The rise of the internet and mobile telecommunications has created the possibility of using large datasets to understand behavior at unprecedented levels of temporal and geographic resolution. Online social networks attract the most users, though users of these new technologies provide their data through multiple sources, e.g. call detail records, blog posts, web forums, and content aggregation sites. These data allow scholars to adjudicate between competing theories as well as develop new ones, much as the microscope facilitated the development of the germ theory of disease. Of those networks, Twitter presents an ideal combination of size, international reach, and data accessibility that make it the preferred platform in academic studies. Acquiring, cleaning, and analyzing these data, however, require new tools and processes. This Element introduces these methods to social scientists and provides scripts and examples for downloading, processing, and analyzing Twitter data.
Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)
Acemoglu, Daron, Tahoun, Ahmed, and Hassan, Tarek A. (2014). “The Power of the Street: Evidence from Egypt’s Arab Spring,” NBER Working Paper No. 20665.
Adamic, Lada A. and Glance, Natalie (2005). “The Political Blogosphere and the 2004 U.S. Election: Divided They Blog.” In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Link Discovery, August 21–25, 2005, Chicago, IL, pp. 36–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aday, Sean, Freelon, Deen, Farrell, Henry, Lynch, Marc, and Sides, John (2012). “New Media and Conflict After the Arab Spring.” Technical Report, United States Institute of Peace, Washington, DC.
Aday, Sean, Farrell, Henry, Lynch, Marc, Sides, John, Kelly, John, and Zuckerman, Ethan (2010). “Blogs and Bullets: New Media in Contentious Politics.” Technical Report United States Institute of Peace, Washington, DC.
Jason, Anastasopoulos L., Badani, Dhruvil, Lee, Crystal, Ginosar, Shiry, and Williams, Jake (2016). “Photographic Home Styles in Congress: A Computer Vision Approach.” http://arxiv.org/abs/1611.09942.
Asur, Sitaram and Huberman, Bernardo A. (2010). “Predicting the Future with Social Media.” In 2010 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology. IEEE, pp. 492–99.Google Scholar
Bail, Christopher A. (2014). “The Cultural Environment: Measuring Culture with Big Data.” Theory and Society, 43(3–4), 465–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bakshy, Eytan, Messing, Solomon, and Adamic, Lada (2015). “Exposure to Ideologically Diverse News and Opinion on Facebook.” Sciencexpress, 348(6239), 1160.Google ScholarPubMed
Barberá, Pablo (2014). “How Social Media Reduces Mass Political Polarization. Evidence from Germany, Spain, and the US.” Paper prepared for the 2015 APSA Conference.
Barberá, Pablo (2015). “Birds of the Same Feather Tweet Together: Bayesian Ideal Point Estimation Using Twitter Data.” Political Analysis, 23(August 2013), 76–91.Google Scholar
Pablo, Barberá, Jost, John T., Nagler, Jonathan, Tucker, Joshua A., and Bonneau, Richard (2015a). “Tweeting from Left to Right: Is Online Political Communication More Than an Echo Chamber?” Psychological science, 26(10),1531–42. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26297377.Google Scholar
Barberá, Pablo, Wang, Ning, Bonneau, Richard, Jost, John T., Nagler, Jonathan, Tucker, Joshua, and González-Bailón, Sandra (2015b). “The Critical Periphery in the Growth of Social Protests.” PloS ONE10(11), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barberá, Pablo, Bonneau, Richard, Egan, Patrick, Jost, John T., Nagler, Jonathan, and Tucker, Joshua (2014). “Leaders or Followers? Measuring Political Responsiveness in the US Congress Using Social Media Data.” Prepared for delivery at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, August 28–31, 2014.
Bastos, Marco T., Mercea, Dan, and Charpentier, Arthur (2015). “Tents, Tweets, and Events: The Interplay between Ongoing Protests and Social Media.” Journal of Communication65(2), 320–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beieler, John (2013). “A Tutorial on Deploying and Using Amazon Eleastic Cloud Compute Clusters.” The Political Methodologist20(2), 16–21.Google Scholar
Berger, Daniel, Kalyanaraman, Shankar, and Linardi, Sera (2014). “Violence and Cell Phone Communication: Behavior and Prediction in Cote d’Ivoire.” Working paper.
