Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Twitter as Data
  • Cited by 6

Twitter as Data

The rise of the internet and mobile telecommunications has created the possibility of using large datasets to understand behavior at unprecedented levels of temporal and geographic resolution. Online social networks attract the most users, though users of these new technologies provide their data through multiple sources, e.g. call detail records, blog posts, web forums, and content aggregation sites. These data allow scholars to adjudicate between competing theories as well as develop new ones, much as the microscope facilitated the development of the germ theory of disease. Of those networks, Twitter presents an ideal combination of size, international reach, and data accessibility that make it the preferred platform in academic studies. Acquiring, cleaning, and analyzing these data, however, require new tools and processes. This Element introduces these methods to social scientists and provides scripts and examples for downloading, processing, and analyzing Twitter data.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the Element
  • Copyright

  • COPYRIGHT: © Zachary C. Steinert-Threlkeld 2018

References

Hide all
Acemoglu, Daron , Ahmed Tahoun , and Tarek A. Hassan (2014). “The Power of the Street: Evidence from Egypt’s Arab Spring,” NBER Working Paper No. 20665. Google Scholar
Adamic, Lada A. and Natalie Glance (2005). “The Political Blogosphere and the 2004 U.S. Election: Divided They Blog.” In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Link Discovery, August 21–25, 2005, Chicago, IL, pp. 36–43. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Aday, Sean , Deen Freelon , Henry Farrell , Marc Lynch , and John Sides (2012). “New Media and Conflict After the Arab Spring.” Technical Report, United States Institute of Peace, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
Aday, Sean , Henry Farrell , Marc Lynch , John Sides , John Kelly , and Ethan Zuckerman (2010). “Blogs and Bullets: New Media in Contentious Politics.” Technical Report United States Institute of Peace, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
Analytics, Caerus (2015). “Open Event Data Alliance.” phoenixdata.org. Google Scholar
Anastasopoulos, L. Jason , Dhruvil Badani , Crystal Lee , Shiry Ginosar , and Jake Williams (2016). “Photographic Home Styles in Congress: A Computer Vision Approach.” http://arxiv.org/abs/1611.09942. Google Scholar
Asur, Sitaram and Bernardo A. Huberman (2010). “Predicting the Future with Social Media.” In 2010 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology. IEEE, pp. 492–99. Google Scholar
Bail, Christopher A. (2014). “The Cultural Environment: Measuring Culture with Big Data.” Theory and Society, 43(3–4), 465–82. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Bakshy, Eytan , Solomon Messing , and Lada Adamic (2015). “Exposure to Ideologically Diverse News and Opinion on Facebook.” Sciencexpress, 348(6239), 1160. Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Barberá, Pablo (2013). “streamR.” https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/streamR/. Google Scholar
    Barberá, Pablo (2014). “How Social Media Reduces Mass Political Polarization. Evidence from Germany, Spain, and the US.” Paper prepared for the 2015 APSA Conference. Google Scholar
    97 Barberá, Pablo (2015). “Birds of the Same Feather Tweet Together: Bayesian Ideal Point Estimation Using Twitter Data.” Political Analysis, 23(August 2013), 76–91. Google Scholar
    Barberá, Pablo , John T. Jost , Jonathan Nagler , Joshua A. Tucker , and Richard Bonneau (2015a). “Tweeting from Left to Right: Is Online Political Communication More Than an Echo Chamber?” Psychological science, 26(10),1531–42. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26297377. Google Scholar
    Barberá, Pablo , Ning Wang , Richard Bonneau , John T. Jost , Jonathan Nagler , Joshua Tucker , and Sandra González-Bailón (2015b). “The Critical Periphery in the Growth of Social Protests.” PloS ONE 10(11), 1–15. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Barberá, Pablo , Richard Bonneau , Patrick Egan , John T. Jost , Jonathan Nagler , and Joshua Tucker (2014). “Leaders or Followers? Measuring Political Responsiveness in the US Congress Using Social Media Data.” Prepared for delivery at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, August 28–31, 2014. Google Scholar
    Bastos, Marco T. , Dan Mercea , and Arthur Charpentier (2015). “Tents, Tweets, and Events: The Interplay between Ongoing Protests and Social Media.” Journal of Communication 65(2), 320–350. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Beieler, John (2013). “A Tutorial on Deploying and Using Amazon Eleastic Cloud Compute Clusters.” The Political Methodologist 20(2), 16–21. Google Scholar
    Berger, Daniel , Shankar Kalyanaraman , and Sera Linardi (2014). “Violence and Cell Phone Communication: Behavior and Prediction in Cote d’Ivoire.” Working paper. Google Scholar
    Bergstrom, Kelly (2011). ““Don’t Feed the Troll”: Shutting Down Debate about Community Expectations on Reddit.com.” First Monday 16(8). CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Bernstein, Joseph (2017). “Never Mind the Russians, Meet the Bot King Who Helps Trump Win Twitter.” www.buzzfeed.com/josephbernstein/from-utah-with-love?utm-term=.xqpxB9kRv#.tiDymBqG7. Google Scholar
    Bhatia, Rahul (2016). “The Inside Story of Facebook’s Biggest Setback.” May 12. www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/may/12/facebook-free-basics-india-zuckerberg. Google Scholar
