Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
Elements of Ritual and Violence
Elements of Ritual and Violence

Ritualized violence is by definition not haphazard or random, but seemingly intentional and often ceremonial. It has a long history in religious practice, as attested in texts and artifacts from the earliest civilizations. It is equally evident in the behaviors of some contemporary religious activists and within initiatory practices ongoing in many regions of the world. Given its longevity and cultural expanse, ritualized violence presumably exerts a pull deeply into the sociology, psychology, anthropology, theology, perhaps even ontology of its practitioners, but this is not transparent. This short volume will sketch the subject of ritualized violence, that is, it will summarize some established theories about ritual and about violence, and will ponder a handful of striking instantiations of their link.

  • Copyright
  • COPYRIGHT: © Margo Kitts 2018
Afsaruddin, Asma.Martyrdom and Its Contestations in the Formative Period of Islam.” In Martyrdom, Self-Sacrifice, and Self-Immolation: Religious Perspectives on Suicide, ed. Kitts, Margo. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. 85105.
Ahmed, Sara and Stacey, Jackie. “Introduction: Dermographies.” In Thinking Through the Skin, eds. Ahmed, Sara and Stacey, Jackie. London and New York: Routledge, 2001. 117.
Aijmer, Göran.Introduction: The Idiom of Violence in Imagery and Discourse.” In Meanings of Violence: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, eds. Aijmer, Göran and Abbink, Jon. Oxford: Berg, 2000. 154.
Alcorta, Candace and Sosis, Richard, “Ritual, Emotion, and Sacred Symbols,Human Nature 16:4 (2005): 323359.
Alcorta, Candace and Sosis, Richard, “Ritual, Religion, and Violence: An Evolutionary Perspective.” In Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence, eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Kitts, Margo, and Jerryson, Michael. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 571596.
Alexander, Jeffrey C., “From the Depths of Despair: Performance, Counterperformance and ‘September 11,’Sociological Theory 22:1 (Mar. 2004): 88104.
Allen, Mark W. and Arkush, Elizabeth N.. “Introduction: Archaeology and the Study of War.” In The Archaeology of Warfare: Prehistories of Raiding and Conquest. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2006, 122.
Archi, Alfonso.Il Culto Del Focolare presso gli Ittiti.” SMEA XVI (1975): 7787.
Arnold, Bill T. and Bryan, E., eds. Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic Press, 2002.
Asad, Talal.Toward a Genealogy of the Concept of Ritual.” Genealogies of Religion. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins University Press 1993, 5562, 307. In Ritual, eds. Stewart, Pamela and Strathern, Andrew. Farnham: Ashgate Press. 2010, 233242.
Atkin, Albert, “Peirce’s Theory of Signs”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2013 edition), ed.Zalta, Edward N., http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2013/entries/peirce-semiotics/.
Austin, J. L. How to Do Things with Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962, 1975.
Bahn, Paul G. Cambridge Illustrated History of Prehistoric Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Bahrani, Zainab. The Graven Image. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003.
Bahrani, Zainab.The King’s Head.” Iraq LXVI (2004): 115118.
Bahrani, Zainab. Rituals of War. New York: Zone Books, 2008.
Bar-Yosef, Ofer.The Upper Paleolithic Revolution.” Annual Review of Anthropology 31 (2002):363393.
Bargu, Banu. Starve and Immolate: The Politics of Human Weapons. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.
Barrett, Justin. Cognitive Science, Religion, and Theology: From Human Minds to Divine Minds. Conshohocken: Templeton Press, 2011.
Bateson, Gregory. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York: Ballantine Books, 1972.
Baudrillard, Jean. The Spirit of Terrorism. Trans. Turner, Chris. London: Verso, 2002.
Becker, Judith O. Deep Listeners: Music, Emotion, and Trancing. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.
Beidelman, Thomas O. The Cool Knife: Imagery of Gender, Sexuality, and Moral Education in Kaguru Initiation Ritual. Ann Arbor: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997.
Bell, Catherine. Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Bell, Catherine.Ritual Symbols, Syntax, and Praxis: Questions of Cultural Meaning and Interpretation.” In Ritual: Perspectives and Dimensions. New York: Oxford University Press (1997), 6183, 281285, 313315. In Ritual, eds. Stewart, Pamela and Strathern, Andrew. Farnham: Ashgate Press. 2010. 2152.
Bell, Vikki.The Scenography of Suicide: Terror, Politics, and the Humiliated Witness.” Economy and Society 34/2 (2005):241260.
Benjamin, Walter.Critique of Violence.” In Reflections: Essays, Aporisms, Autobiographical Writings. Trans. Jephcott, Edmund. New York: Schocken Books. 1986 (1921). 277300.