Bergstrom, Kelly (2011). ““Don’t Feed the Troll”: Shutting Down Debate about Community Expectations on Reddit.com.” First Monday16(8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steven, Bird, Klein, E., and Loper, E. (2009). “Natural Language Processing with Python: Analyzing Text with the Natural Language Toolkit.” O’Reilly Media, Inc.Google Scholar
Blumenstock, J., Cadamuro, G., and On, R. (2015). “Predicting Poverty and Wealth from Mobile Phone Metadata.” Science350(6264), 1073–1076.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blumenstock, Joshua E (2011). “Using Mobile Phone Data to Measure the Ties Between Nations.” In Proceedings of the 2011 iConference, pp. 195–202.CrossRef
Blumenstock, Joshua E (2012). “Inferring Patterns of Internal Migration from Mobile Phone Call Records: Evidence from Rwanda.” Information Technology for Development18(2), 107–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bollen, Johan, Mao, Huina, and Zeng, Xiaojun (2011). “Twitter Mood Predicts the Stock Market.” Journal of Computational Science2(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robert M., Bond, Fariss, Christopher J., Jones, Jason J., Kramer, Adam D.I., Marlow, Cameron, Settle, Jaime E., and Fowler, James H. (2012). “A 61-Million-Person Experiment in Social Influence and Political Mobilization.” Nature489(7415), 295–298.Google Scholar
Borge-Holthoefer, Javier, Magdy, Walid, Darwish, Kareem, and Weber, Ingmar (2015). “Content and Network Dynamics behind Egyptian Political Polarization on Twitter.” In 18th Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, pp. 1–30.CrossRef
Bourlai, Elli and Herring, Susan C. (2014). “Multimodal Communication on Tumblr: I Have So Many Feels!.” In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM Conference on Web Science, pp. 171–175.CrossRef
Boyd, Dannah, Golder, Scott, and Lotan, Gilad (2010). “Tweet, Tweet, Retweet: Conversational Aspects of Retweeting on Twitter.” In 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. IEEE, pp. 1–10.CrossRef
Budak, Ceren and Watts, Duncan (2015). “Dissecting the Spirit of Gezi: Influence vs. Selection in the Occupy Gezi Movement.” Sociological Science2: 370–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bury, Rhiannon, Deller, Ruth, and Greenwood, Adam (2013). “From Usenet to Tumblr: The Changing Role of Social Media.” Participations10(1), 299–318.Google Scholar
Catanese, Salvatore A, De Meo, Pasquale, Ferrara, Emilio, Fiumara, Giacomo, and Provetti, Alessandro (2011). “Crawling Facebook for Social Network Analysis Purposes.” In Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence, Mining and Semantics. New York.Google Scholar
Cavnar, W. B. and Trenkle, J. M. (1994). “n-Gram-Based Text Categorization.” In 3rd Annual Symposium on Document Analysis and Information Retrieval. Las Vegas, pp. 161–175.Google Scholar
Chang, Yi, Tang, Lei, Inagaki, Yoshiyuki, and Liu, Yan (2014). “What is Tumblr: A Statistical Overview and Comparison.” SIGKDD Explorations16(1), 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charles-Smith, Lauren E., Reynolds, Tera L., Cameron, Mark A., Mike Conway, Eric H.Lau, Y., Olsen, Jennifer M., Pavlin, Julie A., Mika Shigematsu, Laura C.Streichert, Katie J. Suda, and Corley, Courtney D. (2015). “Using Social Media for Actionable Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Management: A Systematic Literature Review.” PLOS One10(10), e0139701.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, Zhiyuan, Caverlee, James, and Lee, Kyumin (2010). “You Are Where You Tweet: A Content-Based Approach to Geo-locating Twitter Users.” In ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. Toronto.Google Scholar
Conover, M.D., Ratkiewicz, J., Francisco, M., Goncalves, B., Flammini, A., and Menczer, F. (2011). “Political Polarization on Twitter.” In Fifth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 89–96.