    Bird, Steven , E. Klein , and E. Loper (2009). “Natural Language Processing with Python: Analyzing Text with the Natural Language Toolkit .” O’Reilly Media, Inc. Google Scholar
    Blumenstock, J. , G. Cadamuro , and R. On (2015). “Predicting Poverty and Wealth from Mobile Phone Metadata.” Science 350(6264), 1073–1076. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • 98 Blumenstock, Joshua E (2011). “Using Mobile Phone Data to Measure the Ties Between Nations.” In Proceedings of the 2011 iConference, pp. 195–202. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Blumenstock, Joshua E (2012). “Inferring Patterns of Internal Migration from Mobile Phone Call Records: Evidence from Rwanda.” Information Technology for Development 18(2), 107–125. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Bollen, Johan , Huina Mao , and Xiaojun Zeng (2011). “Twitter Mood Predicts the Stock Market.” Journal of Computational Science 2(1), 1–8. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Bond, Robert M. , Christopher J. Fariss , Jason J. Jones , Adam D.I. Kramer , Cameron Marlow , Jaime E. Settle , and James H. Fowler (2012). “A 61-Million-Person Experiment in Social Influence and Political Mobilization.” Nature 489(7415), 295–298. Google Scholar
    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier , Walid Magdy , Kareem Darwish , and Ingmar Weber (2015). “Content and Network Dynamics behind Egyptian Political Polarization on Twitter.” In 18th Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, pp. 1–30. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Boschee, Elizabeth , Jennifer Lautenschlager , Sean O’Brien , Steve Shellman , James Starz , and Michael Ward (2015). “ICEWS Coded Event Data.” http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/28075. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Bourlai, Elli and Susan C. Herring (2014). “Multimodal Communication on Tumblr: I Have So Many Feels!.” In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM Conference on Web Science, pp. 171–175. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Boyd, Dannah , Scott Golder , and Gilad Lotan (2010). “Tweet, Tweet, Retweet: Conversational Aspects of Retweeting on Twitter.” In 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. IEEE, pp. 1–10. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Budak, Ceren and Duncan Watts (2015). “Dissecting the Spirit of Gezi: Influence vs. Selection in the Occupy Gezi Movement.” Sociological Science 2: 370–397. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Bury, Rhiannon , Ruth Deller , and Adam Greenwood (2013). “From Usenet to Tumblr: The Changing Role of Social Media.” Participations 10(1), 299–318. Google Scholar
    Catanese, Salvatore A , Pasquale De Meo , Emilio Ferrara , Giacomo Fiumara , and Alessandro Provetti (2011). “Crawling Facebook for Social Network Analysis Purposes.” In Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence, Mining and Semantics. New York. Google Scholar
    Cavnar, W. B. and J. M. Trenkle (1994). “n-Gram-Based Text Categorization.” In 3rd Annual Symposium on Document Analysis and Information Retrieval. Las Vegas, pp. 161–175. Google Scholar
    99 Chang, Yi , Lei Tang , Yoshiyuki Inagaki , and Yan Liu (2014). “What is Tumblr: A Statistical Overview and Comparison.” SIGKDD Explorations 16(1), 21–30. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Charles-Smith, Lauren E. , Tera L. Reynolds , Mark A. Cameron , Mike Conway, Eric H. Y. Lau , Jennifer M. Olsen , Julie A. Pavlin , Mika Shigematsu, Laura C. Streichert, Katie J. Suda, and Courtney D. Corley (2015). “Using Social Media for Actionable Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Management: A Systematic Literature Review.” PLOS One 10(10), e0139701. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Cheng, Zhiyuan , James Caverlee , and Kyumin Lee (2010). “You Are Where You Tweet: A Content-Based Approach to Geo-locating Twitter Users.” In ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. Toronto. Google Scholar
    Christia, Fotini , Leon Yao , Stephen Wittels , and Jure Leskovec (2015). “Yemen Calling: Seven Things Cell Data Reveal about Life in the Republic.” Foreign Affairs. www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/yemen/2015–07-06/yemen-calling. Google Scholar
    Conover, M.D. , J. Ratkiewicz , M. Francisco , B. Goncalves , A. Flammini , and F. Menczer (2011). “Political Polarization on Twitter.” In Fifth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 89–96. Google Scholar
    Conover, Michael D. , Bruno Gonçalves , Alessandro Flammini and Filippo Menczer (2012). “Partisan Asymmetries in Online Political Activity.” EPJ Data Science 1(1), 1–19. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Conover, Michael D , Clayton Davis , Emilio Ferrara , Karissa McKelvey , Filippo Menczer , and Alessandro Flammini (2013). “The Geospatial Characteristics of a Social Movement Communication Network.” PloS one 8(3), e55957. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Coppock, Alexander , Andrew Guess , and John Ternovski (2016). “When Treatments are Tweets: A Network Mobilization Experiment over Twitter.” Political Behavior 38(1), 105–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11109-015-9308-6. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Dalton, Russell J. , Steven Greene , Paul Allen Beck , and Robert Huckfeldt (2002). “The Social Calculus of Voting: Interpersonal, Media, and Organizational Influences on Presidential Choices.” The American Political Science Review 96(1), 57–73. Google Scholar