Benn, James A. Burning for the Buddha. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007.
Binder, Werner.Ritual Dynamics and Torture: The Performance of Violence and Humiliation at the Abu Ghraib Prison.” Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual, Volume III: State, Power, and Violence, eds. Kitts, Margo, Schneidmüller, Bernd, Schwedler, Gerald, Tounta, Eleni, Kulke, Hermann, and Skoda, Uwe. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2010. 75104.
Bloch, Maurice.Symbols, Song, Dance and Features of Articulation: Is Religion an Extreme Form of Traditional Authority?Archives Europeenes de Sociologie 15 (1974):5581.
Bloch, Maurice. Political Language and Oratory in Traditional Society. London: Academy Press, 1975.
Bloch, Maurice. Prey into Hunter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Bloch, Maurice.Ritual and Deference.” In Ritual and Memory: Toward a Comparative Anthropology of Religion, eds. Whitehouse, Harvey and Laidlaw, James. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield 2004. 6578.
Bloch, Maurice.Symbols, Song, Dance and Features of Articulation: Is Religion an Extreme Form of Traditional Authority?” In Ritual, History and Power: Selected Papers in Anthropology. London: Athlone Press. 19–45, 214, 223–224, 1989. Excerpted in Ritual, eds. Stewart, Pamela and Strathern, Andrew. Farnham: Ashgate Press. 2010. 5382.
Bobič, Pavlina. War and Faith: The Catholic Church in Slovenia, 1914–1918. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2012.
Bottéro, Jean. Religion in Mesopotamia. Trans. Fagan, Teresa Lavender. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Boyer, Pascal. Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought. New York: Basic Books, 2001.
Boyer, Pascal and Liénhard, Pierre. “Why Ritualized Behavior? Precaution Systems and Action Parsing in Developmental, Pathological, and Cultural Rituals.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2006):156.
Burkert, Walter. Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth. Trans. Bing, Peter. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1983.
Burkert, Walter.Sacrificial Violence: A Problem in Ancient Religions.” In Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence, eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Kitts, Margo, and Jerryson, Michael. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 437453.
Castelli, Elizabeth A. Martyrdom and Memory: Early Christian Culture Making. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
Chacon, Richard and Dye, David, eds. The Taking and Displaying of Human Body Parts as Trophies by Amerindians. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2007.
Chacon, Richard and Mendoza, Ruben, eds. North American Indigenous Warfare and Ritual Violence. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2007.
Chagnon, Napoleon A.Life Histories, Blood Revenge, and Warfare in a Tribal Population.” Science, New Series 239:4843 (Feb. 26, 1988): 985992.
Chippindale, Christopher.Current Issues in the Study of Palaeolithic Images.” American Journal of Archaeology 103/1 (Jan.1999):113117.
Collon, Dominique.Dance in Ancient Mesopotamia.” Near Eastern Archaeology 66/3 (2003): 96102.
Conkey, Margaret W.New Approaches in the Search for Meaning? A Review of Research in Paleolithic Art.” Journal of Field Archaeology 14/4 (Winter 1987):413430.
Cook, David.Martyrdom Operations in Contemporary Jihad Literature.” Novo Religio 6/1 (2002): 744.
Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. Oakland: University of California Press, 2005.
Cook, David. Martyrdom in Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Cook, David. Princeton Readings in Religion and Violence. “9/11 Conspirator. Last Instructions.” [Trans. David Cook, from the Arabic version published in the New York Times.] In Princeton Readings in Religion and Violence, eds Juergensmeyer, Mark and Kitts, Margo. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011. 83–39.
Crane, Susan A.Choosing Not to Look: Representation, Repatriation, and Holocaust Atrocity Photography.” History and Theory 47 (October 2008):309330.
Crapanzano, Vincent. Imaginative Horizons: An Essay in Literary-Philosophical Anthropology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Csordas, Thomas J.Embodiment as a Paradigm for Anthropology.” Ethos 18/1 (1990):547.
Csordas, Thomas J.The Rhetoric of Transformation in Ritual Healing,” in Body/Meaning/Healing. New York: Palgrave, 2002. 1157.
deBoeck, Filip.The Apocalyptic Interlude: Revealing Death in Kinshasa.” African Studies Review 48/2 (2005):1132.
Dissanayake, Ellen.An Ethological Review of Human Ritual and Art in Evolutionary History.” Leonardo 12 (1979):2731.
Dissanayake, Ellen.Ritual and Ritualization: Musical Means of Conveying and Shaping Emotion in Humans and Other Animals,” in Music and Manipulation: On the Social Uses and Social Control of Music, eds. Brown, Steven and Voglsten, Ulrich. Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books, 2006. 3156. Available online at https://ellendissanayake.com/publications/pdf/RitualAndRitualization_EllenDissanayake%20.pdf (accessed November 27, 2017).
