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The Atonement
The Atonement

How did Christ's death overcome the estrangement and condemnation of sinners before a holy God, so as to reconcile them to Him? A great variety of theories of the atonement have been offered over the centuries to make sense of the fact that Christ by his death has provided the means of reconciliation with God: ransom theories, satisfaction theories, moral influence theories, penal substitution theories, and so on. Competing theories need to be assessed by (i) their accord with biblical data and (ii) their philosophical coherence.

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  • COPYRIGHT: © William Lane Craig 2018
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Green, Joel B. (2006). “Kaleidoscopic View.” In Beilby, James and Eddy, Paul R., eds., The Nature of the Atonement. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, pp. 157–85.
Gregory of Nyssa, . (1893). The Great Catechism. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2/5, Schaff, Philip and Wace, Henry, eds. New York: The Christian Literature Company.
Grotius, Hugo. (1889). A Defence of the Catholic Faith concerning the Satisfaction of Christ, against Faustus Socinus, Frank Hugh Foster, trans., Andover, MA: Warren F. Draper.
Heicke, Thomas. (2016). “Participation and Abstraction in the Yom Kippur Ritual according to Leviticus 16.” Paper presented to the “Ritual in the Biblical World” section of the Society of Biblical Literature, San Antonio, TX, November 21.
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Hofius, Otfried. (2004). “The Fourth Servant Song in the New Testament Letters.” In Janowski, Bernd and Stuhlmacher, Peter, eds., The Suffering Servant: Isaiah 53 in Jewish and Christian Sources. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, pp. 163–88.
Husak, Douglas. (2005). “Malum Prohibitum and Retributivism.” In Duff, R. A. and Green, Stuart P., eds., Defining Crimes: Essays on the Special Part of the Criminal Law, Oxford Monographs on Criminal Law and Justice, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 6590.
Irons, Charles Lee. (2015). The Righteousness of God: A Lexical Examination of the Covenant-Faithfulness Interpretation, Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament II 386, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Kobil, Daniel T. (1991). “The quality of mercy strained: wresting the pardoning power from the king.” Texas Law Review, 69, pp. 569641.
Leftow, Brian. (2012). God and Necessity, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Leigh, L. H. (1982). Strict and Vicarious Liability: A Study in Administrative Criminal Law, Modern Legal Studies, London: Sweet and Maxwell.
Lewis, David. (1997). “Do we believe in penal substitution?Philosophical Papers, 26(3), pp. 203–09.
Lind, Douglas. (2015). “The Pragmatic Value of Legal Fictions.” In Del Mar, Maksymilian and Twining, William, eds., Legal Fictions in Theory and Practice. Law and Philosophy Library 110. Switzerland: Springer Verlag, pp. 83109.
Luther, Martin. (1939). Commentary on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians, Graebner, Theodore, trans., Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Marshall, I. Howard. (2007). Aspects of the Atonement: Cross and Resurrection in the Reconciling of God and Humanity, London: Paternoster.
Messing, Noah A. (2016). “A new power?: Civil offenses and presidential clemency.” Buffalo Law Review, 64, pp. 661743.
Milgrom, Jacob. (1991). Leviticus 1–16. The Anchor Bible 3. New York: Doubleday.
Mitros, Joseph F. (1967). “Patristic views of Christ’s salvific work.” Thought, 42(3), pp. 415–47.
Moore, Kathleen Dean. (1989). Pardons: Justice, Mercy, and the Public Interest, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moore, Michael. (1997). Placing Blame: A Theory of Criminal Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moreland, J. P. and Craig, William Lane. (2017). Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview, 2nd edn., Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Morison, Samuel T. (2005). “The politics of grace: On the moral justification of executive clemency.” Buffalo Criminal Law Review, 9(1), pp. 1138.
Morris, Leon. (1983). The Atonement: Its Meaning and Significance, Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Murphy, Jeffrie G. (1985). “Retributivism, moral education, and the liberal state.” Criminal Justice Ethics, 4, pp. 311.
Murphy, Mark C. (2009). “Not penal substitution but vicarious punishment.” Faith and Philosophy 26(3), pp. 253–73.
Nazianzus, Gregory. (1894). Select Orations. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2/7, Schaff, Philip and Wace, Henry, eds., New York: The Christian Literature Company.
Origen, . (1935). Origenes Werke: Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte. Benz, Ernst and Klostermann, Erich, eds., Origenes Matthäuserklärung 10. Leipzig: J. C. Heinrichs’sche Buchhandlung.
Ormerod, David. (2011). Smith and Hogan’s Criminal Law, 13th edn., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Owen, John. (n.d.). A Dissertation on Divine Justice: or, the Claims of Vindicatory Justice Asserted. London: L. J. Higham and J. Murgatroyd.
Plantinga, Alvin. (2011). “Comments on ‘Satanic Verses: Moral Chaos in Holy Writ’.” In Bergmann, Michael, Murray, Michael J., and Rea, Michael C., eds., Divine Evil?: The Moral Character of the God of Abraham. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 109–14.
Porter, Steven J. (2004). “Swinburnian atonement and the doctrine of penal substitution.” Faith and Philosophy, 21(2), pp. 228–41.
Prior, A. N. (1958). “The syntax of time-distinctions.” Franciscan Studies, 18(2), pp. 105–20.
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