1. Drexhage, RC, Knijff, EM, Padmos, RC et al. The mononuclear phagocyte system and its cytokine inflammatory networks in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Expert Rev Neurother 2010;10:59–76.
2. Bai, YM, Su, TP, Tsai, SJ et al. Comparison of inflammatory cytokine levels among type I/type II and manic/hypomanic/euthymic/depressive states of bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2014;166:187–192.
3. Dargel, AA, Godin, O, Kapczinski, F, Kupfer, DJ, Leboyer, M. C-reactive protein alterations in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry 2015;76:142–150.
4. Hope, S, Dieset, I, Agartz, I et al. Affective symptoms are associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation in bipolar disorders but not in schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res 2011;45:1608–1616.
5. Lotrich, FE, Butters, MA, Aizenstein, H, Marron, MM, Reynolds, CF III, Gildengers, AG. The relationship between interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and cognitive function in older adults with bipolar disorder. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2014;29:635–644.
6. Hope, S, Ueland, T, Steen, NE et al. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 are associated with general severity and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophr Res 2013;145:36–42.
7. Hope, S, Hoseth, E, Dieset, I et al. Inflammatory markers are associated with general cognitive abilities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients and healthy controls. Schizophr Res 2015;165:188–194.
8. Raison, CL, Miller, AH. Depression in cancer: new developments regarding diagnosis and treatment. Biol Psychiatry 2003;54:283–294.
9. Saper, CB, Romanovsky, AA, Scammell, TE. Neural circuitry engaged by prostaglandins during the sickness syndrome. Nat Neurosci 2012;15:1088–1095.
10. Elenkov, IJ. Neurohormonal-cytokine interactions: implications for inflammation, common human diseases and well-being. Neurochem Int 2008;52:40–51.
11. Krogh, J, Benros, ME, Jorgensen, MB, Vesterager, L, Elfving, B, Nordentoft, M. The association between depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and inflammation in major depression. Brain Behav Immun 2014;35:70–76.
12. Jokela, M, Virtanen, M, Batty, GD, Kivimaki, M. Inflammation and specific symptoms of depression. JAMA Psychiatry 2016;73:87–88.
13. Kohler, O, Sylvia, LG, Bowden, CL et al. White blood cell count correlates with mood symptom severity and specific mood symptoms in bipolar disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2017;51:355–365.
14. Walsh, JT, Watson, N, Kipnis, J. T cells in the central nervous system: messengers of destruction or purveyors of protection? Immunology 2014;141:340–344.
15. Brod, S, Rattazzi, L, Piras, G, D’Acquisto, F. ‘As above, so below’ examining the interplay between emotion and the immune system. Immunology 2014;143:311–318.
16. Angele, MK, Pratschke, S, Hubbard, WJ, Chaudry, IH. Gender differences in sepsis: cardiovascular and immunological aspects. Virulence 2014;5:12–19.
17. Nierenberg, AA, Sylvia, LG, Leon, AC et al. Lithium treatment – moderate dose use study (LiTMUS) for bipolar disorder: rationale and design. Clin Trials 2009;6:637–648.
18. Nierenberg, AA, Sylvia, LG, Leon, AC et al. Clinical and health outcomes initiative in comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (bipolar CHOICE): a pragmatic trial of complex treatment for a complex disorder. Clin Trials 2014;11:114–127.
19. Amitai, M, Zivony, A, Kronenberg, S et al. Short-term effects of lithium on white blood cell counts and on levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and creatinine in adolescent inpatients: a retrospective naturalistic study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2014;24:494–500.
20. Spearing, MK, Post, RM, Leverich, GS, Brandt, D, Nolen, W. Modification of the clinical global impressions (CGI) scale for use in bipolar illness (BP): the CGI-BP. Psychiatry Res 1997;73:159–171.
21. Sheehan, DV, Lecrubier, Y, Sheehan, KH et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59(Suppl. 20):22–33; (quiz 34–57).
22. Montgomery, SA, Asberg, M. A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. Br J Psychiatry 1979;134:382–389.
23. Bowden, CL, Singh, V, Thompson, P et al. Development of the bipolar inventory of symptoms scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2007;116:189–194.
24. Gonzalez, JM, Bowden, CL, Katz, MM et al. Development of the bipolar inventory of symptoms scale: concurrent validity, discriminant validity and retest reliability. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2008;17:198–209.
25. Thompson, PM, Gonzalez, JM, Singh, V, Schoolfield, JD, Katz, MM, Bowden, CL. Principal domains of behavioral psychopathology identified by the bipolar inventory of signs and symptoms scale (BISS). Psychiatry Res 2010;175:221–226.
26. Kannel, WB, Anderson, K, Wilson, PW. White blood cell count and cardiovascular disease. Insights from the Framingham study. JAMA 1992;267:1253–1256.
27. Lally, J, MacCabe, JH. Antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: a review. Br Med Bull 2015;114:169–179.
28. Liu, B, Taioli, E. Seasonal variations of complete blood count and inflammatory biomarkers in the US population – analysis of NHANES data. PLoS One 2015;10:e0142382.
29. Pandey, GN, Rizavi, HS, Ren, X et al. Proinflammatory cytokines in the prefrontal cortex of teenage suicide victims. J Psychiatr Res 2012;46:57–63.
30. Uher, R, Tansey, KE, Dew, T et al. An inflammatory biomarker as a differential predictor of outcome of depression treatment with escitalopram and nortriptyline. Am J Psychiatry 2014;171:1278–1286.
31. Raison, CL, Rutherford, RE, Woolwine, BJ et al. A randomized controlled trial of the tumor necrosis factor antagonist infliximab for treatment-resistant depression: the role of baseline inflammatory biomarkers. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70:31–41.
32. Kohler, O, Benros, ME, Nordentoft, M et al. Effect of anti-inflammatory treatment on depression, depressive symptoms, and adverse effects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA Psychiatry 2014;71:1381–1391.
33. Li, H, Hong, W, Zhang, C et al. IL-23 and TGF-beta1 levels as potential predictive biomarkers in treatment of bipolar I disorder with acute manic episode. J Affect Disord 2015;174:361–366.
34. Ayorech, Z, Tracy, DK, Baumeister, D, Giaroli, G. Taking the fuel out of the fire: evidence for the use of anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of bipolar disorders. J Affect Disord 2015;174:467–478.
35. Arabzadeh, S, Ameli, N, Zeinoddini, A et al. Celecoxib adjunctive therapy for acute bipolar mania: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Bipolar Disord 2015;17:606–614.
36. Horne, BD, Anderson, JL, John, JM et al. Which white blood cell subtypes predict increased cardiovascular risk? J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:1638–1643.