    Davenport, Christian and Patrick Ball (2002). “Views to a Kill: Exploring the Implications of Source Selection in the Case of Guatemalan State Terror, 1977–1995).” Journal of Conflict Resolution 46(3), 427–450. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    100 Diaz, Fernando , Michael Gamon , Jake Hofman , Emre Kiciman , and David Rothschild (2016). “Online and Social Media Data as a Flawed Continuous Panel Survey.” PLoS One 11(1), e0145406. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Dodds, Peter Sheridan , Kameron Decker Harris , Isabel M. Kloumann , Catherine A. Bliss , and Christopher M. Danforth (2011). “Temporal Patterns of Happiness and Information in a Global Social Network: Hedonometrics and Twitter.” PLoS ONEcomput 6(12), e26752. Google Scholar
    Douglass, Rex W , David a Meyer , Megha Ram , David Rideout , and Dongjin Song (2015). “High Resolution Population Estimates from Telecommunications data.” EPJ Data Science 4(1), 4. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Dowle, Matt , T Short , S Lianoglou , and A Srinivasan (2015). “data.table: Extension of data.frame.” https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/data.table/index.html. Google Scholar
    Driscoll, Jesse and Zachary C. Steinert-Threlkeld (2017). “Structure, Agency, Hegemony, and Action: Ukrainian Nationalism in East Ukraine.” Working paper. Google Scholar
    Dunbar, R. I. M (2011). “Constraints on the Evolution of Social Institutions and Their Implications for Information Flow.” Journal of Institutional Economics 7(03), 345–371. www.journals.cambridge.org/abstracES1744137410000366. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Dunbar, R. I. M. (1995). “Neocortex Size and Group Size In Primates: A Test of the Hypothesis.” Journal of Human Evolution 28(3), 287–296. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Dunbar, R.I.M. , Valerio Arnaboldi , Marco Conti , and Andrea Passarella (2015). “The Structure of Online Social Networks Mirrors Those in the Offline World.” Social Networks 43: 39–47. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Eubank, Nicholas (2016). “Social Networks and the Political Salience of Ethnicity.” Working paper. Google Scholar
    Evans, Heather K. , Victoria Cordova , and Savannah Sipole (2014). “Twitter Style: An Analysis of How House Candidates Used Twitter in Their 2012 Campaigns.” PS: Political Science & Politics 47(02), 454–462. Google Scholar
    Farrell, Henry (2012). “The Consequences of the Internet for Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 15(1), 35–52. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Ferrara, Emilio (2012). “A Large-Scale Community Structure Analysis in Facebook.” EPJ Data Science 1(9), 1–30. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Ferrara, Emilio and Alessandro Bessi (2016). “Social Bots Distort the 2016 US Presidential Election Online Discussion.” First Monday 21(11), 1–17. Google Scholar
    Ferrara, Emilio , Onur Varol , Clayton Davis , Filippo Menczer , and Alessandro Flammini (2016a. “BotOrNot: A System to Evaluate Social 101Bots.” In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference Companion on World Wide Web, pp. 273–274. Google Scholar
    Ferrara, Emilio , Onur Varol , Clayton Davis , Filippo Menczer , and Alessandro Flammini (2016b). “The Rise of Social Bots.” Communications of the ACM 59(7), 96–104. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Ferrara, Emilio , Roberto Interdonato , and Andrea Tagarelli (2014). “Online Popularity and Topical Interests through the Lens of Instagram.” ACM Hypertext 2014, 11. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Forelle, Michelle C , Philip N. Howard , Andres Monroy-Hernandez , and Saiph Savage (2015). “Political Bots and the Manipulation of Public Opinion in Venezuela.” SSRN Electronic Journal, pp. 1–8. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Fowler, James and Zachary C. Steinert-Threlkeld (2016). “Online and Offline Activism in Egypt and Bahrain.” Technical report United States Agency for International Development. www.iie.org/en/Research-and-Publications/Publications-and-Reports/IIE-Bookstore/DFG-UCSD-Publication#.V-MIM5MrKqA. Google Scholar
    Frank, Morgan R , Lewis Mitchell , Peter Sheridan Dodds , and Christopher M Danforth (2013). “Happiness and the Patterns of Life: A Study of Geolocated Tweets.” Scientific Reports 3:2625. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Freelon, Dean (2012). “Arab Spring Twitter Data Now Available (sort of).” http://dfreelon.org/2012/02/11/arab-spring-twitter-data-now-available-sort-of. Google Scholar
    Gao, Qi , Fabian Abel , Geert-Jan Houben , and Yong Yu (2012). “A Comparative Study of Users’ Mircroblogging Behavior on Sina Weibo and Twitter.” In Proceedings of International Conference on user Modelling and Personalization (UMAP2012), pp.88–101. Google Scholar
    Garcia-Herranz, Manuel , Esteban Moro , Manuel Cebrian , Nicholas A. Christakis , and James H. Fowler (2014). “Using Friends as Sensors to Detect Global-Scale Contagious Outbreaks.” PloS ONE 9(4), e92413. Google Scholar
    Gayo-Avello, Daniel (2013). “A Meta-Analysis of State-of-the-Art Electoral Prediction from Twitter Data.” Social Science Computer Review 31(6), 649–679. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Gentry, Jeff (2015). “twitteR.” https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/twitteR/index.html. Google Scholar
