Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-klmjj Total loading time: 0.282 Render date: 2021-09-18T08:34:29.220Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

American Affective Polarization in Comparative Perspective

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 November 2020

Noam Gidron
Affiliation:
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
James Adams
Affiliation:
University of California, Davis
Will Horne
Affiliation:
Princeton University, New Jersey

Summary

American political observers express increasing concern about affective polarization, i.e., partisans' resentment toward political opponents. We advance debates about America's partisan divisions by comparing affective polarization in the US over the past 25 years with affective polarization in 19 other western publics. We conclude that American affective polarization is not extreme in comparative perspective, although Americans' dislike of partisan opponents has increased more rapidly since the mid-1990s than in most other Western publics. We then show that affective polarization is more intense when unemployment and inequality are high; when political elites clash over cultural issues such as immigration and national identity; and in countries with majoritarian electoral institutions. Our findings situate American partisan resentment and hostility in comparative perspective, and illuminate correlates of affective polarization that are difficult to detect when examining the American case in isolation.
Get access
Type
Element
Information
Online ISBN: 9781108914123
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication: 03 December 2020
Copyright
© Noam Gidron, James Adams and Will Horne 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abou-Chadi, Tarik, and Wagner, Markus. (2019). “The electoral appeal of party strategies in postindustrial societies: when can the mainstream left succeed?The Journal of Politics, 81(4): 14051419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abramowitz, Alan, and Webster, Steven. (2016). “The rise of negative partisanship and the nationalization of U.S. elections in the 21st century.” Electoral Studies, 41(C): 1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abramowitz, Alan, and Webster, Steven. (2017). “The ideological foundations of affective polarization in the US electorate.” American Politics Research, 45(4):621647.Google Scholar
Adams, James. (2012). “Causes and electoral consequences of party policy shifts in multiparty elections: theoretical results and empirical evidence.” Annual Review of Political Science, 15: 401419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adams, James, Bernardi, Luca, Ezrow, Lawrence, Gordon, Oakley B., Liu, Tzu‐Ping, and Phillips, M. Christine. (2019). “A problem with empirical studies of party policy shifts: alternative measures of party shifts are uncorrelated.” European Journal of Political Research, 58(4): 12341244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Altiparmakis, Argyrios. (2019). Greece – Punctuated Equilibrium: The Restructuring of Greek Politics. In Hutter, Swen and Kriesi, Hanspeter (eds.), European Party Politics in Times of Crisis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 95117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Christopher J., and Guillory, Christine A.. (1997). “Political institutions and satisfaction with democracy: A cross-national analysis of consensus and majoritarian systems.” American Political Science Review, 91(1): 6681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anton, Michael. (2016). “The Flight 93 election.” Claremont Review of Books, Digital Edition, September 5, 2016.Google Scholar
Bakker, Ryan, de Vries, Catherine, Edwards, Erica et al. (2015). “Measuring party positions in Europe: The Chapel Hill expert survey trend file, 1999–2010.” Party Politics, 21(1): 143152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baldassarri, Delia, and Gelman, Andrew. (2008). “Partisans without constraint: political polarization and trends in american public opinion.” American Journal of Sociology, 114(2), 408446.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bale, Tim, Webb, Paul, and Poletti, Monica. (2019). Party Members. In Menon, Anand (ed.). Brexit and Public Opinion. The UK in a Changing Europe, 2728.Google Scholar
Bankert, Alexa. (2020). “Negative and positive partisanship in the 2016 US presidential elections.” Political Behavior.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benkler, Yochai, Faris, Robert, and Roberts, Hal. (2018). Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonica, Adam. (2014). “Mapping the ideological marketplace.” American Journal of Political Science, 58(2): 367386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonikowski, Bart. (2017). “Ethno‐nationalist populism and the mobilization of collective resentment.” The British Journal of Sociology, 68: S181S213.Google ScholarPubMed
