Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-k78ct Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-02T11:03:53.678Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Going Public

The Unmaking and Remaking of Universal Healthcare

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 December 2023

Ramya Kumar
Affiliation:
University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka
Anne-Emanuelle Birn
Affiliation:
University of Toronto

Summary

This Element highlights the pivotal role of corporate players in universal health coverage ideologies and implementation, and critically examines social innovation-driven approaches to expanding primary care in low-income settings. It first traces the evolving meanings of universal health/healthcare in global health politics and policy, analysing their close, often hidden, intertwining with corporate interests and exigencies. It then juxtaposes three social innovations targeting niche 'markets' for lower-cost services in the Majority World, against three present-day examples of publicly financed and delivered primary healthcare (PHC), demonstrating what corporatization does to PHC, within deeply entrenched colonial-capitalist structures and discourses that normalize inferior care, private profit, and dispossession of peoples.
Get access
Type
Element
Information
Online ISBN: 9781009209588
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication: 18 January 2024

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Al Dahdah, M. (2022). Between philanthropy and big business: The rise of mHealth in the global health market. Development and Change, 53, 376–95. https://doi.org/10.1111/dech.12497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amarasinghe, S., De Alwis, S., Saleem, S., Rannan-Eliya, R. P., & Dalpatadu, S. (2015). Private health sector review 2012. Institute for Health Policy, Colombo. www.ihp.lk/publications/docs/PHSR2012.pdf.Google Scholar
Anand, S. & Hanson, K. (1997). Disability-adjusted life years: A critical review. Journal of Health Economics, 16(6), 685702. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6296(97)00005-2.Google Scholar
Armstrong, P., Amaratunga, C., & Bernier, J. Grant, K., Pederson, A. & Willson, K. (2001). Exposing privatization: Women and health care reform in Canada. Ontario: Garamond Press.Google Scholar
Arora, R., Chamnan, P., Nitiapinyasakul, A., & Lertsukprasert, S. (2017). Retention of doctors in rural health services in Thailand: Impact of a national collaborative approach. Rural and Remote Health, 17(3), 110. https://doi.org/10.22605/RRH4344.Google Scholar
Awor, P., Kalyango, J. N., Stålsby Lundborg, C. et al. (2022). Policy challenges facing the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) in Uganda. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 11(8), 1432–41. https://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2021.39.Google Scholar
Awor, P., Wamani, H., Bwire, G., Jagoe, G., & Peterson, S. (2012). Private sector drug shops in integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in children in Uganda. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 87(5_Suppl), 92–6. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0791.Google Scholar
Awor, P., Wamani, H., Tylleskar, T., Jagoe, G., & Peterson, S. (2014). Increased access to care and appropriateness of treatment at private sector drug shops with integrated management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea: A quasi-experimental study in Uganda. PLoS One, 9(12), e115440. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115440.Google Scholar
Awor, P., Wamani, H., Tylleskar, T., & Peterson, S. (2015). Drug seller adherence to clinical protocols with integrated management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at drug shops in Uganda. Malaria Journal, 14(1), 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0798-9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ayal, E. B. (1962). Thailand’s six-year National Economic Development Plan. Asian Survey, 1(11), 3342. https://doi.org/10.2307/3023638.Google Scholar
Bagchi, A. (2022). Neoliberal turn in the domain of health care: The emergence of corporate health care sector in India. In Chatterjee, A. and Chatterjee, N., eds., Covid-19 in India, disease, health and culture. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 117–33.Google Scholar
Bagonza, A., Peterson, S., & Mårtensson, A. et al. (2020). Regulatory inspection of registered private drug shops in East-Central Uganda – What it is versus what it should be: A qualitative study. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, 13(1), 111. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-020-00265-9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baru, R. V. (2003). Privatisation of health services: A South Asian perspective. Economic and Political Weekly, 38(42), 4433–7.Google Scholar
Becker, H. (2021). The impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic on the Cuban tourism industry and recommendations for Cuba’s response. Multidisciplinary Business Review, 14(1), 7183. https://doi.org/10.35692/07183992.14.1.7.Google Scholar
Birn, A. E. (2014a). Backstage: The relationship between the rockefeller foundation and the world health organization, part I: 1940s–1960s. Public Health, 128(2), 129–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2013.11.010.Google Scholar
Birn, A. E. (2014b). Philanthrocapitalism, past and present: The rockefeller foundation, the gates foundation, and the setting (s) of the international/global health agenda. Hypothesis, 12(1), e8. https://doi.org/10.5779/hypothesis.v12i1.229.Google Scholar
Birn, A. E., & Hellander, I. (2016). Market-driven health care mess: The United States. Cadernos De Saude Publica, 32(3). https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00014816.Google Scholar
Birn, A. E., & Krementsov, N. (2018). ‘Socialising’ primary care? The Soviet Union, WHO and the 1978 Alma-Ata Conference. BMJ Global Health, 3(Suppl 3), e000992. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000992.Google Scholar
Birn, A. E., & Nervi, L. (2019). What matters in health (care) universes: Delusions, dilutions, and ways towards universal health justice. Globalization and Health, 15(1), 112. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-019-0521-7.Google Scholar
Birn, A. E., Nervi, L., & Siqueira, E. (2016). Neoliberalism redux: The global health policy agenda and the politics of cooptation in Latin America and beyond. Development and Change, 47(4), 734–59. https://doi.org/10.1111/dech.12247.Google Scholar
Birn, A. E., Pillay, Y., & Holtz, T. H. (2017). Textbook of global health. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Birn, A. E., & Richter, J. (2018). Health care under the knife: Moving beyond capitalism for our health. In Howard Waitzkin and the Working Group on Health Beyond Capitalism, eds., US Philanthrocapitalism and the global health agenda: The Rockefeller and Gates foundations, past and present, pp. 155–74. New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