    Gerber, Matthew S. (2014). “Predicting Crime Using Twitter and Kernel Density Estimation.” Decision Support Systems 61:115–125. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Gilbert, Eric (2013). “Widespread Underprovision on Reddit.” In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. New York: ACM Press p. 803. Google Scholar
    102 Gjoka, Minas, U. C. Irvine , and Carter T. Butts (2010). “Walking in Facebook: A Case Study of Unbiased Sampling of OSNs.” In INFOCOM. San Diego, CA. Google Scholar
    Golder, Scott A. and Michael W. Macy (2011). “Diurnal and Seasonal Mood Vary with Work, Sleep, and Daylength across Diverse Cultures.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333(6051), 1878–81. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Golder, Scott A. and Michael W. Macy (2014). “Digital Footprints: Opportunities and Challenges for Online Social Research.” Annual Review of Sociology 40(1), 129–152. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Gonçalves, Bruno , Nicola Perra , and Alessandro Vespignani (2011). “Modeling Users’ Activity on Twitter Networks: Validation of Dunbar’s Number.” PloS ONE 6(8), e22656. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • González-Bailón, Sandra , Javier Borge-Holthoefer , Alejandro Rivero , and Yamir Moreno (2011). “The Dynamics of Protest Recruitment through an Online Network.” Scientific Reports 1:197. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra , Javier Borge-Holthoefer , and Yamir Moreno (2013). “Broadcasters and Hidden Influentials in Online Protest Diffusion.” American Behavioral Scientist 57(7), 943–965. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    González-Bailón, Sandra , Ning Wang , Alejandro Rivero , Javier Borge-Holthoefer , and Yamir Moreno (2012). “Assessing the Bias in Communication Networks Sampled from Twitter.” Google Scholar
    Greenwood, Shannon , Andrew Perrin , and Maeve Duggan (2016). “Social Media Update 2016.” Pew Research Center. Google Scholar
    Grimmer, J. and B. M. Stewart (2013). “Text as Data: The Promise and Pitfalls of Automatic Content Analysis Methods for Political Texts.” Political Analysis 21(3), 267–297. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Groshek, Jacob (2015). “Status Update on the BU-TCAT.” www.jgroshek.org/blog/2015/8/17/status-update-on-the-bu-tcat. Google Scholar
    Guan, Wanqiu , Haoyu Gao , Mingmin Yang , Yuan Li , Haixin Ma , Weining Qian , Zhigang Cao , and Xiaoguang Yang (2014). “Analyzing User Behavior of the Micro-Blogging Website Sina Weibo during Hot Social Events.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 395:340–351. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Halavais, Alexander (2011). “Social Science: Open Up Online Research.” Nature 48, 174–175. Google Scholar
    Hale, Scott A. , Devin Gaffney , and Mark Graham (2011). “Where in the World Are You? Geolocation and Language Identification in Twitter.” The Professional Georgrapher 66(4). Google Scholar
    103 Hammond, Jesse and Nils B. Weidmann (2014). “Using Machine-Coded Event Data For The Micro-Level Study Of Political Violence.” Research & Politics 1(2), 1–8. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Han, Bo and Timothy Baldwin (2011). “Lexical Normalisation of Short Text Messages: Makn Sens a #twitter.” In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. Porland: Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 368–378. Google Scholar
    Hassid, Jonathan (2012). “Safety Valve or Pressure Cooker? Blogs in Chinese Political Life.” Journal of Communication 62(2), 212–230. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Hayden, Erika Check (2013). “Guidance Issued for US Internet Research: Institutional Review Boards May Need to Take a Closer Look at Some Types of Online Research.” www.nature.com/news/guidance-issued-for-us-internet-research-1.12860. Google Scholar
    Hecht, Brent , Lichan Hong , Bongwon Suh , and Ed H. Chi (2011). “Tweets from Justin Bieber’s Heart: The Dynamics of the Location Field in User Profiles.” In ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Number Figure 1 Vancouver:. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Hemphill, Libby , Jahna Otterbacher , and Matthew Shapiro (2013). “What’s Congress Doing on Twitter?” In Proceedings of the 2013 conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 877–886. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Henrich, Joseph , Steven J. Heine , and Ara Norenzayan (2010). “The Weirdest People in the World.” The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33(2–3), 61–83; discussion 83–135. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Hochman, Nadav and Lev Manovich (2013). “Zooming into an Instagram City: Reading the Local Through Social Media.” First Monday 18(7), 1–37. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Honeycutt, Courtenay and Susan C. Herring (2009). “Beyond Microblogging: Conversation and Collaboration via Twitter.” In Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 1–10. Google Scholar
    Hu, Yuheng , Lydia Manikonda , and Subbarao Kambhampati (2014). “What we Instagram: A First Analysis of Instagram Photo Content and User Types.” In Proceedings of the Eight International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 595–598. Google Scholar
    Jones, Harvey and Jose Hiram Soltren (2005). “Facebook: Threats to privacy.” Project MAC: MIT Project on Mathematics and Computing 1:1–76. Google Scholar
    Jungherr, Andreas (2014). “Twitter in Politics: A Comprehensive Literature Review.” Google Scholar