Durkheim, Émile. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Trans. Cosman, Carol. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Eco, Umberto. On Ugliness. New York: Rizzoli, 2007.
Eidinow, Esther. Oracles, Curses, and Risk among the Ancient Greeks. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007/2010. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199277780.001.0001
Ellis, Stephen.Liberia 1989–1994: A Study of Ethnic and Spiritual Violence.” African Affairs 94/375 (1995):165197.
Escheverría Rey, Fernando.Weapons, Technological Determinism, and Ancient Warfare.” In New Perspectives on Ancient Warfare, eds. Fagan, Garrett G. and Trundle, Matthew. Boston: Brill, 2010. 2156.
Evans-Pritchard, E.E. Theories of Primitive Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.
Ferguson, R. Brian.‘War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage,’ by Lawrence Keeley,” (book review). American Anthropologist 99/2 (1997):424425.
Ferguson, R. Brian.Archaeology, Cultural Anthropology, and the Origins and Intensifications of War.” In The Archaeology of Warfare: Prehistories of Raiding and Conquest, eds. Arkush, Elizabeth N and Allen, Mark W.. Gainsville: University of Florida Press, 2006. 469523.
Ferguson, R. Brian.War before History.” The Ancient World at War, ed. Philip, de Souza. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2008. 1527.
Ferme, Mariane C. The Underneath of Things: Violence, History, and the Everyday in Sierra Leone. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001.
Fernandez, James W.The Performance of Ritual Metaphors.” In The Social Use of Metaphor, eds. David Sapir, J. and Christopher Crocker, J.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press (1977) 100131.
Fernandez, James W.Persuasions and Performances: Of the Beast in Every Body … And the Metaphors of Everyman.” Daedalus 101/1 (1972):3959.
Fierke, K. M. Political Self-Sacrifice: Agency, Body and Emotion in International Relations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.
Fouda, Yosri and Fielding, Nick. Masterminds of Terror: The Truth behind the Most Devastating Terrorist Attack the World Has Ever Seen. Edinburgh: Main Stream Press, 2003.
Frazer, Sir George, James. The Golden Bough: A Study of Magic and Religion. New York: MacMillan, 1951 (1922).
Freud, Sigmund. “The Uncanny.” Imago. Trans. James Strachey and Anna Freud. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol XVII. An Infantile Neurosis and Other Works. London: Hogarth Press, 1917-1919. 1919. Accessed March 14, 2015: https://uncanny.la.utexas.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/freud-uncanny_001.pdf.
Freud, Sigmund. Totem and Taboo. Trans. Brills, A.A.. New York: Vintage Books, 1946.
Friedson, Steven M. Dancing Prophets: Musical Experience in Tumbuka Healing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Friedson, Steven M. Remains of Ritual: Northern Gods in a Southern Land. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Fuentes, Agustín.It’s Not All Sex and Violence: Integrated Anthropology and the Role of Cooperation and Social Complexity in Human Evolution.” American Anthropologist, New Series, 106/4 (Dec. 2004):710718.
Fuentes, Agustín.A New Synthesis: Resituating Approaches to the Evolution of Human Behavior.” Anthropology Today 25/3 (2009):1217
Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books. 1973.
Geller, Stephen A.The Prophetic Roots of Religious Violence in Western Religions.” In Religion and Violence: The Biblical Heritage, eds. Bernat, David A. and Klawans, Jonathan. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2007. 4756.
Geschiere, Peter.Witchcraft, Shamanism, and Nostalgia: A Review Essay.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 58/1 (2016):242265.
Giesen, Bernhard, and Šuber, Daniel, Religion and Politics: Cultural Perspectives. Leiden: Brill 2005.
Girard, René. Violence and the Sacred. Trans. Gregory, Patrick. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977.
Girard, René. Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World. Trans. Bann, Stephen and Metteer, Michael. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1987.
Girard, René. Studies in Violence, Mimesis, and Culture: One by Whom Scandal Comes. Trans. DeBevoise, M. B.. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. 2014a.
Girard, René. Studies in Violence, Mimesis, and Culture: When These Things Begin: Conversations with Michel Treguer. Trans. Merrill, Trevor Cribben. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. 2014b.
Giroux, Henry A.‘Instants of Truth’: The ‘Kill Team’ Photos and the Depravity of Aesthetics.” Afterimage 39/1–2 (July 1, 2011). Accessed November 27, 2017:http://vsw.org/afterimage/issues/afterimage-vol-39-no-1-2/.