Bonikowski, Bart, Feinstein, Yuval, and Bock, Sean. (2019). The Polarization of Nationalist Cleavages and the 2016 US Presidential Election. Annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Bormann, Nils-Christian, and Golder, Matt. (2013). “Democratic electoral systems around the world, 1946–2011.” Electoral Studies, 32(2): 360369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boxell, Levi, Gentzkow, Matthew, and Shapiro, Jesse M.. (2020). Cross-Country Trends in Affective Polarization. No. w26669. National Bureau of Economic Research.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bremer, Björn, Hutter, Swen, and Kriesi, Hanspeter. (2020). “Dynamics of protest and electoral politics in the Great Recession.” European Journal of Political Research.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlin, Ryan E., and Love, Gregory J.. (2018). “Political competition, partisanship and interpersonal trust in electoral democracies.” British Journal of Political Science, 48(01): 115139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carmines, Edward G., and D’Amico, Nicholas J.. (2015). “The new look in political ideology research.” Annual Review of Political Science, 18(1): 205216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, Michael. (2009). “Valence and electoral outcomes in Western Europe, 1976–1998.” Electoral Studies, 28(1): 111122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, Harold, Nitish, Dutt, and Kornberg, Allan. (1993). “The political economy of attitudes toward polity and society in west European democracies.” Journal of Politics, 55(4): 9981021.Google Scholar
Converse, Philip E., and Markus, Gregory B.. (1979). “Plus c ̧a change: The new CPS Election Study Panel.” The American Political Science Review, 73(1): 3249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cramer, Katherine J. (2016). The Politics of Resentment: Rural Consciousness in Wisconsin and the Rise of Scott Walker. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
da Silva, Frederico Ferreira, and Mendes, Mariana S.. (2019). Portugal: A Tale of Apparent Stability and Surreptitious Transformation. In Hutter, Swen and Kriesi, Hanspeter (eds.), European Party Politics in Times of Crisis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 139164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Vries, Catherine, Hakhverdian, Armen, and Lancee, Bram. (2013). “The dynamics of voters’ left/right identification: The role of economic and cultural attitudes.” Political Science Research and Methods, 1(02): 223238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druckman, James N., Klar, Samara, Krupnikov, Yanna, Levendusky, Matthew, and Ryan, John B.. (2020). “How Affective Polarization Shapes Americans’ Political Beliefs: A Study of Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Journal of Experimental Political Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druckman, James, and Levendusky, Matthew. (2019). “What do we measure when we measure affective polarization?Public Opinion Quarterly, 83(1): 114122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druckman, James, Gubitz, S .R., Levendusky, Matthew S., and Lloyd, Ashley M.. (2019). “How incivility on partisan media (de)polarizes the electorate.” Journal of Politics, 81(1): 291295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druckman, James, Klar, Samara, Krupnikov, Yanna, Levendusky, Matthew and Ryan, John Barry. How Affective Polarization Shapes Americans’ Political Beliefs: A Study of Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Working paper.Google Scholar
Drutman, Lee. (2019). Breaking the Two-Party Doom Loop: The Case for Multiparty Democracy in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ellis, Christopher, and Stimson, James A.. (2012). Ideology in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fiorina, Morris, Abrams, Samuel, and Pope, Jeremy. (2005). Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America. New York: Pearson-Longman.Google Scholar
Fortunato, David, and Stevenson, Randolph T.. (2013). “Perceptions of Partisan Ideologies: The Effect of Coalition Participation.” American Journal of Political Science 57(2): 459477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Funke, Manuel, Schularick, Moritz, and Trebesch, Christoph. (2016). “Going to extremes: Politics after financial crises, 1870–2014.” European Economic Review, 88: 227260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerring, John. (2012). “Mere description.” British Journal of Political Science, 42(4): 721746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gidron, Noam, Adams, James, and Horne, Will. (2019a). “Toward a comparative research agenda on affective polarization in mass publics.” APSA Comparative Politics Newsletter 29: 3036.Google Scholar
Gidron, Noam, Adams, James, and Horne, Will. (2019b) Who Dislikes Whom? The Drivers of Mass-Level Affective Polarization in Western Democracies. Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Gidron, Noam, and Hall, Peter A.. (2017). “The politics of social status: Economic and cultural roots of the populist right.’” The British Journal of Sociology 68: S57–-S84.Google ScholarPubMed
Gidron, Noam, and Hall, Peter A.. (2020). “Populism as a problem of social integration.” Comparative Political Studies, 53(7):10271059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilens, Martin. (1999). Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy. Chicago: Chicago University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilley, Bruce. (2006). “The meaning and measure of democratic legitimacy.” European Journal of Political Research, 45(3): 499525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goren, Paul, and Chapp, Christopher. (2017). “Moral power: How public opinion on culture war issues shapes partisan predispositions and religious orientations.” American Political Science Review, 111(1): 110128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grossmann, Matt, and Hopkins, David A.. (2016). Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hager, Sandy Brian. (2018). “Varieties of Top Incomes?” Socio-Economic Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Peter. (2020). “The electoral politics of growth regimes.” Perspectives on Politics 18(1): 185199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hare, Christopher, Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. (2014). Polarization in Congress Has Risen Sharply: Where Is It Going Next? Wash. Post Monkey Cage Blog, Feb. 13. www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2014/02/13/polarization-in-congress-has-risen-sharply-where-is-it-going-next/Google Scholar