    104 Kallus, Nathan (2013). “Predicting Crowd Behavior with Big Public Data.” In 23rd International Conference on World Wide Web. Google Scholar
    Kalyvas, Stathis N (2004). The Urban Bias in Research on Civil Wars. Vol. 13. Google Scholar
    Kaneko, Takamu and Keiji Yanai (2013). “Visual Event Mining from Geo-Tweet Photos.” In IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo Workshops, pp. 1–6. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    King, Gary , Jennifer Pan , and Margaret E. Roberts (2014). “Reverse-Engineering Censorship in China: Randomized Experimentation and Participant Observation.” Science 345(6199), 1–10. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • King, Gary , Jennifer Pan , and Margaret E. Roberts (2016). “How the Chinese Government Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic Distraction, not Engaged Argument.” http://gking.harvard.edu/50c?platform=hootsuite. Google Scholar
    Kramer, Adam D.I. , Jamie E. Guillory , and Jeffrey T. Hancock (2014). “Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks.” In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(24), 8788–8790. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Kulshrestha, Juhi , Farshad Kooti , Ashkan Nikravesh , and Krishna P Gummadi (2012). “Geographic Dissection of the Twitter Network.” In Proceedings of the Sixth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 202–209. Google Scholar
    Kwak, Haewoon , Changhyun Lee , Hosung Park , and Sue Moon (2010). “What Is Twitter, a Social Network or a News Media?” In International World Wide Conference. Raleigh: ACM Press, pp. 591–600. Google Scholar
    Lake, Ronald La Due and Robert Huckfeldt (1998). “Social Capital, Social Networks, and Political Participation.” Political Psychology 19(3), 567–584. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Lakkaraju, Himabindu , Julian J. McAuley , and Jure Leskovec (2013). “What’s in a Name? Understanding the Interplay between Titles, Content, and Communities in Social Media.” In International Conference on Web and Social Media. Google Scholar
    Lang, Duncan Temple and the CRAN team (2016). RCurl: General Network Client Interface for R. R package version 1.95-4.8. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=RCurl Google Scholar
    Larson, Jennifer M. , Jonathan Nagler , Jonathan Ronen , and Joshua A. Tucker (2016). “Social Networks and Protest Participation: Evidence from 130 Million Twitter Users.” Working paper. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    105 Lazer, David , Devon Brewer , Nicholas Christakis , James Fowler , and Gary King (2009). “Life in the Network: The Coming Age of Computational Social Science.” Science 323(5915), 721–723. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Leetaru, Kalev H. , Shaowen Wang , Guofeng Cao , Anand Padmanabhan , and Eric Shook (2013). “Mapping the Global Twitter Heartbeat: The Geography of Twitter.” First Monday 18(5–6), 1–33. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Leetaru, Kalev and Philip Schrodt (2013). “GDELT: Global Data on Events, Language, and Tone, 1979–2012.” International Studies Association Annual Conference. Google Scholar
    Lewis, Kevin , Jason Kaufman , Marco Gonzalez , Andreas Wimmer , and Nicholas Christakis (2008). “Tastes, Ties, and Time: A New Social Network Dataset Using Facebook.com.” Social Networks 30(4), 330–342. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378873308000385. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Lin, Chengfeng , Jianhua He , Yi Zhou , Xiaokang Yang , Kai Chen , and Li Song (2013). “Analysis and Identification of Spamming Behaviors in Sina Weibo Microblog.” In Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Social Network Mining and Analysis 13: 1–9. Google Scholar
    Llorente, Alejandro , Manuel Garcia-Herranz , Manuel Cebrian , and Esteban Moro (2014). “Social media fingerprints of unemployment.” http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.3140. Google Scholar
    Lotan, Gilad , Mike Ananny , Devin Gaffney , Danah Boyd , Ian Pearce , and Erhardt Graeff (2011). “The Revolutions Were Tweeted: Information Flows During the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions Web.” International Journal of Communications 5:1375–1406. Google Scholar
    Lucas, Christopher , Richard A. Nielsen , Margaret E. Roberts , Brandon M. Stewart , Alex Storer , and Dustin Tingley (2015). “Computer-Assisted Text Analysis for Comparative Politics.” Political Analysis 23(2), 254–277. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Malik, Momin M. , Constantine Nakos , Hemank Lamba , and Jiirgen Pfeffer (2015). “Population Bias in Geotagged Tweets.” In 9th International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Oxford. Google Scholar
    Malik, Momin M. and Jurgen Pfeffer (2016). “A Macroscopic Analysis of News Content in Twitter.” Digital Journalism 0811(May), 1–25. Google Scholar
    Manning, Christopher D . and Hinrich Schutze (1999). Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Google Scholar
    Marwell, Gerald , Pamela E. Oliver , and Ralph Prahl (1988). “Social Networks and Collective Action: A Theory of the Critical Mass.” American Journal of Sociology 94(3), 502–534. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    106 Masad, David (2013). “Studying the Syrian Civil War with GDELT.” The Monkey Cage. http://themonkeycage.org/2013/07/09/how-computers-can-help-us-track-violent-conflicts-including-right-now-in-syria/. Google Scholar