Birn, A. E., Zimmerman, S., & Garfield, R. (2000). To decentralize or not to decentralize, is that the question? Nicaraguan health policy under structural adjustment in the 1990s. International Journal of Health Services, 30(1), 111–28. https://doi.org/10.2190/C6TB-B16Y-60HV-M3QW.Google Scholar
Birungi, H., Mugisha, F., Nsabagasani, X., Okuonzi, S., & Jeppsson, A. (2001). The policy on public–private mix in the Ugandan health sector: Catching up with reality. Health Policy and Planning, 16(suppl 2), 80–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/16.suppl_2.80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blauvelt, C., West, M., Maxim, L. et al. (2018). Scaling up a health and nutrition hotline in Malawi: The benefits of multisectoral collaboration. British Medical Journal, 363, k4590. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k4590.Google Scholar
Breakthrough RESEARCH and VillageReach (2021). Chipatala cha pa Foni, Malawi’s “Health Center by Phone”, improving information given about pregnancy-related symptoms, APPHC Case Study. Washington, DC: Population Council. https://breakthroughactionandresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/BR_APPHC_CaseStudy_CCPF.pdf.Google Scholar
Brotherton, P. S. (2013). Fueling la revolución: Itinerant physicians, transactional humanitarianism, and shifting moral economies in post-Soviet Cuba. In Burke, N. J., ed., Health travels: Cuban health(care) on and off the Island. San Francisco: University of California Medical Humanities Press, pp.129–53.Google Scholar
Campion, E. W., & Morrissey, S. (2013). A different model: Medical care in Cuba. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(4), 297. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1215226.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cardenas, L. T. G., Mejias, L. C., Perea, L. P. et al. (2018). The Family Doctor and Nurse Program: Development of the health care model in Cuba. Pan American Journal of Public Health, 42, 1. https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2018.31.Google Scholar
Castillo, N. M., & Vosloo, S. (2017). Chipatala cha pa Foni (CCPF): Case study by UNESCO-Pearson initiative for literacy. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000258875.Google Scholar
Chansa, C., & Pattnaik, A. (2018). Expanding health care provision in a low-income country: The experience of Malawi. Universal Health Coverage Study Series No. 34. World Bank Group, Washington, D.C. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/server/api/core/bitstreams/6ac2d590-f698-5e25-8106-007344aa31fe/content.Google Scholar
Charles, L., Moe, J., & Bartlett, R. (2013). One Family Health Rwanda: Achievements and challenges 2012. www.innovationsinhealthcare.org/OFH%20Case%20Study%20FINAL.pdf.Google Scholar
Charuluxananan, S., & Chentanez, V. (2007). History and evolution of western medicine in Thailand. Asian Biomedicine, 1(1), 97101.Google Scholar
Chaudhuri, M. M., Mkumba, L., Raveendran, Y., & Smith, R. D. (2021). Decolonising global health: Beyond ‘reformative’ roadmaps and towards decolonial thought. BMJ Global Health, 6(7), e006371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-006371.Google Scholar
Chemouni, B. (2018). The political path to universal health coverage: Power, ideas and community-based health insurance in Rwanda. World Development, 106, 8798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.01.023.Google Scholar
Chorev, N. (2012). The World Health Organization between north and south. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Christensen, C. M. (1997). The innovator’s dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
Christensen, C. M., Baumann, H., Ruggles, R., & Sadtler, T. M. (2006). Disruptive innovation for social change. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 94.Google ScholarPubMed
Cooper, R. S., Kennelly, J. F., & Ordunez-Garcia, P. (2006). Health in Cuba. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(4), 817–24. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyl175.Google Scholar
Cueto, M. (2004). The origins of primary health care and selective primary health care. American Journal of Public Health, 94(11), 1864–74. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.94.11.1864.Google Scholar
Cueto, M., Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2019). The World Health Organization: A history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daily FT (2020). World Bank downgrades SL to lower-middle income country, Daily FT, 3 July 2020. www.ft.lk/Front-Page/World-Bank-downgrades-SL-to-lower-middle-income-country/44-702511.Google Scholar
Daniel, S. (2016). Why Sri Lanka beats India in maternal mortality ratios? Al Jazeera, 14 March 2016. www.aljazeera.com/features/2016/3/14/why-sri-lanka-beats-india-in-maternal-mortality-ratios.Google Scholar
Department of Census and Statistics Sri Lanka (2017). Demographic and health survey 2016. www.statistics.gov.lk/Health/StaticalInformation/DemographicAndHealthSurvey-2016FullReport.Google Scholar
De Silva, D. (2017). How many doctors should we train for Sri Lanka? System dynamics modelling for training needs. Ceylon Medical Journal, 62(4), 233–7. https://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v62i4.8573.Google Scholar
De Vos, P. (2019). Cuba’s strategy toward universal health. International Journal of Health Services, 49(1), 186–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020731418804406.Google Scholar
Dieleman, J. L., Sadat, N., Chang, A. Y. et al. (2018). Trends in future health financing and coverage: Future health spending and universal health coverage in 188 countries, 2016–40. The Lancet, 391(10132), 1783–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30697-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Djukanovic, V., & Mach, E. P. (1975). Alternative approaches to meeting basic health needs in developing countries: A joint UNICEF/WHO study. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/40076.Google Scholar
Doshi, P. P., Bhosai, S. J., Goldmann, D., & Udayakumar, K. (2021). Imagining the future of primary care: A global look at innovative health care delivery. NEJM Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery, 2(1). https://catalyst.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/CAT.20.0481Google Scholar
Duke Innovation and Entrepreneurship (2022). Changing the world through entrepreneurial action. https://entrepreneurship.duke.edu/.Google Scholar
Emmanuel, M. (2019). The impact of restructuring on public sector performance: A case study of RSSB/CBHI. MBA Research Thesis, University of Rwanda. http://154.68.126.42/bitstream/handle/123456789/940/MUGABO.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
Epstein, G. (2005) Financialization and the world economy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Family Health Bureau (2021). Annual report of the Family Health Bureau 2019. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Ministry of Health. https://fhb.health.gov.lk/index.php/en/resources/annual-report.Google Scholar
