Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Computer-assisted cognitive remediation in adolescents with psychosis or at risk for psychosis: a 6-month follow-up

  • Sébastien Urben (a1), Sandrine Pihet (a1), Laure Jaugey (a2), Olivier Halfon (a3) and Laurent Holzer (a2)...

Urben S, Pihet S, Jaugey L, Halfon O, Holzer L. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation in adolescents with psychosis or at risk for psychosis: a 6-month follow-up.

Objective: To investigate short-term outcomes of a computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) for adolescents with psychotic disorders or at high risk for psychosis.

Method: Cognitive abilities and clinical status were assessed at baseline (N = 32) and at 6-month follow-up (N = 22) after enrolment in either a CACR (treatment group) or a computer games (control group) program (8 weeks).

Results: With regard to the cognitive abilities, no amelioration was found in the control group while, in the CACR group, significant improvements in inhibition (p = 0.040) and reasoning (p = 0.005) were observed. Furthermore, symptom severity decreased significantly in the control group (p = 0.046) and marginally in the CACR group (p = 0.088). Improvements in cognitive abilities were not associated with symptoms' amelioration. Finally, increase in reasoning abilities was related to the median effective work time in sessions of CACR (R = 0.64, p = 0.024).

Conclusion: At follow-up, enhanced cognitive abilities (reasoning and inhibition), which are necessary for executing higher-order goals or adapting behaviour to the ever-changing environment, were reported in adolescents participants of the CACR. Thus, further studies are needed to confirm and extend these interesting results.

Corresponding author
Sébastien Urben, Research Unit, University Service of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Route du Bugnon 25A, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Tel: +41 21 3147493; Fax: +41 21 3147481; E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1. RF Asarnow , J Asamen , E Granholm , T Sherman , JM Watkins , ME. Williams Cognitive/neuropsychological studies of children with a schizophrenic disorder. Schizophr Bull 1994;20:647669.

2. L Holzer , L Chinet , L Jaugey Detection of cognitive impairment with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in adolescents with psychotic symptomatology. Schizophr Res 2007;95:4853.

3. JT Kenny , L Friedman , RL Findling Cognitive impairment in adolescents with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154:16131615.

4. S Kumra , E Wiggs , J Bedwell Neuropsychological deficits in pediatric patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Schizophr Res 2000;42:135144.

5. JP Rhinewine , T Lencz , EP Thaden Neurocognitive profile in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia: clinical correlates. Biol Psychiatry 2005;58:705712.

7. N Bark , N Revheim , F Huq , V Khalderov , ZW Ganz , A. Medalia The impact of cognitive remediation on psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2003;63:229235.

8. T Wykes , E Newton , S Landau , C Rice , N Thompson , S. Frangou Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for young early onset patients with schizophrenia: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. Schizophr Res 2007;94:221230.

9. R Fuller , P Nopoulos , S Arndt , D O'Leary , BC Ho , NC. Andreasen Longitudinal assessment of premorbid cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia through examination of standardized scholastic test performance. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:11831189.

10. MR Nieuwenstein , A Aleman , EH. de Haan Relationship between symptom dimensions and neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of WCST and CPT studies. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Continuous Performance Test. J Psychiatr Res 2001;35:119125.

11. A Medalia , N Revheim , M. Casey Remediation of memory disorders in schizophrenia. Psychol Med 2000;30: 14511459.

13. L Krabbendam , A. Aleman Cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: a quantitative analysis of controlled studies. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2003;169:376382.

14. MM Kurtz , PJ Moberg , RC Gur , RE. Gur Approaches to cognitive remediation of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychol Rev 2001;11:197210.

15. S Pilling , P Bebbington , E Kuipers Psychological treatments in schizophrenia: II. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of social skills training and cognitive remediation. Psychol Med 2002;32:783791.

16. EW Twamley , DV Jeste , AS. Bellack A review of cognitive training in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2003;29: 359382.

17. SR McGurk , EW Twamley , DI Sitzer , GJ McHugo , KT. Mueser A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164:791–802.

18. T Wykes , V Huddy , C Cellard , SR McGurk , P. Czobor A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes. Am J Psychiatry 2011;168:472485.