Conover, Michael D., Gonçalves, Bruno, Flammini, Alessandro and Menczer, Filippo (2012). “Partisan Asymmetries in Online Political Activity.” EPJ Data Science1(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conover, Michael D, Davis, Clayton, Ferrara, Emilio, McKelvey, Karissa, Menczer, Filippo, and Flammini, Alessandro (2013). “The Geospatial Characteristics of a Social Movement Communication Network.” PloS one8(3), e55957.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dalton, Russell J., Greene, Steven, Beck, Paul Allen, and Huckfeldt, Robert (2002). “The Social Calculus of Voting: Interpersonal, Media, and Organizational Influences on Presidential Choices.” The American Political Science Review96(1), 57–73.Google Scholar
Davenport, Christian and Ball, Patrick (2002). “Views to a Kill: Exploring the Implications of Source Selection in the Case of Guatemalan State Terror, 1977–1995).” Journal of Conflict Resolution46(3), 427–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diaz, Fernando, Gamon, Michael, Hofman, Jake, Kiciman, Emre, and Rothschild, David (2016). “Online and Social Media Data as a Flawed Continuous Panel Survey.” PLoS One11(1), e0145406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peter Sheridan, Dodds, Decker Harris, Kameron, Kloumann, Isabel M., Bliss, Catherine A., and Danforth, Christopher M. (2011). “Temporal Patterns of Happiness and Information in a Global Social Network: Hedonometrics and Twitter.” PLoS ONEcomput6(12), e26752.Google Scholar
Douglass, Rex W, Meyer, David a, Ram, Megha, Rideout, David, and Song, Dongjin (2015). “High Resolution Population Estimates from Telecommunications data.” EPJ Data Science4(1), 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunbar, R. I. M. (1995). “Neocortex Size and Group Size In Primates: A Test of the Hypothesis.” Journal of Human Evolution28(3), 287–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunbar, R.I.M., Arnaboldi, Valerio, Conti, Marco, and Passarella, Andrea (2015). “The Structure of Online Social Networks Mirrors Those in the Offline World.” Social Networks43: 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eubank, Nicholas (2016). “Social Networks and the Political Salience of Ethnicity.” Working paper.
Evans, Heather K., Cordova, Victoria, and Sipole, Savannah (2014). “Twitter Style: An Analysis of How House Candidates Used Twitter in Their 2012 Campaigns.” PS: Political Science & Politics47(02), 454–462.Google Scholar
Farrell, Henry (2012). “The Consequences of the Internet for Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science15(1), 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrara, Emilio (2012). “A Large-Scale Community Structure Analysis in Facebook.” EPJ Data Science1(9), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrara, Emilio and Bessi, Alessandro (2016). “Social Bots Distort the 2016 US Presidential Election Online Discussion.” First Monday21(11), 1–17.Google Scholar
Ferrara, Emilio, Varol, Onur, Davis, Clayton, Menczer, Filippo, and Flammini, Alessandro (2016a. “BotOrNot: A System to Evaluate Social Bots.” In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference Companion on World Wide Web, pp. 273–274.
Ferrara, Emilio, Varol, Onur, Davis, Clayton, Menczer, Filippo, and Flammini, Alessandro (2016b). “The Rise of Social Bots.” Communications of the ACM59(7), 96–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrara, Emilio, Interdonato, Roberto, and Tagarelli, Andrea (2014). “Online Popularity and Topical Interests through the Lens of Instagram.” ACM Hypertext 2014, 11.CrossRef
Forelle, Michelle C, Howard, Philip N., Monroy-Hernandez, Andres, and Savage, Saiph (2015). “Political Bots and the Manipulation of Public Opinion in Venezuela.” SSRN Electronic Journal, pp. 1–8.CrossRef
Frank, Morgan R, Mitchell, Lewis, Dodds, Peter Sheridan, and Danforth, Christopher M (2013). “Happiness and the Patterns of Life: A Study of Geolocated Tweets.” Scientific Reports3:2625.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gao, Qi, Abel, Fabian, Houben, Geert-Jan, and Yong, Yu (2012). “A Comparative Study of Users’ Mircroblogging Behavior on Sina Weibo and Twitter.” In Proceedings of International Conference on user Modelling and Personalization (UMAP2012), pp.88–101.