Farris, S. R., & Marchetti, S. (2017). From the commodification to the corporatization of care: European perspectives and debates. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 24(2), 109–31. https://doi.org/10.1093/sp/jxx003.Google Scholar
Fejerskov, A. M. (2017). The new technopolitics of development and the global south as a laboratory of technological experimentation. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 42(5), 947–68. https://doi.org/10.1177/0162243917709934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fenny, A. P., Yates, R., & Thompson, R. (2021). Strategies for financing social health insurance schemes for providing universal health care: A comparative analysis of five countries. Global Health Action, 14(1), 1868054. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2020.1868054.Google Scholar
Fernandez, A. F. T. (1975). The national health system in Cuba. In Newell, K. W., ed., Health by the people, pp. 1329. Geneva: WHO. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/40514.Google Scholar
Fine, B., & Saad Filho, A. (2014). Politics of neoliberal development: Washington Consensus and post-Washington Consensus. In Weber, H., ed., The politics of development: A survey. Milton Park: Routledge, pp. 154–66.Google Scholar
Fukuda-Parr, S., & Hulme, D. (2011). International norm dynamics and the end of poverty: Understanding the millennium development goals. Global Governance, 17, 1736. https://doi.org/10.1163/19426720-01701002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
G77 (1989). Caracas declaration of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Group of 77 on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Group (Caracas, Venezuela, 2123 June 1989). www.g77.org/doc/A-44-361-E.pdf.Google Scholar
Garfield, R., & Santana, S. (1997). The impact of the economic crisis and the US embargo on health in Cuba. American Journal of Public Health, 87(1), 1520. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.1.15.Google Scholar
Glackin, J. P. (n.d.). What exactly is a L3C? Boston College Legal Services Lab. http://bclawlab.org/eicblog/2017/3/21/what-exactly-is-a-l3c.Google Scholar
Global Grand Challenges (2003–23). Global grand challenges. https://gcgh.grandchallenges.org/.Google Scholar
Global Health Watch (2017). Global Health Watch 5: An alternative world health report. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Gonzalez, A. M. G., Lopez, R. G., Muniz, M. A. et al. (2018). Economic considerations on Cuban public health and its relationship with universal health. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica, 42(1). https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2018.28.Google Scholar
Gosling, D. (1985). Thailand’s bare-headed doctors. Modern Asian Studies, 19(4), 761–96. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X00015468.Google Scholar
Government of Malawi (2016). Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16 key indicators report. www.healthynewbornnetwork.org/hnn-content/uploads/Malawi-DHS-2015-2016-KIR-Final-05-27-2016.pdf.Google Scholar
Guenther, T., Nsona, H., Makuluni, R. et al. (2019). Home visits by community health workers for pregnant mothers and newborns: Coverage plateau in Malawi. Journal of Global Health, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.09.010808.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Halpaap, B., Peeling, R. W., & Bonnici, F. (2019). The role of multilateral organizations and governments in advancing social innovation in health care delivery. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 8(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-019-0592-y.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Halpaap, B. M., Tucker, J. D., Mathanga, D. et al. (2020). Social innovation in global health: Sparking location action. The Lancet Global Health, 8(5), e633–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30070-X.Google Scholar
Halstead, S. B., Walsh, J. A., & Warren, K. S. (1985). Good health at low cost. New York: Rockefeller Foundation.Google Scholar
Hanson, K., Brikci, N., Erlangga, D. et al. (2022). The Lancet Global Health Commission on financing primary health care: Putting people at the centre. The Lancet Global Health, 10(5), e715–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(22)00005-5.Google ScholarPubMed
Harris, J. (2017). Achieving access: Professional movements and the politics of health universalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Harris, J., & Libardi Maia, J. (2022). Universal healthcare does not look the same everywhere: Divergent experiences with the private sector in Brazil and Thailand. Global Public Health, 17(9), 1809–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2021.1981973.Google Scholar
Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Haththotuwa, R., Senanayake, L., Senarath, U., & Attygalle, D. (2012). Models of care that have reduced maternal mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 119, S45S49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.03.016.Google Scholar
Hewa, S. (1995). Colonialism, tropical disease, and imperial medicine: Rockefeller philanthropy in Sri Lanka. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
Hewa, S. (2011). Sri Lanka’s Health Unit program: A model of ‘selective’ primary health care. Hygiea Internationalis, 10(2), 733. https://doi.org/10.3384/HYGIEA.1403-8668.111027.Google Scholar
Holmlund, S., Ntaganira, J., Edvardsson, K. et al. (2017). Improved maternity care if midwives learn to perform ultrasound: A qualitative study of Rwandan midwives’ experiences and views of obstetric ultrasound. Global Health Action, 10(1), 1350451. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2017.1350451.Google Scholar
Hunter, B. M., & Murray, S. F. (2019). Deconstructing the financialization of healthcare. Development and Change, 50(5), 1263–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/dech.12517.Google Scholar
Hunter, D. J., Abdool Karim, S. S., Baden, L. R. et al. (2022). Addressing vaccine inequity – Covid-19 vaccines as a global public good. New England Journal of Medicine, 386(12), 1176–9. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2202547.Google Scholar
Institute for Health Policy (2021). Sri Lanka health accounts: National health expenditure 1990–2019. http://ihp.lk/publications/docs/HES2106.pdf.Google Scholar
Jones, M. (2002). Infant and maternal health services in Ceylon, 1900–1948: Imperialism or welfare? Social History of Medicine, 15(2), 263–89. https://doi.org/10.1093/shm/15.2.263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kalapurakkel, S. (2021). Achieving value: A case study of the One Family Health care delivery model in the context of Rwanda’s vision for universal health coverage. Master’s Thesis, Duke University. https://hdl.handle.net/10161/23323.Google Scholar