Harteveld, Eelco. (2019). Affective Polarization and Social Sorting Beyond the US: A Comparative Study. Paper presented at the APSA annual meeting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Hawkins, Kirk, and Littvay, Levente. (2019). Contemporary US Populism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helbling, Marc, and Jungkunz, Sebastian. (2020). “Social divides in the age of globalization.” West European Politics 43(6): 11871210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hetherington, Marc J. (2009). “Review article: Putting polarization in perspective.” British Journal of Political Science, 39(02): 413436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hetherington, Marc J., and Rudolph, Thomas J.. (2015) Why Washington Won’t Work: Polarization, Political Trust, and the Governing Crisis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hetherington, Marc J., Long, Meri T., and Rudolph, Thomas J.. (2016). “Revisiting the myth: New evidence of a polarized electorate.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 80: 321350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hetherington, Marc, and Weiler, Jonathan. (2018). Prius Or Pickup? How the Answers to Four Simple Questions Explain America’s Great Divide. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Hillygus, D. Sunshine, and Shields, Todd G.. (2008). The Persuadable Voter: Wedge Issues in Presidential Campaigns. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hitlin, Steven, and Harkness, Sarah K.. (2017). Unequal Foundations: Inequality, Morality, and Emotions Across Cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hobolt, Sara B., and Tilley, James. (2016). “Fleeing the centre: The rise of challenger parties in the aftermath of the euro crisis.” West European Politics 39(5): 971991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hobolt, Sara, Leeper, Thomas J., and Tilley, James. (2020). “Divided by the vote: Affective polarization in the wake of the Brexit referendum.’” British Journal of Political Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hooghe, Liesbet and Marks, Gary. (2018). “Cleavage theory meets Europe’s crises: Lipset, Rokkan, and the transnational cleavage.” Journal of European Public Policy, 25(1): 109135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huddy, Leonie, Mason, Lilliana and Aaroe, Lene. (2015). “Expressive partisanship: Campaign involvement, political emotion, and partisan identity.” American Political Science Review, 109(1): 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huddy, Leonie, Bankert, Alexa, and Davies, Caitlin. (2018). “Expressive versus instrumental partisanship in multiparty european systems.” Political Psychology, 39(3): 173199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hutter, Swen, Altiparmakis, Argyrios, and Vidal, Guillem. (2019). Diverging Europe: The Political Consequences of the Crises in a Comparative Perspective. In Hutter, Swen and Kriesi, Hanspeter (eds.), European Party Politics in Times of Crisis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 329354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iversen, Torben, and Soskice, David. (2015). “Information, inequality, and mass polarization: Ideology in advanced democracies.” Comparative Political Studies, 48(13): 17811813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iyengar, Shanto, Sood, Gaurav, and Lelkes, Yphtach. (2012). “Affect, not ideology.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 76(3): 405431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iyengar, Shanto, and Westwood, Sean. (2014). “Fear and loathing across party lines: New evidence on group polarization.” American Journal of Political Science, 59(3): 690707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iyengar, Shanto, Lelkes, Yphtach, Levendusky, Matthew, Malhorta, Neil, and Westwood, Sean. (2019). “The origins and consequences of affective polarization in the United States.” Annual Review of Political Science, 22: 129146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalmoe, Nathan, and Mason, Lilliana. (2019). Lethal Mass Partisanship: Prevalence, Correlates, & Electoral Contingencies. Washington, DC: NCAPSA American Politics Meeting.Google Scholar
Kinder, Donald R., and Kalmoe, Nathan P.. (2017). Neither Liberal nor Conservative: Ideological Innocence in the American Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, Herbert. (1994). The Transformation of European Social Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klar, Samara, Krupnikov, Yanna, and Ryan, John B.. (2018). “Affective polarization or partisan disdain?Public Opinion Quarterly, 82(2): 379390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, Ezra. (2020). Why We’re Polarized. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Kriesi, Hans-Peter, Grande, Edgar, Lachat, Romain, Dolezal, Martin, Bornschier, Simon, and Frey, Timotheos. (2008). West European Politics in the Age of Globalization. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kriesi, Hanspeter. (2015). “Conclusion: The political consequences of the polarization of Swiss politics.” Swiss Political Science Review 21(4): 724739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kriesi, Hanspeter, and Hutter, Swen. (2019). Crises and the Transformation of the National Political Space in Europe. In Hutter, Swen and Kriesi, Hanspeter (eds.), European Party Politics in Times of Crisis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuo, Didi. (2014). Electoral System Reform in the United States. Presented at the Program on American Democracy in Comparative Perspective, Stanford.Google Scholar