Giroux, Henry A.Disturbing Pleasures.” Third Text 26/3 (2012):259273. Accessed November 27, 2017: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09528822.2012.679036.
Glucklich, Ariel. Sacred Pain: Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Goffman, Erving.Interaction Ritual: Deference and Demeanor.” Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior, 5367, 7781, 8591 (1967). Reprinted in Readings in Ritual Studies, ed. Grimes, Ronald L.. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1996. 268278.
Green, Alberto. The Storm-God in the Ancient Near East. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2003.
Grimes, Ronald L.Ritual Criticism and Infelicitous Performances.” In Ritual Criticism: Case Studies in Its Practice, Essays on Its Theory. University of South Carolina Press, 1990. Reprinted in Readings in Ritual Studies, ed. Grimes, Ronald L.. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1996. 279292.
Guthrie, Stewart Elliot. “Anthropology and Anthropomorphism in Religion.” In Religion, Anthropology and Cognitive Science, eds. Whitehouse, Harvey and Laidlaw, James. Durham: Carolina Academic Press 2007. 3762.
Hafez, Mohammed.Apologia for Suicide: Martyrdom in Contemporary Jihadist Discourse.” In Martyrdom, Self-Sacrifice, and Self-Immolation: Religious Perspectives on Suicide, ed. Kitts, Margo. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. 126–139.
Handelman, Don.Framing.” Theorizing Rituals, Vol. 1, eds. Kreinath, Jens, Snoek, J. A. M., and Stausberg, Michael. Leiden: Brill, 2005. 571582.
Handelman, Don and Lindquist, Galina, eds. Ritual in its Own Right. New York: Berghahn Books, 2004.
Haraway, Donna.Encounters with Companion Species: Entangling Dogs, Baboons, Philosophers, and Biologists.” Configurations 14/1–2 (2006):97114. https://doi.org/10.1353/con.0.0002.
Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Trans. John Macquarie and Edward Robinson. New York: Harper&Row, 1962.
Hillers, Delbert R.Traditions in Treaty and Covenant.” In Poets Before Homer, ed. Dobbs-Allsopp, F.W.. Winona Lake: Eisenbraums 2015. 97201.
Højbjerg, Christian Kordt.Masked Violence: Ritual Action and the Perception of Violence in an Upper Guinea Ethnic Conflict.” In Religion and African Civil Wars, ed. Niels, Kastfelt. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005. 147171.
Højbjerg, Christian Kordt. Resisting State Iconoclasm among the Loma of Guinea. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2007.
Holloway, Steven W. Assur is King! Assur is King! Religion in the Exercise of Power in the Neo-Asyurian Empire. Leiden: Brill, 2001.
Hughes, Dennis. Human Sacrifice in Ancient Greece. London: Routledge, 1991.
Huizinga, Johan. Homo Ludens, A Study of the Play-Element in Culture. Boston: Beacon Press, 1950.
Hutchinson, John.Warfare and the Sacralisation of Nations: The Meanings, Rituals, and Politics of Remembrance.” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 38/2 (2009):401417.
Innis, Robert E.The Tacit Logic of Ritual Embodiments: Rappaport and Polanyi between Thick and Thin.” In Ritual in its Own Right, eds. Handelman, Don and Lindquist, Galina. New York: Berghahn Books, 2005. 197212.
Insoll, Timothy.The Archaeology of Religion and Rituals in Africa.” In The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology, eds. Mitchell, Peter and Lane, Paul J.. 2013. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199569885.013.0012
Jensen, Adolf E. Myth and Cult among Primitive Peoples. Trans. M. T. Choldin and W. Weissleder. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
Johnson, Mark. The Body in the Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Johnson, Mark. The Meaning of the Body. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000 (later editions: 2003, 2017).
Juergensmeyer, Mark.Religious Terrorism as Performance Violence.” In Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence, eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Kitts, Margo, and Jerryson, Michael. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 280292.
Juergensmeyer, Mark and Kitts, Margo, eds. Princeton Readings in Religion and Violence. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.
Juergensmeyer, Mark and Sheikh, Mona Kanwal. “A Sociotheological Approach to Understanding Religious Violence.” In Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence, eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Kitts, Margo, and Jerryson, Michael. New York: Oxford University Press. 620644.
Kalleres, Dayna S.The City in Late Antiquity: Where Have All the Demons Gone?” In City of Demons. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014. doi:10.1525/california/9780520276475.003.0008
Kapferer, Bruce. The Feast of the Sorcerer: Practices of Consciousness and Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Kapferer, Bruce.Ritual Dynamics and Virtual Practice: Beyond Representation and Meaning.” In Ritual in its Own Right, eds. Handelman, Don and Lindquist, Galina. New York: Berghahn Books. 2005. 3554.