Kantamaturapoj, K., Marshall, A. I., Chotchoungchatchai, S. et al. (2020). Performance of Thailand’s universal health coverage scheme: Evaluating the effectiveness of annual public hearings. Health Expectations, 23(6), 1594–602. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.13142.Google Scholar
Keck, C. W., & Reed, G. A. (2012). The curious case of Cuba. American Journal of Public Health, 102(8), e13e22. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300822.Google Scholar
Khan, T., Abimbola, S., Kyobutungi, C., & Pai, M. (2022). How we classify countries and people – and why it matters. BMJ Global Health, 7(6), e009704. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2022-009704.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirk, J. M. (2015). Healthcare without borders: Understanding Cuban medical internationalism. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
Kitutu, F. E., Kalyango, J. N., Mayora, C. et al. (2017). Integrated community case management by drug sellers influences appropriate treatment of paediatric febrile illness in South Western Uganda: A quasi-experimental study. Malaria Journal, 16(1), 118. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-2072-9.Google Scholar
Klein, N. (2007). The shock doctrine: The rise of disaster capitalism. New York: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
Konde-Lule, J., Gitta, S. N., Lindfors, A. et al. (2010). Private and public health care in rural areas of Uganda. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 10(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-698X-10-29.Google Scholar
Kruk, M. E., Porignon, D., Rockers, P. C., & Van Lerberghe, W. (2010). The contribution of primary care to health and health systems in low-and middle-income countries: A critical review of major primary care initiatives. Social Science & Medicine, 70(6), 904–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.11.025.Google Scholar
Kumar, R. (2019). Public–private partnerships for universal health coverage? The future of ‘free health’ in Sri Lanka. Globalization and Health, 15(1), 110. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-019-0522-6.Google Scholar
Kumar, R. (2020). Antenatal care service utilization in public and private sectors, out-of-pocket payments, and associated factors among ‘low risk’ pregnant women awaiting delivery at a public sector maternity centre in Colombo. Master’s Thesis, University of Colombo.Google Scholar
Kumar, R. (2022). Brain drain and future of medical education. The Island, November 22. https://island.lk/brain-drain-and-future-of-medical-education/.Google Scholar
Kumar, R., Birn, A. E., Bhuyan, R., & Wong, J. P. H. (2022). Universal health coverage and public-private arrangements within Sri Lanka’s mixed health system: Perspectives from women seeking healthcare. Social Science & Medicine, 296, 114777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.114777.Google Scholar
Kwesiga, B., Aliti, T., Nabukhonzo, P. et al. (2020). What has been the progress in addressing financial risk in Uganda? Analysis of catastrophe and impoverishment due to health payments. BMC Health Services Research, 20(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05500-2.Google Scholar
Kwete, X., Tang, K., Chen, L. et al. (2022). Decolonizing global health: What should be the target of this movement and where does it lead us?. Global Health Research and Policy, 7(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-022-00237-3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laurell, A. C., & Arellano, O. L. (1996). Market commodities and poor relief: The World Bank proposal for health. International Journal of Health Services, 26(1), 118. https://doi.org/10.2190/PBX9-N89E-4QFE-046V.Google Scholar
Lenzer, J. (2016). How Cuba eliminated mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis. British Medical Journal, 352. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i1619.Google Scholar
Levine, R., & Kinder, M. (2004). Millions saved: Proven successes in global health. Washington, DC: Centre for Global Development.Google Scholar
Litsios, S. (2002). The long and difficult road to Alma-Ata: A personal reflection. International Journal of Health Services, 32(4), 709–32. https://doi.org/10.2190/RP8C-L5UB-4RAF-NRH2.Google Scholar
Lohman, N., Hagopian, A., Luboga, S. A. et al. (2017). District health officer perceptions of PEPFAR’s influence on the health system in Uganda, 2005-2011. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 6(2), 83. https://doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2016.98.Google Scholar
Lozano, R., Fullman, N., Mumford, J. E. et al. (2020). Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet, 396(10258), 1250–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30750-9.Google Scholar
Luboga, S. A., Stover, B., Lim, T. W. et al. (2016). Did PEPFAR investments result in health system strengthening? A retrospective longitudinal study measuring non-HIV health service utilization at the district level. Health Policy and Planning, 31(7), 897909. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czw009.Google Scholar
Lubogo, P., Lukyamuzi, J. E., Kyambadde, D. et al. (2021). Cost-effectiveness analysis of integrated community case management delivery models utilizing drug sellers and community health workers for treatment of under-five febrile cases of malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea in rural Uganda. Malaria Journal, 20(1), 115. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03944-3.Google Scholar
Machira, K., & Palamuleni, M. (2017). Perceived barriers associated with maternal health care service delivery in Malawi: Health personnel perspectives. Studies on Ethno-Medicine, 11(1), 4954. https://doi.org/10.1080/09735070.2017.1311708.Google Scholar
Machira, K., & Palamuleni, M. (2018). Women’s perspectives on quality of maternal health care services in Malawi. International Journal of Women’s Health, 10, 25. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S144426.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, M., & Koivusalo, M. (2005). Commercialization of health care. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Marathe, S., Hunter, B. M., Chakravarthi, I., Shukla, A., & Murray, S. F. (2020). The impacts of corporatisation of healthcare on medical practice and professionals in Maharashtra, India. BMJ Global Health, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002026.Google Scholar
Martens, J., & Seitz, K. (2015). Philanthropic power and development: Who shapes the agenda. https://archive.globalpolicy.org/images/pdfs/GPFEurope/Philanthropic_Power_online.pdf.Google Scholar
Masefield, S. C., Msosa, A., & Grugel, J. (2020). Challenges to effective governance in a low income healthcare system: A qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions in Malawi. BMC Health Services Research, 20(1), 116. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-06002-x.Google Scholar