Manuel, Garcia-Herranz, Moro, Esteban, Cebrian, Manuel, Christakis, Nicholas A., and Fowler, James H. (2014). “Using Friends as Sensors to Detect Global-Scale Contagious Outbreaks.” PloS ONE9(4), e92413.Google Scholar
Gayo-Avello, Daniel (2013). “A Meta-Analysis of State-of-the-Art Electoral Prediction from Twitter Data.” Social Science Computer Review31(6), 649–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerber, Matthew S. (2014). “Predicting Crime Using Twitter and Kernel Density Estimation.” Decision Support Systems61:115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilbert, Eric (2013). “Widespread Underprovision on Reddit.” In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. New York: ACM Press p. 803.Google Scholar
Gjoka, Minas U.Irvine, C., and Butts, Carter T. (2010). “Walking in Facebook: A Case Study of Unbiased Sampling of OSNs.” In INFOCOM. San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
Golder, Scott A. and Macy, Michael W. (2011). “Diurnal and Seasonal Mood Vary with Work, Sleep, and Daylength across Diverse Cultures.” Science (New York, N.Y.)333(6051), 1878–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Golder, Scott A. and Macy, Michael W. (2014). “Digital Footprints: Opportunities and Challenges for Online Social Research.” Annual Review of Sociology40(1), 129–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonçalves, Bruno, Perra, Nicola, and Vespignani, Alessandro (2011). “Modeling Users’ Activity on Twitter Networks: Validation of Dunbar’s Number.” PloS ONE6(8), e22656.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
González-Bailón, Sandra, Borge-Holthoefer, Javier, Rivero, Alejandro, and Moreno, Yamir (2011). “The Dynamics of Protest Recruitment through an Online Network.” Scientific Reports1:197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra, Borge-Holthoefer, Javier, and Moreno, Yamir (2013). “Broadcasters and Hidden Influentials in Online Protest Diffusion.” American Behavioral Scientist57(7), 943–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Bailón, Sandra, Wang, Ning, Rivero, Alejandro, Borge-Holthoefer, Javier, and Moreno, Yamir (2012). “Assessing the Bias in Communication Networks Sampled from Twitter.”
Greenwood, Shannon, Perrin, Andrew, and Duggan, Maeve (2016). “Social Media Update 2016.” Pew Research Center.
Grimmer, J. and Stewart, B. M. (2013). “Text as Data: The Promise and Pitfalls of Automatic Content Analysis Methods for Political Texts.” Political Analysis21(3), 267–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guan, Wanqiu, Gao, Haoyu, Yang, Mingmin, Yuan, Li, Haixin, Ma, Qian, Weining, Cao, Zhigang, and Yang, Xiaoguang (2014). “Analyzing User Behavior of the Micro-Blogging Website Sina Weibo during Hot Social Events.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications395:340–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexander, Halavais (2011). “Social Science: Open Up Online Research.” Nature48, 174–175.Google Scholar
Hale, Scott A., Gaffney, Devin, and Graham, Mark (2011). “Where in the World Are You? Geolocation and Language Identification in Twitter.” The Professional Georgrapher66(4).Google Scholar
Hammond, Jesse and Weidmann, Nils B. (2014). “Using Machine-Coded Event Data For The Micro-Level Study Of Political Violence.” Research & Politics1(2), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, Bo and Baldwin, Timothy (2011). “Lexical Normalisation of Short Text Messages: Makn Sens a #twitter.” In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. Porland: Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 368–378.Google Scholar
Hassid, Jonathan (2012). “Safety Valve or Pressure Cooker? Blogs in Chinese Political Life.” Journal of Communication62(2), 212–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hecht, Brent, Hong, Lichan, Suh, Bongwon, and Chi, Ed H. (2011). “Tweets from Justin Bieber’s Heart: The Dynamics of the Location Field in User Profiles.” In ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Number Figure 1 Vancouver:.CrossRef
Hemphill, Libby, Otterbacher, Jahna, and Shapiro, Matthew (2013). “What’s Congress Doing on Twitter?” In Proceedings of the 2013 conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 877–886.CrossRef
Henrich, Joseph, Heine, Steven J., and Norenzayan, Ara (2010). “The Weirdest People in the World.” The Behavioral and Brain Sciences33(2–3), 61–83; discussion 83–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hochman, Nadav and Manovich, Lev (2013). “Zooming into an Instagram City: Reading the Local Through Social Media.” First Monday18(7), 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Honeycutt, Courtenay and Herring, Susan C. (2009). “Beyond Microblogging: Conversation and Collaboration via Twitter.” In Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 1–10.