Keeley, Lawrence. War Before Civilization. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Kelly, Raymond C. Warless Societies and the Origin of War. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.
Kertzer, David I.Ritual, Politics, and Power,” [from Ritual, Politics, and Power, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988, pp. 114, 92101, and notes]. Excerpted in Readings in Ritual Studies, ed. Grimes, Ronald L.. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1996. 335352.
Keyes Roper, Marilyn, “A Survey of the Evidence for Intrahuman Killing in the Pleistocene.” Current Anthropology 10/4/2 (Oct., 1969):427459.
Khosronejad, Pedram.Introduction: Unburied Memories.” Visual Anthropology 25 (2012):121.
Kippenberg, Hans.‘Consider That It Is a Raid on the Path of God’: The Spiritual Manual of the Attackers of 9/11.” Numen 52/1 (2005):2958.
Kippenberg, Hans G. and Seidensticker, Tilman, eds. The 9/11 Handbook. London: Equinox 2006.
Kitts, Margo.Sacrificial Violence in the Iliad,” Journal of Ritual Studies 16 (2002): 1939.
Kitts, Margo. Sanctified Violence in Homeric Society. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005/2012.
Kitts, Margo.The Last Night: Ritualized Violence and the Last Instructions of 9/11.” Journal of Religion 90/3 (2010a):283312.
Kitts, Margo.Poinē as a ritual leitmotif in the Iliad.” In Vol. 3 of Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual, eds. Kitts, Margo, Schneidmüller, Bernd, Schwedler, Gerald, Tounta, Eleni, Kulke, Hermann, and Skoda, Uwe. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2010b. 732.
Kitts, Margo.Ritual scenes in the Iliad: rote, hallowed, or encrypted as ancient art?Oral Traditions 26 (2011):1. http://journal.oraltradition.org/issues/26i/kitts.
Kitts, Margo.Literary Approaches to Religion and Violence.” In Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence, eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Kitts, Margo, and Jerryson, Michael. New York: Oxford University Press 2013a. 410423.
Kitts, Margo.The Near Eastern Chaoskampf in the River-Battle of Iliad 21.” Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 13/1 (2013b):86112.
Kitts, Margo.Anthropology and the Iliad.” Ashgate Research Companion to Anthropology, eds Stewart, Pamela and Strathern, Andrew. Farnham: Ashgate Press, 2015. 389410.
Kitts, Margo.Mimetic Rivalry, Sacrifice, and the Iliad?Bulletin for the Study of Religion 45/3 (2016). doi: 10.1558/bsor.v45i3–4.31345.
Kitts, Margo.Discursive, Somatic, and Iconic Perspectives on Ritual.” Journal of Ritual Studies 31/1 (2017a): 1126.
Kitts, Margo.Ancient Near Eastern Perspectives on Evil and Terror.” In Cambridge Companion to the Problem of Evil, eds. Meister, Chad and Moser, Paul. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017b. 165192.
Kitts, Margo. ed. Martyrdom, Self-Sacrifice, and Self-Immolation: Religious Perspectives on Suicide, New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.
Kitts, Margo and Shimazono, Susumu. “Rituals of Death and Remembrance.” In Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence, eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Kitts, Margo, and Jerryson, Michael. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 345350.
Kitz, Annemarie. Cursed Are You!: The Phenomenology of Cursing in Cuneiform and Hebrew Texts. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2013.
Knauft, Bruce M., Abler, Thomas S., Betzig, Laura, Boehm, Christopher, Dentan, Robert Knox, Kiefer, Thomas M., Otterbein, Keith F., Paddock, John, and Rodseth, Lars. “Violence and Sociality in Human Evolution [and Comments and Replies].” Current Anthropology 32/4 (1991):391428.
Laidlaw, James.A Well-Disposed Social Anthropologists Problems with the ‘Cognitive Science of Religion.’” In Religion, Anthropology, and Cognitive Science, eds. Whitehouse, Harvey and Laidlaw, James. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2007. 211246.
Laidlaw, James and Whitehouse, Harvey. “Introduction.” In Religion, Anthropology, and Cognitive Science, eds. Whitehouse, Harvey and Laidlaw, James. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2007. 336.
Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark. Philosophy in the Flesh. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Langer, Susanne. Philosophy in a New Key. New York: New American Library, 1951.
Levinson, Jon. The Death and Resurrection of the Beloved Son. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
Luckenbill, Daniel David. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, Vols. I and II (originally published 1927, Chicago: University of Chicago, 1927, 1928 [2 vols.]) New York: Greenwood Press, 1968.