Maurrasse, D. J. (2021). Strategic community partnerships, philanthropy, and nongovernmental organization. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Mayora, C., Kitutu, F. E., Kandala, N. B. et al. (2018). Private retail drug shops: What they are, how they operate, and implications for health care delivery in rural Uganda. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1), 112. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3343-z.Google Scholar
Mbonye, A. K., Buregyeya, E., Rutebemberwa, E. et al. (2016). Prescription for antibiotics at drug shops and strategies to improve quality of care and patient safety: A cross-sectional survey in the private sector in Uganda. BMJ open, 6(3), e010632. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010632.Google Scholar
McPake, B., Hanson, K., & Mills, A. (1993). Community financing of health care in Africa: An evaluation of the Bamako initiative. Social Science & Medicine, 36(11), 1383–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(93)90381-D.Google Scholar
Mgawadere, F., Unkels, R., Kazembe, A., & van den Broek, N. (2017). Factors associated with maternal mortality in Malawi: Application of the three delays model. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17(1), 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-017-1406-5.Google Scholar
Ministry of Health Sri Lanka (2012). National policy on maternal and child health. Colombo: Government of Sri Lanka. www.health.gov.lk/moh_final/english/public/elfinder/files/publications/publishpolicy/4_Maternal%20and%20Child%20Health.pdf.Google Scholar
Ministry of Health Sri Lanka (2018). National health accounts Sri Lanka 2014, 2015, 2016. Ministry of Health, Colombo. www.health.gov.lk/moh_final/english/public/elfinder/files/publications/2019/National%20Health%20Accounts%202014-15-16%20-D8-%20Justified.pdf.Google Scholar
Ministry of Health Sri Lanka (2019). Annual health statistics 2017. Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Indigenous Medicine, Colombo. www.health.gov.lk/moh_final/english/public/elfinder/files/publications/AHB/2017/AHS2017.pdf.Google Scholar
Moulaert, F., MacCallum, D., & Hillier, J. (2013). Social innovation: Intuition, precept, concept. In Moulaert, F., MacCallum, D., Mehmood, A., & Hamdouch, A., eds., The international handbook on social innovation: Collective action, social learning and transdisciplinary research. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 1324.Google Scholar
Muangman, D. (1987). Prince Mahidol – Father of public health and modern medicine in Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 1(4), 72–5. https://doi.org/10.1177/101053958700100416.Google Scholar
Muldoon, L. K., Hogg, W. E., & Levitt, M. (2006). Primary care (PC) and primary health care (PHC): What is the difference? Canadian Journal of Public Health, 97, 409411. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03405354.Google Scholar
National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, Ministry of Health Rwanda, and ICF (2020). Rwanda demographic and health survey 2019–20. Kigali: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda and ICF. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR370/FR370.pdf.Google Scholar
Navarro, V. (1972). Health, health services, and health planning in Cuba. International Journal of Health Services, 2(3), 397432. https://doi.org/10.2190/TEKD-VG08-7M7D-5X3H.Google Scholar
Nithiapinyasakul, A., Arora, R., & Chamnan, P. (2016). Impact of a 20-year collaborative approach to increasing the production of rural doctors in Thailand. International Journal of Medical Education, 7, 414–16. https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.582f.4d3b.Google Scholar
Noree, T., Hanefeld, J., & Smith, R. (2016). Medical tourism in Thailand: A cross-sectional study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 94(1), 30–6. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.14.152165.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odhiambo, J., Rwabukwisi, F. C., Rusangwa, C. et al. (2017). Health worker attrition at a rural district hospital in Rwanda: A need for improved placement and retention strategies. Pan African Medical Journal, 27 (1). https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2017.27.168.11943.Google Scholar
Ojeda, M. R., Bermejo, P. M., Serrate, F. C. P. et al. (2018). Transformations in the health system in Cuba and current strategies for its consolidation and sustainability. Rev Panam Salud Publica, 42, e25. https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2018.25.Google Scholar
Oxfam (2012). Salt, sugar, and malaria pills: How the Affordable Medicine Facility–Malaria endangers public health. Oxford: Oxfam GB. https://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10546/249615/bp163-affordable-medicine-facility-malaria-241012-summ-en.pdf?sequence=8.Google Scholar
Pagaiya, N., Kongkam, L., & Sriratana, S. (2015). Rural retention of doctors graduating from the rural medical education project to increase rural doctors in Thailand: A cohort study. Human Resources for Health, 13(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-015-0001-y.Google Scholar
Pagaiya, N., & Noree, T. (2009). Thailand’s health workforce: A review of challenges and experiences. Washington, DC: World Bank. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/453661468171879780/pdf/546330WP0THLHe10Box349423B01PUBLIC1.pdf.Google Scholar
Pagaiya, N., Noree, T., Hongthong, P. et al. (2021). From village health volunteers to paid care givers: The optimal mix for a multidisciplinary home health care workforce in rural Thailand. Human Resources for Health, 19(1), 110. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-020-00542-3.Google Scholar
Pagaiya, N., Sriratana, S., Wongwinyou, K., Lapkom, C., & Worarat, W. (2012). Impacts of financial measures on rural retention of doctors. Journal of Health Systems Research, 6(2), 228–35.Google Scholar
Pangu, K. A. (1997). The Bamako initiative. World Health, 50(5), 26–7. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/330655/WH-1997-Sep-Oct-p26-27-eng.pdf.Google Scholar
Patcharanarumol, W., Tangcharoensathien, V., Limwattananon, S. et al. (2011). Why and how did Thailand achieve good health at low cost? In Balabanova, D., McKee, M. & Mills, A., eds., ‘Good health at low cost’ 25 years on: What makes a successful health system? London: The London School of Hygiene &Tropical Medicine, pp. 193233. https://ghlc.lshtm.ac.uk/files/2011/10/GHLC-book.pdf.Google Scholar
Pathmanathan, I, Liljestrand, J., Martins, J. M. et al. (2003). Investing in maternal health in Malaysia and Sri Lanka. Washington, DC: World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/14754/259010REPLACEM10082135362401PUBLIC1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
Patnaik, P. (1973). On the political economy of underdevelopment. Economic and Political Weekly, 8(4/6), 197212.Google Scholar
Perera, P. D. A. (1985). Health care systems of Sri Lanka. In Halstead, S. B., Walsh, J. A. & Warren, K. S., eds., Good health at low cost. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation, pp. 93110Google Scholar