Hu, Yuheng, Manikonda, Lydia, and Kambhampati, Subbarao (2014). “What we Instagram: A First Analysis of Instagram Photo Content and User Types.” In Proceedings of the Eight International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 595–598.
Jones, Harvey and Jose Soltren, Hiram (2005). “Facebook: Threats to privacy.” Project MAC: MIT Project on Mathematics and Computing1:1–76.Google Scholar
Jungherr, Andreas (2014). “Twitter in Politics: A Comprehensive Literature Review.”
Kallus, Nathan (2013). “Predicting Crowd Behavior with Big Public Data.” In 23rd International Conference on World Wide Web.
Kalyvas, Stathis N (2004). The Urban Bias in Research on Civil Wars. Vol. 13.
Kaneko, Takamu and Yanai, Keiji (2013). “Visual Event Mining from Geo-Tweet Photos.” In IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo Workshops, pp. 1–6.CrossRef
King, Gary, Pan, Jennifer, and Roberts, Margaret E. (2014). “Reverse-Engineering Censorship in China: Randomized Experimentation and Participant Observation.” Science345(6199), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kramer, Adam D.I., Guillory, Jamie E., and Hancock, Jeffrey T. (2014). “Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks.” In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111(24), 8788–8790.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kulshrestha, Juhi, Kooti, Farshad, Nikravesh, Ashkan, and Gummadi, Krishna P (2012). “Geographic Dissection of the Twitter Network.” In Proceedings of the Sixth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 202–209.
Kwak, Haewoon, Lee, Changhyun, Park, Hosung, and Moon, Sue (2010). “What Is Twitter, a Social Network or a News Media?” In International World Wide Conference. Raleigh: ACM Press, pp. 591–600.Google Scholar
La Due, Lake, Ronald and Huckfeldt, Robert (1998). “Social Capital, Social Networks, and Political Participation.” Political Psychology19(3), 567–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lakkaraju, Himabindu, McAuley, Julian J., and Leskovec, Jure (2013). “What’s in a Name? Understanding the Interplay between Titles, Content, and Communities in Social Media.” In International Conference on Web and Social Media.
Larson, Jennifer M., Nagler, Jonathan, Ronen, Jonathan, and Tucker, Joshua A. (2016). “Social Networks and Protest Participation: Evidence from 130 Million Twitter Users.” Working paper.CrossRef
Lazer, David, Brewer, Devon, Christakis, Nicholas, Fowler, James, and King, Gary (2009). “Life in the Network: The Coming Age of Computational Social Science.” Science323(5915), 721–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leetaru, Kalev H., Wang, Shaowen, Cao, Guofeng, Padmanabhan, Anand, and Shook, Eric (2013). “Mapping the Global Twitter Heartbeat: The Geography of Twitter.” First Monday18(5–6), 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leetaru, Kalev and Schrodt, Philip (2013). “GDELT: Global Data on Events, Language, and Tone, 1979–2012.” International Studies Association Annual Conference.Google Scholar
Lin, Chengfeng, Jianhua, He, Zhou, Yi, Yang, Xiaokang, Chen, Kai, and Song, Li (2013). “Analysis and Identification of Spamming Behaviors in Sina Weibo Microblog.” In Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Social Network Mining and Analysis13: 1–9.Google Scholar
Llorente, Alejandro, Garcia-Herranz, Manuel, Cebrian, Manuel, and Moro, Esteban (2014). “Social media fingerprints of unemployment.” http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.3140.