Mack, Burton. 1987. “Introduction: Religion and Ritual.” In Violent Origins. Walter Burkert, René Girard, and Jonathan Z. Smith on Ritual Killing and Cultural Formation, ed. Hamerton-Kelly, Robertson G, 170. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Malkki, Liisa. Purity and Exile: Violence, Memory, and National Cosmology among Hutu Refugees in Tanzania. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Mauss, Marcel.Techniques of the Body.” In Sociologie et Anthropologie, 4th edn. Paris: Universitaires de France, 1968. 364389.
McCauley, Robert E. and Lawson, E. Thomas. Bringing Ritual to Mind: Psychological Foundations of Cultural Forms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Meade, Margaret.Warfare is only an invention – not a biological necessity.” ASIA, XL (1940). Downloaded from www.ppu.org.uk/learn/infodocs/st_invention.html.
Mbembé, Steven Randall, J.-A.African Modes of Self-Writing.” Public Culture 14/1 (2002):239273. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363–14–1-239.
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Phenomenology of Perception. Trans. Smith, Colin. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962.
Michaels, Axel.Ritual and Meaning.” In Theorizing Rituals, Vol.1, eds. Snoek, Jan, Stausberg, Michael, and Kreinath, Jens. Leiden: Brill, 2006. 247265
Michelsen, Nicholas.The Political Subject of Self-Immolation.” Globalizations 12/1 (2015):83100. doi: 10.1080/14747731.2014.971540
Minford, John and Lau, Joseph S. M., eds. Classical Chinese Literature: An Anthology of Translations, Volume 1: From Antiquity to the Tang Dynasty. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Morgan, David. The Embodied Eye, Religious Visual Culture and the Social Life of Seeing. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.
Morinis, Alan.The Ritual Experience: Pain and the Transformation of Consciousness in Ordeals of Initiation.” Ethos 13/2 (Summer 1985):150174.
Moss, Candida.The Martyr as Alter Christus.” In The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Near Eastern Ideologies of Martyrdom. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. 4574.
Nash, George.Assessing Rank and Warfare-strategy in Prehistoric Hunter-gatherer Society: A Study of Representational Warrior Figures in Rock-art from the Spanish Levant, Southeastern Spain.” In Warfare, Violence, and Slavery in Prehistory, ed. Pearson, Michael Parker. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports (December 31, 2005). 7586.
Niditch, Susan. War in the Hebrew Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Noegel, Scott B.Dismemberment, Creation, and Ritual: Images of Divine Violence in the Ancient Near East.” In Belief and Bloodshed, ed. Wellman, James K., Jr. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007. 1328.
Noegel, Scott B.The Ritual Use of Linguistic and Textual Violence in the Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near East.” In State, Power, and Violence. Vol. 3 of Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual, eds. Kitts, Margo, Schneidmüller, Bernd, Schwedler, Gerald, Tounta, Eleni, Kulke, Hermann, and Skoda, Uwe. Weisbaden: Harrassowitz, 2010. 3346.
Noegel, Scott B.Corpses, Cannibals, and Commensality.: A Literary and Artistic Shaming Convention in the Ancient Near East.” Journal of Religion and Violence 4/3 (2016): 255303.
Ohnuma, Reiko.To Extract the Essence from this Essenceless Body: Self-Sacrifice and Self-Immolation in Indian Buddhism.” In Martyrdom, Self-Sacrifice, and Self-Immolation: Religious Perspectives on Suicide, ed. Kitts, Margo. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. 241–265.
Olyan, Saul M.Jehoiakim’s Dehumanizing Interment as a Ritual Act of Reclassification,Journal of Biblical Literature 133/2 (2014):271279.
Olyan, Saul M.The Instrumental Dimensions of Ritual Violence against Corpses in Biblical Texts.” In Ritual Violence in the Hebrew Bible: New Perspectives, ed. Olyan, Saul M.. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190249588.003.0007
Otto, Rudolf. The Idea of the Holy. Trans. John W. Harvey. London: Oxford University Press, 1958.
Parpola, Simo, and Watanbe, Kazuko, eds. State Archives of Assyria, Vol. II, Neo-Assyrian Treaties and Loyalty Oaths. Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project and the Helsinki Press, 1988.
Partow, Negar.Martyrdom and Legacy of Blood: A Case Study in Iran.” Contemporary Review of the Middle East.1/2 (2014):165188.
Perkins, Judith. The Suffering Self: Pain and Narrative Representation in the Early Christian Era. London: Routledge, 2002.
Puett, Michael. Ritual and the Subjunctive.” In Ritual and its Consequences: An Essay on the Limits of Sincerity, eds. Seligman, Adam B, Weller, Robert P, and Bennett, Simon. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. 1742.