Perera, C., Bakrania, S., Ipince, A. et al. (2022). Impact of social protection on gender equality in low‐and middle‐income countries: A systematic review of reviews. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 18(2), e1240. https://doi.org/10.1002/cl2.1240.Google Scholar
Pfotenhauer, S. M., & Juhl, J. (2017). Innovation and the political state: Beyond the myth of technologies and markets. In Godin, B. & Vinck, D., eds., Critical studies of innovation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 6893.Google Scholar
Phillis, J. A., Deiglmeier, K., & Miller, D. T. (2008). Rediscovering social innovation. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 6(4), 3443. https://doi.org/10.48558/GBJY-GJ47.Google Scholar
Pilkington, V., Keestra, S. M., & Hill, A. (2022). Global COVID-19 vaccine inequity: Failures in the first year of distribution and potential solutions for the future. Frontiers in Public Health, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffpubh.2022.821117.Google Scholar
Pineo, R. (2019). Cuban public healthcare: A model of success for developing nations. Journal of Developing Societies, 35(1), 1661. https://doi.org/10.1177/0169796X19826731.Google Scholar
Pongpirul, K. (2020). Village health volunteers in Thailand. In Perry, H. B., ed., Health for the people: National community health worker programs from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, pp. 395404. www.humanitarianlibrary.org/sites/default/files/2021/07/PA00WKKN.pdf.Google Scholar
Prakongsai, P. (2005). Private practice among public medical doctors. In Nitayarumphong, S., Mills, A., Pongsupap, Y. & Tangcharoensathien, V., eds., What is talked about less in health care reform? Thailand: National Health Security Office, pp. 95109.Google Scholar
Prashad, V. (2014). The poorer nations: A possible history of the global south. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Regional Committee for Africa, 49 (1999). Review of the implementation of the Bamako Initiative. WHO Regional Office for Africa. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/1937.Google Scholar
Ridde, V., Antwi, A. A., Boidin, B. et al. (2018). Time to abandon amateurism and volunteerism: Addressing tensions between the Alma-Ata principle of community participation and the effectiveness of community-based health insurance in Africa. BMJ Global Health, 3(Suppl 3), e001056. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001056.Google Scholar
Rodriguez, F. V., Lopez, N. B., & Choonara, I. (2008). Child health in Cuba. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 93(11), 991–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2007.131615.Google Scholar
Rosenfield, A., & Min, C. J. (2009). Maternal and child health: global challenges, programs, and policies. In John Ehiri, ed., A history of international cooperation in maternal and child health. Boston, MA: Springer, pp. 317.Google Scholar
Rowden, R. (2013). The ghosts of user fees past: Exploring accountability for victims of a 30-year economic policy mistake. Health & Human Rights, 15(1), 175.Google Scholar
Ruckert, A., & Labonté, R. (2014). Public–private partnerships (PPPs) in global health: The good, the bad and the ugly. Third World Quarterly, 35(9), 1598–614. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2014.970870.Google Scholar
Said Business School (2023). Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship. www.sbs.ox.ac.uk/research/centres-and-initiatives/skoll-centre-social-entrepreneurship.Google Scholar
Salmon, J. W., & Thompson, S. L. (2020). The corporatization of American health care: The rise of corporate hegemony and the loss of professional autonomy. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature.Google Scholar
Sanders, D., Nandi, S., Labonté, R., Vance, C., & Van Damme, W. (2019). From primary health care to universal health coverage – one step forward and two steps back. The Lancet, 394(10199), 619–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31831-8.Google Scholar
Segal, S. J. (1980). Preface to Health and population in developing countries: Selected papers originally presented at the Bellagio Conference, April 18-21, 1979 held under the auspices of the Rockefeller Foundation. Social Science & Medicine, 14 c, 61.Google Scholar
Sell, S. K. (2019). 21st-century capitalism: Structural challenges for universal health care. Globalization and Health, 15(1), 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-019-0517-3.Google Scholar
Senanayake, H., Goonewardene, M., Ranatunga, A. et al. (2011). Achieving millennium development goals 4 and 5 in Sri Lanka. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 118, 7887. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03115.x.Google Scholar
Serrate, P. C. F. (2019). Universal health in Cuba: Healthy public policy in all sectors. MEDICC Review, 21, 74–7. https://doi.org/10.37757/MR2019.V21.N4.13.Google Scholar
Silva, K. T. (2014). Decolonization, development and disease: A social history of malaria in Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan.Google Scholar
Smith, O. (2018). Sri Lanka: Achieving pro-poor universal health coverage without health financing reforms. Washington, DC: World Bank Group. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/138941516179080537/pdf/Sri-Lanka-Achieving-pro-poor-universal-health-coverage-without-health-financing-reforms.pdf.Google Scholar
Smithers, D., & Waitzkin, H. (2022). Universal health coverage as hegemonic health policy in low-and middle-income countries: A mixed-methods analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 302, 114961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.114961.Google Scholar
Stanford Graduate School of Business (n.d.). Centre for social innovation. www.gsb.stanford.edu/faculty-research/centers-initiatives/csi.Google Scholar
Stein, F., & Sridhar, D. (2018). The financialisation of global health. Wellcome Open Research, 3, 17. https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.13885.1.Google Scholar
Sundararaman, T. (2018). How Thailand built a universal healthcare system without giving private sector free rein. Scroll.in 20 February. https://scroll.in/pulse/869171/thailand-built-a-universal-healthcare-system-without-giving-private-sector-free-rein.Google Scholar
Swanson, K. A., Swanson, J. M., Gill, A. E., & Walter, C. (1995). Primary care in Cuba: A public health approach. Health Care for Women International, 16(4), 299308. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399339509516183.Google Scholar
Tangcharoensathien, V., Witthayapipopsakul, W., Panichkriangkrai, W., Patcharanarumol, W., & Mills, A. (2018). Health systems development in Thailand: A solid platform for successful implementation of universal health coverage. The Lancet, 391(10126), 1205–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30198-3.Google Scholar
Taylor, L. (2022). Covid-19: Cuba will request WHO approval for homegrown vaccine. British Medical Journal, 376, o23. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.o230.Google Scholar