Lotan, Gilad, Ananny, Mike, Gaffney, Devin, Boyd, Danah, Pearce, Ian, and Graeff, Erhardt (2011). “The Revolutions Were Tweeted: Information Flows During the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions Web.” International Journal of Communications5:1375–1406.Google Scholar
Lucas, Christopher, Nielsen, Richard A., Roberts, Margaret E., Stewart, Brandon M., Storer, Alex, and Tingley, Dustin (2015). “Computer-Assisted Text Analysis for Comparative Politics.” Political Analysis23(2), 254–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malik, Momin M., Nakos, Constantine, Lamba, Hemank, and Pfeffer, Jiirgen (2015). “Population Bias in Geotagged Tweets.” In 9th International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Oxford.Google Scholar
Malik, Momin M. and Pfeffer, Jurgen (2016). “A Macroscopic Analysis of News Content in Twitter.” Digital Journalism0811(May), 1–25.Google Scholar
Christopher D, Manning. and Schutze, Hinrich (1999). Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
Marwell, Gerald, Oliver, Pamela E., and Prahl, Ralph (1988). “Social Networks and Collective Action: A Theory of the Critical Mass.” American Journal of Sociology94(3), 502–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metternich, Nils W., Dorff, Cassy, Gallop, Max, Weschle, Simon, and Ward, Michael D. (2013). “Antigovernment Networks in Civil Conflicts: How Network Structures Affect Conflictual Behavior.” American Journal of Political Science57(4).Google Scholar
Mislove, Alan, Lehmann, Sune, Ahn, Yong-Yeol, Onnela, Jukka-Pekka, and Niels Rosenquist, J.2011). “Understanding the Demographics of Twitter Users.” In Proceedings of the Fifth International AAI Conference on the Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 554–557.
Mocanu, Delia, Baronchelli, Andrea, Perra, Nicola, Vespignani, Alessandro, Goncalves, Bruno, and Zhang, Qian (2013). “The Twitter of Babel: Mapping World Languages through Microblogging Platforms.” PLOS One8(4), e61981.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morstatter, Fred, Pfeffer, Jurgen, Carley, Kathleen M., and Liu, Huan (2013). “Is the Sample Good Enough? Comparing Data from Twitter’s Streaming API with Twitter’s Firehose.” In Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence.
Nguyen, Dong, Gravel, Rilana, Trieschnigg, Dolf, and Meder, Theo (2013). “”How Old Do You Think I Am ?: A Study of Language and Age in Twitter.” Proceedings of the Seventh International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media.
Nickerson, David W. (2008). “Is Voting Contagious? Evidence from Two Field Experiments.” American Political Science Review102(01), 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Onuch, Olga (2015). “EuroMaidan Protests in Ukraine: Social Media Versus Social Networks.” Problems of Post-Communism62(4), 217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Opp, Karl-Dieter and Gern, Christiane (1993). “Dissident Groups, Personal Networks, and Spontaneous Cooperation: The East German Revolution of 1989.” American Sociological Review58(5), 659–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poblete, Barbara, Garcia, Ruth, Mendoza, Marcelo, and Jaimes, Alejandro (2011). “Do All Birds Tweet the Same? Characterizing Twitter Around the World Categories and Subject Descriptors.” In The 21st ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, pp. 1025–1030.
Qu, Yan, Huang, Chen, Zhang, Pengyi, and Zhang, Jun (2011). “Microblogging after a Major Disaster in China: A Case Study of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake.” In Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Hangzhou, China, pp. 25–34.Google Scholar
Rahimi, Babak (2011). “The Agonistic Social Media: Cyberspace in the Formation of Dissent and Consolidation of State Power in Postelection Iran.” The Communication Review14(3), 158–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramakrishnan, Naren, Chang-tien, Lu, Huang, Bert, Srinivasan, Aravind, Trinh, Khoa, and Getoor, Lise (2014). “Beating the News’ with EMBERS: Forecasting Civil Unrest using Open Source Indicators.” In Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. New York City: ACM Press, pp. 1799–1808.Google Scholar
Ratkiewicz, Jacob, Conover, Michael D., Meiss, Mark, Goncalves, Bruno, Flamini, Alessandro, and Menczer, Filippo (2011). “Detecting and Tracking Political Abuse in Social Media.” In International Conference on Web and Social Media, pp. 297–304.