Kuo, Didi. (2019). “Comparing America: Reflections on democracy across subfields.” Perspectives on Politics, 17(3): 788800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lauka, Alban, McCoy, Jennifer, and Firat, Rengin B.. (2018). “Mass partisan polarization: Measuring a relational concept.” American Behavioral Scientist 62(1): 107126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lelkes, Yphtach. (2016). “Mass polarization: Manifestations and measurements.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 80(S1): 392410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lelkes, Yphtach. (2019). Policy over Party: Comparing the Effects of Candidate Ideology and Party on Affective Polarization. Political Science Research and Methods.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lelkes, Yphtach, Sood, Gaurav, and Iyengar, Shanto. (2017) “The hostile audience: The effect of access to broadband internet on partisan affect.” American Journal of Political Science, 61(1): 520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lelkes, Yphtach and Westwood, Sean. (2017). “The limits of partisan prejudice.” Journal of Politics, 79(2),485501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levendusky, Matthew. (2009). The Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats And Conservatives Became Republicans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levendusky, Matthew. (2010). “Clearer cues, more consistent voters: A Benefit of elite polarization.” Political Behavior 32(1): 111131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levendusky, Matthew. (2018). “Americans, not partisans: Can priming American national identity reduce affective polarization?The Journal of Politics 80(1): 5970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levitsky, Steven, and Ziblatt, Daniel. (2018). How Democracies Die. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
Lieberman, Robert C., Mettler, Suzanne, Pepinsky, Thomas B., Roberts, Kenneth M., and Valelly, Richard. (2019). “The Trump Presidency and American Democracy: A Historical and Comparative Analysis.” Perspectives on Politics, 17(2): 470479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lijphart, Arend. (2010). Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries, 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
López, Edward J., and Ramírez, Carlos D.. (2004). “Party polarization and the business cycle in the United States.Public Choice, 121(3): 413430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupton, Robert N., Myers, William M., and Thornton, Judd R.. (2015). “Political sophistication and the dimensionality of elite and mass attitudes, 1980–2004.” The Journal of Politics, 77(2): 368380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupu, Noam. (2015). “Party polarization and mass partisanship: A comparative perspective.Political Behavior, 37(2): 331356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mason, Lilliana. (2015). “‘I disrespectfully agree’: The differential effects of partisan sorting on social and issue polarization.” American Journal of Political Science, 59(1): 128145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mason, Lilliana. (2018). Uncivil Agreement: How Politics Became Our Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarty, Nolan, Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. (2006). Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
McCarty, Nolan. (2019). Polarization: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
McConnell, Christopher, Margalit, Yotam, Malhotra, Neil, and Levendusky, Matthew. (2018). “The economic consequences of partisanship in a polarized era.” American Journal of Political Science, 62(1): 518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCoy, Jennifer, and Somer, Murat. (2019). “Toward a theory of pernicious polarization and how it harms democracies: Comparative evidence and possible remedies.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 681(1): 234271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mickey, Robert, Levitsky, Steven, and Way, Lucas. (2017). Is America still a democracy? Foreign Affairs, 20, 2029.Google Scholar