TDR (2021). Social innovation in health initiative. https://socialinnovationinhealth.org/.Google Scholar
ThinkWell (2020). How primary health care services are financed in Uganda: A review of the purchasing landscape. https://thinkwell.global/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Uganda-Policy-Review_Final_18-Sept-2020-Final-.pdf.Google Scholar
Tougher, S., Ye, Y., Amuasi, J. H. et al. (2012). Effect of the Affordable Medicines Facility – Malaria (AMFm) on the availability, price, and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapies in seven countries: A before-and-after analysis of outlet survey data. The Lancet, 380(9857), 1916–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61732-2.Google Scholar
Treerutkuarkul, A. (2008). Thailand’s unsung heroes. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86, 56.Google Scholar
Tungsubutra, K. (1976). Auxiliary health training and development of the faculty of medicine at Khon Koen University, Thailand. In H.A. Ronaghy, Y. Mousseau-Gershman, and Alexandre Dorozynski, eds., Village health workers. Ottawa: IDRC, Ottawa, pp. 33–7.Google Scholar
Tuyisenge, G., Hategeka, C., Kasine, Y. et al. (2019). Mothers’ perceptions and experiences of using maternal health-care services in Rwanda. Women & Health, 59(1), 6884. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2018.1434591.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
UHC2030 (n.d.a). Private sector contributions towards universal health coverage UHC2030: Private sector constituency statement. www.uhc2030.org/fileadmin/uploads/uhc2030/Documents/Key_Issues/Private_Sector/UHC2030_Private_Sector_Constituency_Joint_Statement_on_UHC_FINAL.pdf.Google Scholar
UHC2030 (n.d.b). Taking action for universal health coverage. www.uhc2030.org/.Google Scholar
UN (1974). Declaration on the establishment of a new international economic Order. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/218450?ln=en.Google Scholar
UN (2019). Political declaration of the high-level meeting on universal health coverage. www.un.org/pga/73/wp-content/uploads/sites/53/2019/07/FINAL-draft-UHC-Political-Declaration.pdf.Google Scholar
UNCTAD (1989). Trade and development report 1989. https://unctad.org/system/files/official-document/tdr9_en.pdf.Google Scholar
UN Foundation, Human Reproduction Programme & Village Reach (n.d.). Chipatala cha pa foni: Healthcare through mobile phones. www.villagereach.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/CCPF-Case-Study-UN-Foundation.pdf.Google Scholar
UN Joint Inspection Unit (2010). United Nations corporate partnerships: The role and functioning of the global compact. www.unjiu.org/sites/www.unjiu.org/files/jiu_document_files/products/en/reports-notes/JIU%20Products/JIU_REP_2010_9_English.pdf.Google Scholar
USAID (n.d.). Global health. www.usaid.gov/global-health.Google Scholar
Uzochukwu, B., Onwujekwe, O., & Eriksson, B. O. (2004). Inequity in the Bamako Initiative programme – implications for the treatment of malaria in south‐east Nigeria. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 19(S1), S107–16. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpm.779.Google Scholar
Vaidyanathan, R. (2023). Sri Lanka healthcare on verge of collapse in economic crisis. BBC April 17. www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-61111405.Google Scholar
van Niekerk, L., & Chater, R. (2016a). Drug shop integrated management of childhood illness, Uganda. www.socialinnovationinhealth.org/downloads/Case_Studies/Drug_Shop_Integrated_Management_of_Childhood_Illness_SIHI_Case_Collection.pdf.Google Scholar
VillageReach (2016). Reaching Hawa: A CCPF impact story. www.villagereach.org/2016/11/23/reaching-hawa-a-ccpf-impact-story/.Google Scholar
VillageReach (2020a). CCPF is a driver of transformative initiative in Malawi. www.villagereach.org/2020/03/11/ccpf-is-a-driver-of-transformative-initiative-in-malawi/.Google Scholar
VillageReach (2020b). Impact evaluation of Chipatala cha pa Foni (CCPF), Malawi’s health and nutrition hotline. www.villagereach.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/VR_CCPFImpactEval_FINAL.-2_24_20-1.pdf.Google Scholar
VillageReach (2022). Dr. Fosiko’s story. www.villagereach.org/what-we-do/pathways-to-phc/.Google Scholar
VillageReach (n.d.). Health center by phone: Extending the health system to every community. www.villagereach.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/VR_CCPFOverviewdoc.pdf.Google Scholar
Virk, A., Croke, K., Mohd Yusoff, M. et al. (2020). Hybrid organizations in health systems: The corporatization of Malaysia’s National Heart Institute. Health Systems & Reform, 6(1), e1833639. https://doi.org/10.1080/23288604.2020.1833639.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wagner-Rizvi, T. (2020). The fox building the henhouse: Corporate influence on global health governance and the risks to the World Health Organization. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/16106.Google Scholar
Waitzkin, H. (2003). Report of the WHO commission on macroeconomics and health: A summary and critique. The Lancet, 361(9356), 523–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12491-9.Google Scholar
Walsh, J. A., & Warren, K. S. (1979). Selective primary health care: An interim strategy for disease control in developing countries. New England Journal of Medicine, 301, 967–14. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197911013011804.Google Scholar
Watkins, S. C., Robinson, A., & Dalious, M. (2013). Evaluation of the information and communications technology for maternal, newborn and child health project Chipatala Cha Pa Foni. http://healthmarketinnovations.org/sites/default/files/Chipatala%20Impact%20Evaluation.pdf.Google Scholar
WBTI (2023). WBTi world ranking: Where nations stand? www.worldbreastfeedingtrends.org/wbti-country-ranking.php.Google Scholar
WHO (1948). Constitution of the World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/gb/bd/PDF/bd47/EN/constitution-en.pdf?ua=1.Google Scholar
WHO (1958). The first ten years of the World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/37089.Google Scholar
WHO (1970). Basic principles for the development of national health services WHA 23.61. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/91739/WHA23.61_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
WHO (1993). Forty-sixth World Health Assembly, resolutions and decisions. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/176262.Google Scholar
WHO (1995). The world health report 1995: Bridging the gaps. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/41863.Google Scholar
WHO (1999). The world health report 1999: Making a difference. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42167/WHR_1999.pdf.Google Scholar
WHO (2000). The world health report 2000: Health systems: Improving performance. www.who.int/publications/i/item/924156198X.Google Scholar
WHO (2005). Sustainable health financing, universal coverage and social health insurance 58.33. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/20383/WHA58_33-en.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