    McAdam, Doug (1986). “Recruitment to High-Risk Activism: The Case of Freedom Summer.” American Journal of Sociology 92(1), 64–90. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    McGrath, Ryan (2015). “twython.” https://twython.readthedocs.io/en/latest/. Google Scholar
    McKinney, Wes (2015). “pandas.” http://pandas.pydata.org/ . Google Scholar
    Metternich, Nils W. , Cassy Dorff , Max Gallop , Simon Weschle , and Michael D. Ward (2013). “Antigovernment Networks in Civil Conflicts: How Network Structures Affect Conflictual Behavior.” American Journal of Political Science 57(4). Google Scholar
    Mislove, Alan , Sune Lehmann , Yong-Yeol Ahn , Jukka-Pekka Onnela , and J. Niels Rosenquist. 2011). “Understanding the Demographics of Twitter Users.” In Proceedings of the Fifth International AAI Conference on the Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 554–557. Google Scholar
    Mocanu, Delia , Andrea Baronchelli , Nicola Perra , Alessandro Vespignani , Bruno Goncalves , and Qian Zhang (2013). “The Twitter of Babel: Mapping World Languages through Microblogging Platforms.” PLOS One 8(4), e61981. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Morstatter, Fred , Jurgen Pfeffer , Kathleen M. Carley , and Huan Liu (2013). “Is the Sample Good Enough? Comparing Data from Twitter’s Streaming API with Twitter’s Firehose.” In Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. Google Scholar
    Mueller, Andreas (2015). “scikit-learn.” http://scikit-learn.org/stable/. Google Scholar
    Munger, Kevin (2016). “Tweetment Effects on the Tweeted: Experimentally Reducing Racist Harassment.” Political Behavior, pp. 1–21. Google Scholar
    Mustafaraj, E. and Pt Metaxas (2010). “From Obscurity to Prominence in Minutes: Political Speech and Real-Time Search.” In WebSci10: Extending the Frontiers of Society On-Line. p. 317. http://repository.wellesley.edu/computersciencefaculty/9/. Google Scholar
    Nguyen, Dong , Rilana Gravel , Dolf Trieschnigg , and Theo Meder (2013). “”How Old Do You Think I Am ?: A Study of Language and Age in Twitter.” Proceedings of the Seventh International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Google Scholar
    Nickerson, David W. (2008). “Is Voting Contagious? Evidence from Two Field Experiments.” American Political Science Review 102(01), 49–57. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    107 Onuch, Olga (2015). “EuroMaidan Protests in Ukraine: Social Media Versus Social Networks.” Problems of Post-Communism 62(4), 217–235. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Opp, Karl-Dieter and Christiane Gern (1993). “Dissident Groups, Personal Networks, and Spontaneous Cooperation: The East German Revolution of 1989.” American Sociological Review 58(5), 659–680. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Poblete, Barbara , Ruth Garcia , Marcelo Mendoza , and Alejandro Jaimes (2011). “Do All Birds Tweet the Same? Characterizing Twitter Around the World Categories and Subject Descriptors.” In The 21st ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, pp. 1025–1030. Google Scholar
    Qu, Yan , Chen Huang , Pengyi Zhang , and Jun Zhang (2011). “Microblogging after a Major Disaster in China: A Case Study of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake.” In Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Hangzhou, China, pp. 25–34. Google Scholar
    Rahimi, Babak (2011). “The Agonistic Social Media: Cyberspace in the Formation of Dissent and Consolidation of State Power in Postelection Iran.” The Communication Review 14(3), 158–178. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Ramakrishnan, Naren , Chang-tien Lu , Bert Huang , Aravind Srinivasan , Khoa Trinh , and Lise Getoor (2014). “Beating the News’ with EMBERS: Forecasting Civil Unrest using Open Source Indicators.” In Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. New York City: ACM Press, pp. 1799–1808. Google Scholar
    Ratkiewicz, Jacob , Michael D. Conover , Mark Meiss , Bruno Goncalves , Alessandro Flamini , and Filippo Menczer (2011). “Detecting and Tracking Political Abuse in Social Media.” In International Conference on Web and Social Media, pp. 297–304. Google Scholar
    Reich, Stephanie M. , Kaveri Subrahmanyam , and Guadalupe Espinoza (2012). “Friending, IMing, and hanging out Face-to-Face: Overlap in Adolescents’ Online and Offline Social Networks.” Developmental Psychology 48(2), 356–368. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Reuter, Ora John and David Szakonyi (2013). “Online Social Media and Political Awareness in Authoritarian Regimes.” British Journal of Political Science, pp. 1–23. Google Scholar
    Roberts, Margaret E. , Brandon M. Stewart , Dustin Tingley , Christopher Lucas , Jetson Leder-Luis , Shana Kushner Gadarian , Bethany Albertson , and David G. Rand (2014). “Structural Topic Models for Open-Ended Survey Responses.” American Journal of Political Science 58(4), 1064–1082. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    108 Robertson, Jordan (2016). “How to Hack an Election.” Bloomberg Businessweek. www.bloomberg.com/features/2016-how-to-hack-an-election/. Google Scholar
    Sakaki, Takeshi , Makoto Okazaki , and Yutaka Matsuo (2010). “Earthquake Shakes Twitter Users: Real-time Event Detection by Social Sensors.” In International World Wide Web Conference, pp. 851–860. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Seabold, Skipper and Josepf Perktold (2014). “statstools.” https://pypi.python.org/pypi/statsmodels. Google Scholar