Reich, Stephanie M., Subrahmanyam, Kaveri, and Espinoza, Guadalupe (2012). “Friending, IMing, and hanging out Face-to-Face: Overlap in Adolescents’ Online and Offline Social Networks.” Developmental Psychology48(2), 356–368.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reuter, Ora John and Szakonyi, David (2013). “Online Social Media and Political Awareness in Authoritarian Regimes.” British Journal of Political Science, pp. 1–23.
Roberts, Margaret E., Stewart, Brandon M., Tingley, Dustin, Lucas, Christopher, Leder-Luis, Jetson, Gadarian, Shana Kushner, Albertson, Bethany, and Rand, David G. (2014). “Structural Topic Models for Open-Ended Survey Responses.” American Journal of Political Science58(4), 1064–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sakaki, Takeshi, Okazaki, Makoto, and Matsuo, Yutaka (2010). “Earthquake Shakes Twitter Users: Real-time Event Detection by Social Sensors.” In International World Wide Web Conference, pp. 851–860.CrossRef
Shweder, Richard A. and Nisbett, Richard E. (2017). “Long-Sought Research Deregulation Is Upon Us: Don’t Squander the Moment.” The Chronicle for Higher Education, 12 March 2017.
Silva, Thiago H., Vaz De Melo, Pedro O.S., Almeida, Jussara M., Salles, Juliana, and Loureiro, Antonio A. F. (2013). “A Picture of Instagram Is Worth More than a Thousand Words: Workload Characterization and Application.” In 2013 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, pp. 123–132.CrossRef
Sloan, Luke and Morgan, Jeffrey (2015). “Who Tweets with Their Location? Understanding the Relationship Between Demographic Characteristics and the Use of Geoservices and Geotagging on Twitter.” PLoS ONE10(11), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sloan, Luke, Morgan, Jeffrey, Burnap, Pete, and Williams, Matthew (2015). “Who Tweets? Deriving the Demographic Characteristics of Age, Occupation and Social Class from Twitter User Meta-Data.” PLoS ONE10(3), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sriram, Bharath, Fuhry, David, Demir, Engin, Ferhatosmanoglu, Hakan, and Demirbas, Murat (2010). “Short Text Classification in Twitter to Improve Information Filtering.” In Proceedings of the 33rd international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval – SIGIR ’10. New York: ACM Press, pp. 841–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Starbird, Kate and Palen, Ley (2010). “Pass It On?: Retweeting in Mass Emergency.” In Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management. December 2004, Seattle, pp. 1–10.
Stefanidis, Anthony, Crooks, Andrew, and Radzikowski, Jacek (2011). “Harvesting Ambient Geospatial Information from Social Media Feeds.” GeoJournal78(2), 319–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suh, Bongwon, Hong, Lichan, Pirolli, Peter, and EdChi, H. (2010). “Want to be Retweeted? Large Scale Analytics on Factors Impacting Retweet in Twitter Network.” In IEEE Second International Conference on Social Computing, pp. 177–184.CrossRef
Sun, Shengyun, Liu, Hongyan, Jun, He, and Xiaoyong, Du (2013). “Detecting Event Rumors on Sina Weibo Automatically.” In Web Technologies and Applications, pp. 120–131.CrossRef
Tucker, Joshua A., Nagler, Jonathan, Metzger, Megan MacDuffee, Duncan Penfold-Brown, Pablo Barberá, and Bonneau, Richard (2016). “Big Data, Social Media, and Protest: Foundations for a Research Agenda.” In Alvarez, R. Michael, Computational Social Science: Discovery and Prediction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, chapter 7, pp. 199–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tufekci, Zeynep (2014). “Big Questions for Social Media Big Data: Representativeness, Validity and Other Methodological Pitfalls Pre-print.” In Proceedings of the 8th International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
Tufekci, Zeynep and Wilson, Christopher (2012). “Social Media and the Decision to Participate in Political Protest: Observations From Tahrir Square.” Journal of Communication62(2), 363–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tufekci, Zeynep and Freelon, Deen (2013). “Introduction to the Special Issue on New Media and Social Unrest.” American Behavioral Scientist57(7), 843–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tumasjan, Andranik, Sprenger, Timm O., Sandner, Philipp G., and Welpe, Isabell M. (2010). “Predicting Elections with Twitter: What 140 Characters Reveal about Political Sentiment.” In Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, pp. 178–185.
