the Steering Committee of Lower Silesia. He was repeatedly arrested and imprisoned. Also a promoter of the happenings of the Orange Alternative. He was later vice chairman of the Labour Union for Foreign Affairs and a member of parliament for the Group of European Socialists.

  • Interview PL8, 7.8.2013. In Solidarity since the early 1980s, interned after the imposition of the martial law and then in exile in Sweden, where he organized a Solidarity Support Committee.

  • Interview PL9, 7.8.2013. He was one of the initiators of the Orange Alternative movement.

  • Interview PL10, 16.10.2013. A member of the Polish Independence Alliance, during martial law he was interned for several days. Secretary of the Citizens’ Committee with Lech Walesa, he was secretary of the Advisory Committee of the president. Member of center-party Civic Alliance, he was an MP and a minister.

  • Interview PL11, 16.10.2013. After the introduction of the martial law, she became part of the editorial team of the samizdat “TygodnikMazowsze” magazine edited by the underground Solidarity.

  • Interview PL12. 17.10.2013. A member of various organizations opposing the communist regime since the late 1970s. He promoted the Movement for Defense of Human and Civic Rights and the Confederation of Independent Poland as a right-wing party in the underground. In the Polish parliamentary elections of 1991, he became a member of the parliament.

  • Interview PL13, 15.1.2014. A prominent figure of the Polish anti-communist opposition, participating in the activity of the Workers’ Defence Committee as well as editor of several underground newpapers. He was imprisoned, first, after the 1968 March Events, and then after the introduction of martial law in 1981. In 1988 he became an advisor of Lech Wałęsa’s informal Coordination Committee, and later played a crucial role during the Polish Round Table Talks. He became a member of the Solidarity Citizens’ Committee. After transition, he was a member of parliament and supported Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki’s government and his candidature in the presidential election campaign against Lech Wałęsa in 1990.

  • Interview PL14. 30,1.2014. Oppositional student activist in the late 1960s, and in 1978–1979 he was in the Team of Citizens’ Initiative. In May 1980 he was a participant of a hunger strike in St. Christopher church in protest against the detention in prison of opposition activists and from the autumn of 1981 advisor to Lech Walesa and during the martial law the editor of an underground magazine. In 1989, he participated in the Round Table on the team for political reform. He was minister in the government of Tadeusz Mazowiecki, and president of the Forum of the Democratic Right; later served in the Conservative Party and the Liberal Conservative Alliance.

  • Interview TU1, 8.3.2014. Two former activists in their early thirties. Were active in the 2010–2011 uprising, but demobilized in the year after. No organizational affiliation.

  • Interview TU2, 12.3.2014. Senior member of Ennahda and minister for the movement between 2011 and 2013.

  • Interview TU3, 12.3.2014. Member of the Congress for the Republic bloc in the Constituent Assembly.

  • Interview TU4, 12.3.2014. Female activist, mid-twenties, nonaligned but with an Ennahda background.

  • Interview TU5, 15.3. 2014. Male activist, mid-twenties, member of the Union of Unemployed Graduates.

  • Interview TU6, 17.3.2014. Secular human right activist, twenty years old, activist since 2011.

  • Interview TU7, 18.3.2014. Activist in one of the Councils for the Protection of the Revolution, in his late forties, currently focused on struggle against corruption; Ennahda supporter.

  • Interview TU8, 19.3.2014. Secular activist, thirty years old, became a well-known blogger during the 2010–2011 uprising.

  • Interview TU9, 21.3.2014. Salafist activist, mid-thirties, became publicly active since the revolution.

  • Interview TU10, 26.3.2014. Former Ennahda activist, mid-twenties, recently left the movement.

  • Interview TU11, 26.3.2014. Senior student activist at the student union.

  • Interview TU12, 30.3.2014. Secular activist, late twenties, active at an observatory for Tunisian elections.

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