Miller, Patrick R. and Johnston Conover, Pamela. (2015). “Red and blue states of mind.Political Research Quarterly, 68(2): 225239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mudde, Cas, and Kaltwasser, Cristóbal Rovira. (2018). “Studying populism in comparative perspective.Comparative Political Studies 51(13): 16671693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norris, Pippa. (2005). Radical Right. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norris, Pippa, and Inglehart, Ronald. (2019). Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit, And Authoritarian Populism. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orr, Lilla V., and Huber, Gregory A.. (2020). “The policy basis of measured partisan animosity in the United States.” American Journal of Political Science 64(3): 569586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pierson, Paul, and Schickler, Eric. (2020). Madison’s constitution under stress: A developmental analysis of political polarization. Annual Review of Political Science, 23(1).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pop-Eleches, Grigore, and Tucker, Joshua A.. (2011). “Communism’s shadow: Postcommunist legacies, values, and behavior.” Comparative Politics, 43(4),379408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiljan, Andres. (2020). “Fear and loathing across party lines (also) in Europe: Affective polarisation in European party systems.” European Journal of Political Research 59(2): 376396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rogowski, Jon C., and Sutherland, Joseph L.. (2015). “How ideology fuels affective polarization.” Political Behavior, 38(2): 485508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saez, Emmanuel. 2012. Striking It Richer: The Evolution of Top Incomes in the United States. Working paper.Google Scholar
Sheffer, Lior. (2020). “Partisan In-Group Bias Before and After Elections.” Electoral Studies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schickler, Eric. (2016). Racial Realignment: The Transformation of American Liberalism, 1932–1965. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Sides, John, Tesler, Michael, and Vavreck, Lynn. (2018). Identity Crisis: The 2016 Presidential Campaign and the Battle for the Meaning of America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skocpol, Theda, and Williamson, Vanessa. (2011). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Solt, Frederick. (2016). “The Standardized World Income Inequality Database.” http://fsolt.org/swiid/,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, Alexander J, McCarty, Nolan, and Bryson, Joanna J.. (2020). Polarization under Rising Inequality and Economic Decline. Working paper. https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.11477Google Scholar
Stokes, Donald E. (1963). “Spatial models of party competition.” American Political Science Review, 57(2): 368377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sunstein, Cass R. (2015). “Partyism.” U. Chi. Legal F. (2015): 1–27.Google Scholar
Taagepera, Rein, and Shugart, Matthew S.. (1989). “Designing electoral systems.” Electoral Studies, 8(1): 4958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tavits, Margit. (2007). “Principle vs. pragmatism: Policy shifts and political competition.” American Journal of Political Science, 51(1): 151165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tesler, Michael. (2016). Post-Racial or Most-Racial? Race and Politics in the Obama Era. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsfati, Yariv, and Nir, Lilach. (2017). “Frames and reasoning: Two pathways from selective exposure to affective polarization.” International Journal of Communication, 11: 22.Google Scholar
Volkens, Andrea. (2017). The Manifesto Data Collection. Manifesto Project (MRG/CMP/MARPOR). Version 2017b. Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB).Google Scholar
Voorheis, John, McCarty, Nolan, and Shor, Boris. (2015).Unequal Incomes, Ideology and Gridlock: How Rising Inequality Increases Political Polarization” Working paper.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wagner, Markus. 2020. “Affective Polarization in Multiparty Systems.” Electoral Studies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, Dalston G., and Tavits, Margit. (2019). “How Partisan Affect Shapes Citizens’ Perception of the Political World.” Electoral Studies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Westwood, Sean J., Iyengar, Shanto, Walgrave, Stefaan, Leonisio, Rafael, Miller, Luis, and Strijbis, Oliver. (2018). “The tie that divides: Cross-national evidence of the primacy of partyism.” European Journal of Political Research, 70(2): 542–522.Google Scholar
Weyland, Kurt, and Madrid, Raúl L. (eds.). (2019). When Democracy Trumps Populism: European and Latin American Lessons for the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zakharova, Maria, and Warwick, Paul V.. (2014). “The sources of valence judgments: The role of policy distance and the structure of the left–right spectrum.” Comparative Political Studies, 47(14): 20002025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send element to Kindle

To send this element to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

American Affective Polarization in Comparative Perspective
  • Noam Gidron, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, James Adams, University of California, Davis, Will Horne, Princeton University, New Jersey
  • Online ISBN: 9781108914123
Available formats
×

Send element to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

American Affective Polarization in Comparative Perspective
  • Noam Gidron, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, James Adams, University of California, Davis, Will Horne, Princeton University, New Jersey
  • Online ISBN: 9781108914123
Available formats
×

Send element to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

American Affective Polarization in Comparative Perspective
  • Noam Gidron, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, James Adams, University of California, Davis, Will Horne, Princeton University, New Jersey
  • Online ISBN: 9781108914123
Available formats
×