Ugander, Johan, Karrer, Brian, Backstrom, Lars, and Marlow, Cameron (2011). “The Anatomy of the Facebook Social Graph.” arXiv:1111.4503.
Update on the Twitter Archive At the Library of Congress (2013). Technical Report, January, Library of CongressWashington, DC.
Valkanas, George, Katakis, Ioannis, Gunopulos, Dimitrios, and Stefanidis, Antony (2014). “Mining Twitter Data with Resource Constraints.” In 2014 International Joint Conferences on Web Intelligence (WI) and Intelligent Agent Technologies (IAT). IEEE, pp. 157–164.Google Scholar
Vieweg, Sarah, Hughes, Amanda L., Starbird, Kate, and Palen, Leysia (2010). “Microblogging During Two Natural Hazards Events: What Twitter May Contribute to Situational Awareness.” In Human Factors in Computing Systems. Atlanta, pp. 1079–1088.Google Scholar
Weber, Ingmar, Kiran Garimella, Venkata R., and Batayneh, Alaa (2013). “Secular vs. Islamist Polarization in Egypt on Twitter.” In IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, pp. 290–297.
Wilson, R. E., Gosling, S. D., and Graham, L. T. (2012). “A Review of Facebook Research in the Social Sciences.” Perspectives on Psychological Science7(3), 203–220.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woolley, Samuel C (2016). “Automating Power: Social Bot Interference in Global Politics.” First Monday21(4), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, Jiejun, Tsai-Ching, Lu, Compton, Ryan, and Allen, David (2014). “Civil Unrest Prediction: A Tumblr-Based Exploration.” In Kennedy, William G., Agarwal, Nitin, and Yang, Shanchieh JaySocial Computing, Behavioral–Cultural Modeling and Prediction, Vol. 8393. Springer International Publishing, pp. 403–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yardi, Sarita and Boyd, Danah (2010). “Tweeting from the Town Square: Measuring Geographic Local Networks.” In Fourth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 194–201.
Yazdani, Mehrdad and Manovich, Lev (2015). “Predicting Social Trends from Non-Photographic Images on Twitter.” In Proceedings – 2015 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, IEEE Big Data 2015, pp. 1653–1660.CrossRef
Lei, Yu, Louis, Asur, Sitaram, and Huberman, Bernardo A. (2012). “Artificial Inflation: The Real Story of Trends and Trend-Setters in Sina Weibo.” In Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT), 2012 International Conference on and 2012 International Confernece on Social Computing (SocialCom), pp. 514–519.CrossRef
Zamal, Faiyaz Al, Liu, Wendy, and Ruths, Derek (2012). “Homophily and Latent Attribute Inference: Inferring Latent Attributes of Twitter Users from Neighbors.” In Proceedings of the Sixth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 387–90.
Zeitzoff, Thomas (2011). “Using Social Media to Measure Conflict Dynamics: An Application to the 2008–2009 Gaza Conflict.” Journal of Conflict Resolution55(6), 938–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeitzoff, Thomas, Kelly, John, and Lotan, Gilad (2015). “Using Social Media to Measure Foreign Policy Dynamics: An Empirical Analysis of the Iranian–Israeli Confrontation (2012–13).” Journal of Peace Research52(3), 368–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zheludev, Ilya, Smith, Robert, and Aste, Tomaso (2014). “When Can Social Media Lead Financial Markets?” Scientific Reports4(4213).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhou, W.-X., Sornette, D., Hill, Russell A., and Dunbar, R. I. M. (2005). “Discrete Hierarchical Organization of Social Group Sizes.” Proceedings. Biological Sciences/The Royal Society272(1561). 439–444.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
To send this element to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.