    Shweder, Richard A. and Richard E. Nisbett (2017). “Long-Sought Research Deregulation Is Upon Us: Don’t Squander the Moment.” The Chronicle for Higher Education, 12 March 2017. Google Scholar
    Silva, Thiago H. , Pedro O.S. Vaz De Melo , Jussara M. Almeida , Juliana Salles , and Antonio A. F. Loureiro (2013). “A Picture of Instagram Is Worth More than a Thousand Words: Workload Characterization and Application.” In 2013 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, pp. 123–132. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sloan, Luke and Jeffrey Morgan (2015). “Who Tweets with Their Location? Understanding the Relationship Between Demographic Characteristics and the Use of Geoservices and Geotagging on Twitter.” PLoS ONE 10(11), 1–15. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Sloan, Luke , Jeffrey Morgan , Pete Burnap , and Matthew Williams (2015). “Who Tweets? Deriving the Demographic Characteristics of Age, Occupation and Social Class from Twitter User Meta-Data.” PLoS ONE 10(3), 1–20. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Social, We Are (2016). “Leading Social Networks Worldwide as of April 2016, Ranked by Number of Active Users.” www.statista.com/statistics/272014/global-social-networks-ranked-by-number-of-users/. Google Scholar
    Solon, Olivia (2016). “How Facebook Plans to Take Over the World.” www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/23/facebook-global-takeover-f8-conference-messenger-chatbots. Google Scholar
    Sriram, Bharath , David Fuhry , Engin Demir , Hakan Ferhatosmanoglu , and Murat Demirbas (2010). “Short Text Classification in Twitter to Improve Information Filtering.” In Proceedings of the 33rd international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval – SIGIR ’10. New York: ACM Press, pp. 841–842. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Starbird, Kate and Ley Palen (2010). “Pass It On?: Retweeting in Mass Emergency.” In Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management. December 2004, Seattle, pp. 1–10. Google Scholar
    109 Stefanidis, Anthony , Andrew Crooks , and Jacek Radzikowski (2011). “Harvesting Ambient Geospatial Information from Social Media Feeds.” GeoJournal 78(2), 319–338. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Steinert-Threlkeld, Zachary C (2016). “Replication Data for: Longitudinal Network Centrality Using Incomplete Data.” http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/KKWB4A. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Steinert-Threlkeld, Zachary C (2017a). “Longitudinal Network Analysis with Incomplete Data.” Political Analysis. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/pan.2017.6. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Steinert-Threlkeld, Zachary C (2017b). “Spontaneous Collective Action: Peripheral Mobilization during the Arab Spring.” American Political Science Review 111(02), 379–403. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Steinert-Threlkeld, Zachary C. , Delia Mocanu , Alessandro Vespignani , and James Fowler (2015). “Online Social Networks and Offline Protest.” EPJ Data Science 4(1), 19. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Stone, Biz (2010). “Tweet Preservation.” https://blog.twitter.com/2010/tweet-preservation. Google Scholar
    Suh, Bongwon , Lichan Hong , Peter Pirolli , and Ed H. Chi (2010). “Want to be Retweeted? Large Scale Analytics on Factors Impacting Retweet in Twitter Network.” In IEEE Second International Conference on Social Computing, pp. 177–184. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Sun, Shengyun , Hongyan Liu , Jun He , and Xiaoyong Du (2013). “Detecting Event Rumors on Sina Weibo Automatically.” In Web Technologies and Applications, pp. 120–131. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Tucker, Joshua A. , Jonathan Nagler , Megan MacDuffee Metzger , Pablo Barberá, Duncan Penfold-Brown , and Richard Bonneau (2016). “Big Data, Social Media, and Protest: Foundations for a Research Agenda.” In R. Michael Alvarez , Computational Social Science: Discovery and Prediction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, chapter 7, pp. 199–224. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Tufekci, Zeynep (2014). “Big Questions for Social Media Big Data: Representativeness, Validity and Other Methodological Pitfalls Pre-print.” In Proceedings of the 8th International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Ann Arbor. Google Scholar
    Tufekci, Zeynep and Christopher Wilson (2012). “Social Media and the Decision to Participate in Political Protest: Observations From Tahrir Square.” Journal of Communication 62(2), 363–379. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    110 Tufekci, Zeynep and Deen Freelon (2013). “Introduction to the Special Issue on New Media and Social Unrest.” American Behavioral Scientist 57(7), 843–847. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Tumasjan, Andranik , Timm O. Sprenger , Philipp G. Sandner , and Isabell M. Welpe (2010). “Predicting Elections with Twitter: What 140 Characters Reveal about Political Sentiment.” In Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, pp. 178–185. Google Scholar
    Twitter (2016). “Selected Company Metrics and Financials.” Technical Report. http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/AMDA-2F526X/5527362927x0x935049/05E6E71E-D609-4A17-A8BD-B621324A950D/TWTR_2016_Annual_Report.pdf. Google Scholar
    Ugander, Johan , Brian Karrer , Lars Backstrom , and Cameron Marlow (2011). “The Anatomy of the Facebook Social Graph.” arXiv:1111.4503. Google Scholar