Rappaport, Roy A. Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Rapport, Nigel.‘Criminals by Instinct’: On the ‘Tragedy’ of Social Structure and the ‘Violence’ of Individual Creativity.” In Meanings of Violence: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, eds. Aimer, Göran and Abbink, Jon, Oxford: Berg 2000. 3954.
Richards, Paul.The Emotions at War: A Musicological Approach to Understanding Atrocity in Sierra Leone.” In Public Emotions, eds Perri, S. Radstone, C. Squire, and A. Treacher, . Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2007. 6284.
Richards, PaulDressed to Kill: Clothing as Technology of the Body in the Civil War in Sierra Leone.” Journal of Material Culture 14 (2009):495512.
Ricoeur, Paul.The Model of Text: Meaningful Action Considered as a Text.” New Literary History 5/1 (1973):91117.
Ricoeur, Paul.The Metaphorical Process as Cognition, Imagination, and Feeling.” In Philosophical Perspectives on Metaphor, ed. Mark, Johnson. University of Minnesota Press, 1981. 228–47.
Riley-Smith, Jonathan.The State of Mind of Crusaders to the East, 1095–1300.” The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Riley-Smith, Jonathan. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 6690.
Robertson Smith, W. The Religion of the Semites. New York: Meridian Books (Burnett Lectures 1888–1889), 1957.
Robertson Smith, W.Lectures on the Religion of the Semites” (Edinburgh: Black 1889), excerpted in The Myth and Ritual Theory, ed. , Robert Segal, A. Malden: Blackwell Publishers, Inc. 1998. 1734.
Scarry, Elaine. The Body in Pain. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Schalk, Peter.Memorialization of Martyrs in the Tamil Resistance Movement of Ilam/Lamka.” In State, Power, and Violence, eds. Kitts, Margo, Schneidmüller, Bernd, Schwedler, Gerald, Tounta, Eleni, Kulke, Hermann, and Skoda, Uwe. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 2010. 5574.
Schildkrout, Enid.Inscribing the Body.” Annual Review of Anthropology 33 (2004):319344.
Schwemer, Daniel.The Storm God of the Ancient Near East, Part I,Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 7/2 (2007):121168.
Schwemer, Daniel.The Storm God of the Ancient Near East, Part II,Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 8/1 (2008): 144.
Schmidt, Bettina E. and Schröeder, Ingo, eds. Anthropology of Violence and Conflict. Abingdon: Routledge, 2001.
Seeman, Don.Otherwise than Meaning: On the Generosity of Ritual.” In Ritual in Its Own Right, eds. Handelman, Don and Lindquist, Galina. New York: Berghahn Books, 2005. 5571.
Shildrick, Margrit. Embodying the Monster: Encounters with the Vulnerable Self. London: Sage, 2001.
Siebers, Tobin.The Return to Ritual: Violence and Art in the Media Age.” Journal for Cultural and Religious Theory 5/1 (December 2003): 933. www.jcrt.org/archives/05.1/siebers.pdf.
Shimazono, Susumu and Kitts, Margo. “’Rituals of Death and Remembrance,” In Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence, eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Kitts, Margo, and Jerryson, Michael. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 345350.
Smith, Gregory A.How Thin is a Demon?Journal of Early Christian Studies 16/4 (2008):479512.
Smith, Jonathan Z. Relating Religion: Essays in the Study of Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Snoek, Jens, Stausberg, Jan, and Kreinath, Michael, eds. Theorizing Rituals, Vol.1. Leiden: Brill, 2006.
Sontag, Susan. Regarding the Pain of Others. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2003.
Staal, Fritz.The Meaningless of Ritual.” Numen 26/1 (1979):222.
Stefanini, Rugero.The Anatolian Origin and Prehistory of the Latin ‘Missa’ ‘Mass’.” Archivio glottologico italiano 68 (1983):2349.
Stewart, Pamela and Strathern, Andrew, eds. Violence: Theory and Ethnography. New York and London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002.
Stewart, Pamela and Strathern, Andrew, eds. Ritual. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.
Stewart, Pamela and Strathern, Andrew, eds. Ritual: Key Concepts in Religion. London: Bloomsbury, 2014.
Stone, Jackie.Relinquishing the Body to Reach the Pure Land.” In Martyrdom, Self-Sacrifice, and Self-Immolation: Religious Perspectives on Suicide, ed. Kitts, Margo. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. 280–304.
Strathern, Andrew, Stewart, Pamela, and Whitehead, Neil, eds. Terror and Violence: Imagination and the Unimaginable. Ann Arbor: Pluto Press 2006.