19. M Bell , G Bryson , BE. Wexler Cognitive remediation of working memory deficits: durability of training effects in severely impaired and less severely impaired schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2003;108:101109.

20. A Medalia , N Revheim , M. Casey Remediation of problem-solving skills in schizophrenia: evidence of a persistent effect. Schizophr Res 2002;57:165171.

21. T Ueland , BR. Rund A controlled randomized treatment study: the effects of a cognitive remediation program on adolescents with early onset psychosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2004;109:7074.

22. T Ueland , BR. Rund Cognitive remediation for adolescents with early onset psychosis: a 1-year follow-up study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2005;111:193201.

23. T Wykes , C Reeder , S Landau Cognitive remediation therapy in schizophrenia: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 2007;190:421427.

24. A Medalia , M Aluma , W Tryon , AE. Merriam Effectiveness of attention training in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1998;24:147152.

25. J Bremer , PK. Rauch Children and computers: risks and benefits. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1998;37:559560.

26. MM Kurtz , JC Seltzer , DS Shagan , WR Thime , BE. Wexler Computer-assisted cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: what is the active ingredient? Schizophr Res 2007;89:251260.

27. GE Hogarty , S Flesher , R Ulrich Cognitive enhancement therapy for schizophrenia: effects of a 2-year randomized trial on cognition and behavior. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004;61:866876.

28. DM Bellucci , K Glaberman , N. Haslam Computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation reduces negative symptoms in the severely mentally ill. Schizophr Res 2003;59:225232.

29. PC Burda , TW Starkey , F Dominguez , V. Vera Computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation of chronic psy chiatric-inpatients. Comput Human Behav 1994;10:359368.

30. M Fisher , C Holland , MM Merzenich , S. Vinogradov Using neuroplasticity-based auditory training to improve verbal memory in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2009;166: 805811.

35. JI Nurnberger , MC Blehar , CA Kaufmann Diagnostic interview for genetic-studies - rationale, unique features, and training. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51:849859.

36. M Preisig , BT Fenton , ML Matthey , A Berney , F. Ferrero Diagnostic interview for genetic studies (DIGS): inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the French version. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999;249:174179.

37. TJ Miller , TH McGlashan , SW Woods Symptom assessment in schizophrenic prodromal states. Psychiatr Q 1999;70:273287.

38. C Randolph , MC Tierney , E Mohr , TN. Chase The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): preliminary clinical validity. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1998;20:310319.

39. A Mackinnon , R. Mulligan The estimation of premorbid intelligence levels in French speakers. Encephale 2005;31:3143.

44. J. Brandt The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test: development of a new verbal memory test with six equivalent forms. Clin Neuropsychol 2005;5:125142.

45. RHB Benedict , D Schretlen , L Groninger , M Dobraski , B. Shpritz Revision of the brief visuospatial memory test: studies of normal performance, reliability, and validity. Psychol Assess 1996;8:145153.

46. JR. Stroop Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. J Exp Psychol 1935;18:643662.

47. H Sauzeon , P Lestage , C Raboutet , B N'Kaoua , B. Claverie Verbal fluency output in children aged 7-16 as a function of the production criterion: qualitative analysis of clustering, switching processes, and semantic network exploitation. Brain Lang 2004;89:192202.

48. R Krikorian , J Bartok , N. Gay Tower of London procedure: a standard method and developmental data. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1994;16:840850.

50. A Miyake , NP Friedman , MJ Emerson , AH Witzki , A Howerter , TD. Wager The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “Frontal Lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cogn Psychol 2000;41:49100.

52. HM Huizenga , EA Crone , BJ. Jansen Decision-making in healthy children, adolescents and adults explained by the use of increasingly complex proportional reasoning rules. Dev Sci 2007;10:814825.

53. A Bechara , AR Damasio , H Damasio , SW. Anderson Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition 1994;50:715.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Acta Neuropsychiatrica
  • ISSN: 0924-2708
  • EISSN: 1601-5215
  • URL: /core/journals/acta-neuropsychiatrica
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 18 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 156 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.