    Update on the Twitter Archive At the Library of Congress (2013). Technical Report, January, Library of Congress Washington, DC. Google Scholar
    Valkanas, George , Ioannis Katakis , Dimitrios Gunopulos , and Antony Stefanidis (2014). “Mining Twitter Data with Resource Constraints.” In 2014 International Joint Conferences on Web Intelligence (WI) and Intelligent Agent Technologies (IAT). IEEE, pp. 157–164. Google Scholar
    Vieweg, Sarah , Amanda L. Hughes , Kate Starbird , and Leysia Palen (2010). “Microblogging During Two Natural Hazards Events: What Twitter May Contribute to Situational Awareness.” In Human Factors in Computing Systems. Atlanta, pp. 1079–1088. Google Scholar
    Ward, Brian (2014). “TCAT: The New Twitter Modeling Tool for Visualizing Social Media Data.” http://painepublishing.com/measurementadvisor/pretty-pictures-new-twitter-modeling-tool-can-make-social-media-data-tangible-actionable/. Google Scholar
    Weber, Ingmar , Venkata R. Kiran Garimella , and Alaa Batayneh (2013). “Secular vs. Islamist Polarization in Egypt on Twitter.” In IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, pp. 290–297. Google Scholar
    Weidmann, Nils B (2014). “On the Accuracy of Media-based Conflict Event Data.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59(6), 1129–1149. http://jcr.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/0022002714530431. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Weidmann, Nils B. and Michael D. Ward (2010). “Predicting Conflict in Space and Time.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 54(6), 883–901, http://jcr.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/0022002710371669. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    111 Wilson, R. E. , S. D. Gosling , and L. T. Graham (2012). “A Review of Facebook Research in the Social Sciences.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 7(3), 203–220. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Woolley, Samuel C (2016). “Automating Power: Social Bot Interference in Global Politics.” First Monday 21(4), 1–13. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Xu, Jiejun , Tsai-Ching Lu , Ryan Compton , and David Allen (2014). “Civil Unrest Prediction: A Tumblr-Based Exploration.” In William G. Kennedy , Nitin Agarwal , and Shanchieh Jay Yang Social Computing, Behavioral–Cultural Modeling and Prediction, Vol. 8393. Springer International Publishing, pp. 403–411. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Yardi, Sarita and Danah Boyd (2010). “Tweeting from the Town Square: Measuring Geographic Local Networks.” In Fourth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 194–201. Google Scholar
    Yazdani, Mehrdad and Lev Manovich (2015). “Predicting Social Trends from Non-Photographic Images on Twitter.” In Proceedings – 2015 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, IEEE Big Data 2015, pp. 1653–1660. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Yu, Louis Lei , Sitaram Asur , and Bernardo A. Huberman (2012). “Artificial Inflation: The Real Story of Trends and Trend-Setters in Sina Weibo.” In Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT), 2012 International Conference on and 2012 International Confernece on Social Computing (SocialCom), pp. 514–519. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Zamal, Faiyaz Al, Wendy Liu , and Derek Ruths (2012). “Homophily and Latent Attribute Inference: Inferring Latent Attributes of Twitter Users from Neighbors.” In Proceedings of the Sixth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 387–90. Google Scholar
    Zeitzoff, Thomas (2011). “Using Social Media to Measure Conflict Dynamics: An Application to the 2008–2009 Gaza Conflict.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 55(6), 938–69. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Zeitzoff, Thomas (2016). “Does Social Media Influence Conflict? Evidence from the 2012 Gaza Conflict.” Journal of Conflict Resolution, forthcoming. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002716650925. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Zeitzoff, Thomas , John Kelly , and Gilad Lotan (2015). “Using Social Media to Measure Foreign Policy Dynamics: An Empirical Analysis of the Iranian–Israeli Confrontation (2012–13).” Journal of Peace Research 52(3), 368–383. CrossRef | Google Scholar
    Zheludev, Ilya , Robert Smith , and Tomaso Aste (2014). “When Can Social Media Lead Financial Markets?” Scientific Reports 4(4213). CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • 112 Zhou, W.-X. , D. Sornette , Russell A. Hill , and R. I. M. Dunbar (2005). “Discrete Hierarchical Organization of Social Group Sizes.” Proceedings. Biological Sciences/The Royal Society 272(1561). 439–444. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  • PubMed
  • Zickuhr, Kathryn (2013). “Location-Based Services.” Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life 51 (September), 65–69, www.pewinternet.org/2013/09/12/location-based-services/. Google Scholar
    Zimmer, Michael (2015). “The Twitter Archive at the Library of Congress: Challenges for Information Practice and Information Policy”. First Monday 20(7), 1–12. CrossRef | Google Scholar

    Metrics

    Altmetric attention score

    Full text views

    Total number of HTML views: 0
    Total number of PDF views: 0 *
    Loading metrics...

    Abstract views

    Total abstract views: 0 *
    Loading metrics...

    * Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

    Usage data cannot currently be displayed.