Streete, Gail P.Performing Christian Martyrdoms.” In Martyrdom, Self-Sacrifice, and Self-Immolation: Religious Perspectives on Suicide, ed. Kitts, Margo. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. 40–53.
Stewart, Pamela and Strathern, Andrew. Witchcraft, Sorcery, Rumors, and Gossip. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Tambiah, Stanley J.The Magic Power of Words,Man 3/2 (1968):175208.
Tambiah, Stanley J.A Performative Approach to Ritual.” Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. 65. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Tambiah, Stanley J. Leveling Crowds: Ethnonationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Taussig, Michael.Culture of Terror, Space of Death: Roger Casement’s Putumayo Report and the Explanation of Torture.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 26:3 (Jul 1984):467–97.
Taussig, Michael. Shamanism, Colonialism, and the Wild Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1987.
Taylor, Charles.Modern Social Imaginaries.” Public Culture 14/1 (2002):91124.
Taylor, Christopher C. Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1999.
Taylor, Christopher C.Genocide and the Religious Imaginary in Rwanda.” Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence, eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Kitts, Margo, and Jerryson, Michael. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 280292.
Thomas, Julian.Ritual and Religion in the Neolithic.” Ritual and Religion in the Neolithic, ed. Insoll, Timothy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2011/2012 doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199232444.013.0025.
Thorpe, I. J. N.Anthropology, Archaeology, and the Origin of Warfare.” World Archaeology 35/1 (2003):145165.
Turner, Bryan S. Regulating Bodies: Essays in Medical Sociology. London: Routledge, 1992.
Turner, Victor.Liminal to Liminoid, in Play, Flow and Ritual: An Essay in Comparative Symbology.” Rice Institute Pamphlet – The Rice University Studies 60/3 (1974):5392.
Turner, Victor.Process, System, and Symbol: A New Anthropological Synthesis.” Daedalus 106/3 (Summer 1977):6180.
Turner, Victor.Frame, Flow, and Reflection: Ritual and Drama as Public Liminality.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 6/4 (1979):465499.
Tylor, Edward Burnett. Religion in Primitive Culture, Part II, of Primitive Culture. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1958 [1871].
Van Gennep, Arnold. The Rites of Passage. Chicago: University of Chicago Press [reprint], 1961.
Valeri, Valerio. Kingship and Sacrifice. Trans. Paula Wissing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
Vásquez, Manuel A. More than Belief: A Materialist View of Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Volkan, Vamik D., Ast, Gabriele, and Greer, William F., Jr. The Third Reich in the Unconscious. New York: Routledge, 2002.
von Rad, Gerhard. Holy War in Ancient Israel, trans. Marva J. Dawn (1958); repr., Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.
Weinfeld, Moshe.The Common Heritage of Covenantal Traditions in the Ancient World.” In I Trattai nel mondo antico, forma, ideologica, funzione, eds. Canfora, Luciano, Liverani, Mario, and Carlo, Zaccagnini. Rome: L’Erinna di Bretschneider, 1990. 175191.
Whitehead, Neil L. Dark Shamans: Kanaima and the Poetics of Violent Death. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.
Whitehead, Neil L.Violence and the Cultural Order.” Daedalus 136/5 (2007):110.
Whitehouse, Harvey. Modes of Religiosity. Lanham and Oxford: Altamira Press, 2004.
Whitehouse, Harvey.Toward an Integration of Ethnography, History, and the Cognitive Science of Religion.” In Religion, Anthropology, and Cognitive Science, eds. Whitehouse, Harvey and Laidlaw, James. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2007. 247280.
Vasquez, Manuel. More than Belief: A Materialist Theory of Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Visala, Aku and Fuentes, Agustín. “Human Nature(s): Human Nature at the Crossroad of Conflicting Interests.” Theology and Science 13/1 (2015):2542. doi: 10.1080/14746700.2014.987993.
Wlodarczyk, Nathalie. Magic and Warfare: Appearance and Reality in Contemporary African Conflict and Beyond. New York: Palgrave, 2009.
Wlodarczyk, NathalieAfrican Traditional Religion and Violence.” In Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence, eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Kitts, Margo, and Jerryson, Michael. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 153182.
Xella, Paolo.‘Tophet’: An Overall Interpretation.” Studi Epigraphici e Linguistici 29–30 (20122013):259281.
Yu, Jimmy. Sanctity and Self-Inflicted Violence in Chinese Religions 1500–1700. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Yu, Jimmy.Reflections on Self-Immolation in Chinese Buddhist and Daoist Traditions.” In Martyrdom, Self-Sacrifice, and Self-Immolation: Religious Perspectives on Suicide, ed. Kitts, Margo. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. 264279.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed