1.Kessing LV.Gender differences in patients presenting with a single depressive episode according to ICD-10. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2005;40:197–201.
2.Levinson DF.The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry 2006;60:84–92.
3.Redrobe JP, Dumont Y, Quirion R.Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and depression: from animal studies to the human condition. Life Sci 2002;71:2921–2937.
4.Husum H, Vasquez PA, Mathe AA.Changed concentrations of tachykinins and neuropeptide Y in brain of a rat model of depression: lithium treatment normalizes tachykinins. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001;24:183–191.
5.Mathé AA, Jimenez PA, Theodorsson E, Stenfors C.Neuropeptide Y, neurokinin A and neurotensin in brain regions of Fawn-Hooded “depressed”, Wistar, and Sprague-Dawley rats. Effects of electroconvulsive stimuli. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1998;22:529–546.
6.Jimenez-Vasquez PA, Mathé AA, Thomas JD, Riley EP, Ehlers CL.Early maternal separation alters neuropeptide Y concentrations in selected brain regions in adult rats. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 2001;131:149–152.
7.Caberlotto L, Fuxe K, Overstreet DH, Gerrard P, Hurd YL.Alterations in neuropeptide Y and Y1 receptor mRNA expression in brains from an animal model of depression: region specific adaptation after fluoxetine treatment. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1998;59:58–65.
8.Heilig M, Wahlestedt C, Ekman R, Widerlöv E.Antidepressant drugs increase the concentration of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol 1988;147:465–467.
9.Mathé AA, Jousisto-Hanson J, Stenfors C, Theodorsson E.Effect of lithium on tachykinins, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y in rat brain. J Neurosci Res 1990;26:233–237.
10.Stenfors C, Theodorsson E, Mathé AA.Effect of repeated electroconvulsive treatment on regional concentrations of tachykinins, neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y, and galanin in rat brain. J Neurosci Res 1989;24:445–450.
11.Christensen DZ, Olesen MV, Kristiansen H, Mikkelsen JD, Woldbye DPD.Unaltered neuropeptide Y (NPY)-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding suggests a net increase in NPY signalling after repeated electroconvulsive seizures in mice. J Neurosci Res 2006;84:1282–1291.
12.Mikkelsen JD, Woldbye DPD.Accumulated increase in neuropeptide Y and somatostatin gene expression of the rat in response to repeated electroconvulsive stimulation. J Psychiatr Res 2006;40:153–159.
13.Husum H, Mikkelsen JD, Hogg S, Mathé AA.Mørk A.Involvement of hippocampal neuropeptide Y in mediating the chronic actions of lithium, electroconvulsive stimulation and citalopram. Neuropharmacology 2000;39:1463–1473.
14.Redrobe JP, Dumont Y, Fournier A, Quirion R.The neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor subtype mediates NPY-induced antidepressant-like activity in the mouse forced swimming test. Neuropsychopharmacology 2002;26: 615–624.
15.Heilig M, Zachrisson O, Thorsell A et al. Decreased cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide Y (NPY) in patients with treatment refractory unipolar depression: preliminary evidence for association with preproNPY gene polymorphism. J Psychiatr Res 2004;38:113–121.
16.Widerlöv E, Lindstrom LH, Wahlestedt C, Ekman R.Neuropeptide Y and peptide YY as possible cerebrospinal fluid markers for major depression and schizophrenia, respectively. J Psychiatr Res 1988;22:69–79.
17.Bannon AW, Seda J, Carmouche M et al. Behavioral characterization of neuropeptide Y knockout mice. Brain Res 2000;868:79–87.
18.Sørensen G, Lindberg C, Wörtwein G, Bolwig TG, Woldbye DPD.Different roles for neuropeptide Y Y1 and Y5 receptors in anxiety and sedation. J Neurosci Res 2004; 77:723–729.
19.Zhou Z, Zhu G, Hariri AR et al. Genetic variation in human NPY expression affects stress response and emotion. Nature 2008;452:997–1001.
20.Karvonen MK, Pesonen U, Koulu M et al. Association of a leucine(7)-to-proline(7) polymorphism in the signal peptide of neuropeptide Y with high serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Nat Med 1998;4:1434–1437.
21.Okubo T, Harada S.Polymorphism of the neuropeptide Y gene: an association study with alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2001;25(6 Suppl):59S–62S.
22.Itokawa M, Arai M, Kato S et al. Association between a novel polymorphism in the promotor region of the neuropeptide Y gene and schizophrenia in humans. Neurosci Lett 2003;347:202–204.
23.Mottagui-Tabar S, Prince JA, Wahlestedt C, Zhu G, Goldman D, Heilig M.A novel single nucleotide polymorphism of the neuropeptides Y (NPY) gene associated with alcohol dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2005;29: 702–707.
24.Niskanen L, Karvonen MK, Valve R et al. Leucine 7 to proline 7 polymorphism in the neuropeptide Y gene is associated with enhanced carotid atherosclerosis in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:2266–2269.
25.Niskanen L, Voutilainen-Kaunisto R, Terasvirta M et al. Leucine 7 to proline 7 polymorphism in the neuropeptide Y gene is associated with retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2000;108:235–236.
26.Lappalainen J, Kranzler HR, Malison R et al. A functional neuropeptide Y Leu7Pro polymorphism associated with alcohol dependence in a large population sample from the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:825–831.
27.Kauhanen J, Karvonen MK, Pesonen U et al. Neuropeptide Y polymorphism and alcohol consumption in middle-aged men. Am J Med Genet 2000;93:117–121.
28.Sjöholm lk, Melas PA, Forsell Y, Lavebratt C.PreproNPY Pro7 protects against depression despite exposure to environmental risk factors. J Affect Disord 2009;118: 124–130.
29.Bosker FJ, Hartman CA, Nolte IM et al. Poor replication of candidate genes for major depressive disorder using genome-wide association data. Mol Psychiatry 2011;16: 516–532.
30.Kessing LV, Jørgensen OS.Apolipoprotein E-ε4 frequency in affective disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45: 430–434.
31.Mellerup E, Bennike B, Bolwig T et al. Platelet serotonin transporters and the transporter gene in control subjects, unipolar patients and bipolar patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2001;103:229–233.
32.Haugboel S, Pinborg LH, Arfan HM et al. Reproducibility of 5-HT2A receptor measurements and sample size estimations with [18F]altanserin PET using a bolus/infusion approach. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2007;34:910–915.
33.Jørgensen T, Borch-Johnsen K, Thomsen TF et al. A randomized non-pharmacological intervention study for prevention of ischaemic heart disease: baseline results Inter99. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2003;10:377–386.
34.Lindberg C, Koefoed P, Hansen ES et al. No association between the – 399 C>T polymorphism of the neuropeptide Y gene and schizophrenia, unipolar depression or panic disorder in a Danish population. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006; 113:54–58.
35.Koefoed P, Hansen TVO, Woldbye DPD et al. An intron 1 polymorphism in the CCK-A receptor gene associated with schizophrenia in males. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009; 120:281–287.
36.Hansen T, Olsen L, Lindow M et al. Brain expressed microRNAs implicated in schizophrenia etiology. PLoS One 2007;12:e873.
37.Rehfeld JF.Radioimmunochemical analysis of neuropeptides based on general characteristics of the analyte. Trends Analyt Chem 1989;8:102–106.
39.Ding B.Distribution of the NPY 1128C allele frequency in different populations. J Neural Transm 2003;110: 1199–1204.
40.Domschke K, Dannlowski U, Hohoff C et al. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene: impact on emotional processing and treatment response in anxious depression. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2010;20:301–309.
41.Mickey BJ, Zhou Z, Heitzeg MM et al. Emotion processing, major depression, and functional genetic variation of neuropeptide Y. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011;68:158–166.
42.Hegde RS, Bernstein HD.The surprising complexity of signal sequences. Trends Biochem Sci 2006;31:563–571.
43.Fitches AC, Appleby R, Lane DA, De SV, Leone G, Olds RJ.Impaired cotranslational processing as a mechanism for type I antithrombin deficiency. Blood 1998;92: 4671–4676.
44.Lanza F, De La Salle C, Baas MJ et al. A Leu7Pro mutation in the signal peptide of platelet glycoprotein (GP)IX in a case of Bernard-Soulier syndrome abolishes surface expression of the GPIb-V-IX complex. Br J Haematol 2002;118:260–266.
45.Pidasheva S, Canaff L, Simonds WF, Marx SJ, Hendy GN.Impaired cotranslational processing of the calcium-sensing receptor due to signal peptide missense mutations in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Hum Mol Genet 2005;14:1679–1690.
46.Ding B, Kull B, Liu Z et al. Human neuropeptide Y signal peptide gain-of-function polymorphism is associated with increased body mass index: possible mode of function. Regul Pept 2005;127:45–53.
47.Mitchell GC, Wang Q, Ramamoorthy P, Whim MD. A common single nucleotide polymorphism alters the synthesis and secretion of neuropeptide Y. J Neurosci 2008;28: 14428–14434.
48.Kallio J, Pesonen U, Jaakola U, Karvonen MK, Helenius H, Koulu M.Changes in diurnal sympathoadrenal balance and pituitary hormone secretion in subjects with Leu7Pro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:3278–3283.
49.Jaakkola U, Kuusela T, Jartti T et al. The Leu7Pro polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with decreased insulin secretion, delayed ghrelin suppression, and increased cardiovascular responsiveness to norepinephrine during oral glucose tolerance test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90: 3646–3652.
50.Kallio J, Pesonen U, Kaipio K et al. Altered intracellular processing and release of neuropeptides Y due to leucine 7 to proline 7 polymorphism in the signal peptide of preproneuropeptide Y in humans. FASEB J 2001;15: 1242–1244.
51.Heilig M.The NPY system in stress, anxiety and depression. Neuropeptides 2004;38:213–224.
52.Ishida H, Shirayama Y, Iwata M et al. Infusion of neuropeptide Y into CA3 region of hippocampus produces antidepressant-like effect via Y1 receptor. Hippocampus 2007;17:271–280.
53.Nikisch G, Agren H, Eap CB, Czernik A, Baumann P, Mathé AA.Neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone in CSF mark response to antidepressive treatment with citalopram. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2005;8: 403–410.