WHO (2008a). The world health report 2008: Primary health care now more than ever. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43949/9789241563734_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
WHO (2008b). Task shifting: Rational redistribution of tasks among health workforce teams: Global recommendations and guidelines. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43821/9789241596312_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
WHO (2010a). The world health report 2010: Health systems financing: The path to universal coverage. https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/52792/retrieve.Google Scholar
WHO (2010b). Sixty-third World Health Assembly, resolutions and decisions. https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA63-REC1/WHA63_REC1-en.pdf.Google Scholar
WHO (2014a). Health systems governance for universal coverage. www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-HSS-HSF-2014.01.Google Scholar
WHO (2014b). Facilitating MNCH care seeking among rural women in Malawi – Chipatala Cha Pa Foni services. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/192490/WHO_RHR_13.25_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
WHO (2015). The Kingdom of Thailand health system review. Manila, Philippines: WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/208216/9789290617136_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
WHO (2016a). Health workforce requirements for universal health coverage and the sustainable development goals. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/250330/9789241511407-eng.pdf.Google Scholar
WHO (2016b). Public health success in Sri Lanka. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/254825.Google Scholar
WHO (2017). Primary health care systems (PRIMASYS): Case study from Thailand. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/341061/WHO-HIS-HSR-17.25-eng.pdf?sequence=1.Google Scholar
WHO (2018a). New perspectives on global health spending for universal health coverage. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/259632/WHO-HIS-HGF-HFWorkingPaper-17.10-eng.pdf?sequence=1.Google Scholar
WHO (2018b). Technical series on primary health care: The private sector, universal health coverage and primary health care. www.who.int/docs/default-source/primary-health-care-conference/private-sector.pdf?sfvrsn=36e53c69_2.Google Scholar
WHO (2019). Hypertension care in Thailand: Best practices and challenges 2019. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/330488/9789290227403-eng.pdf?sequence=1.Google Scholar
WHO (2020a). Engaging the private health service delivery sector through governance in mixed health systems. https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1344380/retrieve.Google Scholar
WHO (2020c). Children: Improving survival and well-being. www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/children-reducing-mortality.Google Scholar
WHO (2023). Reorienting health systems to primary health care as a resilient foundation for universal health coverage and preparations for a high-level meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on universal health coverage. https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/EB152/B152_5-en.pdf.Google Scholar
WHO CMH (2001). Macroeconomics and health: Investing in health for economic development. Report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42435/924154550X.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
WHO CSDOH (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/65985/retrieve.Google Scholar
WHO-UNICEF (1978). Primary health care: A joint report / by the Director-General of the world health organization and the executive director of the united nations children’s fund. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/39225.Google Scholar
WHO/UNICEF (2012). WHO/UNICEF joint statement: Integrated community case management. www.childhealthtaskforce.org/sites/default/files/2019-07/iCCM%28WHO%2C%20UNICEF%2C%202012%29.pdf.Google Scholar
WHO & UNICEF (2018). Declaration of Astana. www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-HIS-SDS-2018.61.Google Scholar
WHO/UNICEF (2020). Institutionalizing integrated community case management (iCCM) to end preventable child deaths. www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240006935.Google Scholar
WHO & World Bank (2014). Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels: Framework, measures and targets. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/112824/WHO_HIS_HIA_14.1_eng.pdf?sequence=1.Google Scholar
WHO & World Bank (2017). Healthy systems for universal health coverage: A joint vision for healthy lives. www.uhc2030.org/fileadmin/uploads/uhc2030/Documents/About_UHC2030/mgt_arrangemts___docs/UHC2030_Official_documents/UHC2030_vision_paper_WEB2.pdf.Google Scholar
WHO & World Bank (2021). Tracking universal health coverage: 2021 global monitoring report. www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240040618.Google Scholar
Wibulpolprasert, S., & Pengpaibon, P. (2003). Integrated strategies to tackle the inequitable distribution of doctors in Thailand: Four decades of experience. Human Resources for Health, 1(1), 117. https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4491-1-12.Google Scholar
Wibulpolprasert, S., & Fleck, F. (2014). Thailand’s health ambitions pay off. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 92(7), 472–3. doi: 10.2471/BLT.14.030714.Google Scholar
Wickramasinghe, N. (2006). Sri Lanka in the modern age: A history of contested identities. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Wiist, W. (2011). Philanthropic foundations and the public health agenda. New York: Corporations and Health Watch.Google Scholar
World Bank (1987). Financing health services in developing countries. Washington, DC: World Bank. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/468091468137379607/pdf/multi-page.pdf.Google Scholar
World Bank (1993). World development report 1993: Investing in health. New York: Oxford University Press. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/5976/WDR%201993%20-%20English.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
World Bank (2021). Walking the talk: Reimagining primary health care after COVID-19. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/35842/9781464817687.pdf?sequence=7&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
World Bank (2023). World Bank open data. https://data.worldbank.org/.Google Scholar
World Bank (n.d.a). World Bank country and lending groups. https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519.Google Scholar
World Bank (n.d.b). The World Bank in Thailand. www.worldbank.org/en/country/thailand/overview.Google Scholar
Xue, Y., Smith, J. A., & Spetz, J. (2019). Primary care nurse practitioners and physicians in low-income and rural areas, 2010-2016. JAMA, 321(1), 102–5. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.17944.Google Scholar